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1.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(6): 1190-1198, dic. 2022. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1427309

ABSTRACT

Las enteroparasitosis son un problema de salud pública a nivel global con mayor impacto en los países subdesarrollados asociadas a condiciones de vida inadecuadas. La población infantil es más suceptible para desarrollar sintomatología provocando cuadros disentéricos, vomitos, síndrome de mal absorción, lo que influye en deficiencia de nutrientes y vitaminas, como consecuencia retraso en el crecimiento, malnutrición, trastornos del desarrollo físico y cognitivo. Se realizó una investigación epidemiológica, de corte transversal para estimar la prevalencia de parásitos instestinales y las diferencias en relación a las medidas antropométricas, en 283 escolares de la Capital de la provincia de Manabí. Las variables peso, talla parada, circunferencia de brazo izquierdo, pliegues de tríceps y subescapular, índice de masa corporal, área magra y área grasa fueron seleccionadas para establecer la relación. El coproparasitológico se realizó con el método directo (solución salina 0,9% y Lugol) y Kato Katz. Los resultados mostraron 62,54% de prevalencia, sin distingo de sexo, ni edad. Blastocytis spp., la especie más frecuente, confirmándose el comportamiento epidemiológico a nivel mundial a expensa de los protozoarios, con presencia de especies comensales (E. nana) relacionada con el fecalismo. A pesar de la alta prevalencia, no se observó diferencia significativa entre variables antropométricas analizadas en los escolares parasitados y no parasitados. Se infiere que es debido al tipo de especies y la intensidad de la infestación. Se recomienda realizar campañas de educación sanitaria y promover hábitos de higiene, así como dirigir investigaciones para determinar el papel epidemiológico del agua de consumo y las enteroparasitosis(AU)


Enteroparasitosis is a global public health problem with the greatest impact in underdeveloped countries associated with inadequate living conditions. The child population is more susceptible to developing symptoms causing dysentery, vomiting, malabsorption syndrome, which influences nutrient and vitamin deficiency, resulting in growth retardation, malnutrition, physical and cognitive development disorders. A cross-sectional epidemiological investigation was carried out to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites and the differences in relation to anthropometric measurements, in 283 schoolchildren from the capital of the province of Manabí. The variables weight, standing height, left arm circumference, triceps and subscapular folds, body mass index, lean area, and fat area were selected to establish the relationship. Coproparasitology was performed with the direct method (saline solution 0.9% and Lugol) and Kato Katz. The results showed 62.54% prevalence, regardless of sex or age. Blastocytis spp., the most frequent species, confirming the epidemiological behavior worldwide at the expense of protozoa, with the presence of commensal species (E. nana) related to fecalism. Despite the high prevalence, no significant difference was observed between the anthropometric variables analyzed in parasitized and non-parasitized schoolchildren. It is inferred that it is due to the type of species and the intensity of the infestation. It is recommended to carry out health education campaigns and promote hygiene habits, as well as to conduct research to determine the epidemiological role of drinking water and enteroparasitosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Parasitic Diseases/epidemiology , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Body Weights and Measures , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Giardia lamblia , Blastocystis , Ascaris lumbricoides , Ecuador/epidemiology , Endolimax , Epidemiological Investigation
2.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(6): 1184-1189, dic. 2022. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1427287

