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Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 324-327, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986855


OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of propofol used for painless gastroscopy and colonoscopy on psychomotility recovery.@*METHODS@#One hundred adult patients undergoing painless gastroscopy and colonoscopy were recruited, aged 18-72 years, with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status Ⅰ-Ⅱ. According to age, the patients were divided into youth group (20-39 years old, 27 cases), middle age group (40-54 years old, 37 cases), and elder group (55-64 years old, 36 cases). Propofol was continuously infused according to the patients' condition to mantain the bispectal index (BIS) score 55-64. All the patients received psychomotility assesment 30 min before the operations when the discharge criteria were met including number cancellation test, number connection test and board test. The heart rate, blood pressure, saturation of pulse oximetry, electrocardiograph and BIS were monitored during the operation. The operating time, recovery time, total volume of propofol and discharge time were recorded. If the results obtained were inferior to those before operation, a third assessment was taken 30 minutes later until the results recovered or being superior to the baseline levels.@*RESULTS@#All the patients completed the first and second assessments, and 25 patients had taken the third assessment. There was no statistically significant difference in the results of psychomotility assessment when the patients met the discharge standard. Furthermore, the results were analyzed by grouping with age, and there was no statistical difference in the test results of the youth and middle age groups compared with the preoperative group, among which, the efficiency of the number cancellation test was significantly better than that before operation in the youth group (P < 0.05). However, in the elderly patients the number cancellation efficiency, number connection test and board test were significantly inferior to that before operation (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the accuracy of number cancellation compared with that before operation. The patients who needed the third test in the elder group were significantly more than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Compared with the preoperative results, there was no statistical difference in the test results of those who completed the third test.@*CONCLUSION@#The psychomotility function of the patients who underwent painless gastroscopy and colonoscopy was recovered when they met discharge criteria. The elderly patients had a prolonged recovery period.

Adult , Aged , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Humans , Young Adult , Propofol , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Gastroscopy/methods , Conscious Sedation/methods , Colonoscopy/methods
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 365-371, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986799


Objective: To analyze the risk factors for complications of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) of upper gastrointestinal submucosal tumors (SMTs). Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. The indications for EFTR included: (1) SMTs originating from the muscularis propria layer and growing out of the cavity or infiltrating the deep part of the muscularis propria layer; (2) SMTs diameter <5 cm; and (3) tumor identified as closely adherent to the serous layer during endoscopic submucosal dissection or endoscopic mucosal resection. This study included patients with SMTs originating from the muscularis propria layer in upper digestive tract, diagnosed preoperatively by endoscopic ultrasonography or computed tomography, who were successfully treated with EFTR. Those with incomplete clinical data were excluded. The clinical data of 154 patients with upper gastrointestinal SMTs who underwent EFTR at the Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from January 2016 to January 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. Post-EFTR complications (such as delayed perforation, delayed bleeding, and postoperative infection, including electrocoagulation syndrome) were monitored and the risk factors for them were analyzed. Results: Among the 154 study patients, 33 (21.4%) developed complications, including delayed bleeding in three (1.9%), delayed perforation in two (1.3%), and postoperative infection in 28 (18.2%). One patient with bleeding was classified as having a major complication (hospitalized for more than 10 days because of complication). According to univariate analysis, complication was associated with tumor diameter >15 mm, operation time >90 minutes, defect closure method(purse string suture), and diameter of resected specimen ≥20 mm (all P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that operation time >90 minutes (OR=6.252, 95%CI: 2.530-15.446, P<0.001) and tumor diameter >15 mm (OR=4.843, 95%CI: 1.985-11.817, P=0.001) were independent risk factors for complications after EFTR in patients with upper gastrointestinal SMTs. The independent risk factors for postoperative infection in these patients were operation time>90 minutes (OR=4.993, 95%CI:1.964-12.694, P=0.001) and purse string suture (OR=7.142, 95%CI: 1.953-26.123, P=0.003). Conclusion: Patients with upper gastrointestinal SMTs undergoing EFTR with tumor diameter >15 mm or operation time >90 minutes have a significantly increased risk of postoperative complications. Postoperative monitoring is important for these patients with SMTs.

Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Endoscopic Mucosal Resection/methods , Gastroscopy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Endosonography/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Gastric Mucosa/surgery
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 309-316, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927522


BACKGROUND@#Endoscopic resection bleeding (ERB) classification was proposed by the authors' team to evaluate the severity of intraoperative bleeding (IB) during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). This study aimed to evaluate the application of ERB classification and to analyze the risk factors of major IB (MIB) and postoperative bleeding (PB) associated with ESD for gastric neoplastic lesions.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively enrolled a total of 1334 patients who underwent ESD between November 2006 and September 2019 at The First Medical Center of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital. All patients were divided into the non-MIB group (including ERB-0, ERB-controlled 1 [ERB-c1], and ERB-c2) and the MIB group (including ERB-c3 and ERB-uncontrolled [ERB-unc]) according to the ERB classification. Risk factors of major MIB and risk factors of PB were analyzed using a logistic regression model.@*RESULTS@#Among the 1334 patients, 773 (57.95%) had ERB-0, 477 (35.76%) had ERB-c1, 77 (5.77%) had ERB-c2, 7 (0.52%) had ERB-c3, and no patients had ERB-unc. The rate of PB in patients with IB classifications of ERB-0, ERB-c1, ERB-c2, and ERB-c3 were 2.20% (17/773), 3.35% (16/477), 9.09% (7/77), and 2/7, respectively. In multivariate analysis, proximal location (odds ratio [OR]: 1.488; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.045-3.645; P = 0.047) was the only significant risk factor of MIB. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR: 7.844; 95% CI: 1.637-37.583; P = 0.010) and MIB (ERB-c3) (OR: 13.932; 95% CI: 2.585-74.794; P = 0.002) were independent risk factors of PB.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Proximal location of lesions was a significant risk factor of MIB. Additionally, CKD and MIB (ERB-c3) were independent risk factors of PB. More attention should be paid to these high-risk patients for MIB and PB.

