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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(2): 81-85, maio-ago. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116356

ABSTRACT

A obesidade possui vários prejuízos para a saúde e está associada à inúmeras patologias e baixa expectativa de vida. O desequilíbrio alimentar é um fator que necessita de atenção especial, pois é capaz de alterar as interações entre nutrientes e genes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as principais linhas de pesquisa associadas à nutrigenômica, e evidenciar a relação da influência da nutrição na expressão de genes relacionados à obesidade. Realizou-se o levantamento bibliográfico e a análise cienciométrica por meio do banco de dados publicados na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS) e do Centro Latino-Americano de Informação em Ciências da Saúde (BIREME). Identificou-se 118 artigos originais, os quais foram agrupados em cinco classes: restrição calórica, expressão gênica, alimentos, intervenção dietética e diversos. Os resultados evidenciaram que a restrição calórica possui relação direta da expressão gênica com o controle das células cancerígenas e a diminuição do excesso de tecido adiposo. Além disso, a análise cienciométrica relacionou a importância das fibras alimentares na redução do colesterol e sensibilidade à insulina, bem como a ação do jejum na regulação negativa de genes que contribuem para o crescimento do tecido adiposo. Dessa forma, este artigo fornece princípios ideológicos para auxiliar especialistas na aplicabilidade de estratégias para atingir a redução de peso sustentável por meio da expressão gênica.


Obesity has several health risks and is associated with numerous pathologies and low life expectancy. Food imbalance is a factor that needs special attention, as it is able to change the interactions between nutrients and genes. This study aimed at verifying the main lines of research associated with nutrigenomics, and at showing the relationship of the influence of nutrition on the expression of genes related to obesity. The bibliographic survey and scientometric analysis were carried out through the database published in the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS) and the Centro Latino-Americano de Informação em Ciências da Saúde (BIREME). A total of 118 articles of original research were identified, and were grouped into five categories: caloric restriction; gene expression; food; dietary intervention; and miscellaneous. The results showed that caloric restriction has a direct relationship between gene expression and the control of cancer cells and the reduction of excess adipose tissue. Furthermore, the scientometric analysis related the importance of dietary fibers in reducing cholesterol and insulin sensitivity as well as the action of fasting in the negative regulation of genes that contribute to the growth of adipose tissue. Thus, this paper provides ideological principles to assist specialists in the applicability of strategies to achieve sustainable weight reduction through gene expression.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression/genetics , Food/adverse effects , Obesity/genetics , Dietary Fiber , Weight Loss , Adipose Tissue , Caloric Restriction , Dietetics , Nutritional Sciences , Nutrigenomics , Insulin , Neoplasms
2.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2018. 73 p. il., tab., graf..
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-905157

ABSTRACT

Tabaco e álcool são considerados os principais fatores de risco para o carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE) bucal contribuindo de maneira desfavorável para o tratamento e desfecho clínico. Seus carcinógenos são metabolizados em duas fases, sendo a segunda fase realizada pelas Glutationa S-transferases (GSTs). O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a expressão gênica da forma selvagem dos genes GSTM1, GSTP1 e GSTT1 por qPCR em 33 amostras de CCE bucal de fumantes, ex-fumantes e não fumantes, e 15 controles em busca de uma correlação clínica com consumo de tabaco, álcool e estadiamento clínico. A dependência nicotínica foi avaliada pelo Teste de Fagerström pra Dependência a Cigarros (TFDC) e para consumo de etílicos o Teste AUDIT. Foi observado aumento da expressão de GSTM1 no Grupo CCE fumante em relação ao Grupo Controle (p=0,0161). Contrariamente, foi encontrada uma menor expressão de GSTT1 no Grupo CCE fumante em relação ao Grupo Controle fumante (p=0,0183). No grupo CCE fumante não foi encontrada uma correlação entre a expressão dos genes estudados e fatores ligados ao tabagismo, etilismo e estadiamento clinico. No grupo Controle fumante, houve correlação entre teste AUDIT e a expressão de GSTM1 (p=0,0000). Para GSTP1 e GSTT1 houve correlação entre a expressão quando comparada a idade do paciente (p=0,0008; p=0,0095), idade de inicio do tabagismo (p=0,0033; p=0,0081), TFDC (p=0,0102; p=0,0085) e AUDIT (p=0,0052; p=0,0219) respectivamente. Para GSTT1 foi encontrada uma correlação entre a expressão e número de cigarros/dia (p=0,0175). Concluímos que as formas selvagens das GSTs estudadas apresentaram uma alta expressão nas amostras de CCE bucal, entretanto, quantitativamente essa expressão foi baixa, com grande variabilidade interindividual. Outrossim, não houve uma correlação direta entre níveis de expressão, carga tabágica, TFDC, teste AUDIT e estadiamento clínico. O aumento da expressão de GSTM1 e GSTP1 parece não ter tido um efeito protetor. A baixa expressão de GSTT1 em pacientes fumantes com CCE bucal se mostrou um potencial marcador a ser avaliado em pacientes fumantes que ainda não desenvolveram uma neoplasia maligna(AU)


