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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256799, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360215

ABSTRACT

Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is one of the most important corn leaf diseases. Appropriate management strategies and the use of resistant cultivars allow disease control. Therefore, knowing the aspects related to the pathogen and the response of hosts makes it possible to design efficient strategies for selecting genotypes resistant to this disease. In this sense, the objective was to carry out the Bipolaris maydis isolate characterization, evaluating the pathogenicity in different popcorn lines and the symptoms generated in the host after inoculation. The isolate characterization consisted of the macromorphological evaluation of the colonies and the micromorphological evaluation of the conidia in the PDA medium. An experiment was carried out in a greenhouse to evaluate the pathogenicity of the isolate, using 20 inbred lines of popcorn in a randomized block design with four replicates. Inoculation was carried out by spraying leaves, with a suspension containing 1.0 x 104 conidia.ml-1 of the CF/UENF 501 isolate of B. maydis. An incidence assessment and three assessments of disease symptom severity were performed, with seven days intervals between evaluations. The morphological characterization data of the isolate were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and for disease severity, the linear regression model was applied the first-degree model. The variance analysis was performed for the linear and angular coefficients obtained for each treatment. When a difference was found, the Scott-Knott clustering algorithm at 5% significance was applied. The isolate had gray-green colonies, a cottony appearance, and an irregular shape. The lines L353, L354, and L624 show more resistance at the beginning and throughout the evaluations. The high virulence of the CF/UENF 501 isolate made it possible to differentiate the lines in terms of disease intensity and the pattern of symptoms presented.


Mancha-de-Bipolaris é uma das mais importantes doenças foliares do milho. Estratégias de manejo adequadas e o uso de cultivar resistente permitem o controle da doença, mas para tanto, conhecer os aspectos associados ao patógeno e a resposta do hospedeiro é necessário para traçar estratégias eficientes para seleção de genótipos resistentes a essa doença. Neste sentido, objetivou-se realizar a caracterização do isolado de Bipolaris maydis avaliando a patogenicidade em diferentes linhagens de milho-pipoca e os sintomas gerados no hospedeiro a partir da inoculação. A caracterização do isolado consistiu na avaliação macromorfológica das colônias e micromofológica dos conídios em meio nutritivo BDA. Para avaliação da patogenicidade do isolado foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação utilizando 20 linhagens endogâmicas de milho-pipoca, com delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. A inoculação foi realizada por meio de pulverização em folhas, com uma suspensão contendo 1,0 x 104 conídios.ml-1 do isolado CF/UENF 501 de B. maydis. Foi realizada uma avaliação de incidência e três avaliações de severidade dos sintomas da doença, com o intervalo de sete dias para cada avaliação. Os dados da caracterização morfológica do isolado foram analisados por meio da estatística descritiva e para severidade da doença foi aplicado o modelo de regressão linear de primeiro grau. Realizou-se a análise de variância para o coeficiente linear e angular obtido para cada tratamento e quando constatada diferença aplicou-se o agrupamento de médias de Scott-knott a 5% de significância. O isolado apresentou colônias com coloração cinza esverdeado, aspecto algodonoso e forma irregular. As linhagens L353 e L354 e L624 estão entre as linhagens que apresentaram maior resistência no inicio e ao longo das avaliações. A elevada virulência do isolado CF/UENF 501 possibilitou diferenciar as linhagens quanto a intensidade da doença, bem como o padrão dos sintomas apresentados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pest Control , Zea mays , Genotype
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250739, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355896

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several reasons may underlie the dramatic increase in type2 diabetes mellitus. One of these reasons is the genetic basis and variations. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are associated with different diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible association of two identified mutations ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236). Eighty-nine healthy individuals and Fifty-six Type 2 Diabetic (T2D) patients were investigated using RFLP technique for genotyping and haplotyping as well. The distribution of Apal genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.65) as well as for diabetic patients (P=0.58). For Taql allele frequencies of T allele was 0.61 where of G allele was 0.39. The frequency distribution of Taql genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.26) as well as diabetic patients (P=0.17). Relative risk of the allele T of Apa1 gene is 1.28 and the odds ratio of the same allele is 1.53, while both estimates were < 1.0 of the allele G. Similarly, with the Taq1 gene the relative risk and the odds ratio values for the allele T are 1.09 and 1.27 respectively and both estimates of the allele C were 0.86 for the relative risk and 0.79 for the odds ratio. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium between the two SNPs Taq1/apa1 was statistically significant in control group (D = 0.218, D' = 0.925 and P value < 0.001) and similar data in diabetic groups (D = 0.2, D' = 0.875 and P value < 0.001). These data suggest that the T allele of both genes Apa1 and Taq1 is associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We think that we need a larger number of volunteers to reach a more accurate conclusion.


Resumo Várias razões podem estar subjacentes ao aumento dramático da diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Um desses motivos é a base genética e variações. Os polimorfismos do receptor da vitamina D estão associados a diferentes doenças, como artrite reumatoide e diabetes. O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a possível associação de duas mutações identificadas ApaI (rs7975232) e TaqI (rs731236). Oitenta e nove indivíduos saudáveis ​​e 56 pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) foram investigados usando a técnica RFLP para genotipagem e haplotipagem também. A distribuição dos genótipos Apal não foi estatisticamente significativa entre o controle (P = 0,65), bem como para os pacientes diabéticos (P = 0,58). Para as frequências do alelo Taql, o alelo T foi de 0,61, onde o alelo G foi de 0,39. A distribuição de frequência dos genótipos Taql não foi estatisticamente significativa entre o controle (P = 0,26), bem como os pacientes diabéticos (P = 0,17). O risco relativo do alelo T do gene Apa1 é 1,28 e a razão de chances do mesmo alelo é 1,53, enquanto ambas as estimativas foram < 1,0 do alelo G. Da mesma forma, com o gene Taq1, os valores de risco relativo e razão de chances para o alelo T são 1,09 e 1,27, respectivamente, e ambas as estimativas do alelo C foram de 0,86 para o risco relativo e 0,79 para o odds ratio. O desequilíbrio de ligação par a par entre os dois SNPs Taq1 / apa1 foi estatisticamente significativo no grupo de controle (D = 0,218, D' = 0,925 e valor P < 0,001) e dados semelhantes em grupos diabéticos (D = 0,2, D' = 0,875 e valor P < 0,001). Esses dados sugerem que o alelo T de ambos os genes Apa1 e Taq1 está associado ao aumento do risco de diabetes tipo 2. Achamos que precisamos de um número maior de voluntários para chegar a uma conclusão mais precisa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia , Case-Control Studies , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Gene Frequency , Genotype
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255235, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355897

