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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244123, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278562


Abstract Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is an important component of the innate immune system and have been associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to investigate polymorphisms in TLR9 gene in a Brazilian SLE patients group and their association with clinical manifestation, particularly Jaccoud's arthropathy (JA). We analyzed DNA samples from 204 SLE patients, having a subgroup of them presenting JA (n=24). A control group (n=133) from the same city was also included. TLR9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (−1237 C>T and +2848 G>A) were identified by sequencing analysis. The TLR9 gene genotype frequency was similar both in SLE patients and the control group. In the whole SLE population, an association between the homozygosis of allele C at position −1237 with psychosis and anemia (p < 0.01) was found. Likewise, the homozygosis of allele G at position +2848 was associated with a discoid rash (p < 0.05). There was no association between JA and TLR9 polymorphisms. These data show that TLR9 polymorphisms do not seem to be a predisposing factor for SLE in the Brazilian population, and that SNPs are not associated with JA.

Resumo O receptor Toll-like 9 (TLR9) é um componente importante do sistema imunológico inato e tem sido associado a várias doenças autoimunes, como o Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico (LES). O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar polimorfismos no gene TLR9 em um grupo de pacientes brasileiros com LES e sua associação com a manifestação clínica, particularmente a artropatia de Jaccoud (JA). Foram analisadas amostras de DNA de 204 pacientes com LES, e um subgrupo com JA (n=24). Um grupo de controle (n=133) da mesma cidade também foi incluído. Os polimorfismos de nucleotídeos únicos TLR9 (SNPs) (−1237 C>T e +2848 G>A) foram identificados pela análise de sequenciamento. A frequência do genótipo genético TLR9 foi semelhante tanto em pacientes com LES quanto no grupo controle. Em toda a população de LES, foi encontrada associação entre a homozigose do alelo C na posição −1237 com psicose e anemia (p < 0,01). Da mesma forma, a homozigose do alelo G na posição +2848 foi associada a uma erupção cutânea discoide (p < 0,05). Não houve associação entre polimorfismos JA e TLR9. Esses dados mostram que os polimorfismos TLR9 não parecem ser um fator predisponível para o LES na população brasileira, e que os SNPs não estão associados ao JA.

Humans , Toll-Like Receptor 9/genetics , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/genetics , Brazil , Pilot Projects , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Gene Frequency/genetics
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 12-18, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364310


ABSTRACT Objective: The AKR1B1 gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of glucose into sorbitol. Chronic hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) leads to increased AKR1B1 affinity for glucose and, consequently, sorbitol accumulation. Elevated sorbitol increases oxidative stress, which is one of the main pathways related to chronic complications of diabetes, including diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Accordingly, some studies have suggested the rs759853 polymorphism in the AKR1B1 gene is associated with DKD; however, findings are still contradictory. The aim was to investigate the association of the rs759853 polymorphism in the AKR1B1 gene and DKD. Materials and methods: The sample comprised 695 patients with type 2 DM (T2DM) and DKD (cases) and 310 patients with T2DM of more than 10 years' duration, but no DKD (controls). The polymorphism was genotyped by real-time PCR. Results: Allelic and genotype frequencies of this polymorphism did not differ significantly between groups. However, the A/A genotype was associated with risk for DKD after adjustment for gender, triglycerides, BMI, presence of hypertension and diabetic retinopathy, and duration of DM, under both recessive (P = 0.048) and additive (P = 0.037) inheritance models. Conclusion: Our data suggest an association between the AKR1B1 rs759853A/A genotype and risk for DKD in Brazilians T2DM patients.

Humans , Aldehyde Reductase/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetic Nephropathies/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Alleles , Gene Frequency , Genotype
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928829


BACKGROUND@#This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to silicosis.@*METHODS@#First, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data were comprehensively analyzed in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of eight participants (four silicosis cases and four healthy controls) exposed to silica dust to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs (DE-lncRNAs). The functional SNPs in the identified DE-lncRNAs were then identified using several databases. Finally, the association between functional SNPs and susceptibility to silicosis was evaluated by a two-stage case-control study. The SNPs of 155 silicosis cases and 141 healthy silica-exposed controls were screened by genome-wide association study (GWAS), and the candidate SNPs of 194 silicosis cases and 235 healthy silica-exposed controls were validated by genotyping using the improved Mutiligase Detection Reaction (iMLDR) system.@*RESULTS@#A total of 76 DE-lncRNAs were identified by RNA-seq data analysis (cut-offs: fold change > 2 or fold change < 0.5, P < 0.05), while 127 functional SNPs among those 76 DE-lncRNAs were identified through multiple public databases. Furthermore, five SNPs were found to be significantly correlated with the risk of silicosis by GWAS screening (P < 0.05), while the results of GWAS and iMLDR validation indicated that the variant A allele of rs1814521 was associated with a reduced risk of silicosis (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62-0.94, P = 0.011).@*CONCLUSION@#The presence of the SNP rs1814521 in the lncRNA ADGRG3 is associated with susceptibility to silicosis. Moreover, ADGRG3 was found to be lowly expressed in silicosis cases. The underlying biological mechanisms by which lncRNA ADGRG3 and rs1814521 regulate the development of silicosis need further study.

Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Silicosis/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928397


OBJECTIVE@#To assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of aquaporin 7 ( AQP7) and aquaporin 9 ( AQP9) genes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among ethnic Han Chinese population.@*METHODS@#A case-control study involving 1194 subjects with T2DM and 1274 non-diabetic mellitus (NDM) subjects were enrolled. Genotypes of three SNPs (rs3758269 of AQP7 gene, rs16939881 and rs57139208 of AQP9 gene) were determined by using a MassArray method. The association of the three SNPs with T2DM was assess, and the correlation of glucose and lipid metabolism parameters with various SNP genotypes in the NDM group was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The allelic and genotypic frequencies of the three SNPs did not differ significantly between the two groups (P>0.05). Nor was there significant difference between the two groups with different genetic models (P>0.05). No significant association of genotypes of AQP7 gene rs3758269, AQP9 gene rs16939881 and rs57139208 with glucose and lipid metabolism parameters were observed in the NDM group (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The rs3758269 in AQP7 gene and rs16939881 and rs57139208 in AQP9 gene are not associated with the genetic susceptibility of T2DM among ethnic Han Chinese population.

Aquaporins/genetics , Case-Control Studies , China , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927642


OBJECTIVE@#Traditional epidemiological studies have shown that C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, whether this association is causal remains unclear. Therefore, Mendelian randomization (MR) was used to explore the causal relationship of CRP with cardiovascular outcomes including ischemic stroke, atrial fibrillation, arrhythmia and congestive heart failure.@*METHODS@#We performed two-sample MR by using summary-level data obtained from Japanese Encyclopedia of Genetic association by Riken (JENGER), and we selected four single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRP level as instrumental variables. MR estimates were calculated with the inverse-variance weighted (IVW), penalized weighted median and weighted median. MR-Egger regression was used to explore pleiotropy.@*RESULTS@#No significant causal association of genetically determined CRP level with ischemic stroke, atrial fibrillation or arrhythmia was found with all four MR methods (all Ps > 0.05). The IVW method indicated suggestive evidence of a causal association between CRP and congestive heart failure ( OR: 1.337, 95% CI: 1.005-1.780, P = 0.046), whereas the other three methods did not. No clear pleiotropy or heterogeneity were observed.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Suggestive evidence was found only in analysis of congestive heart failure; therefore, further studies are necessary. Furthermore, no causal association was found between CRP and the other three cardiovascular outcomes.

C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Japan , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927641


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the vitamin D receptor gene ( VDR) with circulating lipids considering gender differences.@*METHODS@#Of the Han Chinese adults recruited from a health examination center for inclusion in the study, the circulating lipids, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and other parameters were measured. The VDR SNPs of Cdx2 (rs11568820), Fok1 (rs2228570), Apa1 (rs7975232), and Taq1 (rs731236) were genotyped with a qPCR test using blood DNA samples, and their associations with lipids were analyzed using logistic regression.@*RESULTS@#In the female participants ( n = 236 with dyslipidemia and 888 without dyslipidemia), multiple genotype models of Fok1 indicated a positive correlation of B (not A) alleles with LDLC level ( P < 0.05). In the male participants ( n = 299 with dyslipidemia and 564 without dyslipidemia), the recessive model of Cdx2 and the additive and recessive models of Fok1 differed ( P < 0.05) between the HDLC-classified subgroups, respectively, and Fok1 BB and Cdx2 TT presented interactions with 25OHD in the negative associations with HDLC ( P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In the Chinese Han adults included in the study, the Fok1 B-allele of VDR was associated with higher LDLC in females, and the Fok1 B-allele and the Cdx2 T-allele of VDR were associated with lower HDLC in males. The interaction of VD and Fok1 BB or Cdx2 TT in males synergistically decreased HDLC levels.

Adult , Alleles , Asians/genetics , China/ethnology , Dyslipidemias/genetics , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Lipids/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , Sex Factors , Vitamin D/blood
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940980


OBJECTIVE@#To explore whether WNT signaling pathway genes were associated with non-syndromic oral clefts (NSOC) based on haplotypes analyses among 1 008 Chinese NSOC case-parent trios.@*METHODS@#The genome-wide association study (GWAS) data of 806 Chinese non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) trios and 202 Chinese non-syndromic cleft palate (NSCP) case-parent trios were drawn from the International Consortium to Identify Genes and Interactions Controlling Oral Clefts (ICOCs) study GWAS data set, whose Chinese study population were recruited from four provinces in China, namely Taiwan, Shandong, Hubei, and Sichuan provinces. The process of DNA genotyping was conducted by the Center for Inherited Disease Research in the Johns Hopkins University, using Illumina Human610-Quad v.1_B Bead Chip. The method of sliding windows was used to determine the haplotypes for analyses, including 2 SNPs haplotypes and 3 SNPs haplotypes. Haplotypes with a frequency lower than 1% were excluded for further analyses. To further assess the association between haplotypes and NSOC risks, and the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was performed. The Bonferroni method was adopted to correct multiple tests in the study, with which the threshold of statistical significance level was set as P < 0.05 divided by the number of tests, e.g P < 3.47×10-4 in the current stu-dy. All the statistical analyses were performed by using plink (v1.07).@*RESULTS@#After quality control, a total of 144 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapped in seven genes in WNT signaling pathway were included for the analyses among the 806 Chinese NSCL/P trios and 202 Chinese NSCP trios. A total of 1 042 haplotypes with frequency higher than 1% were included for NSCL/P analyses and another 1 057 haplotypes with frequency higher than 1% were included for NSCP analyses. Results from the TDT analyses showed that a total of 69 haplotypes were nominally associated with the NSCL/P risk among Chinese (P < 0.05). Another 34 haplotypes showed nominal significant association with the NSCP risk among Chinese (P < 0.05). However, none of these haplotypes reached pre-defined statistical significance level after Bonferroni correction (P>3.47×10-4).@*CONCLUSION@#This study failed to observe any statistically significant associations between haplotypes of seven WNT signaling pathway genes and the risk of NSOC among Chinese. Further studies are warranted to replicate the findings here.

Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Haplotypes , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Wnt Signaling Pathway/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940979


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the association between de novo mutations (DNM) and non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL/P) using case-parent trio design.@*METHODS@#Whole-exome sequencing was conducted for twenty-two NSCL/P trios and Genome Analysis ToolKit (GATK) was used to identify DNM by comparing the alleles of the cases and their parents. Information of predictable functions was annotated to the locus with SnpEff. Enrichment analysis for DNM was conducted to test the difference between the actual number and the expected number of DNM, and to explore whether there were genes with more DNM than expected. NSCL/P-related genes indicated by previous studies with solid evidence were selected by literature reviewing. Protein-protein interactions analysis was conducted among the genes with protein-altering DNM and NSCL/P-related genes. R package "denovolyzeR" was used for the enrichment analysis (Bonferroni correction: P=0.05/n, n is the number of genes in the whole genome range). Protein-protein interactions among genes with DNM and genes with solid evidence on the risk factors of NSCL/P were predicted depending on the information provided by STRING database.@*RESULTS@#A total of 339 908 SNPs were qualified for the subsequent analysis after quality control. The number of high confident DNM identified by GATK was 345. Among those DNM, forty-four DNM were missense mutations, one DNM was nonsense mutation, two DNM were splicing site mutations, twenty DNM were synonymous mutations and others were located in intron or intergenic regions. The results of enrichment analysis showed that the number of protein-altering DNM on the exome regions was larger than expected (P < 0.05), and five genes (KRTCAP2, HMCN2, ANKRD36C, ADGRL2 and DIPK2A) had more DNM than expected (P < 0.05/(2×19 618)). Protein-protein interaction analysis was conducted among forty-six genes with protein-altering DNM and thirteen genes associated with NSCL/P selected by literature reviewing. Six pairs of interactions occurred between the genes with DNM and known NSCL/P-related genes. The score measuring the confidence level of the predicted interaction between RGPD4 and SUMO1 was 0.868, which was higher than the scores for other pairs of genes.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study provided novel insights into the development of NSCL/P and demonstrated that functional analyses of genes carrying DNM were warranted to understand the genetic architecture of complex diseases.

Asians , Case-Control Studies , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Humans , Mutation , Parents , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Whole Exome Sequencing
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939665


OBJECTIVES@#To study the association of maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1) and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 2 (MTHFD2) gene polymorphisms with congenital heart disease (CHD) in offspring.@*METHODS@#A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. The mothers of 683 children with CHD alone who attended Hunan Children's Hospital, from November 2017 to March 2020 were enrolled as the case group, and the mothers of 740 healthy children who attended the same hospital during the same period and did not have any deformity were enrolled as the control group. A questionnaire survey was performed to collect related exposure data, and then venous blood samples (5 mL) were collected from the mothers to detect MTHFD1 and MTHFD2 gene polymorphisms. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of MTHFD1 and MTHFD2 gene polymorphisms with CHD. The four-gamete test in Haploview 4.2 software was used to construct haplotypes and evaluate the association between haplotypes and CHD. The generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction method and logistic regression analysis were used to examine gene-gene interaction and its association with CHD.@*RESULTS@#The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that maternal MTHFD1 gene polymorphisms at rs11849530 (GA vs AA: OR=1.49; GG vs AA: OR=2.04) andat rs1256142 (GA vs GG: OR=2.34; AA vs GG: OR=3.25) significantly increased the risk of CHD in offspring (P<0.05), while maternal MTHFD1 gene polymorphisms at rs1950902 (AA vs GG: OR=0.57) and MTHFD2 gene polymorphisms at rs1095966 (CA vs CC: OR=0.68) significantly reduced the risk of CHD in offspring (P<0.05). The haplotypes of G-G-G (OR=1.86) and G-A-G (OR=1.35) in mothers significantly increased the risk of CHD in offspring (P<0.05). The gene-gene interaction analyses showed that the first-order interaction between MTHFD1 rs1950902 and MTHFD1 rs2236222 and the second-order interaction involving MTHFD1 rs1950902, MTHFD1 rs1256142, and MTHFD2 rs1095966 might be associated with risk of CHD (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Maternal MTHFD1 and MTHFD2 gene polymorphisms and their haplotypes, as well as the interaction between MTHFD1 rs1950902 and MTHFD1 rs2236222 and between MTHFD1 rs1950902, MTHFD1 rs1256142, and MTHFD2 rs1095966, are associated with the risk of CHD in offspring.