Humans , Endoscopic Mucosal Resection/adverse effects , Gastric Mucosa , Gastroscopy , Postoperative Hemorrhage , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 470-473, jun. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346488


Abstract We present a rare case of hypertrophic gastropathy associated with protein loss. A 35-year-old man was hospitalized for bowel habit changes, abdominal pain, generalized edema and symptomatic anemia. Pertinent laboratory findings included iron deficiency anemia (Hb 6.7g/dl, ferritin 5 ng/ml) and marked hypoalbuminemia (albumin 2.5 g/dl). Endoscopic biopsy samples of giant gastric folds observed along the greater gastric curvature revealed foveolar hyperplasia and significant parietal cell loss. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed gastric parietal thickening with preserved architecture and normal gastric wall layers. Menetrier disease was diagnosed and the patient treated with cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits ligand binding of trans forming growth factor alpha (TGFa), preventing gastric mucosa cell proliferation. After twelve months of treatment, the patient referred symptoms improvement, and gastric biopsy levels of the proliferation marker protein Ki-67 had decreased.

Resumen Presentamos un caso infrecuente de gastropatía hipertrófica asociada a pérdida de proteínas. Un hombre de 35 años fue hos pitalizado por cambios en los hábitos intestinales, dolor abdominal, edema generalizado y anemia sintomática. Los hallazgos de laboratorio pertinentes incluyeron anemia ferropénica (Hb 6.7 g/dl, ferritina 5 ng/ml) e hipoal buminemia marcada (albúmina 2.5 g/dl). Las muestras de biopsia endoscópica de pliegues gástricos gigantes observados a lo largo de la curvatura mayor gástrica revelaron hiperplasia foveolar y pérdida significativa de células parietales. La ecografía endoscópica mostró engrosamiento parietal gástrico con arquitectura conservada y capas de pared gástrica normales. Se diagnosticó enfermedad de Menetrier y se trató al paciente con cetuximab, un anticuerpo monoclonal que inhibe la unión del ligando del factor de crecimiento transformante alfa (TGFa), evitando la proliferación de células de la mucosa gástrica. Después de doce meses de tratamiento, el paciente refirió mejoría de los síntomas y los niveles de la proteína marcadora de proliferación Ki-67 en biopsia gástrica habían disminuido.

Humans , Male , Adult , Gastritis, Hypertrophic/diagnosis , Gastritis, Hypertrophic/drug therapy , Biopsy , Gastroscopy , Gastric Mucosa , Antibodies, Monoclonal
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(2): 252-256, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289305


Resumen Caso clínico: Se describe un caso clínico poco frecuente en un paciente inmunocomprometido con hallazgo histopatológico de infestación parasitaria. Es un paciente masculino de edad media que habita en zona subtropical con diagnóstico de enfermedad de Crohn tratado con corticoide e inmunomoduladores, presentaba dolor abdominal y anemia crónica de 1 año de evolución, analítica negativa para parásitos, reactantes de fase aguda normales, gastroscopia y colonoscopia previas (6 meses) sin hallazgos relevantes. Por la persistencia del cuadro clínico se repitieron los estudios endoscópicos en los que se visualizaron hemorragias subepiteliales con resultados histopatológicos de Strongyloides stercoralis. Conclusión: En el contexto de un paciente inmunocomprometido, en zona endémica y con evolución tórpida, debe obligar a realizar un diagnóstico diferencial en el que se debe sospechar siempre de infestación parasitaria. Aunque la endoscopia no se necesita para el diagnóstico de estrongiloidiasis, su intervención puede ser oportuna.

Abstract Clinical case: The following is a rare clinical case in an immunocompromised patient with histopathological findings of parasitic infestation. The patient is a middle-aged male who lives in a subtropical area and has a diagnosis of Crohn's disease treated with corticosteroids and immunomodulators. The patient presented with abdominal pain and chronic anemia for 1 year, with negative laboratory tests for parasites and normal acute phase reactants. Gastroscopy and colonoscopy were performed before the consultation (6 months) without relevant findings. Due to the persistence of the symptoms, endoscopic studies were repeated, finding subepithelial bleeding with histopathological results of Strongyloides stercoralis. Conclusion: In the context of an immunocompromised patient living in an endemic area and with a torpid evolution, a differential diagnosis should be made always suspecting a parasitic infestation. Although endoscopy is not necessary to diagnose strongyloidiasis, its use may be convenient.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Crohn Disease , Strongyloides stercoralis , Parasites , Patients , Abdominal Pain , Colonoscopy , Gastroscopy , Hemorrhage , Anemia
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(1): 44-46, 20210000. fig
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1362189


The diagnosis of a hiatus hernia (HH) is typically confirmed with an upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray, gastroscopy or upper-intestinal endoscopy. In several cases, HH has been diagnosed with an echocardiogram. We here describe a case of an HH visible on an echocardiogram in a male patient with chest pain.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Echocardiography , Gastroscopy , Barium Enema , Hernia, Hiatal/diagnosis
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 104-107, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880629


Dermatomyositis (DM) is a kind of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy characterized by chronic proximal skeletal muscle weakness and unique skin lesions. However, DM with exfoliation of esophageal mucosa is rare. A 36-year-old male patient complained of muscular soreness of extremities, dysphagia, and pharyngalgia was diagnosed with DM with exfoliation of esophageal mucosa. After treatment with glucocorticoid, immunosuppressant, acupuncture, and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), the above symptoms were disappeared. During the 3-year follow-up period, the results of routine physical examination, laboratory examination, gastroscopy, and imaging examination were normal. High-dose of corticosteroid is needed in the initial treatment, but it must be reduced regularly to avoid adverse reactions. Acupuncture and ESD are also effective as adjuvant therapy.