ABSTRACT

Abstract In soybean breeding program, continuous selection pressure on traits response to yield created a genetic bottleneck for improvements of soybean through hybridization breeding technique. Therefore an initiative was taken to developed high yielding soybean variety applying mutation breeding techniques at Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Bangladesh. Locally available popular cultivar BARI Soybean-5 was used as a parent material and subjected to five different doses of Gamma ray using Co60. In respect to seed yield and yield attributing characters, twelve true breed mutants were selected from M4 generation. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) for plant height, branch number and pod number were considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement that ensure expected yield. The mutant SBM-18 obtained from 250Gy provided stable yield performance at diversified environments. It provided maximum seed yield of 3056 kg ha-1 with highest number of pods plant-1 (56). The National Seed Board of Bangladesh (NSB) eventually approved SBM-18 and registered it as a new soybean variety named 'Binasoybean-5' for large-scale planting because of its superior stability in various agro-ecological zones and consistent yield performance.


Resumo No programa de melhoramento da soja, a pressão pela seleção contínua para a resposta das características de rendimento criou um gargalo genético para melhorias da soja por meio da técnica de melhoramento por hibridação. Portanto, foi desenvolvida uma variedade de soja de alto rendimento, aplicando técnicas de reprodução por mutação, na Divisão de Melhoramento de Plantas, no Instituto de Agricultura Nuclear de Bangladesh (BINA), em Bangladesh. A cultivar popular BARI Soybean-5, disponível localmente, foi usada como material original e submetida a cinco doses diferentes de raios gama usando Co60. Em relação ao rendimento de sementes e às características de atribuição de rendimento, 12 mutantes genuínos foram selecionados a partir da geração M4. Altos valores de herdabilidade e avanço genético com alto coeficiente de variância genotípico (GCV) para altura da planta, número de ramos e número de vagens foram considerados atributos favoráveis ​​ao melhoramento da soja, garantindo, assim, a produtividade esperada. O mutante SBM-18, obtido a partir de 250Gy, proporcionou desempenho de rendimento estável em ambientes diversificados e produtividade máxima de sementes de 3.056 kg ha-1 com o maior número de vagens planta-1 (56). O Conselho Nacional de Sementes de Bangladesh (NSB) finalmente aprovou o SBM-18 e o registrou como uma nova variedade de soja, chamada 'Binasoybean-5', para plantio em larga escala por causa de sua estabilidade superior em várias zonas agroecológicas e desempenho de rendimento consistente.


Subject(s)
Soybeans/growth & development , Soybeans/genetics , Phenotype , Bangladesh , Plant Breeding , Genotype , Mutation
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252594, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339400

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present trial explained the effect of alternative production systems on growth, morphometric and carcass traits of four different chicken genotypes. The second generation of two genotypes RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) and BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtained by two self-crosses (RNN × RNN = RR and BNN × BNN = BB) and two reciprocal crosses (RNN × BNN = RB and BNN × RNN = BR) were evaluated in three alternative production systems (conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary). At the 6th week of age after sexing, a total of 600 birds, comprising 150 from each crossbred with a total of 300 pullets and 300 cockerels were divided into conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary systems having 200 birds in each.Birds were organized into 3×4 factorial arrangements under Completely Randomized Design (3 production systems × 4 genotypes × 2 sexes × 25 birds = 600 birds). Regarding genotypes, RB and BR males showed higher (p < 0.01) carcass yield, drumstick weight, breast weight, and thigh weight than BB and RR genotypes. Females of BR genotype showed higher (p < 0.01) breast weight, thigh weight and drumstick weight. As far as production systems are concerned, higher (p < 0.01) liver weight, heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight were observed in the males reared in enriched cages compared with conventional cages and aviary system. Females reared in enriched cages showed higher (p < 0.01) heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight when compared with those reared in conventional cages and aviary. It is concluded that chickens (both sexes) of BR and RB genotypes had better morphological measurements and carcass traits than those of RR and BB genotype chickens. Among alternative production systems, chickens reared in enriched cages had better traits than those of reared in conventional cages and aviary during the growing phase.