Aminohydrolases/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Heart Defects, Congenital/genetics , Humans , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NADP)/genetics , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/genetics , Mothers , Multifunctional Enzymes/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936107


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the correlation of cytochrome B-245 alpha chain (CYBA) rs4673 and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) rs12720922 polymorphisms with the susceptibility of gene-ralized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP).@*METHODS@#The study was a case-control trial. A total of 372 GAgP patients and 133 periodontally healthy controls were recruited. The CYBA rs4673 and CETP rs12720922 polymorphisms were detected by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Logistic regression models were used to analyze the correlation of CYBA rs4673 and CETP rs12720922 variants with the susceptibility of GAgP. The interaction between the two gene polymorphisms to the susceptibility of GAgP was analyzed by the likelihood ratio test. The interaction model adopted was the multiplication model.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of GAgP group and control group was (27.5±5.2) years and (28.8±7.1) years respectively. There was significant difference in age between the two groups (P < 0.05). The gender distribution (male/female) was 152/220 and 53/80 respectively, and there was no significant difference between GAgP group and controls (P>0.05). For CYBA rs4673, the frequency of CT/TT genotype in the GAgP group was significantly higher than that in the controls [18.0% (66/366) vs. 10.6% (14/132), P < 0.05]. After adjusting age and gender, the individuals with CT/TT genotype had a higher risk of GAgP (OR=1.86, 95%CI: 1.01-3.45, P < 0.05), compared with CC genotype. There was no statistically significant difference in distributions of the CETP rs12720922 genotypes (GG, AA/AG) between GAgP patients and healthy controls (P>0.05). A significant interaction between CYBA rs4673 and CETP rs12720922 in the susceptibility to GAgP was observed. The GAgP risk of the individuals with CYBA rs4673 CT/TT and CETP rs12720922 GG genotypes was significantly increased (OR=3.25, 95%CI: 1.36-7.75, P < 0.01), compared with those carrying CC and AA/AG genotypes.@*CONCLUSION@#CYBA rs4673 CT/TT genotype is associated with GAgP susceptibility. There is a significant interaction between CYBA rs4673 CT/TT genotype and CETP rs12720922 GG genotype in the susceptibility of GAgP.

Adult , Aggressive Periodontitis/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins/genetics , Cytochrome b Group , Female , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Male , NADPH Oxidases/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Young Adult
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 445-451, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935410


Objective: To examine the associations of childhood obesity, assessed by genetic variations of childhood body mass index (BMI), with the risk of adult ischemic heart disease (IHD) and major coronary event (MCE). Methods: More than 69 000 participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank were genotyped. After excluding those with coronary heart disease, stroke, or cancer at baseline, a total of 64 454 participants were included in this study. Based on genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), childhood BMI genetic risk score were constructed for every participant and divided into quintiles, with the lowest quintile as the low genetic risk group and the highest quintile as the high genetic risk group. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the association between genetic predisposition to childhood obesity and the risk of ischemic heart disease. Results: During a median of 10.7 years of follow-up, 7 073 incident cases of IHD and 1 845 cases of MCE were documented. After adjusting for sex, age, region, and the first ten genetic principal components, the HRs (95%CIs) for IHD and MCE in the high genetic risk group were 1.10 (1.02-1.18) and 1.10 (0.95-1.27), compared with the low genetic risk group. IHD risk increased by 4% (2%-6%) for each one standard deviation increase in genetic risk score (trend P=0.001). After further adjustment for baseline BMI, the differences between genetic risk groups were not statistically significant, but there was still a linear trend between genetic risk score and IHD risk (trend P=0.019). Conclusions: IHD risk increased with genetic predisposition to childhood obesity, suggesting that childhood obesity is an important risk factor for the development of IHD in China. As an easily identifiable feature, changes of childhood BMI should be monitored regularly to realize early intervention of IHD in adults.

Adult , Body Mass Index , Child , China/epidemiology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/genetics , Pediatric Obesity/genetics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935285


Objective: To investigate the germline mutation status of related genes in breast cancer patients and high-risk individuals by next-generation sequencing. To analyze the correlations between homologous recombination repair (HR) pathway gene mutation status and clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer patients. To supplement the database of breast cancer related gene mutations in Chinese population. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. From October 2020 to September 2021, whole blood samples were collected from 350 breast cancer patients and 49 high-risk individuals, admitted to Peking University People's Hospital and accepted genetic testing voluntarily. Germline mutations in 32 breast cancer related genes were detected by NGS. The clinicopathological characteristics, including age at the onset, family history, unilateral/bilateral tumor, Luminal typing (Luminal A subtype, Luminal B subtype, HER2-enriched subtype and triple negative breast cancer), tumor size and metastasis, were analyzed, and the correlations between HR pathway gene mutation status and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed by Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact probability test. Results: Among 350 breast cancer patients, 64 (18.3%) cases carried gene pathogenic mutations (including pathogenic and likely pathogenic mutations), including 47 (13.4%) in BRCA1/2, 16 (4.6%) in non-BRCA1/2 genes, 1 (0.3%) in BRCA2 and FANCL. Among 49 high-risk individuals, 7 (14.3%) cases carried gene pathogenic mutations, including 6 (12.3%) in BRCA1/2 and 1 (2%) in ATM genes. BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations were associated with age at the onset (18%, 8.7%, χ²=6.346, P=0.012), and the BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutation frequency was higher in patients diagnosed at age ≤45 years. HR pathway gene mutations (including pathogenic, likely pathogenic and uncertain significance mutations) were correlated with unilateral/bilateral tumor (49.5%, 68.4%, χ²=4.841, P=0.028) and Luminal typing (45.7%, 62.2%, 32%, 60%, χ²=12.004, P=0.007), and the HR mutation frequencies were higher in patients with bilateral tumor, Luminal B breast cancer and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Conclusion: The BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutation frequency in high-risk individuals is similar to that in breast cancer patients, and BRCA1/2 testing is helpful to guide breast cancer screening and prevention in high-risk individuals. Patients with early onset breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, Luminal B breast cancer and TNBC have higher mutation frequencies of HR pathway genes, and HR pathway genes testing should be conducted as soon as possible to provide laboratory evidence for diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and risk evaluation of breast cancer.

