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Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 49-56, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011101


Objective:This study aims to analyze the threshold changes in distortion product otoacoustic emissions(DPOAE) and auditory brainstem response(ABR) in adult Otof-/- mice before and after gene therapy, evaluating its effectiveness and exploring methods for assessing hearing recovery post-treatment. Methods:At the age of 4 weeks, adult Otof-/- mice received an inner ear injection of a therapeutic agent containing intein-mediated recombination of the OTOF gene, delivered via dual AAV vectors through the round window membrane(RWM). Immunofluorescence staining assessed the proportion of inner ear hair cells with restored otoferlin expression and the number of synapses.Statistical analysis was performed to compare the DPOAE and ABR thresholds before and after the treatment. Results:AAV-PHP. eB demonstrates high transduction efficiency in inner ear hair cells. The therapeutic regimen corrected hearing loss in adult Otof-/- mice without impacting auditory function in wild-type mice. The changes in DPOAE and ABR thresholds after gene therapy are significantly correlated at 16 kHz. Post-treatment,a slight increase in DPOAE was observeds,followed by a recovery trend at 2 months post-treatment. Conclusion:Gene therapy significantly restored hearing in adult Otof-/- mice, though the surgical delivery may cause transient hearing damage. Precise and gentle surgical techniques are essential to maximize gene therapy's efficacy.

Mice , Animals , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous/physiology , Hearing/physiology , Ear, Inner , Hearing Loss/therapy , Genetic Therapy , Auditory Threshold/physiology , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem/physiology , Membrane Proteins
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1-8, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009100


OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the gene therapy strategies for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and related research progress.@*METHODS@#The recent literature on gene therapy for NF1 at home and abroad was reviewed. The structure and function of the NF1 gene and its mutations were analyzed, and the current status as well as future prospects of the transgenic therapy and gene editing strategies were summarized.@*RESULTS@#NF1 is an autosomal dominantly inherited tumor predisposition syndrome caused by mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene, which impair the function of the neurofibromin and lead to the disease. It has complex clinical manifestations and is not yet curable. Gene therapy strategies for NF1 are still in the research and development stage. Existing studies on the transgenic therapy for NF1 have mainly focused on the construction and expression of the GTPase-activating protein-related domain in cells that lack of functional neurofibromin, confirming the feasibility of the transgenic therapy for NF1. Future research may focus on split adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene delivery, oversized AAV gene delivery, and the development of new vectors for targeted delivery of full-length NF1 cDNA. In addition, the gene editing tools of the new generation have great potential to treat monogenic genetic diseases such as NF1, but need to be further validated in terms of efficiency and safety.@*CONCLUSION@#Gene therapy, including both the transgenic therapy and gene editing, is expected to become an important new therapeutic approach for NF1 patients.

Humans , Neurofibromatosis 1/pathology , Neurofibromin 1/metabolism , GTPase-Activating Proteins , Mutation , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetic Therapy
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1890-1893, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010055


Hemophilia A(HA) is an X-linked recessive bleeding disorder caused by mutations in coagulation factor VIII. Nowadays, exogenous coagulation factor replacement therapy is the main treatment. With the continuous development of gene therapy, new research directions have been provided for the treatment of hemophilia A. CRISPR-Cas9 technology was applied to select suitable target sites, and mediate the targeted knock-in and efficient expression of exogenous B-domain-deleted FⅧ variant gene through corresponding vectors for the treatment of hemophilia A.CRISPR-Cas9 technology is an emerging gene editing tool with great efficiency, safety and effectiveness, and has been widely used in hemophilia gene therapy research. This paper reviews the vector selection, construction of therapeutic genes, gene editing technology and selection of expression target sites for hemophilia A gene therapy at this stage.

Humans , Hemophilia A/therapy , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Hemophilia B/therapy , Gene Editing , Genetic Therapy , Genetic Vectors
Singapore medical journal ; : 7-16, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969660


There are more than 7,000 paediatric genetic diseases (PGDs) but less than 5% have treatment options. Treatment strategies targeting different levels of the biological process of the disease have led to optimal health outcomes in a subset of patients with PGDs, where treatment is available. In the past 3 decades, there has been rapid advancement in the development of novel therapies, including gene therapy, for many PGDs. The therapeutic success of treatment relies heavily on knowledge of the genetic basis and the disease mechanism. Specifically, gene therapy has been shown to be effective in various clinical trials, and indeed, these trials have led to regulatory approvals, paving the way for gene therapies for other types of PGDs. In this review, we provide an overview of the treatment strategies and focus on some of the recent advancements in therapeutics for PGDs.