Tobacco and alcohol are considered to be the main risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), contributing to treatment and clinical outcome. Its carcinogens are metabolized in two phases, being the second phase carried out by Glutathione Stransferases (GSTs). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the wild-type gene expression of the GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 genes by qPCR in 33 samples of oral SCC from smokers, former smokers and nonsmokers, and 15 controls looking for a clinical correlation with tobacco and alcohol consumption and clinical staging. Nicotinic dependence was assessed by the Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (TFCD) and alcohol consumption by the AUDIT Test. Increased expression of GSTM1 in the Smoker SCC Group was observed in relation to the Control Group (p=0.0161). Conversely, a lower expression of GSTT1 was found in the smoker SCC group compared to the Smoker Control Group (p=0.0183). In the smoker SCC group, no correlation was found between the genes expression studied and factors related to smoking, alcoholism and clinical staging. In the Smoker Control Group, there was a correlation between the AUDIT test and the GSTM1 expression (p=0.0000). For GSTP1 and GSTT1, there was a correlation between the expression compared with the patient's age (p=0.0008, p=0.0095), age of starting smoking (p=0.0033, p=0.0081), FTCD (p=0.0102, p=0.0085) and AUDIT (p=0.0052, p=0.0219) respectively. For GSTT1 a correlation was found between expression and number of cigarettes/day (p=0.0175). We concluded that the wild forms of the GSTs studied presented a high expression in the samples of oral SCC; however, quantitatively this expression was low, with great interindividual variability. Also, there was no direct correlation between levels of expression, pack-years, FTCD, AUDIT Test and clinical stage. Increased expression of GSTM1 and GSTP1 appears to have had no protective effect. The low GSTT1 expression in smokers with oral SCC was shown to be a potential marker to be evaluated in smoker patients who have not yet developed a malignant neoplasm(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Mouth Neoplasms/ethnology , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/complications , Gene Expression/genetics , Xenobiotics/administration & dosage
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(1): e5658, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839234

ABSTRACT

Chitinases are hydrolases that degrade chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine linked β(1-4) present in the exoskeleton of crustaceans, insects, nematodes and fungal cell walls. A metagenome fosmid library from a wastewater-contaminated soil was functionally screened for chitinase activity leading to the isolation and identification of a chitinase gene named metachi18A. The metachi18A gene was subcloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and the MetaChi18A chitinase was purified by affinity chromatography as a 6xHis-tagged fusion protein. The MetaChi18A enzyme is a 92-kDa protein with a conserved active site domain of glycosyl hydrolases family 18. It hydrolyses colloidal chitin with an optimum pH of 5 and temperature of 50°C. Moreover, the enzyme retained at least 80% of its activity in the pH range from 4 to 9 and 98% at 600 mM NaCl. Thin layer chromatography analyses identified chitobiose as the main product of MetaChi18A on chitin polymers as substrate. Kinetic analysis showed inhibition of MetaChi18A activity at high concentrations of colloidal chitin and 4-methylumbelliferyl N,N′-diacetylchitobiose and sigmoid kinetics at low concentrations of colloidal chitin, indicating a possible conformational change to lead the chitin chain from the chitin-binding to the catalytic domain. The observed stability and activity of MetaChi18A over a wide range of conditions suggest that this chitinase, now characterized, may be suitable for application in the industrial processing of chitin.


Subject(s)
Chitinases/genetics , Chitin/genetics , Metagenome/genetics , Chitinases/chemistry , Chitin/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Escherichia coli , Gene Expression/genetics , Gene Library , Genetic Vectors , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Substrate Specificity
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(2): e5760, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839255

ABSTRACT

Cardiomyocyte apoptosis plays key roles in the pathogenesis of heart diseases such as myocardial infarction. MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, which are also involved in the regulation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, cardiomyocyte apoptosis regulated by microRNA (miR)-122 is largely unexplored. The aim of this study focused on the role of miR-122 in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal mice and primarily cultured. MiR-122 mimic and inhibitor were transfected to cardiomyocytes and verified by qRT-PCR. Cell viability and apoptosis post-transfection were assessed by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Changes in expression of caspase-8 were quantified by qRT-PCR and western blot. Results showed that miR-122 mimic and inhibitor successfully induced changes in miR-122 levels in cultured cardiomyocytes (P<0.01). MiR-122 overexpression suppressed viability and promoted apoptosis of cardiomyocytes (P<0.05), and miR-122 knockdown promoted cell viability and inhibited apoptosis (P<0.05). The mRNA and protein levels of caspase-8 were elevated by miR-122 overexpression (P<0.01) and reduced by miR-122 knockdown (P<0.001). These results suggest an inductive role of miR-122 in cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which may be related to its regulation on caspase-8.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Apoptosis/genetics , Caspase 8/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/physiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Animals, Newborn , Gene Expression/physiology , Mice, Inbred BALB C
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(6): e6104, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839305

ABSTRACT

Ovarian cancer is one of the most malignant genital cancers, with a high mortality rate. Many researchers have suggested that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have remarkably high expression in ovarian cancer tissues. MMPs are considered to be related to the occurrence, development, invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer. Moreover, some studies have discovered that the unbalance between MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are associated with the malignant phenotype of tumors. This review summarizes the latest research progress of MMPs in ovarian cancer. The investigation of MMP mechanism in ovarian cancer will facilitate the development of effective anti-tumor drugs, and thereby improve the survival rate of patients with ovarian cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Ovarian Neoplasms/enzymology , Gene Expression/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinases/genetics , Ovarian Neoplasms/genetics , Ovarian Neoplasms/secondary , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases/metabolism
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(8): 505-512, Aug. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792408