Resumo O presente estudo explicou o efeito de sistemas alternativos de produção sobre o crescimento, características morfométricas e carcaças de quatro genótipos de frango diferentes. A segunda geração de dois genótipos RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) e BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtida por duas autocruzes (RNN × RNN = RR e B ANN × BNN = BB) e duas cruzes recíprocas (RNN × BNN = RB e BNN × RNN = BR) foi avaliada em três sistemas de produção alternativos (gaiolas convencionais, gaiolas enriquecidas e aviário). Na 6ª semana de idade após o sexo, um total de 600 aves, compostas por 150 de cada raça cruzada com um total de 300 pullets e 300 galos, foi dividido em gaiolas convencionais, gaiolas enriquecidas e sistemas aviários com 200 aves em cada. As aves foram organizadas em 3×4 arranjos fatoriais sob projeto completamente randomizado (3 sistemas de produção × 4 genótipos × 2 sexos × 25 aves = 600 aves). Em relação aos genótipos, os machos RB e BR apresentaram maior rendimento de carcaça (p < 0,01), peso da baqueta, peso mamário e peso da coxa do que os genótipos BB e RR. As fêmeas do genótipo BR apresentaram maior (p < 0,01) peso mamário, peso da coxa e peso da baqueta. No que diz respeito aos sistemas de produção, maior (p < 0,01) peso hepático, peso cardíaco, peso mamário, peso intestinal, peso da baqueta e peso da coxa foram observados nos machos criados em gaiolas enriquecidas em comparação com gaiolas convencionais e sistema aviário. As fêmeas criadas em gaiolas enriquecidas apresentaram maior (p < 0,01) peso cardíaco, peso mamário, peso intestinal, peso da baqueta e peso da coxa quando comparadas com as criadas em gaiolas convencionais e aviárias. Conclui-se que as galinhas (ambos os sexos) dos genótipos BR e RB apresentaram melhores medidas morfológicas e traços de carcaça do que os de frangos genótipos RR e BB. Entre os sistemas de produção alternativos, as galinhas criadas em gaiolas enriquecidas tinham características melhores do que as criadas em gaiolas convencionais e aviárias durante a fase de cultivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Chickens/genetics , Hybridization, Genetic , Rhode Island , Genotype
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247181, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339388

ABSTRACT

Abstract The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Resumo Os protozoários incluem muitos patógenos humanos intracelulares. A detecção acurada desses patógenos é necessária para tratar as doenças. Na epidemiologia clínica, a identificação molecular de protozoários é considerada o método de identificação mais confiável e rápido do que a microscopia. Entre esses protozoários, o Cryptosporidium é considerado um dos importantes patógenos zoonóticos transmitidos pela água e uma das principais causas de uma doença diarreica denominada criptosporidiose em humanos, animais domésticos e selvagens. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar Cryptosporidium em zoofelídeos (N = 56) pertencentes a diferentes zoológicos da China, mas acidentalmente Colpodella foi encontrada na amostra de zoofelídeos e os dados filogenéticos confirmaram essa amplificação inesperada de amostras fecais usando nested-PCR em duas etapas. A análise filogenética revelou o fato sobre os primers específicos usados ​​anteriormente por muitos pesquisadores e a amplificação entre gêneros. Ficamos sabendo que o amplicon sequenciado geneticamente fornece uma identificação mais acurada das espécies. Este estudo sugere mais investigação sobre Colpodella, que foi negligenciada anteriormente, mas ganha a atenção dos pesquisadores depois de identificada em humanos e animais e é conhecida por se correlacionar com sintomas neurológicos em pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Phylogeny , China , Feces , Genotype
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244977, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285621

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.


Resumo O vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é o grave problema de saúde pública das doenças hepáticas. Aproximadamente 170 milhões de pessoas no mundo estão infectadas com HCV; no Paquistão, a doença tem alto índice de ocorrência. O presente estudo prevê uma prevalência atualizada do HCV e distribuição genotípica na população geral do distrito de Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Paquistão. As amostras de sangue de 6.538 indivíduos, incluindo 3.263 homens e 3.275 mulheres, foram analisadas para o antígeno de superfície da hepatite C por teste imunocromatográfico (ICT), ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) e reação em cadeia da polimerase de transcrição reversa (PCR). Verificou-se que 396 (12,13%) de 3.263 indivíduos continham anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV, enquanto entre as diferentes faixas etárias as maiores incidências de anticorpos anti-HCV foram encontradas na faixa etária de 31 a 40 anos (11,01%). As amostras positivas para ICT foram posteriormente rastreadas por nested PCR para determinar a existência de HCV-RNA ativo. Identificou-se que 7,11% (3.263) do total da população (6.538) testada foram positivos, dentre os quais 461 (14,07%) mulheres possuíam anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV. Nossos dados mostraram que a infecção total pelo HCV na população investigada foi de 5,78%. Maior porcentagem de prevalência de HCV foi detectada em homens do que em mulheres nas faixas etárias de 31-40 e 41-50. Para comparar a prevalência de genótipos de HCV com relação à idade no genótipo masculino e feminino 3a foi encontrado o genótipo mais prevalente seguido por 1a, 2a e 3b, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Pakistan/epidemiology , Prevalence , Genotype
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 117-225, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388345

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En Chile, el cáncer de cuello uterino (CCU) es la segunda causa de muerte por neoplasias malignas en la mujer. El principal agente causal es el virus papiloma humano (VPH). Comparando con la población general, los o las trabajadoras(es) sexuales (TS) tienen alto riesgo de adquirir VPH. OBJETIVO: Analizar la prevalencia y genotipos del VPH cervical y vaginal en TS que se atienden en un Centro de Salud Sexual de Santiago, Chile. Pacientes y MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 97 mujeres TS, de 19 a 70 años de edad. Se obtuvieron dos muestras por paciente, una de exocérvix y otra de paredes vaginales. El ADN de VPH fue identificado por reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC) y su genotipo fue investigado para 32 tipos de VPH. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de VPH global fue de 45%, observándose portación cervical en 41,2% y vaginal en 36,1%, con una coinfección de 32%. El 63% de las muestras tenía genotipos de alto riesgo. Los VPH de alto riesgo más frecuentes fueron el VPH 66 (12%), VPH 58 (9,3%), seguidos por VPH 16, VPH 59 y VPH 82 con igual frecuencia (8% c/u). Treinta y dos mujeres (43%) fueron infectadas con genotipos múltiples. CONCLUSIÓN: El VPH es una infección frecuente entre las TS. Este es el primer estudio en Chile sobre prevalencia y genotipos de VPH en TS.