Child , Humans , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/therapy , Genetic Therapy
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 359-387, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982590


Base editor (BE) is a gene-editing tool developed by combining the CRISPR/Cas system with an individual deaminase, enabling precise single-base substitution in DNA or RNA without generating a DNA double-strand break (DSB) or requiring donor DNA templates in living cells. Base editors offer more precise and secure genome-editing effects than other conventional artificial nuclease systems, such as CRISPR/Cas9, as the DSB induced by Cas9 will cause severe damage to the genome. Thus, base editors have important applications in the field of biomedicine, including gene function investigation, directed protein evolution, genetic lineage tracing, disease modeling, and gene therapy. Since the development of the two main base editors, cytosine base editors (CBEs) and adenine base editors (ABEs), scientists have developed more than 100 optimized base editors with improved editing efficiency, precision, specificity, targeting scope, and capacity to be delivered in vivo, greatly enhancing their application potential in biomedicine. Here, we review the recent development of base editors, summarize their applications in the biomedical field, and discuss future perspectives and challenges for therapeutic applications.

Humans , Gene Editing , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Genetic Therapy , DNA/genetics
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 217-222, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971063


The mutations of TTN gene that encodes titin are the most common mutation type among the genetic causes of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This article reviews the worldwide studies on potential molecular pathogenesis (transcription, post-translational modification, etc.), clinical phenotypes, and gene therapies of pediatric DCM caused by TTN mutations, with the hope of providing a reference for the precision treatment of pediatric DCM caused by TTN mutations.

Humans , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/therapy , Connectin/genetics , Genetic Therapy , Mutation , Phenotype
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 82: e0041, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1507880


RESUMO A neuropatia óptica hereditária de Leber é uma doença mitocondrial hereditária neurodegenerativa. A taxa potencial de recuperação espontânea é controversa na literatura. A terapia genética tem sido estudada como suporte aos pacientes. O objetivo desta revisão foi avaliar qualitativamente a segurança, os efeitos adversos e a eficácia da terapia gênica disponível. Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática de artigos indexados nas bases de dados PubMed®, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, SciELO, Cochrane, ScienceDirect, Scopus e Lilacs no primeiro semestre de 2021. Os critérios de inclusão e filtros foram: artigos relacionados ao tema, estudos randomizados, ensaios clínicos, trabalhos em humanos, últimos 5 anos, nas línguas portuguesa, inglesa e espanhola e texto completo disponível gratuitamente. Os parâmetros de exclusão foram: artigos duplicados, fuga ao tema, artigos de revisão, trabalhos não disponíveis e que fugiam aos critérios de inclusão. O coeficiente de kappa foi 0,812. A terapia não apresentou efeitos adversos sérios em nenhum dos artigos selecionados, e os efeitos menores sofreram 100% de remissão espontânea após o tratamento. Apesar de NAbs terem sido encontrados no soro de alguns pacientes, não houve associação entre a resposta imune adaptativa e a injeção do vetor viral. O tratamento foi eficaz na melhora da acuidade e campo visual. Vários estudos confirmaram a eficácia da terapia gênica, em doses baixas e médias, na melhora da acuidade visual e também sobre os efeitos adversos comuns relacionados à altas doses. A resposta imune humoral e a variação dos NAbs no soro foi citada em mais de um artigo. A terapia foi eficaz na melhora da acuidade visual e os efeitos adversos que surgiram foram tratados facilmente. No entanto, a resposta imune humoral ainda precisa ser estudada.