ABSTRACT

Diversos factores de riesgos pueden condicionar las prevalencias de parasitosis intestinales en niños. Como objetivo se propuso determinar los factores de riesgo y parasitosis intestinal en niños menores de 10 años de la Olla Común ubicada en Villa Mara del Triunfo-Perú durate el año 2022. La investigación fue descriptiva-experimental y correlativa con una muestra de 160 niños <10 años de ambos sexos. Como instrumento de recolección se aplicó un cuestionario con preguntas dicotómicas para conocer las prácticas de higiene de los niños y se efectuó la recolección y procesamiento de muestras con técnicas de Solución Salina S.S.F al 85%, Lugol, Método de Kato y Método de concentración-Flotación de Faust. Para analizar los datos se utilizó Microsoft Excel y el software SPSS, estadística descriptica y hallar tablas de frecuencias y porcentajes y Prueba de correlación entre los elementos de riesgo y la frecuencia de signos de los parásitos. Como resultado, el cálculo estadístico con el método de Spearman mostró una concordancia positiva con el coeficiente de correlación 0,725 y con un valor de 0,001<0,05; donde los niveles de factores de riesgo en los infantes mostraron que el 31,3% se encontraban en riesgo bajo con un nivel bajo de síntomas y sin evidencia de parásitos intestinales, el 18,8% en riesgo medio y el 12,5% en riesgo alto y un nivel alto de síntomas y parasitosis intestinal confirmado; la mayoría de los niños se encuentran en un entorno de bajo riesgo. Se hace necesario e indispensable continuar con invesigaciones en zonas adyacentes(AU)


Various risk factors can condition the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in children. The objective was to determine the risk factors and intestinal parasitosis in children under 10 years of age from the Common Pot located in Villa Mara del Triunfo-Peru during the year 2022. The research was descriptive-experimental and correlative with a sample of 160 children <10 years of both sexes. As a collection instrument, a questionnaire with dichotomous questions was applied to know the hygiene practices of the children and the collection and processing of samples was carried out with techniques of Saline Solution S.S.F at 85%, Lugol's, Kato's Method and Concentration-Flotation Method. of Faust. To analyze the data, Microsoft Excel and the SPSS software were used, descriptive statistics and finding tables of frequencies and percentages and a correlation test between the risk elements and the frequency of signs of the parasites. As a result, the statistical calculation with the Spearman method showed a positive agreement with the correlation coefficient 0.725 and with a p value of 0.001<0.05; where the levels of risk factors in infants showed that 31.3% were at low risk with a low level of symptoms and no evidence of intestinal parasites, 18.8% at medium risk and 12.5% at high risk and a high level of symptoms and confirmed intestinal parasitism; most children are in a low-risk environment. It is necessary and essential to continue with investigations in adjacent areas(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Giardia lamblia , Blastocystis , Ascaris lumbricoides , Endolimax , Entamoeba , Entamoeba histolytica
3.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 90(1): 36-43, ene.-jun. 2022. ilus, tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1393213

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: No conocemos datos sobre evaluación de pruebas inmunológicas para mejorar el diagnóstico de Giardia duodenalis y Cryptosporidium spp., agentes etiológicos de diarrea de importancia mundial, en Honduras. Objetivos: Comparar dos pruebas inmunológicas para el diagnóstico de Giardia y Cryptosporidium spp. con microscopía de rutina y determinar su aplicabilidad local. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal. En 2013, 134 muestras de heces recibidas en el Servicio de Parasitología del Hospital Escuela (HE) y 67 muestras del Centro de Salud Alonso Suazo (CSAS) se analizaron con una Prueba Rápida Inmunocromatográfica (PDR). En 2019-2020, 60 muestras de heces del HE se analizaron con una prueba inmunoenzimática ELISA. El protocolo de rutina incluyó examen directo en solución salina y solución de Lugol, coloración tricrómica y coloración ácido resistente modificada (ARM) (HE) y examen directo en solución salina y solución de Lugol (CSAS). Resultados: Cada prueba inmunológica mostró mayor positividad que la microscopía: en 134 muestras del HE para Giardia (6.7% vs 4.5%) y Cryptosporidium (3.7% vs 0.7%), similar en 67 muestras del CSAS (14.9% vs 7.5% para Giardia; 0.7% para Cryptosporidium con la prueba inmunológica). De 60 muestras analizadas por ELISA en HE, 31.7% fue positiva por Giardia vs 18.3% en examen directo y 23.3% en coloración tricrómica; 6.7% positiva por Cryptosporidium spp. vs 3.3% por coloración ARM. Discusión: Pruebas inmunológicas aumentaron significativamente el diagnóstico de ambas parasitosis; sin embargo, publicaciones sobre pruebas similares ofrecieron resultados no concluyentes. Por costo elevado podrían reservarse para pacientes pediátricos, pacientes inmunocomprometidos en hospitales, complementando microscopía. Los laboratorios de salud deben fortalecer capacidad diagnóstica...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Immunologic Tests/methods , Giardiasis/parasitology , Giardia lamblia/isolation & purification , Cryptosporidiosis/diagnosis , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cross-Sectional Studies , Giardiasis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Honduras/epidemiology
5.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e56061, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367436

