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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244244, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448957

ABSTRACT

Com os avanços tecnológicos e o aprimoramento da prática médica via ultrassonografia, já é possível detectar possíveis problemas no feto desde a gestação. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prática do psicólogo no contexto de gestações que envolvem riscos fetais. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo sob formato de relato de experiência como psicólogo residente no Serviço de Medicina Fetal da Maternidade Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Os registros, feitos por observação participante e diário de campo, foram analisados em dois eixos temáticos: 1) intervenções psicológicas no trabalho em equipe em consulta de pré-natal, exame de ultrassonografia e procedimento de amniocentese; e 2) intervenções psicológicas em casos de bebês incompatíveis com a vida. Os resultados indicaram que o psicólogo nesse serviço é essencial para atuar de forma multiprofissional na assistência pré-natal para gravidezes de alto risco fetal. Ademais, a preceptoria do residente é relevante para sua formação e treinamento para atuação profissional no campo da psicologia perinatal.(AU)


Face to the technological advances and the improvement of medical practice via ultrasound, it is already possible to detect possible problems in the fetus since pregnancy. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychologist's practice in the context of pregnancies which involve fetal risks. It is a qualitative study based on an experience report as a psychologist trainee at the Fetal Medicine Service of the Maternity School of UFRJ. The records, based on the participant observation and field diary, were analyzed in two thematic axes: 1) psychological interventions in the teamwork in the prenatal attendance, ultrasound examination and amniocentesis procedure; and 2) psychological interventions in cases of babies incompatible to the life. The results indicated that the psychologist in this service is essential to work in a multidisciplinary way at the prenatal care for high fetal risk pregnancies. Furthermore, the resident's preceptorship is relevant to their education and training for professional performance in the field of Perinatal Psychology.(AU)


Con los avances tecnológicos y la mejora de la práctica médica a través de la ecografía, ya se puede detectar posibles problemas en el feto desde el embarazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la práctica del psicólogo en el contexto de embarazos de riesgos fetal. Es un estudio cualitativo basado en un relato de experiencia como residente de psicología en el Servicio de Medicina Fetal de la Escuela de Maternidad de la Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Los registros, realizados en la observación participante y el diario de campo, se analizaron en dos ejes temáticos: 1) intervenciones psicológicas en el trabajo en equipo, en la consulta prenatal, ecografía y los procedimientos de amniocentesis; y 2) intervenciones psicológicas en casos de bebés incompatibles con la vida. Los resultados señalaron como fundamental la presencia del psicólogo en este servicio trabajando de forma multidisciplinar en la atención prenatal en el contexto de embarazos de alto riesgo fetal. Además, la tutela del residente es relevante para su educación y formación para el desempeño profesional en el campo de la Psicología Perinatal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Psychosocial Intervention , Heart Defects, Congenital , Anxiety , Orientation , Pain , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , Paternity , Patient Care Team , Patients , Pediatrics , Placenta , Placentation , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy Maintenance , Prognosis , Psychoanalytic Theory , Psychology , Puerperal Disorders , Quality of Life , Radiation , Religion , Reproduction , Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena , General Surgery , Syndrome , Congenital Abnormalities , Temperance , Therapeutics , Urogenital System , Bioethics , Physicians' Offices , Infant, Premature , Labor, Obstetric , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Animal , Pregnancy Outcome , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Family , Abortion, Spontaneous , Child Rearing , Child Welfare , Mental Health , Family Health , Survival Rate , Life Expectancy , Cause of Death , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Chromosome Mapping , Parental Leave , Mental Competency , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive , Down Syndrome , Perinatal Care , Comprehensive Health Care , Chemical Compounds , Depression, Postpartum , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Disabled Children , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Gravidity , Crisis Intervention , Affect , Cytogenetic Analysis , Spirituality , Complicity , Value of Life , Humanizing Delivery , Death , Decision Making , Defense Mechanisms , Abortion, Threatened , Delivery of Health Care , Dementia , Uncertainty , Organogenesis , Qualitative Research , Pregnant Women , Early Diagnosis , Premature Birth , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Child Mortality , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Postpartum Period , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological , Ethanol , Ego , Emotions , Empathy , Environment , Humanization of Assistance , User Embracement , Ethics, Professional , Cell Nucleus Shape , Prenatal Nutrition , Cervical Length Measurement , Family Conflict , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena , Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications , Gestational Sac , Brief, Resolved, Unexplained Event , Fetal Death , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Multimodal Imaging , Mortality, Premature , Clinical Decision-Making , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Child, Foster , Freedom , Burnout, Psychological , Birth Setting , Frustration , Sadness , Respect , Psychological Distress , Genetics , Psychological Well-Being , Obstetricians , Guilt , Happiness , Health Occupations , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Maternity , Hospitals, University , Human Development , Human Rights , Imagination , Infections , Infertility , Anencephaly , Jurisprudence , Obstetric Labor Complications , Licensure , Life Change Events , Life Support Care , Loneliness , Love , Medical Staff, Hospital , Intellectual Disability , Morals , Mothers , Narcissism , Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities , Neonatology , Nervous System Malformations , Object Attachment
3.
Rev. cuba. obstet. ginecol ; 45(3): e488, jul.-set. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093662