ABSTRACT Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is an inherited neurodegenerative mitochondrial disease. The potential rate of spontaneous recovery is controversial in the literature. Gene therapy has been studied to support patients. The objective of this review was to qualitatively assess the safety, adverse effects, and efficacy of available gene therapy. This is a systematic review of articles indexed in PubMed®, VHL, SciELO, Cochrane, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Lilacs databases, in the first half of 2021. Inclusion criteria and filters were: articles related to the topic, randomized studies, clinical trials, work in humans, last 5 years, in Portuguese, English, and Spanish and full text available for free. The exclusion parameters were: duplicate articles, not related to the topic, review articles, not available works, and works that did not meet the inclusion criteria. The kappa coefficient was 0.812. The therapy had no serious adverse effects in any of the selected articles, and minor effects experienced 100% spontaneous remission after treatment. Although NAbs were found in the serum of some patients, there was no association between the adaptive immune response and the injection of the viral vector. The treatment was effective in improving acuity and visual field. Several studies have confirmed the effectiveness of gene therapy, at low and medium doses, in improving visual acuity and also on common adverse effects related to high doses. The humoral immune response and the variation in serum NAbs was cited in more than one article. The therapy was effective in improving visual acuity and the adverse effects that arose were easily treated. However, the humoral immune response still needs to be studied.

Humans , Genetic Therapy/methods , Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber/genetics , Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber/therapy , Genetic Therapy/adverse effects , Adenoviridae , Treatment Outcome , Intravitreal Injections , NADH Dehydrogenase/genetics , NADH Dehydrogenase/therapeutic use
Rev. cuba. med ; 61(3)sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441682


Introducción: El aumento de la resistencia a los antimicrobianos constituye actualmente una peligrosa amenaza para la salud. Ante este problema global de falta de antimicrobianos, es perentorio intervenir de forma coordinada e idear fórmulas para incentivar la investigación a nivel internacional. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión actualizada sobre las causas y mecanismos de la resistencia a los antibióticos y la adaptación del sistema CRISPR/Cas para el desarrollo de innovadores antimicrobianos como parte esencial de una estrategia altamente específica en el tratamiento de infecciones producidas por bacterias resistentes. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión documental, se empleó la bibliografía nacional e internacional especializada publicada en los últimos 5 años. Se utilizó el motor de búsqueda Google Académico y se consultaron artículos de libre acceso en las bases de datos Pubmed, SciELO, LILACS, CUMED y HINARI, en el período comprendido entre marzo de 2020 hasta el mes de enero de 2021. Se revisaron un total de 41 artículos. Las consultas se hicieron en inglés y español. Para la búsqueda se tuvo en cuenta las palabras clave: eligobióticos; resistencia a antibióticos; CRISPR/Cas. Resultados: La evidencia recopilada sustenta que muchas enfermedades son inducidas por alteraciones del equilibrio de la microbiota humana y la técnica de edición genética CRISPR/Cas permitirá el desarrollo de novedosos antibióticos como los eligobióticos que eliminarán las bacterias patógenas multirresistentes y dejarán intacto el microbioma. Conclusiones: el esclarecimiento de los enigmas de la microbiota y su diseño con terapia génica permitirán el progreso de innovadores antibióticos con empleo del sistema CRISPR/Cas que ineludiblemente modificarán la práctica médica para siempre(AU)

Introduction: The increase in antimicrobial resistance is currently a dangerous threat to health. Faced with this global problem of lack of antimicrobials, it is imperative to intervene in a coordinated manner and devise formulas to encourage research at the international level. Objective: To review on the update causes and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and the adaptation of CRISPR/Cas system for the development of innovative antimicrobials as an essential part of a highly specific strategy in the treatment of infections caused by resistant bacteria. Methods: A documentary review was carried out in the specialized national and international bibliography published in the last 5 years. Google Scholar search engine was used and free access articles were consulted in Pubmed, SciELO, LILACS, CUMED and HINARI databases, from March 2020 to January 2021. A total of 41 articles were retrieved. The consultations were made in English and Spanish. For the search, we took into account the keywords eligobiotics, antibiotic resistance, CRISPR/Cas. Results: The reviewed evidence supports that many diseases are induced by alterations in the balance of the human microbiota; and CRISPR/Cas gene editing technique will allow the development of novel antibiotics such as eligobiotics that will eliminate multi-resistant pathogenic bacteria and leave the microbiome intact. Conclusions: The clarification of the enigmas of the microbiota and its design with gene therapy will allow the progress of innovative antibiotics using CRISPR/Cas system that will inevitably change medical practice forever(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Genetic Therapy/methods , Reference Drugs
J. Health Sci. Inst ; 40(2): 119-126, apr-jun 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527065