Adult , Humans , Male , Dermatomyositis/complications , Endoscopic Mucosal Resection , Esophageal Mucosa , Esophageal Neoplasms , Gastroscopy , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 1122-1128, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943020


Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) allows completely resecting deep submucosal tumors (SMTs) in the gastrointestinal wall, which has a broad application prospect in clinic. However, its application and promotion are limited by complex surgical procedures and high surgical risk. Various auxiliary traction techniques are expected to reduce the operation difficulty and risk of EFTR and improve its operative success rate. To provide a reference for clinicians, we summarize various auxiliary traction techniques in EFTR in this article. The clip-with-line method is simple to operate and widely used, whereas its traction is limited and there is a risk of clip falling off. The snare traction method and the clip-snare traction method has advantage of large traction force, but its thrust is affected by the hardness of snare. The traction point of the grasping forceps traction method is flexible and easy to adjust. Nevertheless, it requires the use of a dual-channel upper endoscope, which is difficult to operate. The transparent cap traction method and the full-thickness resection device traction method takes a short time and is easy to promote, whereas the resectable lesion is limited, and the size of the lesion may affect the success rate. In contrast, the suture loop needle-T-tag tissue anchors assisted method has a large resection range, but the operation is complicated and the feasibility has not been verified. The robot-assisted method has flexible operation and excellent visualization, whereas it is expensive and difficult to operate. There is no report of the application of magnetic anchor technology in EFTR, but it may have good application prospects in the auxiliary traction of EFTR.

Humans , Endoscopic Mucosal Resection , Gastroscopy , Traction
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(4): 196-199, DEZ 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361597


Objetivo: Analisar a acurácia do teste rápido da urease para detecção de Helicobacter pylori comparado com o exame histopatológico. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo e descritivo realizado de abril de 2018 a maio de 2019 em um Serviço de Endoscopia e Biliopancreática e em um laboratório de patologia. A amostra foi composta de 64 pacientes, de ambos os sexos, com idade de 35 a 81 anos, que apresentavam queixas dispépticas. Foram realizados exame histopatológico e teste rápido da urease. Os dados foram analisados pelo R Core team 2019 e submetidos a análises descritivas (variáveis categóricas) e inferenciais (teste de associação de qui-quadrado de Pearson e teste de Mann-Whitney). O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Resultados: O teste rápido da urease demonstrou que dez pacientes foram verdadeiros-positivos, 39 verdadeiros-negativos, três falsos-positivos, 12 falsos-negativos, com sensibilidade de 45,4% (25,1% a 67,3%), especificidade de 92,9% (79,4% a 98,1%), valor preditivo positivo de 76,9% (45,9% a 93,8%), valor preditivo negativo de 76,5% (62,2% a 86,7%), acurácia de 76,6% (64,0% a 85,9%), razão de chance diagnóstica 10,8 (2,56 a 45,9), índice de Youden 0,38 (0,16 a 0,60) e taxa de erro de 23,4% (14,1% a 36,0%). Conclusão: O teste rápido da urease apresentou baixa capacidade de detectar pacientes infectados, menor acurácia em relação ao estudo anatomopatológico e alta especificidade. O teste pode ser útil no momento da realização da endoscopia, por fornecer resultado rápido e barato para detectar H. pylori. O diagnóstico da bactéria apresenta maior confiabilidade com a realização dos dois métodos para pesquisa de H. pylori.

Objective: To analyze the accuracy of the rapid urease test for Helicobacter pylori detection when compared with the histopathological examination. Methods: This is a prospective and descriptive study conducted from April 2018 to May 2019, at an Endoscopy and Biliopancreatic Service and in a pathology laboratory. The sample consisted of 64 male and female patients aged 35 to 81 years old with dyspeptic complaints. Histopathological examination and rapid urease test were performed. Data were analyzed by R Corel team 2019 and underwent descriptive (categorical variables) and inferential (Pearson's Chi-squared association test and Mann-Whitney test) analyzes. The significance level adopted was 5%. Results: The rapid urease test showed that ten patients were true positive, 39 true negative, three false-positive, and 12 false-negative, and sensitivity was of 45.4% (25.1% to 67.3%), specificity 92.9% (79.4% to 98.1), positive predictive value of 76.9% (45.9-93.8%), negative predictive value of 76.5% (62.2% to 86.7%), accuracy of 76.6% (64.0% to 85.9%), diagnostic odds ratio of 10.8 (2.56% to 45.9), Youden index 0.38 (0.38% to 0.60), and error rate 23.4 (14.1% to 36.0%). Conclusion: The rapid urease test showed low ability to detect infected patients, lower accuracy compared to the pathological study, and high specificity. The test may be useful at the time of endoscopy, as it provides a quick and inexpensive result to detect H. pylori. The diagnosis of the bacterium is more reliable when both methods for H. pylori investigation are performed