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) treatment on the expression of wound-healing-related genes in cultured keratinocytes from burn patients. METHODS: Keratinocytes were cultured and divided into 4 groups (n=4 in each group): TKB (KGF-treated keratinocytes from burn patients), UKB (untreated keratinocytes from burn patients), TKC (KGF-treated keratinocytes from controls), and UKC (untreated keratinocytes from controls). Gene expression analysis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) array was performed to compare (1) TKC versus UKC, (2) UKB versus UKC, (3) TKB versus UKC, (4) TKB versus UKB, (5) TKB versus TKC, and (6) UKB versus TKC. RESULTS: Comparison 1 showed one down-regulated and one up-regulated gene; comparisons 2 and 3 resulted in the same five down-regulated genes; comparison 4 had no significant difference in relative gene expression; comparison 5 showed 26 down-regulated and 7 up-regulated genes; and comparison 6 showed 25 down-regulated and 11 up-regulated genes. CONCLUSION: There was no differential expression of wound-healing-related genes in cultured primary keratinocytes from burn patients treated with keratinocyte growth factor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Mice , Wound Healing/genetics , Burns/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , Keratinocytes/drug effects , Fibroblast Growth Factor 7/pharmacology , Skin/cytology , Burns/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Down-Regulation , Cells, Cultured , Polymerase Chain Reaction
7.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2016. 174 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-846612

ABSTRACT

As neoplasias mieloproliferativas (NMPs) BCR-ABL1 negativas compreendem a mielofibrose primária (PMF), trombocitemia essencial (TE) e a policitemia vera (PV). A patogênese e progressão dessas NMPs não estão completamente elucidadas. As metaloproteinases de matriz (MMPs) degradam a matriz extracelular, ativando citocinas e fatores de crescimento que, por sua vez, participam da tumorigênese e angiogênese. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relação da expressão gênica das MMPs, TIMPs, HIF1-α e SPARC com os marcadores angiogênicos bFGF e VEGFA em pacientes com MF e TE, considerando o status mutacional; bem como avaliar a regulação desses genes em camundongos submetidos à hipóxia, e em modelos HIF1-α(-/-) e VHL(-/-). Foram incluídos 21 pacientes com MF, 21 com MF pós-TE, 6 com MF pós-PV, 23 com TE e 78 indivíduos controle. As análises realizadas foram: dosagem sérica e expressão de RNAm de MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2 e SPARC, hemograma, determinação da proteína C reativa ultrassensível, determinação das concentrações de VEGFA e bFGF e avaliação das mutações nos genes JAK2, cMPL e CALR. A avaliação da densidade microvascular da medula óssea foi feita em 30 dos pacientes incluídos. Os pacientes com MFP, MFPTE e TE apresentaram maior expressão de MMP2, SPARC, TIMP1, TIMP2 e bFGF quando comparados aos seus controles (P<0,05), enquanto MMP9 foi mais expressa nos pacientes com MFPTE e TE (P= 0,011 e P=0,047, respectivamente). Os pacientes com TE apresentaram maior expressão de HIF1-α e VEGFA em relação ao grupo controle (P<0,05). Pacientes com MF JAK2V617F positivos apresentaram maiores concentrações de MMP9, TIMP2, bFGF e VEGFA quando comparados aos pacientes portadores de mutações na CALR (P<0,05). Os pacientes com TE JAK2V617F positivos apresentaram maiores concentrações de MMP2 e TIMP2 (P=0,049 e P=0,020, respectivamente). As concentrações das proteínas estudadas não apresentaram correlação com a carga alélica de JAK2V617F e nem com a densidade microvascular da medula óssea. Células de medula óssea de camundongos submetidos à hipóxia apresentaram maior expressão de MMP2 e TIMP1 comparados aos camundongos em normóxia. Camundongos VHL(-/-) apresentaram aumento na expressão dos genes MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2 e VEGFA. Diferentemente, embriões HIF1-α(-/-) não foram considerados um bom modelo para este estudo devido ao envolvimento das MMPs na embriogênese/organogênese. Frente aos resultados encontrados, pode-se sugerir que a maior expressão de MMP2, SPARC e de bFGF estão associadas às NMPs. A mutação JAK2V617F foi associada a maiores concentrações de MMPs, TIMP2 VEGFA e bFGF. HIF1-α foi mais expresso na PV e na TE, sugerindo uma possível regulação da expressão das MMPs e TIMPs nessas doenças


Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) BCR-ABL1-negative include primary myelofibrosis (PMF), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV). The mechanisms underlying the pathology and disease progression in MPN are not completely elucidated. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) cleave extracellular matrix, activating cytokines and growth factors that, in turn, regulate tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of MMPs, TIMPs, HIF1-α and SPARC gene expression with angiogenic markers bFGF and VEGFA in patients with MPN considering their mutational status; as well as to assess the regulation of these genes in animal models HIF1-α and VHL knockouts. Twenty-one MF, 21 MF post-ET, 6 MF post-PV, 23 ET patients and 78 controls were enrolled. The analysis performed in peripheral blood were: serum and mRNA expression of MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2 and SPARC, blood count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein determination and VEGFA and bFGF measurements in plasma. We also evaluate mutations in JAK2, MPL and CALR. The assessment of microvascular density (MVD) in bone marrow was performed in 30 patients. Patients with MFP, MFPET and ET presented higher expression of MMP2, SPARC, TIMP1, TIMP2 and bFGF compared to their controls (P <0.05), while MMP9 expression was higher in patients with MFPET and ET (P=0.011 and P=0.047, respectively). Higher expression of HIF1-α and VEGFA was found in ET patients compared to the controls (P <0.05). PMF JAK2V617F patients had higher concentrations of MMP9, TIMP2, bFGF and VEGFA compared to CALR mutated ones (P <0.05). ET patients JAK2V617F positive had higher levels of MMP2 and TIMP2 (P=0.049 and P=0.020, respectively). The JAK2V617F allele burden was not associated with MVD in the bone marrow. Bone marrow cells from mice in hypoxia condition showed higher MMP2 and TIMP1 expression compared to the control. VHL(-/-) mice exhibited increased expression of MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2 and VEGFA. In contrast, the HIF1-α(-/-) embryos were not considered an applicable model for this study due to MMPs role in embryogenesis/organogenesis. In view of these findings, we can conclude that increased expression of MMP2, SPARC and bFGF are associated with MPN. The JAK2V617F mutation was associated with higher concentrations of MMPs, TIMP2 VEGFA and bFGF. HIF1-α is upregulated in PV and ET and perhaps regulate the MMPs and TIMPs expression in these diseases