BRCA1 Protein/genetics , BRCA2 Protein/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Germ-Line Mutation , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Middle Aged , Mutation , Recombinational DNA Repair , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935283


Objective: Due to genetic factors might increase the risk of depression, this study investigated the genetic risk factors of depression in Chinese Han population by analyzing the association between 13 candidate genes and depression. Methods: 439 depression patients and 464 healthy controls were included in this case-control study. Case group consisted of 158 males and 281 females, aged (29.84±14.91) years old, who were hospitalized in three departments of the affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University including Affective Disorders Department, Adult Psychiatry Department and Geriatrics Department, from February 2020 to September 2021. The control group consisted of 196 males and 268 females, aged (30.65±12.63) years old. 20 loci of 13 candidate genes in all subjects were detected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Age difference was compared using the student's t-test, the distributions of gender and genotype were analyzed with Pearson's Chi-square test. The analyses of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, allele frequency and the genetic association of depression were conducted using the corresponding programs in PLINK software. Results: PLINK analysis showed that SCN2A rs17183814, ABCB1 rs1045642, CYP2C19*3 rs4986893 and NAT2*5A rs1799929 were associated with depression before Bonferroni correction (χ2=10.340, P=0.001; χ2=11.010, P=0.001; χ2=9.781, P=0.002; χ2=4.481, P=0.034). The frequencies of minor alleles of above loci in the control group were 12.07%, 43.64%, 2.59% and 3.88%, respectively. The frequencies of minor alleles of loci mentioned above in the case group were 17.43%, 35.99%, 5.47% and 6.04%, respectively. OR values were 1.538, 0.726, 2.178 and 1.592, respectively. After 1 000 000 permutation tests using Max(T) permutation procedure, the four loci were still statistically significant, the empirical P-value were 0.002, 0.001, 0.003 and 0.042, respectively. However, only three loci including SCN2A rs17183814, ABCB1 rs1045642 and CYP2C19 rs4986893 had statistical significance after Bonferroni correction, the adjusted P-value were 0.026, 0.018 and 0.035, respectively. Conclusion: SCN2A rs17183814, ABCB1 rs1045642 and CYP2C19*3 rs4986893 were associated with depression's susceptibility in Chinese Han population. The A allele of SCN2A rs17183814 and CYP2C19*3 rs4986893 were risk factors for depression, while the T allele of ABCB1 rs1045642 was a protective factor for depression.

ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Alleles , Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Clopidogrel , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19/genetics , Depressive Disorder, Major/genetics , Female , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Male , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Young Adult
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935268


To investigate the associations between gene polymorphisms of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and liver cirrhosis (LC) after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. A case-control study was conducted in 243 patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis (HBV-LC, case group) and 486 HBV-infected subjects without LC (non-LC, control group) collected from January 2018 to September 2020 at the Changsha Central Hospital Affiliated to Nanhua University. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of STAT3 gene, including rs4796793C>G, rs2293152C>G, and rs1053004T>C were selected through literature and biological information database, and the genotypes were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RFQ-PCR). The distribution differences of STAT3 SNPs genotypes between the two groups were compared using Chi-square test and haplotype analysis was conducted by Shesis online. The proportion of HBV C genotype in HBV-LC patients was significantly higher than that in the control group (80.91% vs. 70.79%, χ2=7.109, P=0.008), while the logarithm of ALT was significantly lower than that of the control group (1.78±0.43 vs. 1.95±0.54, t=3.801, P=0.000). The genotypes distributions of rs4796793, rs2293152, and rs1053004 were not significantly different between HBV-LC and non-LC in overall analysis and stratified analysis by gender (χ²=2.610, 1.505, 0.586, 2.653, 2.685, 1.583, 0.351, 5.388, 0.339, respectively, P>0.05 for each). Among the subjects infected with HBV genotype C, rs1053004 CC (vs. TT) significantly increased the risk of HBV-LC [odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.91]. Among the HBV-infected subjects with HBeAg negative, rs4796793 GG genotype (vs. CC) and G allele (vs. C) significantly increased the risks of HBV-LC (OR = 2.17, 95%CI: 1.11-4.23; OR = 1.45, 95%CI: 1.06-1.97, respectively). Haplotypes analysis showed that the frequency of haplotype C-G-T composed of rs4796793, rs2293152, and rs1053004 was significantly lower in HBV-LC than that in the control group (non-LC) (27.3% vs. 35.6%, χ²=9.949, P = 0.001). The correlation between STAT3 and HBV-LC is different in HBV-infected subjects with different infection status. The HBV-infected subjects carrying haplotype rs4796793C-rs2293152G-rs1053004T of STAT3 gene have significantly decreased risk of LC.

Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/genetics , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 68(2)Abr.-Jun. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377810


Introduction: The very aggressive soft tissue and bone pediatric tumor Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is caused in most cases by the chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12), which encodes an aberrant chimeric transcription factor (EWS-FLI1) that regulates target genes, including the critical oncogene NR0B1 (Xp21.2),via GGAA-microsatellites. Objective: Analyze the GGAA-microsatellites of NR0B1promoter region of ES patients and healthy subjects in the population investigated. Method: Ten male ES patients and 71 adult healthy males from Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, were included in this study. DNA from peripheral blood samples was extracted, amplified by PCR, sequenced by the Sanger method and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Total number of GGAA-motifs, length of microsatellite in base pairs, number of segments separated by "A" insertions, and the greatest number of consecutive GGAA-motifs were analyzed as well. Statistical analyses were performed in the SPSS statistical software and p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 21 different alleles was identified in the 81 subjects, with 24.2 allele [(GGAA)7A(GGAA)7A(GGAA)10] being the most frequent, but when comparing the data between the two groups, no significant difference was found. Conclusion: The sample investigated had a wide variation of microsatellite structure, including the presence of rare alleles, allowing the opportunity to describe this population as an essential step to identify genetic implications in ES tumorigenesis

Introdução: O sarcoma de Ewing (ES) é um tumor pediátrico de ossos e partes moles muito agressivo, causado, na maioria das vezes, pela translocação cromossômica t(11;22)(q24;q12), codificando um fator de transcrição quimérico aberrante (EWS-FLI1) que regula genes-alvo, incluindo o oncogene NR0B1 (Xp21.2), via microssatélites GGAA. Objetivo: Analisar os microssatélites GGAA da região promotora de NR0B1 em pacientes com ES e indivíduos saudáveis da população em investigação. Método: Foram incluídos dez pacientes do sexo masculino com diagnóstico de ES e 71 indivíduos adultos hígidos do sexo masculino do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O DNA foi extraído de sangue periférico e amplificado por PCR, sequenciado pelo método de Sanger e analisado por eletroforese capilar. Foram analisados o número total de repetições GGAA, comprimento total do microssatélite em pares de bases, número de segmentos separados por inserções "A" e maior número de repetições GGAA consecutivas. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas no software estatístico SPSS e o valor de p<0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: Um total de 21 alelos diferentes foi identificado nos 81 indivíduos, com o alelo 24,2 [(GGAA)7A(GGAA)7A(GGAA)10], sendo o mais frequente; mas, ao comparar os dados entre os dois grupos, nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada. Conclusão: A amostra estudada é altamente variável em termos de estrutura de microssatélites, incluindo a presença de alelos raros, dando a oportunidade de descrever essa população, o que é uma etapa fundamental na identificação de implicações genéticas na tumorigênese do ES

Introducción: El sarcoma de Ewing (ES) es un tumor pediátrico de huesos y tejidos blandos muy agresivo, que se presenta con mayor frecuencia por translocación cromosómica t(11;22)(q24;q12), que codifica un factor de transcripción quimérico aberrante (EWS-FLI1) que regula los genes diana, incluido el oncogén NR0B1 (Xp21.2), a través de microsatélites GGAA. Objetivo: Analizar los microsatélites GGAA de la región promotora de NR0B1en pacientes con ES y personas sanas de la población investigada. Método: Este estudio incluyó a diez pacientes varones con diagnóstico de ES y 71 varones adultos del estado de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. El ADN se extrajo de sangre periférica y se amplificó por PCR, secuenciado por el método de Sanger y analizado por electroforesis capilar. El número total de repeticiones GGAA, longitud total de microsatélites en pares de bases, número de segmentos separados por inserciones "A" y el mayor número de repeticiones GGAA consecutivas fueran analizados. Los análisis estadísticos se realizaron con el software estadístico SPSS y se consideró significativo un valor de p<0,05. Resultados: Se identificaron un total de 21 alelos diferentes en los 81, siendo el alelo 24,2 [(GGAA)7A(GGAA)7A(GGAA)10] el más frecuente, pero al comparar los datos entre los dos grupos, no hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa. Conclusión: La muestra estudiada es muy variable en cuanto a estructura de microsatélites, incluyendo la presencia de alelos raros, lo que nos permite la oportunidad de describir la población estudiada, lo cual es un paso fundamental en la identificación de implicaciones genéticas en la tumorigénesis de ES

Humans , Male , Oncogenes , Sarcoma, Ewing , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(12): 1109-1115, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355702


ABSTRACT Background: The genetic predisposition to multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with HLA alleles, especially HLA-DRB1*15:01. Objective: To identify associations between findings in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genetic features in a Brazilian cohort of patients with MS. Methods: We retrospectively studied data from 95 consecutive patients with MS. Two independent observers who were blinded to the clinical data identified black holes and enhanced lesions on T1 MRI sequences, and counted and measured contrast-enhanced lesions on T2 and Flair (fluid attenuation inversion recovery) sequences. Cases were classified according to lesion size, number, and volume. The HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-DQA1 alleles, and the rs4774, rs3087456, rs6897932, rs731236, and rs1033182 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification with sequence-specific primers using the One Lambda Inc. Kit, Canoga Park, CA, USA. Results: Patients with the HLA-DQA1*04:01 allele had lesion load (adjusted for age, sex, and MS duration) above median compared with patients with other HLA-DQA1 alleles (p=0.02). There were no differences among all the other HLA alleles and single nucleotide polymorphisms and lesion load. Conclusions: The correlation of the HLA-DQA1*04:01 allele with a higher lesion load on T2/Flair MRI sequences suggests that the presence of this allele is associated with the risk of greater MS severity.