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El embarazo ectópico en cicatriz de cesárea previa es una forma novedosa y potencialmente mortal de implantación anormal de un saco gestacional dentro del miometrio y el tejido fibroso de la cicatriz. Se desconoce la historia natural de esta condición para lo cual no existe consenso en su manejo. Presentación de caso: Se presenta un caso que se manejó quirúrgicamente de forma conservadora por minilaparotomía, evacuación del tejido trofoblástico, lográndose preservar el útero. Con edad gestacional de 10 semanas, se aplicó metrotexate localmente e intramuscular. La paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente hacia la mejoría siendo dada de alta. Métodos: Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica en bases de datos Pub Med y Science Direct con las palabras claves obtenidas del MeSH: "Scar ectopic pregnancy" durante los años 2000 y 2018. Se presentan las alternativas de manejo, tanto médico como quirúrgico, sin embargo, ello estará sujeto a las condiciones de la paciente y a la experiencia del médico tratante(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Ectopic pregnancy in a previous caesarean section is a novel and life-threatening form of abnormal implantation of a gestational sac within the myometrium and the fibrous tissue of the scar. The natural history of this condition is unknown, thus there is no consensus in its management. Case report: We report a case that was surgically managed in conservative way by minilaparotomy, trophoblastic tissue evacuation. The uterus was preserved. The gestational age was 10 weeks. Metrotexate was applied locally and intramuscularly. The patient evolved satisfactorily towards improvement and discharge. Methods: A literature review during the years 2000 and 2018 was carried out in Pub Med and Science Direct databases. The keywords from MeSH used were "Scar ectopic pregnancy". Both medical and surgical management alternatives are presented, however the patient condition and the experience of the attending physician will contribute as well(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pregnancy, Ectopic/diagnosis , Gestational Sac/pathology , Laparotomy/methods , Myometrium , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic
4.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 83(1): 99-103, feb. 2018. graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899977

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La protuberancia coriónica (del inglés chorionic bump) es una condición que involucra al saco gestacional y que puede ser visualizada en la ecografía de primer trimestre. Ha sido descrita como una convexidad irregular que protruye hacia el saco gestacional y que probablemente corresponda a la formación de un hematoma en la superficie coriodecidual. Nosotros reportamos los hallazgos y el seguimiento ecográfico de un caso, junto con una revisión de la literatura.