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mice , Biomarkers , Gene Expression/genetics , Genes, Regulator , Metalloproteases , Myelodysplastic-Myeloproliferative Diseases , Neoplasms , Neovascularization, Pathologic
8.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2016. 90 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-846628

ABSTRACT

A combinação de agentes quimiopreventivos com diferentes mecanismos de ação tem sido considerada uma estratégia promissora para a prevenção do câncer. Dentre os diversos compostos bioativos em alimentos, destacam-se a tributirina, um pró-fármaco do ácido butírico presente em laticínios e produzido pela fermentação de fibras dietéticas, e o óleo de linhaça, fonte de ácido alfa linolênico. Nesse contexto, foi avaliada a atividade quimiopreventiva de lipídios estruturados obtidos a partir da interesterificação enzimática de tributirina e óleo de linhaça durante a fase de promoção inicial da hepatocarcinogênese experimental. Ratos Wistar machos submetidos ao modelo do hepatócito resistente receberam diariamente, por via intragástrica (i.g), maltodextrina, óleo de linhaça, tributirina, a mistura não esterificada ou lipídios estruturados durante a fase de promoção inicial. O tratamento com lipídios estruturados demonstrou atividade quimiopreventiva comparável à da tributirina, mesmo resultando em menor concentração hepática de ácido butírico. Tanto a tributirina quanto os lipídios estruturados não inibiram a proliferação celular em lesões preneoplásicas, mas induziram a apoptose naquelas em remodelação. Os efeitos inibitórios da tributirina em fases iniciais da hepatocarcinogênese experimental estão relacionados ao aumento da acetilação de histonas e à modulação de processos de translocação nuclear da p53. No presente estudo, foi observado aumento substancial da razão nuclear/citoplasmática de p53 e importina-alfa em fígados de animais submetidos ao modelo e tratados com tributirina, mas não nos tratados com lipídios estruturados. Por outro lado, o tratamento com lipídios estruturados reduziu a expressão dos oncogenes Bcl2, Ccnd2, Pdgfa, Vegfa e aumentou a expressão dos genes supressores de tumor Cdh13, Fhit e Socs3. Assim, embora o potencial quimiopreventivo dos lipídios estruturados seja comparável ao da tributirina, os resultados sugerem que o novo composto não exibe atividade de HDACi, e que seus efeitos inibitórios na hepatocarcinogênese possam ser atribuídos à modulação da expressão de oncogenes e genes supressores de tumor


Combination of chemopreventive agents with different mechanisms of action has been considered a promising strategy to cancer prevention. Among several bioactive food compounds, tributyrin, a butyric acid prodrug obtained from dairy products and dietetic fiber fermentation, and flax seed oil, a rich source of alpha linolenic acid have shown chemopreventive potential. Here, we evaluated the chemopreventive activity of structured lipids obtained by enzymatic interesterification of tributyrin and flax seed oil during the early promotion phase of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats subjected to the resistant hepatocyte model were treated daily, i.g, with maltodextrin, flax seed oil, tributyrin, non-sterified blend, or structured lipids. Treatment structured lipids showed similar chemopreventive activity compared to tributyrin, even when structured lipids yielded lower concentrations of butyric in the liver. Tributyrin and structured lipids did not inhibit cell proliferation in preneoplastic lesions, but both of them induced apoptosis in remodeling preneoplastic lesions. In addition, histone acetylation and p21 restored expression tributyrin molecular mechanisms were related to modulation of p53 nuclear shuttling mechanisms. In the present study, it was observed a substantial increase in p53 nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio and importin-alpha in preneoplastic livers of tributyrin treated rats, but not in those treated with structured lipids. In contrast, treatment structured lipids downregulated expression of major oncogenes Bcl2, Ccnd2, Pdgfa, and Vegfa; and upregulated expression of critical tumor suppressor genes, Cdh13, Socs3 and Fhit. Hence, although structured lipids and tributyrin show similar chemopreventive potential, the results suggest that the new compound does not exhibit HDACi activity, and that its inhibitory effects may be attributed to the modulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes expression


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Chemoprevention/adverse effects , Linseed Oil/adverse effects , Lipase/adverse effects , Lipids/analysis , Rats/abnormalities , Apoptosis/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/prevention & control , Chemoprevention/methods , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Functional Food/analysis , Gene Expression/genetics
9.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2016. 96 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847466