BACKGROUND: In Chile, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignancy in women. The main causal agent of cervical cancer is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Compared with the general population, sex workers (SW) are at increased risk of acquiring HPV. AIM: To analyze the prevalence and genotypes of cervical and vaginal HPV in female SW attending a Sexual Control Centre. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 97 women (19-70 years old). Two samples were taken per patient, one from exocervix and the other from vaginal walls. HPV DNA. was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping using specific probes for 32 types of HPV. RESULTS: The overall frequency of HPV was 45%, 41.2% in cervical carrier and 36.1% in vaginal carrier, 32% were co-infected, 63% of HPV were high-risk genotypes. The most frequent high-risk HPV was HPV 66 (12%), HPV 58 (9.3%), followed by HPV 16, HPV 59 and HPV 82 with the same frequency (8% each one). Thirty two (43%) of females were infected with multiple genotypes. CONCLUSION: HPV is frequent infection among SW. This is the first study in Chile on the prevalence and genotypes of HPV in sex workers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Alphapapillomavirus/genetics , Sex Workers , Papillomaviridae/genetics , DNA, Viral/analysis , DNA, Viral/genetics , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genotype
8.
Acta méd. costarric ; 64(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1402992

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue aislar levaduras pertenecientes al complejo de especies Cryptococcus neoformans de los excrementos de paloma de Castilla (Columba livia) recolectados de plazas y parques públicos de El Salvador. Métodos: Las muestras se sembraron en medios de cultivos convencionales y a las colonias confirmadas se les efectuó una tipificación mediante la técnica de restricción enzimática del gen URA5. Resultados: De un total de 66 muestras analizadas, tres estaban positivas por levaduras pertenecientes al complejo de especies Cryptococcus neoformans. El estudio molecular agrupó los aislamientos en los tipos moleculares VNI y VNII; ambos corresponden a la especie Cryptococcus neoformans sensu stricto. Conclusión: En los sitios estudiados, la presencia de esta levadura es muy reducida, probablemente debido a factores ambientales. Se presenta el primer reporte de Cryptococcus neoformans sensu stricto, genotipos VNI y VNII en El Salvador, esta especie es de relevancia en salud pública por el ser el responsable de más del 90% de los casos de criptococosis a nivel mundial.


Abstract Aim: The objective of this study was to isolate yeast that belonged to the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex from the feces of the Feral Pigeon (Columba livia), from public places in El Salvador. Methods: Samples were seeded in conventional culture media and confirmed colonies were typed using the enzyme restriction technique of the URA5 gene. Results: Of a total of 66 samples analyzed, three were positive for yeasts that belonged to the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex. The molecular study grouped the isolates in the molecular types VNI and VNII; both belonging to the species Cryptococcus neoformans sensu stricto. Conclusions: In the studied sites the presence of this yeast is very low, probably due to environmental factors. We present the first report of Cryptococcus neoformans sensu stricto genotypes VNI and VNII in El Salvador. This specie is relevant in public health for being responsible for more than 90% of cases of cryptococcosis worldwide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Columbidae , Cryptococcus neoformans , Genotype , Zoonoses , Public Health
9.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 12-18, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364310

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The AKR1B1 gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of glucose into sorbitol. Chronic hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) leads to increased AKR1B1 affinity for glucose and, consequently, sorbitol accumulation. Elevated sorbitol increases oxidative stress, which is one of the main pathways related to chronic complications of diabetes, including diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Accordingly, some studies have suggested the rs759853 polymorphism in the AKR1B1 gene is associated with DKD; however, findings are still contradictory. The aim was to investigate the association of the rs759853 polymorphism in the AKR1B1 gene and DKD. Materials and methods: The sample comprised 695 patients with type 2 DM (T2DM) and DKD (cases) and 310 patients with T2DM of more than 10 years' duration, but no DKD (controls). The polymorphism was genotyped by real-time PCR. Results: Allelic and genotype frequencies of this polymorphism did not differ significantly between groups. However, the A/A genotype was associated with risk for DKD after adjustment for gender, triglycerides, BMI, presence of hypertension and diabetic retinopathy, and duration of DM, under both recessive (P = 0.048) and additive (P = 0.037) inheritance models. Conclusion: Our data suggest an association between the AKR1B1 rs759853A/A genotype and risk for DKD in Brazilians T2DM patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aldehyde Reductase/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetic Nephropathies/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Alleles , Gene Frequency , Genotype
10.
Ann. afr. méd. (En ligne) ; 15(2): e4543-e4549, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1366652

ABSTRACT

Context and objective. The steady increase in the number of chronic hemodialysis patients in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) calls for improved management of those patients. The present study aimed to determine the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the prevalent genotypes, and the risk factors associated with HCV in hemodialysis patients in Kinshasa (DR Congo). Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June 2018 in all hemodialysis centers in Kinshasa. Blood samples were collected from 127 chronic hemodialysis patients and tested for the presence of antibodies against HCV. The HCV genotype was identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR). Results. Twenty-two (17.3 %) patients were positive for anti-HCV antibodies, ranging from 0 % to 52.9 % in different centers. Genotype 4 was detected in 18/22 (81.8 %), followed by genotype 2 in 2/22 (9.1%), and both genotypes 2 and 4 in one patient (4.5%). One patient had an undetermined genotype (4.5 %). Having received at least 4 transfusions [7,21 (1,09- 10,61); p=0.040)], not being under EPO treatment [5,81(1,47-12,96); p=0.012)], being on hemodialysis for at least 14 months [3,63(1,60-5,05); p=0.035)]and being dialyzed in an overloaded center [2,06(0,83-5,86); p=0.073)] were associated with a greater risk of HCV infection. Conclusion. This high HCV prevalence (17.3 %) represents a substantial health burden in HD patients from Kinshasa, DR Congo. It is largely driven by the number of blood transfusions, the duration time in hemodialysis. Observations from the present study underscore the need of reducing the number of blood transfusions in people on dialysis through the administration of erythropoietin, given the unaffordable cost of HCV therapy for most individuals in DR Congo.