SUMMARY Chorionic bump is a condition that involves the gestational sac and can be viewed during the first-trimester ultrasound scan. It has been described as an irregular convexity protruding into the gestational sac and probably corresponds to the formation of a hematoma within the choriodecidual surface. We reported both the sonographic findings and follow-up of a case, along with a review of the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Pregnancy Outcome , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Gestational Sac/diagnostic imaging , Chorion/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler
5.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 220-226, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness and safety of medical treatment with sublingual misoprostol (MS) in the 1st trimester miscarriage under the approval by Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) for off-label usage by the single medical center in Korea. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed in one institution between April 2013 and June 2016. Ninety-one patients diagnosed with miscarriage before 14 weeks of gestation and wanted to try medical treatment were included. A detailed ultrasound scan was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Patients took 600 microgram (mcg) of MS sublingually at initial dose, and repeated the same dose 4–6 hours apart. Successful medical abortion was defined as spontaneous expulsion of gestational products (including gestational sac, embryo, fetus, and placenta). If gestational products were not expelled, surgical evacuation was performed at least 24 hours later from the initial dose. Information about side effects was obtained by medical records. RESULTS: About two-thirds of patients had a successful outcome. The median interval time from pill to expulsion was 18 hours in the successful medical treatment group. There was no serious systemic side effect or massive vaginal bleeding. Presence or absence of vaginal spotting before diagnosis of miscarriage, uterine leiomyomas, subchorionic hematoma, or distorted shape of gestational sac on ultrasound scan were not statistically different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Medical treatment with sublingual MS can be a proper option for the 1st trimester miscarriage, especially for the patient who want to avoid surgical procedure. We can reduce the unnecessary sedation or surgical intervention in the patients with the 1st trimester miscarriage.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Abortion, Incomplete , Abortion, Missed , Abortion, Spontaneous , Administration, Sublingual , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Embryonic Structures , Fetus , Gestational Sac , Hematoma , Insurance, Health , Korea , Leiomyoma , Medical Records , Metrorrhagia , Misoprostol , Off-Label Use , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Uterine Hemorrhage
6.
Philippine Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; : 29-36, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-633590

ABSTRACT

This is a case report of a first trimester cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) evolving into a placenta accreta at term based on the ultrasound imaging. The gestational sac, initially implanted at the site of previous scar, grew into the uterine cavity as the pregnancy progressed and resulted into a viable birth complicated by placenta accreta.Cesarean scar pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy and is associated with increased maternal morbidity and mortality. Thus, early recognition of the salient sonographic findings is crucial because a delay could lead to a life threatening condition. Early diagnosis also gives women the option to choose between expectant management and termination of pregnancy. The exact incidence of CSP has not been determined but its incidence is on the rise in parallel with the high rate of cesarean sections. There are two types of CSP. The first type is due to the implantation of the gestational sac on the scar with progression towards the uterine cavity. In this type expectant management is justifiable since pregnancy may progress into a viable pregnancy. The second type involves growth of gestational tissues towards the bladder and abdominal cavity and is associated with uterine rupture if immediate intervention is not undertaken. In this report, we present a case of a first trimester CSP that was managed expectantly and developed into placenta accreta at term.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Placenta Accreta , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Gestational Sac , Uterine Rupture , Pregnancy, Ectopic , Cesarean Section , Embryo Implantation
7.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 462-468, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192008

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the preoperative diagnostic clues to ovarian pregnancy (OP). METHODS: This study conducted a retrospective chart review of 23 patients with OP and 46 patients with tubal pregnancy (TP) from October 1, 2003 to September 31, 2016 in Hanyang University Hospital. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between the two groups. The presence of an ectopic gestational sac and hemoperitoneum was significantly higher in the TP group (13.0% vs. 95.7%, P=0.000; 13.0% vs. 54.3%, P=0.001, respectively) in preoperative ultrasonogram. The OP group had more ruptured ectopic gestational sacs than the TP group (73.9% vs. 45.7%, P=0.039) in surgical findings. CONCLUSION: For the patients in whom a gestational sac is not detected in the uterus or the fallopian tubes, it is important to be aware of the possibility of OP and rupture of an ovarian gestational sac to promote early diagnosis and surgical intervention.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Early Diagnosis , Fallopian Tubes , Gestational Sac , Hemoperitoneum , Laparoscopy , Pregnancy, Ovarian , Pregnancy, Tubal , Retrospective Studies , Rupture , Ultrasonography , Uterus
8.
Philippine Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; : 29-36, 2017.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960587