ABSTRACT

A esquistossomose é um grave problema de saúde pública, com alta mortalidade e morbidade em países endêmicos, causada pelo verme trematódeo do gênero Schistosoma. O praziquantel é a única droga disponível para tratamento da doença, é usada em larga escala para tratamento de populações de áreas endêmicas, porém não previne a reinfecção e tem efeito somente em vermes adultos. Drogas estudadas em câncer como inibidores de histona deacetilases (iHDACs) modificam o padrão epigenético da célula desencadeando a morte celular, e em Schistosoma mansoni já foi mostrado que a inibição de HDACs além de aumentar a acetilação de histonas alterou o fenótipo de miracídios e provocou morte em esquistossômulos e vermes adultos. O presente estudo investigou o efeito do iHDAC Trichostatin A (TSA) na regulação da transcrição gênica em esquistossômulos, detectando por meio de ensaios de microarray centenas de genes diferencialmente expressos, relacionados a replicação de DNA, metabolismo e complexos modificadores de histonas. A inibição de HDAC em vermes adultos levou a um aumento da acetilação nas marcas de histonas H3K9ac, H3K14ac e H4K5ac relacionadas à indução de transcrição. Com imunoprecipitação de cromatina seguida de PCR (ChIP-qPCR) detectou-se o aumento de deposição de H3K9ac e H3K14ac na região promotora de genes com expressão aumentada ou diminuída, porém a marca de repressão H3K27me3 não sofreu alteração na região promotora de nenhum gene analisado. Análises adicionais indicaram um conjunto de genes diferencialmente expressos que codificam proteínas histone readers, que fazem parte de complexos modificadores de histonas, como EED capaz de identificar a marca de repressão H3K27me3 e regular a atividade de EZH2, apontando um novo alvo terapêutico. O efeito sinérgico entre iHDAC e um iEZH2 foi testado e detectou-se o aumento da mortalidade de esquistossômulos. A estrutura de SmEZH2 foi modelada por homologia e usada para análises computacionais que sugeriram uma alta afinidade de ligação de SmEZH2 com o iEZH2, abrindo uma perspectiva de desenvolvimento de novas drogas específicas para tratamento da esquistossomose


Schistosomiasis is a serious public health problem, with high mortality and morbidity in endemic countries, caused by trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel is the only available drug for treatment of the disease; it is used extensively to treat populations in endemic areas, but does not prevent reinfection and is effective only in adult worms. Drugs studied in cancer as histone deacetylase inhibitors (iHDACs) modify the epigenetic status of the cell, triggering cell death, and it has been shown in Schistosoma mansoni that inhibition of HDACs increase histone acetylation, alter the phenotype of miracidia and cause death in schistosomules and adult worms. The present study investigated the effect of iHDAC Trichostatin A (TSA) on the regulation of gene transcription in schistosomules, detecting by means of microarray assays hundreds of differentially expressed genes related to DNA replication, metabolism and histone remodeling complexes. Inhibition of HDAC in adult worms led to an increase in histone acetylation marks H3K9ac, and H3K14ac H4K5ac related to transcriptional induction. With chromatin immunoprecipitation followed PCR (ChIP-qPCR) we detected an increased deposition of H3K9ac and H3K14ac at the promoter region of genes with increased or decreased expression, but the repressive mark H3K27me3 was not changed at all analyzed gene promoter regions. Additional analysis indicated a set of differentially expressed genes that encode histone reader proteins that are part of histone modifier complexes such as EED, which is able to identify the repression mark H3K27me3 and to regulate EZH2 activity, pointing to a new therapeutic target. The synergistic effect between iHDAC and one iEZH2 has been tested and found to cause an increase in schistosomules mortality. The SmEZH2 structure was modeled by homology and used for computational analyses, which suggested a high affinity binding of SmEZH2 with iEZH2, opening the opportunity for development of new specific drugs for treatment of schistosomiasis


Subject(s)
Epigenetic Repression/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni , Computer Simulation/statistics & numerical data , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors , Histones/analysis , Pharmacogenomic Variants
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(12): 1095-1100, Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762920

ABSTRACT

In DNA vaccines, the gene of interest is cloned into a bacterial plasmid that is engineered to induce protein production for long periods in eukaryotic cells. Previous research has shown that the intramuscular immunization of BALB/c mice with a naked plasmid DNA fragment encoding the Mycobacterium leprae 65-kDa heat-shock protein (pcDNA3-Hsp65) induces protection against M. tuberculosis challenge. A key stage in the protective immune response after immunization is the generation of memory T cells. Previously, we have shown that B cells capture plasmid DNA-Hsp65 and thereby modulate the formation of CD8+ memory T cells after M. tuberculosis challenge in mice. Therefore, clarifying how B cells act as part of the protective immune response after DNA immunization is important for the development of more-effective vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which B cells modulate memory T cells after DNA-Hsp65 immunization. C57BL/6 and BKO mice were injected three times, at 15-day intervals, with 100 µg naked pcDNA-Hsp65 per mouse. Thirty days after immunization, the percentages of effector memory T (TEM) cells (CD4+ and CD8+/CD44high/CD62Llow) and memory CD8+ T cells (CD8+/CD44high/CD62Llow/CD127+) were measured with flow cytometry. Interferon γ, interleukin 12 (IL-12), and IL-10 mRNAs were also quantified in whole spleen cells and purified B cells (CD43−) with real-time qPCR. Our data suggest that a B-cell subpopulation expressing IL-10 downregulated proinflammatory cytokine expression in the spleen, increasing the survival of CD4+ TEM cells and CD8+ TEM/CD127+ cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Heat-Shock Proteins/immunology , Immunomodulation/genetics , /genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression/genetics , Heat-Shock Proteins/therapeutic use , Immunologic Memory/physiology , Immunophenotyping/classification , Inflammation Mediators/analysis , Interferon-gamma/analysis , /immunology , /analysis , Mice, Knockout , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spleen/cytology , Spleen/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/classification , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(5): 687-690, Aug. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755906