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Urease/analysis , Helicobacter pylori/enzymology , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Biopsy , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Gastroscopy , Dyspepsia/diagnosis
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 67(2): 136-148, May-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1180950


RESUMEN Las enfermedades gastrointestinales equinas tienen una alta incidencia con un pronóstico variable en la práctica clínica. La mayoría de los estudios se limitan a describir lesiones ulcerativas y lesiones inflamatorias. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el potencial diagnóstico complementario de la cromoendoscopia convencional en la mucosa gas-troesofágica y duodenal proximal del equino. El estudio incluyó 20 caballos criollos colombianos de ambos sexos (12 hembras y 8 machos), con edades entre 5 y 20 años, peso entre 250 y 350 kilogramos, condición corporal 4-5/9 y con historial de alteraciones digestivas en los últimos 3 meses; quienes previo a la evaluación por gastroscopia y cromoendoscopia se sometieron a ayuno (sólidos 12h y líquidos 4h) y sedación (xilacina 0,5 mg/kg/iv). Se utilizaron tinciones como rojo fenol, lugol, índigo carmín, azul de metileno y ácido acético y se tomaron biopsias de los segmentos que mostraron reacción. El azul de metileno reveló 52% de las lesiones, el lugol 19%; por su parte, el rojo fenol, el índigo carmín y el ácido acético revelaron el 9,5% restante. El epitelio escamoso fue el más afectado (66,6%), el glandular (19%), antro pilórico (9,5%) y duodeno proximal (4,7%). Los hallazgos histopatológicos fueron hiperplasia, hipertrofia, hiperqueratosis, congestión, degeneración vacuolar, infiltrados celulares, fibrosis, necrosis y atrofia en diferentes grados de severidad. La cromoendoscopia reveló lesiones prematuras, que pasaron desapercibidas con las técnicas convencionales de endoscopia del tracto digestivo. Este es el primer estudio que emplea la cromoendoscopia en equinos; a pesar de que la técnica mejoró la visualización y facilitó la ubicación y descripción de lesiones ulcerativas prematuras a través de la histopatología, se recomiendan mayores estudios controlados y con un número más amplio de muestras.

ABSTRACT Equine gastrointestinal diseases have a high occurrence with a variable prognostic in clinic practice. Most of the studies limits to describe ulcerative and inflammatory lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential complementary diagnostic of conventional chromoendoscopy on the gastroesophageal and proximal duodenal mucosa of the equine. 20 Colombian creole horses, of both sexes (12 females and 8 males), with ages between 5 and 20 years old, weight between 250 and 350 kilograms, body condition 4-5/9, that had presented digestive alterations in the last 3 months, were subjected to fasting (solids 12h and liquids 4h) and sedated (xylazine 0,5 mg/kg/iv) to be evaluated by gastroscopy and chromoendoscopy, using for stains phenol red, lugol, indigo carmine, methylene blue and acetic acid, taking biopsy samples of the segments that showed reaction. The methylene blue revealed 52%, lugol 19%, and phenol red, indigo carmine and acetic acid revealed only 9,5% of the lesions, being the squamous epithelium the most affected (66,6%), glandular epithelium (19%), pyloric antrum (9,5%) and proximal duodenum (4,7%), where histopathological findings were hyperplasia, hypertrophy, hyperkeratosis, congestion, vacuolar degeneration, cellular infiltrates, fibrosis, necrosis and atrophy in different degrees of severity. Chromoendoscopy revealed lesions premature, which go unnoticed with conventional light endoscopy techniques. This is the first study using chromoscopy in horses to show that the reagents used allow a better visualization of injuries than the conventional technique, helping histopathological studies and molecular biology to understand ulcerative premature injuries and possible pathophysiological pathways. However, larger controlled studies and a larger number of samples are needed.

Animals , Wounds and Injuries , Gastroscopy , Coloring Agents , Endoscopy , Horses , Atrophy , Vacuoles , Biopsy , Cells , Carmine , Fasting , Acetic Acid , Phenol , Duodenum , Epithelium , Age and Sex Distribution , Esophagogastric Junction , Hyperplasia , Hypertrophy , Methylene Blue , Mucous Membrane , Necrosis
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 67(2): 123-135, May-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1180949


RESUMEN Las úlceras gástricas se definen como la pérdida de continuidad de la mucosa gástrica. Se originan principalmente por desequilibrio entre factores injuriantes y de protección del estómago. Generalmente se manifiestan con signos como pérdida de peso, cólico, bruxismo e inapetencia, conllevando al bajo rendimiento del animal y pérdidas económicas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo para la presentación de SUGE en CCC del Valle de Aburra. Se realizó gastroscopia a 100 animales de diferentes pesebreras, entre dos y 25 años de edad; cada estómago se caracterizó macro y microscópicamente. Las lesiones macroscópicas se valoraron de acuerdo con el grado de lesión según el Equine Gastric Ulcer Council, y la clasificación microscopica se basó en una adaptación hecha por patrones de descripción de lesiones más utilizados como: The sidney system y Equine gastritis grading system (EGGS). Para el análisis de los resultados, se tuvieron en cuenta variables como la intensidad del ejercicio, alojamiento, tipo y frecuencia de alimentación, transporte y frecuencia del mismo. El 65% de los equinos evaluados presentaron lesiones compatibles con SUGE. Macroscópicamente el grado 2 de severidad fue el más común (38%), con mayor presentación en la región aglandular. Microscópicamente el edema en la región fundica y pilórica fue la lesión más frecuente (35,2% y 30,7%, respectivamente). Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a la presentación de las lesiones fueron el transporte de los animales y la intensidad del ejercicio.