ABSTRACT

The increase in the generation of Solid Urban Waste causes social, environmental problems and damages to the population's health. Professionals who work in the collection of recyclable waste are exposed to risks of contamination either by toxic elements or pathogenic organisms. The objective of the work was to estimate the types and prevalence of intestinal parasites inwaste pickers. A field research was carried out from December 2017 to April 2018 with the voluntary participation of 26 waste pickers belonging to three associations in the municipality of Conselheiro Lafaiete, Minas Gerais, Brazil (CAAE: nº 79937817.7.0000.8122). In addition to the application a socio-environmental questionnaire, each volunteer provided a stool sample for laboratory testing the parasitological examination. Of the 26 survey participants, four (15.4%) had a positive result and were infected by the parasites Giardia lamblia, Entamoebacoliand Iodamoeba butschlii. Among the main factors that can contribute to the infection these waste pickersare the ingestion of untreated water for consumption in addition to reduced access to Personal Protective Equipment(PPE) during waste management. One way to control the presence of parasites would be through health and environmental education actions, periodic parasitological examinations and permanent use of PPE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Parasites/parasitology , Waste Pickers , Solid Waste Use , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Parasitology , Water Pollution/analysis , Health Education , Giardia lamblia/parasitology , Entamoebiasis/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Personal Protective Equipment , Sustainable Development
6.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(4): 696-705, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1412153

ABSTRACT

Las parasitosis intestinales afectan principalmente a países subdesarrollados, donde se presentan condiciones socioeconómicas y geográficas propicias para desarrollarse, con mayor prevalencia en la población infantil. Dichas infecciones se han asociado a desnutrición y anemia, consideradas las alteraciones nutricionales más graves a nivel global. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en 87 niños de la provincia de Guayas, Ecuador, con edades entre 24 y 59 meses, para determinar anemia, evaluar el estado nutricional y parasitosis intestinal. Se determinaron parámetros antropométricos, valores de hemoglobina y hematocrito, y se identificó las especies parasitarias. Se obtuvo mayor proporción de infantes eutróficos para talla e IMC según el género y grupo etáreo; los niños presentaron mayor prevalencia de sobrepeso, obesidad, retardo en la talla y delgadez, respecto las niñas; además el grupo etáreo entre 4 -5 años presentó mayor retardo en crecimiento y delgadez. Asimismo, 24,14% de niños presentaron anemia y los individuos parasitados significativamente presentaron anemia, mayor retardo en la talla y delgadez, frente a los no parasitados; siendo los protozoarios Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli y Giardia intestinalis los más frecuentes, mientras que, Enterobius vermicularis y Ascaris lumbricoides fueron los helmintos predominantes. El presente estudio evidencia deficiencias nutricionales asociadas a anemia e infección por parásitos intestinales en niños menores de 5 años de la provincia de Guayas; cuya población requiere adecuados servicios de salud y saneamiento, acceso a los alimentos, apropiadas prácticas de higiene y educación sanitaria, que contribuyan a aminorar los efectos de estas patologías y sus complicaciones(AU)