Contexte et Objectifs. Le nombre des patients hémodialisés en Afrique subsaharienne en constante augmentation ; justifiant de ce fait une meilleure prise en charge de ces patients. La présente étude détermine la prévalence de l'infection par le virus de l'hépatite C en en determinant les génotypes ainsi que les facteurs y associés dans ce groupe de patients. Méthodes. 127 patients hémodialisés chroniques ont subis des tests sérologiques à la recherche des anticorps anti-VHC dans plusieurs centres de Kinshasa de février à juin 2018. Le génotype viral a été déterminé par la RT-PCR. Résultats. La fréquence des anticorps anti-VHC a varié de 0 à 52,9 % dans ce groupe. Les génotypes le plus fréquents ont été le 4 (18/22) et le 2 (2/22) ; étant sumultanément rétrouvé chez un patient, et indéterminé chez un autre sujet. Avoir reçu au moins 4 transfusions [7,21 (1,09-10,61; p=0.040)], ne pas être sous EPO [5,81(1,47-12,96); p=0.012)], être en hémodialyse depuis au moins 14 mois [3,63(1,60- 5,05); p=0.035)] et être dialysé dans un centre surchargé [2,06 (0,83-5,86); p=0.073)] étaient associés à un risque plus élevé d'infection par le VHC. Conclusion. Ses principaux déterminants sont : le nombre des transfusions sanguines et la durée d'HD ; d'où la nécessité de réduire les transfusions sanguines chez les sujets dialysés par l'administration d'EPO, étant donné le coût prohibitif du traitement contre le VHC dans notre contexte


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Epidemiologic Factors , Hepacivirus , Genotype , Prevalence , Renal Dialysis
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e234780, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180735

ABSTRACT

Abstract Summer apples are one of the most important plant community in Artvin province located Northeastern part of Turkey. In present study 22 local apple genotypes were characterized by phenological, morphological, biochemical and sensory properties. Harvest date was the main phenological data. Morphological measurements included fruit weight, fruit shape, fruit ground color, fruit over color, fruit over color coverage and fruit firmness, respectively. Sensory measurements were as juiciness and aroma and biochemical characteristics included organic acids, SSC (Soluble Solid Content), vitamin C, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Genotypes exhibited variable harvest dates ranging from 11 July to 13 August and cv. Summered harvested 30 July 2017. The majority of genotypes were harvested before cv. Summered. Fruit weight were also quite variable among genotypes which found to be between 89 g and 132 g, and most of the genotypes had bigger fruits than cv. Summered. Pink, red, yellow and green fruit skin color was evident and main fruit shape were determined as round, conic and oblate among genotypes. ART08-9, ART08-4, ART08-21 and ART08-22 had distinct bigger fruits and ART08-1, ART08-2, ART08-5, ART08-12 and ART08-17 had higher total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. The results of the study showed significant differences for most of the phenological, morphological, sensory and biochemical characteristics. Thus, the phonological, morphological, sensory and biochemical characteristics of summer apple genotypes were distinguishable and these results suggest that phonological, morphological, sensory and biochemical differences of the summer apple genotypes can be attributed to differences in genetic background of genotypes which placed different groups by PCoA analysis.


Resumo As maçãs cultivadas no verão são uma das culturas vegetais mais importantes da província de Artvin, localizada no nordeste da Turquia. No presente estudo, 22 genótipos locais de maçã foram caracterizados quanto às suas propriedades morfológicas, bioquímicas e sensoriais. As características analisadas foram peso do fruto, data da colheita, forma do fruto, coloração da casca, firmeza do fruto, suculência, aroma, teor de ácidos orgânicos e de sólidos solúveis, vitamina C, teor fenólico total e capacidade antioxidante. Os genótipos exibiram datas de colheita ​​que variaram de 11 de julho a 13 de agosto, e a cultivar de verão foi colhida em 30 de julho 2017. A maioria dos genótipos foi colhida antes da cultivar de verão. O peso dos frutos também foi bastante variável entre os genótipos, apresentando entre 89 e 132 g, e a maioria dos genótipos apresentou frutos maiores que a cultivar de verão. As colorações rosa, vermelho, amarelo e verde da casca dos frutos foram as mais evidentes, e a forma principal dos frutos foi determinada como redonda, cônica e oblata entre os genótipos. ART08-9, ART08-4, ART08-21 e ART08-22 apresentaram frutos maiores distintos, e ART08-1, ART08-2, ART08-5, ART08-12 e ART08-17 apresentaram maior conteúdo fenólico total e capacidade antioxidante. Os resultados do estudo mostraram diferenças significativas para a maioria das características morfológicas, sensoriais e bioquímicas. Assim, essas características dos genótipos da maçã cultivadas no verão foram distintos, e esses resultados podem ser atribuídos a diferenças no contexto genético dos genótipos.


Subject(s)
Malus/genetics , Ascorbic Acid , Fruit/genetics , Genotype , Antioxidants
13.
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(3): 1-8, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1378417

ABSTRACT

Objective and background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease which is characterized by a progressive loss in the matrix of soft and hard tissue of periodontium particularly the collagen fibers which are cleaved by matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP). Indeed, increased activity of MMP mediates progression of periodontal diseases but population-based genetic variations could determine the susceptibility to the disease. The aim was to investigate association between MMP-1-1607 polymorphism with periodontitis among Iraqi individuals. Subjects and methods: The design of this study was a case-control for Iraqi individuals who were divided into two groups; periodontitis group (cases) and those with healthy periodontium (Control). For each subject, clinical periodontal parameters and demographic characteristics were recorded and venous blood was withdrawn for genetic analysis of MMP-1 by using PCR technique and DNA sequencing. Results: Analysis of MMP-1-1607 genotypes, by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, showed significant differences in the total sample. The most predominant MMP-1-1607 genotype among Controls was 1G/2G which was significantly different from periodontitis cohorts. Overall, 13 SNP were detected in periodontitis group versus 17 SNP in Control group. In addition, the periodontitis group showed a significant negative association between the probing pocket depth and MMP-1-1607. Conclusion: Results suggested that polymorphisms in MMP-1-1607 1G/2G may play a protective role and decreasing the susceptibility to periodontitis. (AU)