ABSTRACT Gastric ulcers are defined as the loss of continuity of the gastric mucosal. They are mainly caused by an imbalance between harmful and protective factors of the stomach. It generally manifests itself with signs such as weight loss, colic, bruxism and inappetence, which can lead to low performance and economic losses. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for the presentation of SUGE in CCC of the Valle del Aburra. Gastroscopy was made to 100 animals from different stables, between two and 25 years of age; each stomach characterized, macro and microscopically. Lesions are evaluate depending on the degree of injury to the "Equine Gastric Ulcer Council". Microscopic lesions classification was based on an adaptation by patterns most commonly used description of injuries such as: the Sidney System and the equine gastritis grading system (EGGS). For the analysis of the results, variables such as exercise intensity, accommodation, type and frequency of feeding, transportation and its frequency were taken into account. 65% of the equines evaluated presented SUGE-compatible lesions, of which the most common degree of severity macroscopically was grade 2 (38%), with grater presentation in the non-glandular region. Microscopically, edema in the fundic and pyloric region was the most frequent (35.2% and 30.7%, respectively). The main risk factors associated with the presentation of the lesions were the transport of the animals and the intensity of the exercise.

Stomach Ulcer , Wounds and Injuries , Weight Loss , Colic/veterinary , Risk Factors , Gastroscopy , Gastric Mucosa , Stomach , Transportation , Bruxism/veterinary , Exercise , Anorexia/veterinary , Sheltering , Diet , Edema
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(1): 74-78, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098051


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The role of Helicobacter pylori infection on eosinophilic infiltration in duodenal mucosa is poorly studied. An increase in the number of eosinophils in duodenum has been associated with functional dyspepsia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of H. pylori infection on duodenal eosinophil count and the role of eosinophilic infiltrate of duodenum in functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Positive and negative H. pylori individuals were included. Both functional dyspeptic patients according to Rome III criteria (cases) and individuals without gastrointestinal symptoms (controls) were enrolled. They were submitted to upper endoscopy and H. pylori infection was verified by gastric histopathology and urease test. Eosinophils in the duodenal mucosa were counted in five high-power fields, randomly selected on slides of endoscopic biopsies. RESULTS: Thirty-nine H. pylori positive (mean age 40.5 and 69.2% women) and 24 negative patients (mean age 37.3 and 75% women) were included. The influence of the infection was observed in the duodenal eosinophil count, which was higher in infected individuals: median 13.2 vs 8.1 in non-infected individuals (P=0.005). When we analyzed patients according to symptoms, cases - mean age 39.6; 71.4% women - and controls - mean age 38.7; 71.4% women - had similar duodenal eosinophil count: median 11.9 and 12.6 respectively (P=0.19). CONCLUSIONS: We did not demonstrate association of duodenal eosinophil count with functional dyspepsia but found association with H. pylori infection.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: O papel de infecção por Helicobacter pylori no infiltrado eosinofílico duodenal ainda é pouco compreendido. Um aumento no número de eosinófilos duodenais tem sido associado a dispepsia funcional. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do H. pylori na contagem de eosinófilos duodenais e o papel do infiltrado eosinofílico duodenal na dispepsia funcional. MÉTODOS: Indivíduos H. pylori positivo e negativo foram incluídos. Ambos os grupos, compreendendo dispépticos funcionais pelos critérios de Roma III (casos) e indivíduos sem sintomas gastrointestinais (controles), foram submetidos à endoscopia digestiva alta para pesquisa de H. pylori, efetuada por histopatologia e teste de urease. Eosinófilos na mucosa duodenal foram contabilizados em cinco campos de maior aumento, selecionados randomicamente nas lâminas de biópsia endoscópicas. RESULTADOS: Trinta e nove indivíduos H. pylori positivo (média de idade 40,5 e 69,2% mulheres) e 24 H. pylori negativos (média de idade 37,3 e 75% mulheres) foram incluídos. A influência da infecção por H. pylori foi observada na contagem de eosinófilos, que foi maior nos positivos: mediana 13,2 vs 8,1 (P=0,005). Quando analisados pacientes de acordo com sintomas, os casos (média de idade 39,6 e 71,4% mulheres) e controles (média de idade 38,7 e 71,4% mulheres), apresentaram semelhante contagem de eosinófilos duodenais: mediana 11,9 e 12,6, respectivamente (P=0,19). CONCLUSÃO: Não demonstramos associação da contagem de eosinófilos duodenais com dispepsia duodenal, mas encontramos associação com infecção por H. pylori.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections/pathology , Duodenum/pathology , Dyspepsia/microbiology , Eosinophilia/pathology , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Biopsy , Case-Control Studies , Gastroscopy , Duodenum/microbiology , Dyspepsia/pathology , Gastric Mucosa/microbiology , Middle Aged
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4952, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056063


ABSTRACT Objective: To define physician´s behavior in the face of a mentally capable elderly dysphagic patients at risk of pulmonary aspiration, who do not accept oral restriction. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional study, presenting a clinical case of an independent elderly with clinical complaints of dysphagia and laryngotracheal aspiration by flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing who rejected the proposal to restrict oral diet. A questionnaire about the patient's decision-making process was used to assess whether the physician was sympathetic and justify their answer, and if they are aware of hierarchy of ethical principles (recognition of the person´s value, autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice), in the decision-making process, and which was the main principle that guided their decision. Results: One hundred participants were classified by time since graduation as Group I (less than 10 years) and Group II (more than 10 years). Of them, 60% agreed with the patient's decision, with no difference between the groups. The main reason was autonomy of patients, in both groups. Among those who were not sympathetic, the main argument was beneficence and nonmaleficence, considering the risk between benefit and harm. As to awareness about the hierarchy of principles, we did not find differences between the groups. Autonomy was the principle that guided those who were sympathetic with the patient's decision, and justice among those who didnot agree. Conclusion: Physicians were sympathetic with the patient's decision regarding autonomy, despite the balance between risks of beneficence and nonmaleficence, including death. We propose to formalize a non-compliance term.