Realizar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os medicamentos específicos empregados no tratamento da Atrofia Muscular Espinhal (AME), uma doença genética neurodegenerativa caracterizada por fraqueza nos membros e atrofia muscular. Revisão narrativa de literatura, realizada por meio de um estudo descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa, baseada em estudos por meio de uma seleção classificatória de pesquisas sobre a farmacoterapia da AME. Os fármacos aprovados para o tratamento da AME fazem parte do arsenal da terapia gênica: nusinersena, onasemnogeno abeparvoveque e risdiplam. Com exceção do onasemnogeno abeparvoveque, utilizado em dose única, os demais devem ser utilizados pelo resto da vida. Todos eles, de maneiras distintas, elevam os níveis da proteína SMN (sobrevivência do neurônio motor), cuja deficiência leva à morte dos neurônios motores, causando aos sintomas progressivos da AME. Estes medicamentos apresentam custo elevado e são pouco acessíveis, sendo que apenas o nusinersena é disponibilizado pelo SUS. No momento as alternativas de tratamento farmacológico são escassas e de difícil acesso e a cura, apesar dos esforços da ciência, ainda está distante da realidade. No entanto, a terapia gênica se mostra como um diferencial para o tratamento e controle da AME, representando uma inovação e esperança para os pacientes com esta doença

Humans , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal , Genetic Therapy , Drug Therapy , Motor Neurons
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 844-850, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939698


OBJECTIVE@#To provide a research basis for a safe and effective cell therapy for β-thalassemia through optimization of HS4 region of the third generation lentiviral vector for stable expression of β-globin.@*METHODS@#The human β-globin HS4 region in the third generation lentiviral expression vector was optimized to construct the lenti-HBB, and the transcription and translation of β-globin gene were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot after the transduction of lenti-HBB in MEL cell line. Furthermore, the erythroid differentiation of CD34+ cells which were transduced lentiviral virus carrying human β-globin from normal human umbilical cord blood cells and peripheral blood cells of patients with β-thalassemia major were confirmed by colony formation assay, cell smear assay and flow cytometry. The safety and effectiveness of the optimized lenti-HBB were verified by NSG mouse in vivo test.@*RESULTS@#The human β-globin was expressed stably in the MEL cells, and CD34+ cells from health umbilical cord blood as well as PBMC from patient with β-thalassemia major transduced with lenti-HBB could be differentiated to mature red blood cells. The β-globin expression and differentiation in CD34+ cells were demonstrated successfully in the NSG mouse for about 35 months after post-transplant.@*CONCLUSION@#Stable β-globin expression through the optimization of HS4 from CD34+ in the third generation lentiviral vector is safe and effective for patients with severe β-thalassemia and other β-globin abnormal diseases.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Genetic Therapy , Genetic Vectors , Lentivirus/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , beta-Globins/genetics , beta-Thalassemia/therapy
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19608, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383987


Abstract Nanobubbles are nanometer size bubbles having different constituents of varying physicochemical characteristic for the inner core and outer shell. Nanobubbles are mainly fabricated to improve the stability, bioavailability and improve the biodistribution of the delivered drug to the specific targeted site. Their small sizes bubbles allow the possibility of extravasation from blood vessels into the surrounding tissues and ultrasound-targeted site-specific release with minimal invasiveness. Nanobubbles are developing as important contrast agents for imaging and carriers for drug delivery at targeted region. Sonication is the primary method for preparation of nanobubbles followed by thin-layer evaporation, high shear emulsification, mechanical agitation and coacervation or coalescence. With exposure to ultrasound/extracorporeal shock waves, the drug is liberated from the nanobubbles into the target cells. This review paper is an effort to reveal the different formulation development techniques briefly and varying shell and core content for developing nanobubbles.

Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Drug Delivery Systems/adverse effects , Blood Vessels , Genetic Therapy/adverse effects , Contrast Media/pharmacology , Methods
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(3): 246-254, jul.set.2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399343


As síndromes autoinflamatórias associadas à criopirina (CAPS) compreendem um grupo espectral de doenças raras autoinflamatórias. Todas estas doenças estão relacionadas ao inflamassoma NLRP3, sendo que de 50-60% dos pacientes apresentam mutações ao longo do gene NLRP3. Clinicamente, febre recorrente associada à urticária neutrofílica e outros sintomas sistêmicos são o grande marco clínico, comum a todo o espectro. O bloqueio da interleucina-1 trouxe grande alívio ao tratamento destas desordens, mas variações na resposta clínica podem ser observadas, principalmente nos espectros mais graves. Neste trabalho os autores trazem uma revisão do estado da arte das doenças autoinflamatórias CAPS. Foi realizado levantamento de literatura e, ao final, 49 artigos restaram como base para construção do texto final. O trabalho traz de forma narrativa os principais pontos relacionados a imunofisiopatologia, manifestação clínica, diagnóstico, tratamento, complicações e novas armas diagnósticas, e terapia gênica.

Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) comprise a spectrum of rare autoinflammatory disorders. They are all related to the NLRP3 inflammasome, and 50-60% of the patients harbor mutations along the NLRP3 gene. Clinically, recurrent fever associated with neutrophilic urticaria and other systemic symptoms are a hallmark of all the disorders in the spectrum. Biologic drugs that can block interleukin-1 were a milestone for the treatment of such rare diseases, although variability in clinical response to this therapeutic intervention were observed, especially in those affected by severe phenotypes. In this paper, the authors provide a state-of-the-art review of CAPS. A literature search was performed and, finally, 49 articles remained for the construction of the final manuscript. The article presents a narrative review focused on the topics related to immune pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, complications and new therapeutic options, and gene therapy.

Humans , Genetic Therapy , Rare Diseases , Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes , Patients , Phenotype , Relapsing Fever , Signs and Symptoms , Therapeutics , Urticaria , Biological Products , Interleukin-1 , PubMed , Diagnosis
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289427


Introducción: La leucemia linfoide crónica es un trastorno linfoproliferativo caracterizado por la acumulación de linfocitos pequeños de aspecto maduro en sangre periférica, médula ósea y tejidos linfoides con un período de vida prolongado. Presenta una gran variabilidad clínica y genética. Objetivo: Describir los aspectos citogenéticos y moleculares de la leucemia linfoide crónica. Métodos: Se realizó revisión de la literatura en inglés y español, a través del sitio web PubMed y el motor de búsqueda Google académico, de artículos publicados en los últimos 5 años. Se hizo un análisis y resumen de la bibliografía revisada. Desarrollo: En la leucemia linfoide crónica están presentes alteraciones citogenéticas frecuentes como la deleción de los cromosomas 13q, 11q y 17p, así como la trisomía 12, que unido al conocimiento del estado mutacional del gen de la región variable de la cadena pesada de la inmunoglobulina, y otras mutaciones somáticas en diferentes genes, así como a variables clínicas y de laboratorio permiten la estratificación pronóstica de los pacientes. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico a través de los estudios citogenéticos convencionales estimulados con mitógenos, la hibridación in situ por fluorescencia y la secuenciación génica permite una mayor comprensión de la biología de la enfermedad, así como tomar decisiones terapéuticas más personalizadas(AU)

Introduction: Chronic B lymphoid leukemia is a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by the accumulation of small, mature-looking lymphocytes in peripheral blood, bone marrow and lymphoid tissues with a long life span. It has great clinical and genetic variability. Objective: To describe the cytogenetic and molecular aspects of the disease. Methods: A review of the literature in English and in Spanish was carried out, in the PubMed website and using the search engine of Google Scholar, for articles published in the last five years. We performed analysis and summary of the reviewed bibliography. Development: In chronic lymphoid leukemia, frequent cytogenetic alterations are present such as deletion of chromosomes 13q, 11q and 17p, as well as trisomy 12, which together with the knowledge of the mutational status of the gene for the variable region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain and other somatic mutations in different genes, as well as clinical and laboratory variables allows prognostic stratification of patients. Conclusions: Diagnosis through conventional mitogen-stimulated cytogenetic studies, fluorescence in situ hybridization and gene sequencing allow a better understanding of the biology of the disease, as well as making more personalized therapeutic decisions(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Biology , Genetic Therapy , Leukemia, Lymphoid/genetics , In Situ Hybridization , Cytogenetics , Lymphoproliferative Disorders , Mutation
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 282-296, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248965