RESUMO Antecedentes: A predisposição genética para a esclerose múltipla (EM) está associada a alelos HLA, principalmente o HLA-DRB1*15:01. Objetivo: Identificar associações entre lesões na ressonância magnética e características genéticas em uma coorte brasileira de pacientes com EM. Métodos: Estudamos retrospectivamente os dados de 95 pacientes consecutivos com EM. Dois observadores independentes que desconheciam os dados clínicos identificaram "black holes" e lesões realçadas pelo contraste nas sequências de ressonância magnética T1 e contaram e mediram as lesões nas sequências T2 e FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery). Os casos foram classificados de acordo com tamanho, número e volume da lesão. Os alelos HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1 e HLA-DQA1 e os polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único rs4774, rs3087456, rs6897932, rs731236 e rs1033182 foram identificados por amplificação de reação em cadeia da polimerase com iniciadores específicos de sequência usando o kit One Lambda Inc., Canoga Park, CA, EUA. Resultados: Os pacientes com alelo HLA-DQA1*04:01 apresentaram carga de lesão (ajustada para idade, sexo e duração da EM) acima da mediana em comparação com outros pacientes com demais alelos HLA-DQA1 (p=0,02). Não houve diferenças entre todos os outros alelos HLA e polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único e carga lesional. Conclusões: A correlação do alelo HLA-DQA1*04:01 com maior carga de lesão nas sequências de RM em T2 sugere que a presença desse alelo pode estar associada ao risco de maior gravidade da EM.

Humans , HLA-DQ alpha-Chains/genetics , Multiple Sclerosis/genetics , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Genes, MHC Class II , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Alleles , HLA-DQ beta-Chains , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , Gene Frequency
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 794-800, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349994


ABSTRACT Objective: As studies have reported the involvement of angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT-2) in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR), the aim of this study was to investigate the association between the ANGPT-2 rs2442598 polymorphism and DR. Materials and methods: This case-control study comprised 107 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and DR (cases) and 129 patients with T1DM without DR (controls) and with ≥ 10 years of DM. The ANGPT-2 rs2442598 (G/A) polymorphism was genotyped by real-time PCR using TaqMan MGB probes. Results: Genotype distributions of this polymorphism were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the rs2442598 A allele was higher in cases compared to controls (p = 0.011). Moreover, the A/A genotype was more frequent in cases than in controls (p = 0.017) and was associated with risk for DR after adjustments for duration of DM, HbA1c, triglycerides, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 5.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-22.27). This association was maintained under recessive (OR = 4.78, 95% CI 1.14-19.99) and additive (OR = 6.861, 95% CI 1.45-32.38) inheritance models. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated, for the first time, an association between the ANGPT-2 rs2442598 A allele and risk for DR in T1DM patients from southern Brazil. Additional studies are necessary to replicate this association in other populations.

Humans , Angiopoietin-2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/genetics , Diabetic Retinopathy/genetics , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Gene Frequency , Genotype
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(6): 718-722, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350340


Abstract Introduction: Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate is a common worldwide birth defect due to a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies reported the rs7078160 of Vax1 is closely related to non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in European populations. The following studies showed the same results in Mongolian, Japanese, Filipino, Vietnamese populations etc. However, conflicting research had been reported in Chinese population, Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the rs7078160 polymorphism and non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in Southern Chinese patients. Methods: In this study, we investigated the polymorphism distribution of rs7078160 in 100 complete patient trios (39 patients with non-syndromic cleft lip and palate; 36 patients with non-syndromic cleft lip only; 25 had non-syndromic cleft palate only; and their parents) from Southern ethnic Han Chinese. 60 healthy trios were selected as control. Polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing were used to genotype rs7078160 in Vax1; both case-control and family-based associations were analyzed. Results: The case-control analyses revealed the rs7078160 polymorphism was significant, associated with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (p = 0.04) and non-syndromic cleft lip and palate (p = 0.01), but not associated with non-syndromic cleft lip only and nonsyndromic cleft palate only patients. The genotype composition of rs7078160 comprises mutated homozygous AA, heterozygous AG and wild homozygous GG. Cases with AG + AA genotypes compared with GG homozygotes showed an increased risk of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (p = 0.04, OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.01-4.16) and non-syndromic cleft lip and palate (p = 0.01, OR = 3.94, 95% CI: 1.34-11.54). In addition, we did not detect any transmissiondisequilibrium in rs7078160 (p = 0.68). Conclusion: This study suggests that rs7078160 polymorphism is a risk factor of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and Vax1 is strongly associated with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in Southern Chinese Han populations.