ABSTRACT

The functional characterisation of thousands of Trypanosoma cruzi genes remains a challenge. Reverse genetics approaches compatible with high-throughput cloning strategies can provide the tool needed to tackle this challenge. We previously published the pTcGW platform, composed by plasmid vectors carrying different options of N-terminal fusion tags based on Gateway® technology. Here, we present an improved 1.1 version of pTcGW vectors, which is characterised by a fully flexible structure allowing an easy customisation of each element of the vectors in a single cloning step. Additionally, both N and C-terminal fusions are available with new tag options for protein complexes purification. Three of the newly created vectors were successfully used to determine the cellular localisation of four T. cruzi proteins. The 1.1 version of pTcGW platform can be used in a variety of assays, such as protein overexpression, identification of protein-protein interaction and protein localisation. This powerful and versatile tool allows adding valuable functional information to T. cruzigenes and is freely available for scientific community.

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Subject(s)
Genetic Vectors/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Chromatography, Affinity , Cloning, Molecular , Expressed Sequence Tags/metabolism , Gene Expression/genetics , Plasmids
12.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Jun; 53(6): 350-355
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158503

ABSTRACT

Phytase play an important role in phytic acid catalysis that act as a food inhibitor in cereals. Here, we isolated high phytase producing isolates NF191 closely related to Aspergillus fumigatus sp. from piggery soil. DNA was isolated from the fungal culture and amplified the ITS region using ITS1 and ITS4 primer using PCR. The 400-900 bp amplicon was gel eluted and subjected to sequencing. The sequencing results were assembled and compared with NCBI data base which showed the 99% identity of Aspergilllus fumigatus. Different carbon sources viz., fructose, galactose, lactose, dextrose, sucrose, maltose and different nitrogen sources (organic & inorganic) NH4Cl, NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, KNO3, NaNO3, urea, yeast extract, peptone, beef extract were tested for optimal production. The 0.3% dextrose, 0.5% NH4NO3 and 96 h incubation time showed the best production and enzyme activity at 45 ºC incubation temperature. The selected parameters, dextrose, ammonium sulphate and incubation time, when employed with statistical optimization approach involving response surface optimization using Box Behnken Design, gave a 1.3 fold increase in phytase production compared to unoptimized condition.


Subject(s)
6-Phytase/chemical synthesis , Aspergillus fumigatus/genetics , Genes, Fungal/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , Investigative Techniques/methods , Phytic Acid/chemistry , Phytic Acid/metabolism
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Jun; 53(6): 335-341
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158499

ABSTRACT

Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) is a major phospholipid in eukaryotic cells. Many studies have revealed that the phosphoinositide (PI) signaling pathway plays an important role in plant growth and development. Phospholipase C (PLC) is reported to have a crucial role in the PI pathway. This work focuses on the isolation and investigation of PLC in response to abiotic stress factors in green gram. The PLC cDNA, designated VrPLC, encoding a protein of 591 amino acids was cloned and expressed in E. coli.The predicted isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight were 5.96 and 67.3 kDa, respectively. The tertiary structure of the PLC was also predicted and found to be mainly composed of random coils. In addition, VrPLC expression analysis was performed under environmental stress and the results showed that the expression of VrPLC was rapidly induced in an abscisic acid independent manner in response to drought and salt stress. PLC expression was found to be up-regulated by SA and down-regulated by wound in leaf tissues; however, there was no significant difference in the expression of PLC in plants subjected to high temperature and H2O2. Our results suggest that a close link/relationship between PLC expression and stress responses in green gram.


Subject(s)
Fabaceae/enzymology , Fabaceae/physiology , Gene Expression/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , Phosphatidylinositols/physiology , Phosphoinositide Phospholipase C/genetics , Phosphoinositide Phospholipase C/isolation & purification , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Stress, Mechanical
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(6): 509-514, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748223

ABSTRACT

We measured circulating endothelial precursor cells (EPCs), activated circulating endothelial cells (aCECs), and mature circulating endothelial cells (mCECs) using four-color multiparametric flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 84 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients and 65 healthy controls; and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by quantitative real-time PCR in 50 CML patients and 32 healthy controls. Because of an increase in mCECs, the median percentage of CECs in CML blast crisis (0.0146%) was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (0.0059%, P<0.01) and in the accelerated phase (0.0059%, P=0.01). There were no significant differences in the percentages of CECs in chronic- or active-phase patients and healthy subjects (P>0.05). In addition, VEGF gene expression was significantly higher in all phases of CML: 0.245 in blast crisis, 0.320 in the active phase, and 0.330 in chronic phase patients than it was in healthy subjects (0.145). In conclusion, CML in blast crisis had increased levels of CECs and VEGF gene expression, which may serve as markers of disease progression and may become targets for the management of CML.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Blast Crisis/pathology , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/pathology , Neoplastic Cells, Circulating/pathology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Blast Crisis/blood , Blast Crisis/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Cell Count , Flow Cytometry/methods , Gene Expression/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/blood , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis
15.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2015 Apr; 52 (2): 169-178
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158215