ABSTRACT This review is intended to describe the therapeutic approaches for corneal blindness, detailing the steps and elements involved in corneal wound healing. It also presents the limitations of the actual surgical and pharmacological strategies used to restore and maintain corneal transparency in terms of long-term survival and geographic coverage. In addition, we critically review the perspectives of anabolic agents, including vitamin A, hormones, growth factors, and novel promitotic and anti-inflammatory modulators, to assist corneal wound healing. We discuss the studies involving nanotechnology, gene therapy, and tissue reengineering as potential future strategies to work solely or in combination with corneal surgery to prevent or revert corneal blindness.(AU)

RESUMO O presente trabalho traz uma revisão das abordagens terapêuticas para a cegueira da córnea. O estudo detalha as etapas e os elementos envolvidos na cicatrização da córnea. Ele mostra as limitações das estratégias cirúrgicas e farmacológicas usadas para restaurar e manter a transparência da córnea em termos de sobrevida a longo prazo e alcance geográfico. As perspectivas dos agentes anabólicos, incluindo vitamina A, hormônios, fatores de crescimento e novos moduladores pró-mitóticos e anti-inflamatórios para auxiliar a cicatrização da ferida na córnea, são revisadas criticamente. Aqui, apresentamos estudos envolvendo nanotecnologia, terapia gênica e reengenharia de tecidos como possíveis estratégias futuras para atuar de maneira isolada ou combinada com a cirurgia da córnea para prevenir ou reverter a cegueira corneana.(AU)

Humans , Blindness/prevention & control , Blindness/therapy , Corneal Injuries/prevention & control , Corneal Injuries/therapy , Stem Cells , Vitamin A/therapeutic use , Genetic Therapy/instrumentation , Nanotechnology/instrumentation , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/therapeutic use , Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(supl.1): 17-23, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250229


Abstract Objectives: To provide an overview of drug treatment, transplantation, and gene therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiencies. Source of data: Non-systematic review of the literature in the English language carried out at PubMed. Synthesis of data: The treatment of patients with primary immunodeficiencies aims to control their disease, especially the treatment and prevention of infections through antibiotic prophylaxis and/or immunoglobulin replacement therapy. In several diseases, it is possible to use specific medications for the affected pathway with control of the condition, especially in autoimmune or autoinflammatory processes associated with inborn immunity errors. In some diseases, treatment can be curative through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); more recently, gene therapy has opened new horizons through new technologies. Conclusions: Immunoglobulin replacement therapy remains the main therapeutic tool. Precision medicine with specific drugs for altered immune pathways is already a reality for several immune defects. Advances in the management of HSCT and gene therapy have expanded the capacity for curative treatments in patients with primary immunodeficiencies.

Humans , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/therapy , Genetic Therapy
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(2): 100-106, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280105


ABSTRACT Objective: A scientometric analysis produced in ophthalmic genetics and gene therapy research is lacking. The purpose of this study is to present a holistic analysis of ophthalmic genetics literature. Methods: The data used in this study were obtained from the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection. All published documents between 1975-2019 were included. The data exported from WoS enabled the extensive details of ophthalmic genetics related literature including countries, institutions, authors, citations and keywords. Scientometric network maps of keywords and also country and institution co-authorships were created with free software. Global contributions of the countries to the ophthalmic genetics literature were shown by a graphic. Results: The search query revealed a total of 2322 documents. Most of the documents were original articles (75.75%). USA was the leading country by producing 45.39% of all documents in ophthalmic genetics research followed by UK, Germany, China and France. Pennsylvania University was the most contributing institution in the literature (5.25%) followed by University College London and Moorfields Eye Hospital. The average citations per item was 29.4. The most used keywords over a 40-year period were 'family', 'cell', 'photoreceptor' and 'expression'. Conclusions: USA and UK dominated the ophthalmic genetics research. A substantial increase in the number of published documents in this field were observed after 2010.