RESUMO Objetivo: Definir o comportamento médico diante de paciente idoso disfágico com risco de aspiração laringotraqueal e mentalmente capaz que não aceita a restrição da via oral. Métodos: Estudo observacional, transversal. Apresentamos um caso clínico de idoso, que vive independente, com queixas clínicas e videoendoscopia da deglutição comprovando disfagia e aspiração, que recusou a proposta de restrição da via oral. Um questionário foi aplicado sobre o processo de decisão do paciente, procurando avaliar se o médico torna-se solidário, e que justifique sua resposta, e se tem ciência da hierarquia dos princípios éticos (reconhecimento do valor da pessoa, autonomia, beneficência, não maleficência e justiça), no processo de decisão e qual o principal princípio que norteia sua decisão. Resultados: Cem participantes foram classificados por tempo de formados em Grupo I (até 10 anos) e Grupo II (mais de 10 anos). Deles 60% tornaram-se solidários à decisão do paciente, sem diferença entre os grupos. O principal argumento foi a autonomia do paciente nos dois grupos. Entre os não solidários, foi o binômio beneficência e não maleficência, e o balanço do risco/benefício e malefício. Considerando a ciência sobre a hierarquia dos princípios que regem a decisão, não encontramos diferença entre eles. A autonomia foi o principal princípio na decisão entre os solidários e a justiça entre os não solidários. Conclusão: O médico foi solidário à decisão do paciente em respeito à sua autonomia, apesar dos riscos ponderados da beneficência e da maleficência, inclusive de morte. Propomos o termo de recusa de conduta formalizada.

Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Deglutition Disorders/complications , Treatment Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Aspiration/etiology , Physician-Patient Relations , Time Factors , Gastrostomy/methods , Deglutition Disorders/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Gastroscopy/methods , Personal Autonomy , Respiratory Aspiration/prevention & control , Clinical Decision-Making , Intubation, Gastrointestinal/methods
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 36-44, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786179


Currently, sedation anesthesia is increasingly used in many medical fields, from gastroscopy to medical imaging. The demand for sedation anesthesia is expected to increase gradually with increasing number of day surgeries and increased expectations from medical services. The demand for sedation anesthesia is considerably higher than the available pool of anesthesiologists; therefore, in a significant number of cases, sedation anesthesia is induced by non-anesthesiologists. However, there is no systematic provision of education or expertise for non-anesthesiologists in delivering sedation anesthesia. In cases of non-anesthesiologists inducing anesthesia, social controversy is often caused by medical accidents and substance abuse. In this review, I have briefly summarized what non-anesthesiologists should know about sedation anesthesia and have presented guidelines simplifying sedation anesthesia for non-anesthesia medical personnel.

Ambulatory Surgical Procedures , Anesthesia , Dexmedetomidine , Diagnostic Imaging , Education , Etomidate , Gastroscopy , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Ketamine , Propofol , Substance-Related Disorders
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 419-424, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055178