ABSTRACT

This is a case report of a first trimester cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) evolving into a placenta accreta at term based on the ultrasound imaging. The gestational sac, initially implanted at the site of previous scar, grew into the uterine cavity as the pregnancy progressed and resulted into a viable birth complicated by placenta accreta.Cesarean scar pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy and is associated with increased maternal morbidity and mortality. Thus, early recognition of the salient sonographic findings is crucial because a delay could lead to a life threatening condition. Early diagnosis also gives women the option to choose between expectant management and termination of pregnancy. The exact incidence of CSP has not been determined but its incidence is on the rise in parallel with the high rate of cesarean sections. There are two types of CSP. The first type is due to the implantation of the gestational sac on the scar with progression towards the uterine cavity. In this type expectant management is justifiable since pregnancy may progress into a viable pregnancy. The second type involves growth of gestational tissues towards the bladder and abdominal cavity and is associated with uterine rupture if immediate intervention is not undertaken. In this report, we present a case of a first trimester CSP that was managed expectantly and developed into placenta accreta at term.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Placenta Accreta , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Gestational Sac , Uterine Rupture , Pregnancy, Ectopic , Cesarean Section , Embryo Implantation
9.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 565-570, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126352

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate whether there are any notable etiologies for repeated biochemical pregnancy (RBP) and, if so, to compare those etiologies associated with repeated spontaneous abortion in infertile couples who have undergone in vitro fertilization (IVF). METHODS: Forty-four infertile couples who underwent IVF and experienced RBP were included in this study. RBP was defined as more than 2 early pregnancy losses that occurred before the detection of a gestational sac, with ectopic pregnancies specifically excluded by serial serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin evaluation. Forty-three infertile couples who underwent IVF and experienced recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) were included as a control group. Karyotype analysis, anatomic evaluation of uterus, endocrine and immunological evaluation were performed. In addition, the number of pregnant women confirmed by 12 weeks' gestation was compared between groups. RESULTS: Immunological factors (RSA: 20.9% vs. RBP: 29.5%, P=0.361), diminished ovarian reserve (RSA: 10.9% vs. RBP: 17%, P=0.552), and parental chromosomal abnormalities (RSA: 18.6% vs. RBP: 9.1%, P=0.218) were not different between groups. Additionally, the incidence of uterine factors (RSA: 11.6% vs. RBP: 4.6%, P=0.206), unknown cause (RSA: 48.8% vs. RBP: 54.5%, P=0.161), and the pregnancy outcome identified until 12 weeks' gestation (RSA: 46.5% vs. RBP: 38.6%, P=0.520) did not differ between groups. CONCLUSION: In the present study, the causes of RBP after IVF were similar to those of RSA. Accordingly, we suggest that efforts should be made to define the etiology of RBP, particularly for infertile couples, and that possible management strategies should be offered.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Abortion, Habitual , Abortion, Spontaneous , Biochemical Phenomena , Chorionic Gonadotropin , Chromosome Aberrations , Family Characteristics , Fertilization in Vitro , Gestational Sac , Immunologic Factors , In Vitro Techniques , Incidence , Karyotype , Ovarian Reserve , Parents , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy, Ectopic , Pregnant Women , Uterus
10.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 571-578, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126351