Introdução e objetivo: A periodontite é uma doença inflamatória caracterizada pela perda progressiva da matriz dos tecidos moles e duros do periodonto, particularmente as fibras de colágeno clivadas pelas metaloproteinases da matriz (MMPs). De fato, o aumento da atividade de MMPs medeia a progressão das doenças periodontais, mas as variações genéticas baseadas na população podem determinar a suscetibilidade à doença. O objetivo foi investigar a associação entre o polimorfismo MMP-1-1607 e periodontite em indivíduos iraquianos. População e método: O desenho deste estudo foi um caso-controle com indivíduos iraquianos, os quais foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo periodontite (casos) e indivíduos com periodonto saudável (controle). Para cada sujeito, os parâmetros clínicos periodontais e as características demográficas foram registrados, e o sangue venoso foi coletado para análise genética de MMP-1 por meio da técnica de PCR e sequenciamento de DNA. Resultados: A análise dos genótipos MMP-1-1607, pelo equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg, mostrou diferenças significativas na amostra total. O genótipo MMP-1-1607 mais predominante entre os controles foi 1G/2G, o qual foi significativamente diferente das coortes de periodontite. No geral, 13 SNP foram detectados no grupo periodontite versus 17 SNP no grupo controle. Além disso, o grupo periodontite mostrou uma associação negativa significativa entre a profundidade da bolsa de sondagem e MMP-1-1607. Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem que polimorfismos em MMP-1-1607 1G/2G podem desempenhar um papel protetor e diminuir a suscetibilidade à periodontite. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Periodontitis , Polymorphism, Genetic , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genotype
14.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 27(1): e2220159, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1364783

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) refers to a group of conditions that compromise the harmonious movement and function of the temporomandibular joint, masticatory muscles, and associated structures. The etiopathogenesis of TMD is multifactorial but not well-understood, with the role of genetic factors still being unclear. Objective: This review aims to summarize the results of studies that evaluated TNF-α levels and the -308G/A TNF-α polymorphism in TMD patients. This study emphasizes the importance of a more selective treatment involving TNF-α inhibitors that can potentially reduce inflammation and pain, and improve quality of life. Methods: The MEDLINE/PubMed database, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science database were searched for case-control studies published until September 2020 that compared levels of TNF-α or presence of its -308G/A polymorphism in TMD patients and healthy individuals. Results: Six case-control studies were identified with a total of 398 TMD patients, aged between 12 and 78 years. The control group consisted of 149 subjects, aged between 18 and 47 years. The occurrence of TMD was predominant in females. Majority of studies found high TNF-α levels in TMD patients, compared to the control group. One of these studies found a positive correlation between the GA genotype and the development of TMD. Conclusion: Majority of the TMD patients showed elevated TNF-α levels, and a possible explanation for this could be the presence of the -308G/A polymorphism.


RESUMO Introdução: A disfunção temporomandibular (DTM) é definida como um grupo de alterações que comprometem a articulação temporomandibular, os músculos mastigatórios e as estruturas associadas. A etiopatogenia da DTM é multifatorial, e o papel dos fatores genéticos permanece obscuro. Objetivo: A presente revisão teve como objetivo descrever as contribuições de estudos que avaliaram os níveis de TNF-α e o polimorfismo -308 G/A em pacientes com DTM. Esse estudo enfatizou a importância de um tratamento mais completo envolvendo os inibidores do TNF-α que podem potencialmente reduzir a inflamação e a dor, contribuindo para melhorar a qualidade de vida do paciente. Métodos: As pesquisas foram realizadas nas bases de dados MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library e Web of Science, em busca de estudos de caso-controle publicados até setembro de 2020 que avaliassem os níveis de TNF-α e seu polimorfismo -308 G/A nos pacientes com DTM e em controles saudáveis. Resultados: Seis estudos de caso-controle foram identificados, com um total de 398 pacientes com DTM, e a idade variou de 12 a 78 anos. O grupo controle consistiu de 149 indivíduos e sua idade variou, aproximadamente, de 18 a 47 anos. O sexo feminino foi predominante. A maioria das pesquisas encontrou níveis elevados de TNF-α nos pacientes, em comparação com os controles. Um estudo encontrou uma associação positiva entre o genótipo GA e o desenvolvimento de DTM. Conclusão: A maioria dos pacientes com DTM demonstrou predisposição a uma maior produção de TNF-α, e isso poderia ser explicado pela presença do polimorfismo -308 G/A.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Temporomandibular Joint , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Quality of Life , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/epidemiology , Genotype , Middle Aged
15.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 12(1): 29-39, 2022. tab 1 Distribución en frecuencia y porcentaje de la Tipificación del VPH, tab 2 Distribución por frecuencia y porcentaje de los tipos virales según el riesgo en los pacientes estudiados, tab 3 Distribución en frecuencia y porcentaje de manifestaciones clínicas de infección por VPH, ilus, tab 4 Distribución de los sitios en cavidad bucal, más afectados por infección de VPH, en frecuencia y porcentaje
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1353791

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: describir las características clínicas epidemiológicas en cavidad bucal de la infección por VPH y la asociación con su tipificación molecular. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico de corte transversal en 52 pacientes que acudieron a los servicios de estomatología en la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Cartagena y al Hospital Alemán de Buenos Aires, a quienes se les abrió historia clínica y se les practicó prueba de PCR en tiempo real para la tipificación del VPH. Resultados: el análisis de los datos se efectuó a través de frecuencia y porcentaje. En cuanto a la parte inferencial, se usó la prueba chi cuadrado con un nivel de confianza P<0,05. De los 52 pacientes analizados, 67.3% eran mujeres con un predominio de edad entre los 50-59 años. El serotipo mayormente encontrado fue VPH 6, seguido del VPH 11 y otros tipos de VPH. La lesión elemental más preponderante fue la verrugosidad y la ubicación de predominio, la lengua. Conclusión: las infecciones por VPH se manifiestan frecuentemente en cavidad bucal con verrugosidades en lengua. Su estudio epidemiológico, incluyendo su tipificación, permitiría encontrar lesiones características para un diagnóstico, seguimiento y tratamiento oportuno.