ABSTRACT

Chitinases are the hydrolytic enzymes which protect plants against pathogen attack. However, the precise role of chitinases in disease resistance has not been explored in wheat. In the present study, in silico approach, including secondary structure analysis, detailed signature pattern study, cis-acting regulatory elements survey, evolutionary trends and three-dimensional molecular modeling was used for different chitinase classes of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Homology modeling of class I, II, IV and 3 chitinase proteins was performed using the template crystal structure. The model structures were further refined by molecular mechanics methods using different tools, such as Procheck, ProSA and Verify3D. Secondary structure studies revealed greater percentage of residues forming α helix conformation with specific signature pattern, similar to casein kinase II phosphorylation site, amidation site, N-myristoylation (N-MYR) site and protein kinase C phoshorylation site. The expression profile suggested that wheat chitinase gene was highly expressed in cell culture and callus. We found that wheat chitinases showed more functional similarity with rice and barley. The results provide insight into the evolution of the chitinase family, constituting a diverse array of pathogenesis-related proteins. The study also provides insight into the possible binding sites of chitinase proteins and may further enhance our knowledge of fungal resistance mechanism in plants.


Subject(s)
Chitinases/analysis , Chitinases/anatomy & histology , Chitinases/genetics , Chitinases/physiology , Gene Expression/genetics , Multilocus Sequence Typing/methods , Triticum/genetics
16.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2015. 115 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847453

ABSTRACT

O splicing alternativo do pré-mRNA de BCL-X produz duas isoformas de mRNAs com funções antagônicas, a pró-apoptótica BCL-XS e a anti-apoptótica BCL-XL, cujo balanço regula a homeostasia celular. Entretanto, o mecanismo que regula esse processamento ainda é desconhecido. Nesse trabalho, nós identificamos e caracterizamos um longo RNA não codificador de proteínas (lncRNA) nomeado INXS, que é transcrito a partir da fita oposta do locus genômico de BCL-X, sendo menos abundante em linhagens celulares tumorais e tecidos tumorais de pacientes quando comparados com os respectivos pares não tumorais. INXS é um RNA unspliced de 1903 nts, é transcrito pela RNA Polimerase II, possui cap 5', está enriquecido na fração nuclear das células e se liga à proteína Sam68 do complexo modulador de splicing. O tratamento de células tumorais 786-O com cada um de três agentes indutores de apoptose aumentou a expressão endógena do INXS, levando ao aumento expressivo da proporção entre os mRNAs de BCL-XS / BCL-XL, e ativação das caspases 3, 7 e 9. Estes efeitos foram anulados na presença do knockdown do INXS. Da mesma forma, a superexpressão ectópica do INXS causou uma mudança no splicing favorecendo a isoforma BCL-XS e ativação das caspases, aumentando os níveis da proteína BCL-XS e conduzindo as células à apoptose. Utilizando um modelo in vivo, cinco injeções intra-tumorais do INXS durante 15 dias causaram uma regressão acentuada no volume dos xenotumores. Portanto, INXS é um lncRNA que induz a apoptose, sugerindo que essa molécula seja um possível alvo a ser explorado na terapia contra o câncer


BCL-X mRNA alternative splicing generates pro-apoptotic BCL-XS or anti-apoptotic BCL-XL, whose balance regulates cell homeostasis. However, the mechanism that regulates the splice shifting is incompletely understood. Here, we identified and characterized a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) named INXS, transcribed from the opposite genomic strand of BCL-X, that was less abundant in tumor cell lines and patient tumor tissues compared with non-tumors. INXS is an unspliced 1903 nt-long RNA, is transcribed by RNA Polymerase II, 5'-capped, nuclear enriched and binds Sam68 splicing-modulator. The treatment of tumor cell line 786-O with each of three apoptosis-inducing agents increased endogenous INXS lncRNA, increased BCL-XS / BCL-XL mRNA ratio, and activated caspases 3, 7 and 9. These effects were abrogated in the presence of INXS knockdown. Similarly, ectopic INXS overexpression caused a shift in splicing towards BCL-XS and activation of caspases, increasing the levels of BCL-XS protein and then leading the cells to apoptosis. In a mouse xenograft model, five intra-tumor injections of INXS along 15 days caused a marked regression in tumor volume. INXS is an lncRNA that induces apoptosis, suggesting that INXS is a possible target to be explored in cancer therapies