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the therapeutic outcomes of methotrexate (MTX) in the treatment of unruptured interstitial pregnancy. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of patients who were diagnosed with interstitial pregnancy and received MTX as first-line treatment between January 2003 and July 2014 at CHA Gangnam Medical Center. The treatment success rates and subsequent pregnancy outcomes were examined. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients were diagnosed with interstitial pregnancy between January 2003 and July 2014. Of them, 38 initially received MTX treatment. The diagnosis was made at a median of 6+3 weeks (5+0 to 11+3 weeks). Thirty patients received a systemic MTX injection, while the other 8 received a local MTX injection. Systemic treatment composed of an 8-day alternating MTX regimen, single-dose regimen, or high-dose regimen (100 mg/m2 + 200 mg/m2 intravenously over 12 hours). The local injection consisted of a direct MTX injection into the gestational sac with or without systemic MTX injection. Twenty-one patients (55.3%) were successfully treated with MTX. However, MTX therapy failed in 17 patients (44.7%), who required surgery. Mode of MTX treatment was the only predictive variable of MTX treatment success (P=0.039). Treatment success was seen in 7 of 8 patients (87.5%) in the local MTX group vs. 14 of 30 patients (46.7%) in the systemic MTX group. After treatment, 13 patients attempted a successive pregnancy; of them, 10 patients had a confirmed clinical pregnancy and healthy live birth. CONCLUSION: Combined MTX treatment including a local injection might be an initial approach to the treatment of interstitial pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Diagnosis , Gestational Sac , Live Birth , Medical Records , Methotrexate , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy, Interstitial
11.
Philippine Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; : 1-11, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-633515

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify the clinical factors associated with intrauterine insemination (IUI) success among Filipino couples and incorporate the significant clinical factors in a formula for a prognostic scoring index for the success of IUI. METHODS: This is a review of cases who consulted for infertility and underwent IUI at a tertiary hospital between January 2007 and December 2014. The variables considered for analysis were female age, duration of infertility, etiology of infertility, method of sperm processing, number of preovulatory follicles, total motile insemination count (TMSC), and sperm motility. The outcome measure was determined either by a positive urine or serum beta HCG or a gestational sac on transvaginal ultrasound. Results from the logistic regression analysis were used to develop prognostic scoring index for IUI success. Computed scores were plotted in a Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve and cut off values were determined. RESULTS: The overall pregnancy rate in this study was 10.7%. Duration of infertility (OR 10.33, 95% CI 3.488-30.602) and sperm motility (OR 5.30, 95% CI 1.830-15.331) showed the strongest significant association with the occurrence of pregnancy. Odds of pregnancy after IUI are likewise increased in female age of 2.5 years. The formulated prognostic scoring index for IUI success was 18.6, with specificity of 91.1%, sensitivity of 39.4%. CONCLUSION: Duration of infertility, female age, sperm motility, TMSC and sperm processing method significantly affect the success of IUI success among Filipino couples studied. Using the formula derived, with a sensitivity of 91% and a sensitivity of 39, couples with a score of ?18.6 are more likely to get pregnant 4 times more than those with a score of less than 18.6.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pregnancy , Sperm Motility , Pregnancy Rate , Gestational Sac , Prognosis , Infertility, Female , Spermatozoa , Fertilization in Vitro , Insemination
12.
Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine ; : 33-36, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50500

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the failure rate of medical treatment and to identify variables associated with treatment failure in patients with tubal pregnancy and an initial serum level of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) over 10,000 IU/L. METHODS: The inclusion criteria were tubal pregnancy diagnosed using ultrasonography, primary treatment of intramuscular methotrexate injection at one of the four institutions between January 2003 and December 2011, a serum HCG level within two days before treatment>10,000 IU/L, and follow-up data to determine treatment success or failure. Exclusion criteria were other primary treatments besides intramuscular methotrexate injection. The clinicopathologic data of 36 patients were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Medical treatment failed and surgery was performed in 19 (53%) patients. In univariable analysis, age, parity, and size of the gestational sac were associated with treatment failure, but none of the variables were associated with treatment failure in multivariable analysis. The failure rate in the subgroup with age or =1.1 cm was significantly higher than those of the other subgroups (82% vs. 41% [mean of the other subgroups], respectively). CONCLUSION: Patients with a serum HCG level>10,000 IU/L who received medical treatment had a high failure rate. Among them, patients aged or =1.1 cm had an extremely high failure rate.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Humans , Pregnancy , Chorionic Gonadotropin , Follow-Up Studies , Gestational Sac , Methotrexate , Parity , Pregnancy, Tubal , Treatment Failure , Ultrasonography
13.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 404-407, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17217