Objective: Analyze the most common epidemiological clinical characteristics of HPV infection in the oral cavity and its molecular typing. Methods: An observational, analytical, cross-sectional study was carried out in 52 patients who attended the stomatology services of the Universidad de Cartagena and the Hospital Alemán de Buenos Aires; a complete clinical history was carried out, including stomatological examination, biopsy, pathological study and real-time PCR test for HPV typing. Results: The data analysis was carried out by means of frequency and percentage. Regarding the inferential part, the chi-square test was used with a confidence level of P <0.05. Of the 52 studied patients 67.3% were women; with a predominant age between 50-59 years. The most common serotype found was HPV 6, followed by HPV 11 and other types of HPV. The predominant lesion was the wart and the predominant location, the tongue. Conclusion: The HPV infections are frequently manifested in oral cavity with Verrugosities in language and its typing, would allow a timely diagnosis of pharynx cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Papillomavirus Infections , Alphapapillomavirus , Mouth , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
16.
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 89: e00212021, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1393890

ABSTRACT

Lettuce bacterial leaf spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians is an aggressive disease that is difficult to control. So far there are no reports of the reaction of biofortified lettuce genotypes to different isolates of the bacteria. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the aggressiveness of X. campestris pv. vitians, as well as the reaction of biofortified lettuce genotypes to bacterial spot. Two experiments were performed in two distinct seasons (winter and summer), in greenhouse at the Vegetable Experimental Station of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU). The experimental design in both experiments was a randomized block design, in a factor scheme of 5 × 4 (five genotypes and four strains), with four repetitions. Were evaluated the severity and the area under the disease progress curve. In general, the biofortified lettuce 'Uberlândia 10000' was more resistant to most bacterial strains in the summer cultivation, and in the winter period UFU 'Crespa 206'. The commercial cultivar Robusta was the most susceptible to the strains during both seasons. The UFU E125 strain was the most aggressive for most genotypes in both seasons.


Subject(s)
Xanthomonas campestris/genetics , Lettuce/genetics , Genotype , Vegetables
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e241110, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278500

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plasmodium vivax is the most common human malaria parasite in Asian countries including Pakistan. Present study was designed to explore the genetic diversity of plasmodium vivax genotypes based on Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3βgenes using allelic specific nested PCR and RFLP assays markers from field isolates in district Mardan, Pakistan. Blood samples of 200 P. vivax malarial patients were collected after taking their written informed consent. Genetic diversity in nested PCR products was determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) utilizing Alu1 and PstI restriction enzymes for alpha and beta gene products digestion, respectively. For analysis the genetic diversity of the sub allelic variants of Pvmsp3α and Pvmsp3β genes, Chi-Square test was performed by utilizing Minitab programming software 18. The P value 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. For Pvmsp-3α genes after gel electrophoresis of digested products, four distinct genotypes were obtained from total of 50 samples; type A: 35 (70%) (1.5-2.0 kb), 12 of type B (24%) (1.5-1.7 kb), 2 of type C (4%) (0.5-1.5) and one for type D (2%) (0.5-0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 9 allelic pattern (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), in which A3 remained the most predominant. For Pvmsp-3βgenes, three distinct genotypes were obtained from 50 samples; 40(80%) of type A (1.5-2.5 kb), 9 (18%) of type B (1.0-1.5kb) and 1(2%) of type C (0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 6 allelic patterns (A1-A3, B1-B2, and C1). Most dominant one in Type A was A1 alleles which were noted (46%), while in Type B, the most dominant were B1 (10%).This study is the first ever report of molecular epidemiology and genetic variation in Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3β genes of P. vivax isolates by using PCR/RFLP from District Mardan and showed a remarkable level of genetic diversity in the studied genes of circulating parasites in the study area. The results of this study will contribute in future studies about the genetic structure of parasite and vaccine development against the malaria.


Resumo O Plasmodium vivax é o parasita da malária humana mais comum nos países asiáticos, incluindo o Paquistão. O presente estudo foi desenhado para explorar a diversidade genética de genótipos de Plasmodium vivax baseados nos genes Pvmsp-3α e Pvmsp-3β, usando marcadores de ensaios alélicos nested PCR e RFLP de isolados de campo no distrito de Mardan, Paquistão. Amostras de sangue de 200 pacientes com malária por P. vivax foram coletadas após assinatura do termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido. A diversidade genética em produtos de PCR nested foi determinada por polimorfismo de fragmento de restrição (RFLP) utilizando as enzimas de restrição Alu1 e PstI para a digestão dos produtos dos genes alfa e beta, respectivamente. Para análise da diversidade genética das variantes subalélicas dos genes Pvmsp3α e Pvmsp3β, o teste Qui-quadrado foi realizado utilizando o software de programação Minitab 18. O valor P = 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Para os genes Pvmsp-3α, após eletroforese em gel de produtos digeridos, quatro genótipos distintos foram obtidos de um total de 50 amostras; tipo A: 35 (70%) (1,5-2,0 kb), 12 do tipo B (24%) (1,5-1,7 kb), 2 do tipo C (4%) (0,5-1,5) e um para o tipo D (2%) (0,5-0,65 kb), que podem ser caracterizados em nove padrões alélicos (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), em que A3 permaneceu como o mais predominante. Para Pvmsp-3βgenes, três genótipos distintos foram obtidos a partir de 50 amostras; 40 (80%) do tipo A (1,5-2,5 kb), 9 (18%) do tipo B (1,0-1,5 kb) e 1 (2%) do tipo C (0,65 kb), que podem ser caracterizados em seis padrões alélicos (A1-A3, B1-B2 e C1). Os mais dominantes no tipo A foram o alelo A1, observados em 46%, enquanto, no tipo B, os mais dominantes foram B1 (10%). Este estudo é o primeiro relato de epidemiologia molecular e variação genética em Pvmsp-3α. Os genes Pvmsp-3β de isolados de P. vivax utilizando PCR/RFLP do Distrito Mardan mostraram um nível notável de diversidade genética nos genes estudados de parasitas circulantes na área de estudo. Os resultados desse estudo contribuirão em estudos futuros sobre a estrutura genética do parasita e o desenvolvimento de vacinas contra a malária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmodium vivax/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Pakistan , Genetic Variation , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242596, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278487