Resumo Introdução: A fenda labial não sindrômica, com ou sem fenda palatina, é um defeito congênito comum em todo o mundo, devido a uma combinação de fatores ambientais e genéticos. O genome-wide association studies relatou que o polimorfismo rs7078160 do Vax1 está intimamente relacionado à fenda labial não sindrômica, com ou sem fenda palatina em populações europeias. Estudos subsequentes mostraram os mesmos resultados nas populações mongol, japonesa, filipina e vietnamita etc. No entanto, pesquisas conflitantes foram relatadas na população chinesa. Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre o polimorfismo rs7078160 e fenda labial não sindrômica, com ou sem fenda palatina, em pacientes do sul da China. Método: Tentamos investigar a distribuição do polimorfismo rs7078160 em 100 trios completos de pacientes (39 pacientes com fenda labial e palatina não sindrômica; 36 pacientes com fenda labial somente, não sindrômica; 25 com fenda palatina somente, não sindrômica e seus pais), da etnia Han do sul da China, e em 60 trios saudáveis selecionados como controle. Reação de polimerase em cadeia e o sequenciamento de Sanger foram uszados para genotipar o polimorfismo rs7078160 do Vax1 e tanto os casos-controle quanto as associações baseadas na família foram analisadas. Resultados: As análises de caso-controle revelaram que o polimorfismo rs7078160 estava significativamente associado a fenda labial não sindrômica, com ou sem fenda palatina (p = 0,04) e fenda labial e palatina não sindrômica (p = 0,01), mas não estava associado a pacientes com fenda labial somente não sindrômica e fenda palatina somente não sindrômica. A composição do genótipo de rs7078160 compreende AA homozigoto mutado, AG heterozigoto e GG homozigoto selvagem. Casos com genótipos AG + AA comparados com GG homozigotos mostraram um risco aumentado de fenda labial não sindrômica, com ou sem fenda palatina (p = 0,04, OR = 2,05, IC de 95%: 1,01 ± 4,16) e fenda labial e palatina não sindrômica (p = 0,01, OR = 3,94, IC 95%: 1,34-11,54). Além disso, não detectamos desequilíbrio de transmissão em rs7078160 (p = 0,68). Conclusão: Este estudo sugere que o polimorfismo rs7078160 foi um fator de risco para fenda labial não sindrômica, com ou sem fenda palatina, e o gene Vax1 está fortemente associado com fenda labial não sindrômica, com ou sem fenda palatina em populações da etnia Han do sul da China.

Humans , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Case-Control Studies , China , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(5): e3496, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352079


Introducción: El cáncer gástrico constituye la segunda causa de muerte en la población mundial. En Cuba ocupa el octavo lugar. La etiología es multifactorial. La infección por Helicobacter pylori, el tipo de alimentación, la susceptibilidad genética y los antecedentes familiares son algunos de sus factores de riesgo. Objetivo: Actualizar en aspectos relacionados con los factores de riesgos que intervienen en la mortalidad por cáncer gástrico. Material y Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática en bases de datos de artículos publicados hasta octubre de 2020 que brindaran información sobre los factores de riesgo asociados a la mortalidad por cáncer gástrico. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 artículos, el factor de riesgo más estudiado fue la infección por Helicobacter pylori con un rol importante en la carcinogénesis del CG, los factores que con mayor frecuencia se asocian a la mortalidad por cáncer gástrico son la edad, el sexo, la dieta y los antecedentes familiares. Conclusiones: Existe una elevada heterogeneidad en los factores de riesgos estudiados. La identificación de los factores asociados puede constituir eje de la prevención y control de esta enfermedad.(AU)

Introduction: Gastric cancer is the second cause of death in the world population. It ranks eighth in Cuba. The etiology is multifactorial. Helicobacter pylori infection, diet, genetic susceptibility, and family history are some of its risk factors. Objective: To update the aspects related to risk factors involved in gastric cancer mortality. Material and Methods: A systematic review was carried out through the search of articles published until October 2020 that provide information about risk factors associated with gastric cancer mortality. Results: A total of 31 articles were included; the most studied risk factor was H. pylori infection, which plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer; the factors most frequently associated with mortality from gastric cancer are age, sex, diet, and family history. Conclusions: There is a high heterogeneity among the risk factors studied. The identification of associated risk factors can be the axis for the prevention and control of this disease(AU)

Humans , Stomach Neoplasms , Helicobacter pylori , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(8): 1130-1136, Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346987


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate whether TCF7L2 gene mutation rs7903146 is in association with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS A total of 44 PCOS and 48 control participants were recruited for this study. After DNA extraction from peripheral blood, quantitative PCR method was used for genotyping. With a case-control study design, two groups were compared for genotype and allele frequencies as well as clinical characteristics. RESULTS Mean testosterone level was significantly higher in PCOS group, whereas mean progesterone level was significantly higher in control group. In PCOS group, mean thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level was significantly higher in polymorphic allele carriers. Genotype and allele frequencies were not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS When investigated for the first time in a population from Turkey, no association between PCOS and TCF7L2 gene rs7903146 polymorphism was detected. However, considering contradictory results of other populations and low cohort scale of this study, replication studies with greater cohorts are needed.

Humans , Female , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/genetics , Turkey , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Mutation