ABSTRACT

A broad ligament pregnancy is an extremely rare condition. Diagnosis is often missed and finally made during laparotomy. We present a case which remained undiagnosed throughout her pregnancy till she reached term and unfortunately had intrauterine foetal demise when she reported to our hospital. On clinical suspicion, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation was done which picked up the diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy. On laparotomy a broad ligament pregnancy was found with a rent in the previous Cesarean scar towards the gestational sac in the broad ligament.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Rare Diseases , Broad Ligament , Cicatrix , Diagnosis , Gestational Sac , Laparotomy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pregnancy, Abdominal , Pregnancy, Ectopic , Ultrasonography
14.
Toxicological Research ; : 53-60, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118064

ABSTRACT

Studies on milk transfer of drugs in non-human primates (NHPs) are among the crucial components in the assessment of peri- and postnatal toxicity because of the similarity between NHPs and humans. To evaluate the milk transfer of valproic acid (VPA) in NHPs, the toxicokinetics of VPA, an antiepileptic drug, were studied in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys. VPA was administered once daily to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys at doses of 0, 30, 90, and 270 mg/kg by oral gavage from Day 100 of gestation (GD 100) to Day 31 of lactation (LD 31). Concentrations of VPA and its metabolite, 4-ene-VPA, in the maternal plasma on GD 100, GD 140, and LD 30, and concentrations of VPA and 4-ene-VPA in the offspring plasma and milk on LDs 30 and 31, respectively, were quantified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). After administration of a single oral dose of VPA to pregnant monkeys on GD 100, the concentrations of VPA and 4-ene-VPA were generally quantifiable in the plasma of all treatment groups up to 24 hr after administration, which showed that VPA was absorbed and that the monkeys were systemically exposed to VPA and 4-ene-VPA. After administration of multiple doses of VPA to the monkeys, VPA was detected in the pup's plasma and in milk taken on LD 30 and LD 31, respectively, which showed that VPA was transferred via milk, and the pup was exposed to VPA. Further, the concentration of VPA in the milk increased with an increase in the dose. Extremely low concentrations of 4-ene VPA were detected in the milk and in the pup plasma. In conclusion, pregnant monkeys were exposed to VPA and 4-ene-VPA after oral administration of VPA at doses of 30, 90, and 270 mg/kg/day from GD 100 to LD 31. VPA was transferred via milk, and the VPA exposure to the pup increased with an increase in the dose of VPA. The metabolite, 4-ene VPA, was present in extremely low concentrations (< 0.5 microg/ml) in the milk and in the pup plasma. In this study, we established methods to confirm milk transfer in NHPs, such as mating and diagnosis of pregnancy by examining gestational sac with ultrasonography, collection of milk and pup plasma and determination of toxicokinetics, using cynomolgus monkeys.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Administration, Oral , Chromatography, Liquid , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Gestational Sac , Haplorhini , Lactation , Macaca fascicularis , Milk , Plasma , Primates , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Valproic Acid
15.
Journal of the Korean Society of Medical Ultrasound ; : 175-177, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725418

ABSTRACT

Heterotopic pregnancy refers to the simultaneous development of an intrauterine pregnancy and an extrauterine pregnancy. We experienced a case of a ruptured heterotopic pregnancy for a patient with a history of a right segmental salpingectomy from an ectopic pregnancy. The 30-year-old patient with amenorrhea for six weeks complained of lower abdominal pain with hypovolemic shock. Transabdominal ultrasonography showed diffuse hemoperitoneum with a structure similar to an ectatic tube or a deformed cyst with no echogenic double ring or peripheral hypervascularity in the right adnexa and an intrauterine gestational sac. We considered a ruptured corpus luteum cyst as an ultrasonographic finding and found a ruptured tubal mass in the right salpinx and hemoperitoneum through an emergency laparotomy. We performed a right salpingectomy, and the histopathologic report confirmed ectopic pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Abdominal Pain , Amenorrhea , Emergencies , Fallopian Tubes , Gestational Sac , Hemoperitoneum , Laparotomy , Ovarian Cysts , Pregnancy, Ectopic , Pregnancy, Heterotopic , Pregnancy, Tubal , Salpingectomy , Shock
16.
Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine ; : 187-192, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27083