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is the most important risk factor for gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, both considered gastric cancer precursor lesions. Therefore, the investigation of the occurrence of H. pylori infection, precursor lesions and associated factors guides the adoption of specific strategies for the control this type of cancer. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients undergoing upper digestive endoscopy, as well as the prevalence of intestinal metaplasia, atrophy and chronic inflammation and their association with H. pylori infection. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed based on reports of gastric endoscopic biopsies performed in a private laboratory affiliated to the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS). Patients were evaluated for age, gender and type of health service. The samples were evaluated for the presence of H. pylori, and also of chronic inflammation, intestinal metaplasia and glandular atrophy. RESULTS: Of a total of 4,604 patients (mean age 51±16.6), 63.9% were female and 63.1% coming from private health care service. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 31.7% (n=1,459), and the percentage of infection was significantly higher in patients from public health service (42.0%) in relation to patients from private health service (25.6%). Among H. pylori (+) patients, a higher percentage of intestinal metaplasia (17.7% vs 13.3%) and glandular atrophy (17.6% vs 6.9%) were observed when compared to those H. pylori (-) (P<0.01). From the patients H. pylori (+) with at least one type of precursor lesion (n=418), 161 (38.5%) had metaplasia and chronic inflammation, 160 (38.3%) had atrophy and chronic inflammation and finally 97 (23.2%) presented metaplasia, atrophy and chronic inflammation simultaneously. CONCLUSION: The present study reinforces the association of H. pylori infection with gastric cancer precursor lesions in a Brazilian population, emphasizing the importance of infection prevention measures, as well as the treatment of infected patients, especially in regions with lower socioeconomic levels that show a higher prevalence of infection by H. pylori.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A infecção por Helicobacter pylori é o fator de risco mais importante para atrofia gástrica e metaplasia intestinal, ambas consideradas lesões precursoras do câncer gástrico. Portanto, a investigação da ocorrência de infecção por H. pylori, das lesões precursoras e dos fatores associados orienta a adoção de estratégias específicas para o controle deste tipo de câncer. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de infecção por H. pylori em pacientes submetidos à endoscopia digestiva alta, bem como a prevalência de metaplasia intestinal, atrofia e inflamação crônica e a associação destas com a infecção por H. pylori. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo com base em laudos de biópsias endoscópicas gástricas realizadas em laboratório privado afiliado ao Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Os pacientes foram avaliados quanto à idade, sexo e tipo de serviço de saúde. As amostras foram avaliadas quanto à presença de H. pylori e também de inflamação crônica, metaplasia intestinal e atrofia glandular. RESULTADOS: Do total de 4.604 pacientes (idade média de 51±16,6), 63,9% eram do sexo feminino e 63,1% provenientes de serviços de saúde privado. A prevalência de infecção por H. pylori foi de 31,7% (n=1.459) e o percentual de infecção foi significativamente maior nos pacientes do serviço público de saúde (42,0%) em relação aos pacientes do serviço privado de saúde (25,6%). Entre os pacientes com H. pylori (+), foi observado maior percentual de metaplasia intestinal (17,7% vs 13,3%) e atrofia glandular (17,6% vs 6,9%) quando comparados aos H. pylori (-) (P<0,01). Dos pacientes H. pylori (+) com pelo menos um tipo de lesão precursora (n=418), 161 (38,5%) apresentaram metaplasia e inflamação crônica, 160 (38,3%) apresentaram atrofia e inflamação crônica e, finalmente, 97 (23,2%) apresentaram metaplasia, atrofia e inflamação crônica simultaneamente. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo reforça a associação da infecção por H. pylori com lesões precursoras de câncer gástrico em uma população brasileira, enfatizando a importância de medidas de prevenção de infecção, bem como o tratamento de pacientes infectados, principalmente em regiões com níveis socioeconômicos mais baixos que apresentam maior prevalência de infecção por H. pylori.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/microbiology , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections/pathology , Precancerous Conditions/microbiology , Atrophy/microbiology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy , Chronic Disease , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Gastroscopy , Metaplasia/microbiology , Middle Aged
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(2): 241-246, ene.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011436


Resumen La anisakiasis es una enfermedad parasitaria zoonótica causada por el consumo de pescados o mariscos crudos o poco cocidos infectados con nematodos de los géneros Anisakis, Pseudoterranova y Contracaecum. Se describe el primer caso de anisakiasis en Colombia y se resume la literatura médica disponible. Una mujer de 52 años de edad consultó por dolor epigástrico agudo de inicio abrupto, náuseas, vómitos, diarrea y urticaria después de consumir pescado. El examen físico reveló sensibilidad moderada en el epigastrio. El examen de laboratorio evidenció leucocitosis, en tanto que la radiografía simple y el electrocardiograma no reflejaron ninguna anormalidad. El diagnóstico se hizo mediante una endoscopia de vías digestivas altas, la cual reveló engrosamiento de la pared gástrica y un parásito en movimiento. Se encontró una larva de Anisakis y se la extrajo por endoscopia, lo que alivió el dolor de la paciente. Clínicamente, la anisakiasis puede presentarse como una enfermedad gástrica, intestinal, en otros sistemas o alérgica. El diagnóstico se hace con base en la elaboración del historial alimentario del paciente y la visualización directa de las larvas; el único tratamiento efectivo consiste en su extracción endoscópica.

Abstract Anisakiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by consumption of raw or undercooked fish or seafood infected with nematodes of the Anisakis, Pseudoterranova or Contracaecum genera. Here, we describe the first case of anisakiasis in Colombia and summarize the available literature. A 52-year-old female with a history of abrupt-onset sharp epigastric pain, nausea, vomit, diarrhea, and urticaria following fish consumption consulted the health service. The physical examination revealed moderate tenderness of the epigastric region; the laboratory evaluation showed leukocytosis and a simple X-ray and ECG showed no abnormalities. The diagnosis was made by endoscopic examination, which revealed a thickened gastric wall and a moving larval worm. An Anisakis larva was found and extracted endoscopically, which relieved the pain of the patient. Clinically, anisakiasis may present as a gastric, intestinal, extragastrointestinal or allergic disease. Diagnosis and treatment of anisakiasis are made by a dietary history, direct visualization and endoscopic extraction of possible larvae, which is the only effective therapy.

Animals , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Stomach Diseases/parasitology , Urticaria/etiology , Food Parasitology , Anisakis/isolation & purification , Anisakiasis/diagnosis , Fishes/parasitology , Raw Foods/adverse effects , Stomach Diseases/diagnosis , Stomach Diseases/immunology , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Gastroscopy , Anisakis/growth & development , Anisakiasis/surgery , Anisakiasis/immunology , Anisakiasis/drug therapy , Colombia , Combined Modality Therapy , Raw Foods/parasitology , Larva , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.1): 125-134, mayo 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011461