RESUMO Objetivo: A literatura carece de análise cienciométrica produzida em genética oftálmica e de pesquisa em terapia genética. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar uma análise holística da literatura genética oftálmica. Métodos: Os dados utilizados neste estudo foram obtidos na base de dados Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection. Todos os documentos publicados entre 1975 e 2019 foram incluídos na análise. Os dados exportados da WoS viabilizaram acesso a amplos detalhes da literatura relacionada à genética oftálmica, incluindo países, instituições, autores, citações e palavras-chave. Mapas de rede cienciométrica foram criados por meio de software gratuito, com base em palavras-chave e em coautorias de países e instituições. As contribuições globais dos países para a literatura sobre genética oftálmica foram apresentadas em gráfico. Resultados: a busca por pesquisas revelou um total de 2.322 documentos cuja maioria eram artigos originais (75,75%). Os EUA foram o país que mais produziu artigos sobre o tema, com 45,39% de todos os documentos em pesquisa genética oftálmica; ele foi seguido pelo Reino Unido, Alemanha, China e França. A Universidade da Pensilvânia foi a instituição que mais contribuiu para a literatura (5,25%), e foi seguida pela University College London e pelo Moorfields Eye Hospital. A média de citações por item foi de 29,4. As palavras-chave mais usadas em um período de 40 anos foram 'família', 'célula', 'fotorreceptor' e 'expressão'. Conclusões: Os EUA e o Reino Unido dominaram a pesquisa em genética oftálmica. Após 2010, observou-se um aumento substancial no número de documentos publicados nessa área.

Humans , Genetic Therapy , Bibliometrics , Eye Diseases, Hereditary , Eye Diseases/genetics , Eye Diseases/therapy , Ophthalmology/trends , Periodicals as Topic/trends , Periodicals as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Publications , Publishing/statistics & numerical data , Databases, Factual , Genomics/trends , Genetic Research
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(1): 37-42, mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178964


El término CRISPR, por su acrónimo en inglés refiere a Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, es decir, repeticiones palindrómicas cortas, agrupadas y regularmente esparcidas, por sus características en el genoma, pertenece naturalmente al sistema de defensa de bacterias y arqueas. Este ha sido adaptado biotecnológicamente para la edición del ADN de células eucariotas, incluso de células humanas. El sistema CRISPR-Cas para editar genes consta, en forma generalizada, de dos componentes: una proteína nucleasa (Cas) y un ARN guía (sgRNA). La simplicidad del complejo lo hace una herramienta molecular reprogramable capaz de ser dirigida y de editar cualquier sitio en un genoma conocido. Su principal foco son las terapias para enfermedades hereditarias monogénicas y para el cáncer. Sin embargo, además de editor de genes, la tecnología CRISPR se utiliza para edición epigenética, regulación de la expresión génica y método de diagnóstico molecular. Este artículo tiene por objetivo presentar una revisión de las aplicaciones de la herramienta molecular CRISPR-Cas, particularmente en el campo biomédico, posibles tratamientos y diagnósticos, y los avances en investigación clínica, utilizando terapia génica con CRISPR/Cas más relevantes hasta la fecha. (AU)

CRISPR are Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, which naturally belong to the defense system of bacteria and archaea. It has been biotechnologically adapted for editing the DNA of eukaryotic cells, including human cells. The CRISPR-Cas system for editing genes generally consists of two components, a nuclease protein (Cas) and a guide RNA (sgRNA). The simplicity of the complex makes it a reprogrammable molecular tool capable of being targeted and editing any site in a known genome. Its main focus is therapies for monogenic inherited diseases and cancer. However, in addition to gene editor, CRISPR technology is used for epigenetic editing, regulation of gene expression, and molecular diagnostic methods. This article aims to present a review of the applications of the CRISPR-Cas molecular tool, particularly in the biomedical field, possible treatments and diagnoses, and the advances in clinical research, using the most relevant CRISPR-Cas gene therapy to date. (AU)

Humans , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Biotechnology , Genetic Therapy/methods , Gene Expression , Genome, Human/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Epigenomics/trends , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/genetics , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/therapeutic use , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/therapy , Neoplasms/therapy
Rev. invest. clín ; 73(1): 39-51, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289743