ABSTRACT

Heterotopic pregnancy is rare event and the risk is increased with assisted reproductive technology procedures. Heterotopic cervical pregnancy is even more unusual. We report a rare case of heterotopic cervical pregnancy that was managed successfully. A 36-year-old women who conceived by IVF-ICSI was diagnosed with heterotopic cervical pregnancy. She visited the emergency room with vaginal bleeding at 5 weeks of gestation and underwent careful intracervical gestational sac reduction with forceps under abdominal guidance the next day. The postoperative course was uneventful and with regular check-ups, the intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) progressed unremarkably through 41 weeks with delivery of a healthy newborn. We reviewed a total of 37 cases of heterotopic pregnancy that have been reported in the English language literature. There have been many attempts to eliminate the cervical embryo while preserving the IUP, and complete cervical evacuation is important in order to avoid infection, bleeding, and premature birth.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Embryonic Structures , Emergencies , Gestational Sac , Hemorrhage , Pregnancy, Heterotopic , Premature Birth , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Surgical Instruments , Uterine Hemorrhage
17.
Korean Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; : 360-365, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105403

ABSTRACT

Angular pregnancy refers to implantation of the embryo just medial to uterotubal junction in the lateral angle of the uterine cavity. This is differentiated from interstitial pregnancy in which the gestational sac is located within intramural portion of the tube. Angular pregnancy is categorized as intrauterine pregnancy and the outcome is known favorable. However, there have been few reports about adverse perinatal complications such as abortion, retained placenta, placenta accreta, placenta percreta and uterine rupture. We report a case of angular pregnancy complicated with preterm labor at 25 gestational weeks, placenta accreta and postpartum endometritis. This case suggests that angular pregnancy should be differentiated from normal intrauterine pregnancy because of its potential risk of adverse outcome.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Embryonic Structures , Endometritis , Gestational Sac , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Placenta Accreta , Placenta, Retained , Postpartum Period , Uterine Rupture
18.
Radiol. bras ; 42(6): 359-362, nov.-dez. 2009.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-536416

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a correlação do volume da vesícula vitelínica aferida por meio da ultrassonografia tridimensional com a idade gestacional entre a 7ª e a 10ª semanas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo do tipo corte transversal envolvendo 72 gestantes normais entre a 7ª e a 10ª semanas de gestação. Para o cálculo do volume da vesícula vitelínica, utilizou-se o método multiplanar com intervalo de 1,0 mm entre os planos. Para o volume da vesícula vitelínica foram determinadas médias, medianas, desvios-padrão e valores máximo e mínimo. Para avaliar a correlação entre o volume da vesícula vitelínica e a idade gestacional, foram criados modelos de regressão, sendo os ajustes realizados pelo coeficiente de determinação (R²). RESULTADOS: O volume da vesícula vitelínica (VV) mostrou-se fracamente correlacionado com a idade gestacional (IG), melhor representado pela regressão quadrática, representada pela equação: volume VV = 0,9757 - 0,2499 × IG + 0,0172 × IG² (R² = 0,234). O volume médio da vesícula vitelínica variou de 0,07 cm³ (0,02-0,11) a 0,20 cm³ (0,02-0,74) entre a 7ª e a 10ª semanas de gestação, com média de 0,11 cm³ (± 0,10 cm³). CONCLUSÃO: O volume da vesícula vitelínica correlacionou-se fracamente com a idade gestacional.