Resumen Introducción. La resistencia a los antibióticos es la principal causa del fracaso del tratamiento contra Helicobacter pylori; la claritromicina y el metronidazol son los antibióticos que generan mayor resistencia. En Colombia, la resistencia primaria a estos dos antibióticos y el uso excesivo de levofloxacina han alcanzado los límites aceptados (13,6, 83 y 16 %, respectivamente). A pesar de ello, se usa el tratamiento empírico combinando estos antibióticos en pacientes en los que ha fallado anteriormente. Objetivo. Determinar la resistencia a los antibióticos en pacientes previamente tratados para H. pylori en Bogotá, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo en el que se evaluó mediante dilución en agar la resistencia a la amoxicilina, la claritromicina, la levofloxacina y el metronidazol en 10 aislamientos provenientes de 5 pacientes con tres o cuatro tratamientos fallidos para H. pylori. La resistencia a los antibióticos se confirmó mediante secuenciación de ADN (Magrogen, Korea). Resultados. Ocho de los aislamientos presentaron resistencia a dos o más antibióticos y todos fueron resistentes a la levofloxacina. Los patrones de sensibilidad de los aislamientos provenientes del antro pilórico y del cuerpo del estómago, fueron diferentes en tres de los pacientes. Conclusión. Hasta donde se sabe, esta es la primera evidencia de resistencia múltiple de H. pylori en Colombia en pacientes previamente tratados. Los resultados evidenciaron las consecuencias del uso de un esquema ineficaz de tratamiento antibiótico y la necesidad de evaluar la sensibilidad a los antibióticos en diferentes sitios anatómicos del estómago. La resistencia múltiple limita el número de antibióticos útiles para erradicar H. pylori.

Abstract Introduction: The main cause for Helicobacter pylori infection treatment failure is antibiotic resistance, where clarithromycin and metronidazole play the main role. In Colombia, primary resistance as a consequence of the use of these two antibiotics and excessive levofloxacin use is above the accepted limit (13.6%, 83%, and 16%, respectively). Despite this fact, empirical therapies that include the combination of these antibiotics are used in patients with previous therapeutic failure. Objective: To determine antibiotic resistance in patients previously treated for H. pylori in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: We conducted a descriptive study that included ten isolates obtained from five patients with three or four previous failed treatments for H. pylori. Antibiotic resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was investigated by agar dilution and confirmed by DNA sequencing (Magrogen, Korea). Results: Eight isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to levofloxacin. Susceptibility patterns in isolates from the gastric antrum and the body of the stomach were different in three patients. Conclusion: As far as we know, this is the first evidence of multiple H. pylori resistance in Colombia in previously treated patients. Results demonstrated the consequences of using an ineffective antibiotic scheme and the need to assess antibiotic susceptibility in different anatomical sites of the stomach. The consequences of multiple resistance decrease possible antibiotic effectiveness to eradicate H. pylori in the future.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Gastritis/microbiology , Biopsy , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Helicobacter pylori/genetics , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Gastroscopy , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Colombia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Levofloxacin/pharmacology , Gastritis/epidemiology , Genes, Bacterial , Amoxicillin/pharmacology , Metronidazole/therapeutic use , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 39(1): 12-20, ene.-mar. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014121


Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de pólipos gástricos detectados mediante endoscopía digestiva alta, en pacientes mayores de 18 años del Hospital Cayetano Heredia, en el periodo 2007-2016. Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de corte transversal, realizado con datos de biopsias gástricas de pacientes sometidos a endoscopía digestiva alta entre enero de 2007 y julio de 2016. Se evaluó cambios histológicos asociados, datos demográficos y características endoscópicas, las cuales fueron sometidas a análisis estadístico mediante STATA v14.2. Resultados: En una población de 16 552 endoscopías realizadas, se encontró 407 biopsias compatibles con pólipos gástricos, lo cual da una prevalencia de 2,5%. Los pólipos gástricos fueron más frecuentes en mujeres (62,38%). La mediana de edad fue de 61 años (52-71 años). El tipo histológico más frecuente fue el pólipo glandular fúndico (PGF) (44,85%), seguido de pólipo hiperplásico (38,48%) y adenomatoso (15,23%). La localización más frecuente fue en fondo/cuerpo (48,65%, p=0,001) Se detectó la presencia de Helicobacter pylori (Hp) en el 30,6% de las biopsias compatibles con pólipos. Conclusión: La prevalencia de pólipos gástricos es similar con otras regiones del mundo; los PGF e hiperplásicos son los más frecuentes. Los pólipos adenomatosos estuvieron en mayor relación a cambios como metaplasia y displasia.

Objectives: Establish the prevalence of gastric polyps detected by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in patients older than 18 years old during the period from 2007 - 2016 in Cayetano Heredia Hospital. Materials and methods: Retrospective cross- sectional study, performed with data from the gastric biopsies reports of patients that have undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between January 2007 and July 2016. Demographic data, endoscopic characteristics of the polyps and associated histological changes of the surrounding gastric mucosa were evaluated, which were subjected to statistical analysis using STATA v14.2. Results: In a population of 16 552 endoscopies, 407 gastric polyps biopsies were found. These results give a prevalence of 2.5% .Gastric polyps were detected predominantly in women (62.38%). The median age was 61 years (52-71 years). The most frequent histological type was the fundic gland polyp (FGP) (44.85%), followed by the hyperplastic (38.48%) and adenomatous (15.23%) polyp. The most frequent location was in the fundus / corpus (48.65%, p = 0.001). The presence of Hp was detected in 30.6% of the biopsies with polyps. Conclusion: The prevalence of gastric polyps is similar to other regions of the world; PGF and hyperplastic are the most frequent. Adenomatous polyps showed a greater relationship with and metaplasia and dysplasia.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Adenomatous Polyps/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/classification , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Helicobacter Infections/pathology , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Gastroscopy , Adenomatous Polyps/classification , Adenomatous Polyps/pathology , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Gastritis/pathology , Gastritis/epidemiology , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Hyperplasia , Inflammation , Metaplasia