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hops is a new culture in Brazil. Tissue culture can be an important technique for rapid hop propagation. This paper aims to characterize responses from different genotypes under different growth regulators through the interrelationship of response variables important to hop in vitro growth. Three genotypes were cultivated in six culture media with different combinations of growth regulators, BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), IAA (3-indolacetic acid) and GA3 (gibberellic acid). The means were compared by orthogonal contrasts and the interrelationship of the response variables was performed by path analysis. American genotypes showed favorable root development under the BAP + IAA combination, while the use of IAA improved shoot development. The origin of genotypes was important for defining the best protocol for in vitro cultivation. The path coefficient showed that the variable number of shoots has stronger direct effect on the number of nodal segments. Additionally, in tissue culture assays, the use of a covariable and proper error distribution significantly increased experimental accuracy.


Resumo O lúpulo é uma nova cultura no Brasil. A cultura de tecidos pode ser uma técnica importante para a propagação rápida do lúpulo. Este artigo tem como objetivo caracterizar respostas de diferentes genótipos sob diferentes reguladores de crescimento através da inter-relação de variáveis ​​de resposta importantes para o crescimento in vitro. Três genótipos foram cultivados em seis meios de cultura com diferentes combinações de reguladores de crescimento, BAP (6-benzilaminopurina), AIA (ácido 3-indolacético) e GA3 (ácido giberélico). As médias foram comparadas por contrastes ortogonais e a inter-relação das variáveis ​​de resposta foi realizada por análise de trilha. Os genótipos americanos apresentaram desenvolvimento radicular favorável sob a combinação BAP + AIA, enquanto o uso do AIA melhorou o desenvolvimento da parte aérea. A origem dos genótipos foi importante para definir o melhor protocolo para o cultivo in vitro. O coeficiente de trilha mostrou que a variável número de brotos tem um efeito direto mais forte no número de segmentos nodais. Adicionalmente, em experimentos com cultura de tecidos, o uso de uma covariável e distribuição de erro adequada aumentou significativamente a precisão experimental.


Subject(s)
Plant Growth Regulators , Brazil , Plant Shoots/genetics , Culture Media , Genotype
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the correlation of cytochrome B-245 alpha chain (CYBA) rs4673 and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) rs12720922 polymorphisms with the susceptibility of gene-ralized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP).@*METHODS@#The study was a case-control trial. A total of 372 GAgP patients and 133 periodontally healthy controls were recruited. The CYBA rs4673 and CETP rs12720922 polymorphisms were detected by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Logistic regression models were used to analyze the correlation of CYBA rs4673 and CETP rs12720922 variants with the susceptibility of GAgP. The interaction between the two gene polymorphisms to the susceptibility of GAgP was analyzed by the likelihood ratio test. The interaction model adopted was the multiplication model.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of GAgP group and control group was (27.5±5.2) years and (28.8±7.1) years respectively. There was significant difference in age between the two groups (P < 0.05). The gender distribution (male/female) was 152/220 and 53/80 respectively, and there was no significant difference between GAgP group and controls (P>0.05). For CYBA rs4673, the frequency of CT/TT genotype in the GAgP group was significantly higher than that in the controls [18.0% (66/366) vs. 10.6% (14/132), P < 0.05]. After adjusting age and gender, the individuals with CT/TT genotype had a higher risk of GAgP (OR=1.86, 95%CI: 1.01-3.45, P < 0.05), compared with CC genotype. There was no statistically significant difference in distributions of the CETP rs12720922 genotypes (GG, AA/AG) between GAgP patients and healthy controls (P>0.05). A significant interaction between CYBA rs4673 and CETP rs12720922 in the susceptibility to GAgP was observed. The GAgP risk of the individuals with CYBA rs4673 CT/TT and CETP rs12720922 GG genotypes was significantly increased (OR=3.25, 95%CI: 1.36-7.75, P < 0.01), compared with those carrying CC and AA/AG genotypes.@*CONCLUSION@#CYBA rs4673 CT/TT genotype is associated with GAgP susceptibility. There is a significant interaction between CYBA rs4673 CT/TT genotype and CETP rs12720922 GG genotype in the susceptibility of GAgP.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aggressive Periodontitis/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins/genetics , Cytochrome b Group , Female , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Male , NADPH Oxidases/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Young Adult
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928764

ABSTRACT

The ABO blood group system is the most important blood group system in clinical transfusion. Serological technology is a routine method for the identification of ABO blood groups, however, which have some limitations in the identification of complicated ABO samples with weakened antigens or antibodies, abnormal plasma proteins, polyagglutination, or cold agglutinin, etc. With the development of molecular biology technology, ABO blood group gene was cloned, and ABO blood group genotyping technology based on DNA was established. The genotyping technologies with different throughputs such as PCR-SSP, Droplet-AS-PCR, PCR-RFLP, PCR-SBT, SNaPshot, MALDI-TOF MS and NGS have emerged. Genotyping has overcome the limitations of serology, and has become an indispensable method to solve difficult blood type, providing strong support for the correct identification of ABO blood group, and providing guarantee for precision blood transfusion. This review summarizes the progress and application of ABO blood group genotyping methods.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , Genotype , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Technology
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