Subject(s)
Apoptosis/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/analysis , Alternative Splicing/genetics , bcl-X Protein , bcl-X Protein/analysis , DNA, Antisense , Gene Expression/genetics , Neoplasms , RNA
17.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-11, 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Insects have developed resistance against Bt-transgenic plants. A multi-barrier defense system to weaken their resistance development is now necessary. One such approach is to use fusion protein genes to increase resistance in plants by introducing more Bt genes in combination. The locating the target protein at the point of insect attack will be more effective. It will not mean that the non-green parts of the plants are free of toxic proteins, but it will inflict more damage on the insects because they are at maximum activity in the green parts of plants. RESULTS: Successful cloning was achieved by the amplification of Cry2A, Cry1Ac, and a transit peptide. The appropriate polymerase chain reaction amplification and digested products confirmed that Cry1Ac and Cry2A were successfully cloned in the correct orientation. The appearance of a blue color in sections of infiltrated leaves after 72 hours confirmed the successful expression of the construct in the plant expression system. The overall transformation efficiency was calculated to be 0.7%. The amplification of Cry1Ac-Cry2A and Tp2 showed the successful integration of target genes into the genome of cotton plants. A maximum of 0.673 µg/g tissue of Cry1Ac and 0.568 µg/g tissue of Cry2A was observed in transgenic plants. We obtained 100% mortality in the target insect after 72 hours of feeding the 2nd instar larvae with transgenic plants. The appearance of a yellow color in transgenic cross sections, while absent in the control, through phase contrast microscopy indicated chloroplast localization of the target protein. CONCLUSION: Locating the target protein at the point of insect attack increases insect mortality when compared with that of other transgenic plants. The results of this study will also be of great value from a biosafety point of view.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Chloroplasts/genetics , Insect Control/methods , Gossypium/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Lepidoptera , Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Gene Expression/genetics , Chloroplasts/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Microscopy, Phase-Contrast , Plants, Genetically Modified , Cloning, Molecular , DNA Primers , Plant Leaves/genetics , Transgenes/physiology , Endotoxins/analysis , Gene Fusion , Hemolysin Proteins/analysis , Insecticides , Larva
18.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-11, 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis, pro-inflammatory and invasive benign disease estrogen dependent, abnormally express in endometria the enzyme P450Arom, positively regulated by steroid factor-1 (SF-1). Our objective was to study the nuclear protein contents of upstream stimulating factor 2 (USF2a and USF2b), a positive regulator of SF-1, throughout the menstrual cycle in eutopic endometria from women with and without (control) endometriosis and the involvement of nuclear estrogen receptors (ER) and G-coupled protein estrogen receptor (GPER)-1. RESULTS: Upstream stimulating factor 2 protein contents were higher in mid (USF2b) and late (USF2a and USF2b) secretory phase in eutopic endometria from endometriosis than control (p < 0.05). In isolated control epithelial cells incubated with E2 and PGE2, to resemble the endometriosis condition, the data showed: (a) significant increase of USF2a and USF2b nuclear protein contents when treated with E2, PPT (specific agonist for ERa) or G1 (specific agonist for GPER1); (b) no increase in USF2 binding to SF-1 E-Box/DNA consensus sequence in E2-treated cells; (c) USF2 variants protein contents were not modified by PGE2; (d) SF-1 nuclear protein content was significantly higher than basal when treated with PGE2, E2 or G1, stimulation unaffected by ICI (nuclear ER antagonist); and (e) increased (p < 0.05) cytosolic protein contents of P450Arom when treated with PGE2, E2, PPT or G1 compared to basal, effect that was additive with E2 + PGE2 together. Nevertheless, in endometriosis cells, the high USF2, SF-1 and P450Arom protein contents in basal condition were unmodified. CONCLUSION: These data strongly suggest that USF2 variants and P450Arom are regulated by E2 through ERa and GPER1, whereas SF-1 through GPER1, visualized by the response of the cells obtained from control endometria, being unaffected the endogenously stimulated cells from endometriosis origin. The lack of E2 stimulation on USF2/SF-1 E-Box/DNA-sequence binding and the absence of PGE2 effect on USF2 variants opposite to the strong induction that they exert on SF1 and P450 proteins suggest different mechanisms and indirect regulations. The sustained USF2 variants protein expression during the secretory phase in eutopic endometria from women with endometriosis may participate in the pathophysiology of this disease strongly associated with infertility and its characteristic endometrial invasion to ectopic sites in the pelvic cavity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aromatase/metabolism , Gene Expression/genetics , Endometriosis/metabolism , Endometrium/metabolism , Estradiol/metabolism , Biopsy , Immunoblotting , Statistics, Nonparametric , Endometriosis/physiopathology , Endometriosis/pathology , Endometrium/cytology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Menstrual Cycle/metabolism
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(12): 1096-1101, 12/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727664

ABSTRACT

p15INK4B, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, has been recognized as a tumor suppressor. Loss of or methylation of the p15INK4B gene in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells enhances myeloid progenitor formation from common myeloid progenitors. Therefore, we examined the effects of overexpressed p15INK4B on proliferation and apoptosis of CML cells. Overexpression of p15INK4B inhibited the growth of K562 cells by downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and cyclin D1 expression. Overexpression of p15INK4B also induced apoptosis of K562 cells by upregulating Bax expression and downregulating Bcl-2 expression. Overexpression of p15INK4B together with STI571 (imatinib) or BCR-ABL1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) also enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of K562 cells. The enhanced effect was also mediated by reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. In conclusion, our study may provide new insights into the role of p15INK4B in CML and a potential therapeutic target for overcoming tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in CML.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , Benzamides/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , /metabolism , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/metabolism , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Piperazines/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Benzamides/metabolism , Cyclin D1/drug effects , Cyclin D1/metabolism , /drug effects , /metabolism , /genetics , Drug Combinations , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/antagonists & inhibitors , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/metabolism , Piperazines/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , /drug effects , /metabolism , Pyrimidines/metabolism , /drug effects
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(8): 1081-1085, 12/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732602

ABSTRACT

We present here three expression plasmids for Trypanosoma cruzi adapted to the Gateway® recombination cloning system. Two of these plasmids were designed to express trypanosomal proteins fused to a double tag for tandem affinity purification (TAPtag). The TAPtag and Gateway® cassette were introduced into an episomal (pTEX) and an integrative (pTREX) plasmid. Both plasmids were assayed by introducing green fluorescent protein (GFP) by recombination and the integrity of the double-tagged protein was determined by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. The third Gateway adapted vector assayed was the inducible pTcINDEX. When tested with GFP, pTcINDEX-GW showed a good response to tetracycline, being less leaky than its precursor (pTcINDEX).


Subject(s)
Gene Expression/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Plasmids , Restriction Mapping/methods , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Blotting, Western , Expressed Sequence Tags/metabolism , Green Fluorescent Proteins , Life Cycle Stages/genetics , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Tetracycline/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects
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