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between the yolk sac volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography with gestational age at 7-10 weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 72 healthy pregnant women at 7th-10th gestational weeks. The multiplanar method with 1.0 mm intervals was utilized. Regression models were constructed to analyze the correlation between yolk sac volume and gestational age, adjusted by the determination coefficient (R²). Mean, median, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values for yolk sac volume were calculated for each gestational age. RESULTS: A poor correlation was observed between yolk sac volume (YSV) and gestational age (GA). The quadratic regression was the model that best expressed this correlation: YSV = 0.9757 - 0.2499 × GA + 0.0172 × GA² (R² = 0.234). Mean yolk sac volume ranged from 0.07 cm³ (0.02-0.11) to 0.20 cm³ (0.02-0.74) between the 7th and 10th weeks (mean, 0.11 cm³, ± 0.10 cm³). CONCLUSION: There was a poor correlation between yolk sac volume and gestational age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Gestational Age , Organ Size , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Pregnant Women , Gestational Sac , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
19.
Korean Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; : 803-814, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100075

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Aquaporin (AQP) 3 is a small integral membrane protein that functions as a facilitated transporter of water and glycerol. To elucidate a role of AQP3 in placenta, changes in amniotic fluid composition and fetal growth were investigated using AQP3 null mice. METHODS: Embryonic day 14,5 gestational sacs of wild-type and AQP3 kncok-out pregnant mice, thirty each, were used for this study. AQP3 localization and expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. RESULTS: AQP3 was highly expressed in basolateral membrane of visceral yolk sac cells of fetal membrane and syncytiotrophoblast cells of labyrinthine placenta. In contrast, AQP1 was expressed in apical membrane of visceral yolk sac cells and endothelial cells lining vasculature. There was no significant difference in normal placentation and differentiation from trophoblast stem cells between wild type and AQP3 null mice. However, AQP3 null mice had increased amount of amniotic fluid per gram of body weight and decreased osmorality of amniotic fluid with low concentrations of ions and solutes in amniotic fluid. In addition, AQP3 null mice pups were smaller than CD1 wild type mice. CONCLUSION: AQP3 plays an important role in amniotic water balance and nutrient supply to developing fetus by facilitating transplacental transport of water and glycerol.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Amniotic Fluid , Blotting, Western , Body Weight , Endothelial Cells , Extraembryonic Membranes , Fetal Development , Fetus , Gestational Sac , Glycerol , Immunohistochemistry , Ions , Membrane Proteins , Membranes , Placenta , Placentation , Stem Cells , Trophoblasts , Water , Yolk Sac
20.
Korean Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; : 1065-1068, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182627

ABSTRACT

Twin tubal ectopic pregnancy is rare. Especially the live twin tubal ectopic pregnancy is extremely rare, just 10 cases have been reported until now. There were 9 cases of live twin tubal pregnancy after spontaneous conception and one case after IVF cycle. This is the first report of live twin tubal ectopic pregnancy after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate. A 31-year-old woman, nulligravida complained of primary infertility and irregular menstruation. After ovulation induction with clomiphen citrate, beta-hCG was 1566 mIU/mL on missed period of 5 weeks 4 days. On 6(+1) weeks, beta-hCG was elevated to 3446 mIU/mL and transvaginal ultrasound revealed two separated gestational sacs, each containing yolk sac in the left tube. The variable dose of methotrexate therapy was tried using 1 mg/kg of methotrexate and 0.1 mg/kg of leukovorin. These were injected alternatively for 8 days. On 7(+3) weeks, beta-hCG was elevated to 8,029 mIU/mL and transvaginal ultrasound revealed two fetal poles with heart beat in each gestational sacs. Laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed. The diagnosis was confirmed by the operative finding and also in the pathologic report. It is needed that careful ultrasonographic examination especially in the case of ovulation induction or IVF-ET. Methotrexate treatment in twin tubal pregnancy was usually failed. There was only one successful report by the direct injection of methotrexate to the fallopian tube combined with single intramuscular injection. Further research for dosage or route of administration will be needed.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Citric Acid , Clomiphene , Fallopian Tubes , Fertilization , Gestational Sac , Heart , Infertility , Injections, Intramuscular , Leucovorin , Menstruation , Methotrexate , Ovulation , Ovulation Induction , Pregnancy, Ectopic , Pregnancy, Tubal , Salpingectomy , Yolk Sac
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