ABSTRACT Background: Cancer gene therapy using a nonviral vector is expected to be repeatable, safe, and inexpensive, and to have long-term effectiveness. Gene therapy using the E3 and C1 (E3C1) domain of developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del1) has been shown to improve prognosis in a mouse transplanted tumor model. Objective: In this study, we examined how this treatment affects angiogenesis in mouse transplanted tumors. Materials and methods: Mouse transplanted tumors (SCCKN human squamous carcinoma cell line) were injected locally with a nonviral plasmid vector encoding E3C1 weekly. Histochemical analysis of the transplanted tumors was then performed to assess the effects of E3C1 on prognosis. Results: All mice in the control group had died or reached an endpoint within 39 days. In contrast, one of ten mice in the E3C1 group had died by day 39, and eight of ten had died or reached an endpoint by day 120 (p < 0.01). Enhanced apoptosis in tumor stroma was seen on histochemical analyses, as was inhibited tumor angiogenesis in E3C1-treated mice. In addition, western blot analysis showed decreases in active Notch and HEY1 proteins. Conclusion: These findings indicate that cancer gene therapy using a nonviral vector encoding E3C1 significantly improved life-span by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. (REV INVEST CLIN. 2021;73(1):39-51)

Animals , Rabbits , Calcium-Binding Proteins/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood supply , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Cell Adhesion Molecules/therapeutic use , Epidermal Growth Factor/therapeutic use , Discoidin Domain/genetics , Calcium-Binding Proteins/genetics , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Genetic Therapy , Cell Adhesion Molecules/genetics , Amino Acid Motifs , Epidermal Growth Factor/genetics , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Transplantation , Neovascularization, Pathologic/therapy
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 515-525, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922523


OBJECTIVE@#Plant-derived cytotoxic transgene expression, such as trichosanthin (tcs), regulated by recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector is a promising cancer gene therapy. However, the cytotoxic transgene can hamper the vector production in the rAAV producer cell line, human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Here, we explored microRNA-122 (miR122) and its target sequence to limit the expression of the cytotoxic gene in the rAAV producer cells.@*METHODS@#A miR122 target (122T) sequence was incorporated into the 3' untranslated region of the tcs cDNA sequence. The firefly luciferase (fluc) transgene was used as an appropriate control. Cell line HEK293-mir122 was generated by the lentiviral vector-mediated genome integration of the mir122 gene in parental HEK293 cells. The effects of miR122 overexpression on cell growth, transgene expression, and rAAV production were determined.@*RESULTS@#The presence of 122T sequence significantly reduced transgene expression in the miR122-enriched Huh7 cell line (in vitro), fresh human hepatocytes (ex vivo), and mouse liver (in vivo). Also, the normal liver physiology was unaffected by delivery of 122T sequence by rAAV vectors. Compared with the parental cells, the miR122-overexpressing HEK293-mir122 cell line showed similar cell growth rate and expression of transgene without 122T, as well as the ability to produce liver-targeting rAAV vectors. Fascinatingly, the yield of rAAV vectors carrying the tcs-122T gene was increased by 77.7-fold in HEK293-mir122 cells. Moreover, the tcs-122T-containing rAAV vectors significantly reduced the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells without affecting the normal liver cells.@*CONCLUSION@#HEK293-mir122 cells along with the 122T sequence provide a potential tool to attenuate the cytotoxic transgene expression, such as tcs, during rAAV vector production.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Dependovirus/genetics , Genetic Therapy , Genetic Vectors/genetics , HEK293 Cells , MicroRNAs/genetics , Trichosanthin
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1676-1679, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922316


β-thalassemia is a monogenetic inherited hemolytic anemia, which results in a series of pathophysiological changes due to partial or complete inhibition of the synthesis of β-globin chain. The curative therapy for this disease is to reconstitute hematopoiesis, and transplantation with genetically modified autologous hematopoietic stem cells can avoid the major difficulties of traditional allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation,such as HLA matching and immune rejection. β-thalassemia gene therapy strategies mainly include gene integration and genome editing. The former relies on the development of lentiviral vectors and adds a fully functional HBB gene to the chromosome; the latter rapidly develops with the research of specific nuclease which can repair the HBB gene in situ. In this review, the latest progress of the two strategies in gene therapy of β-thalassemia is summarized.

Humans , Gene Editing , Genetic Therapy , Genetic Vectors , beta-Globins/genetics , beta-Thalassemia/therapy