Intestinal parasites mainly affect underdeveloped countries, where socioeconomic and geographical conditions are conducive to development, with a higher prevalence in the child population. These infections have been associated with malnutrition and anemia, considered the most serious nutritional disorders globally. A descriptive study was carried out in 87 children from the province of Guayas, Ecuador, aged between 24 and 59 months, to determine anemia, evaluate nutritional status and intestinal parasitosis. A higher proportion of eutrophic infants was obtained for height and BMI according to gender and age group; boys had a higher prevalence of overweight, obesity, delayed height and thinness, compared to girls; In addition, the age group between 4 -5 years presented greater retardation in growth and thinness. Likewise, 24.14% of children presented anemia and significantly parasitized individuals presented anemia, greater delay in height and thinness, compared to those without parasitization; being the protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli and Giardia intestinalis the most frequent, while Enterobius vermicularis and Ascaris lumbricoides were the predominant helminths. The present study shows nutritional deficiencies associated with anemia and infection by intestinal parasites in children under 5 years of age in the province of Guayas; whose population requires adequate health and sanitation services, access to food, appropriate hygiene practices and health education, which contribute to lessen the effects of these pathologies and their complications(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Nutritional Status , Anemia , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Parasitic Diseases , Social Class , Giardia lamblia , Ascaris lumbricoides , Malnutrition , Developing Countries , Entamoeba histolytica , Health Services , Helminths , Hematocrit , Infections
7.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(4): 714-720, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1412407

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades diarreicas constituyen la principal causa de morbimortalidad en niños menores de cinco años, con alrededor de 1.700 millones de casos y 1,5 millones de muertes por año a nivel mundial. Para el año 2010, en la Sierra de Ecuador se registró un alto porcentaje de infantes fallecidos a causa de enfermedades diarreicas agudas (EDA), incluyendo la provincia de Chimborazo; mientras que, para el año 2016, se registraron en Ecuador 590.523 casos de EDA, siendo más afectados los niños de sectores de mayor pobreza. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en pacientes pediátricos con episodios diarreicos que acudieron a centros de salud de los cantones rurales de la provincia Chimborazo. Se realizó análisis coprológico y coproparasitológico en 258 muestras; se identificaron bacterias enteropatógenas mediante pruebas bioquímicas y de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, se realizó diagnóstico parasitológico mediante análisis macroscópico y microscópico y para detección de virus se emplearon pruebas inmunológicas. Se observó un mayor número de casos de EDA en los cantones Alausí (50%) y Chunchi (19%). De los pacientes con EDA, los rotavirus son el principal agente etiológico aislado (24,8%), seguido por Shigella (17,8%); mientras que Giardia intestinalis (8,5%) y Salmonella (10,1%) son los microorganismos que se aislaron con menor frecuencia en las muestras. Los resultados del presente estudio, permiten tener un panorama etiológico de las EDA en la provincia de Chimborazo y contribuir en la vigilancia epidemiológica, ejecución de programas sanitarios y de vacunación, para disminuir la vulnerabilidad de la población infantil ante dichas infecciones(AU)


Diarrheal diseases are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age, with around 1.7 billion cases and 1.5 million deaths per year worldwide. For the year 2010, in the Sierra de Ecuador a high percentage of infants died due to acute diarrheal diseases (ADD), including the province of Chimborazo; while, for the year 2016, 590,523 cases of ADD were registered in Ecuador, with children from the poorest sectors being more affected. A descriptive study was carried out in pediatric patients with diarrheal episodes who attended health centers in the rural cantons of Chimborazo province. Coprological and coproparasitological analysis was performed on 258 samples; Enteropathogenic bacteria were identified by biochemical and antimicrobial susceptibility tests, a parasitological diagnosis was made by macroscopic and microscopic analysis, and immunological tests were used to detect viruses. A greater number of ADD cases was observed in the Alausí (50%) and Chunchi (19%) cantons. Of patients with ADD, rotaviruses are the main etiological agent isolated (24.8%), followed by Shigella (17.8%); while Giardia intestinalis (8.5%) and Salmonella (10.1%) are the microorganisms that were isolated less frequently in the samples. The results of this study allow us to have an etiological panorama of EDA in the province of Chimborazo and contribute to epidemiological surveillance, execution of health and vaccination programs, to reduce the vulnerability of the child population to these infections(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Diarrhea, Infantile/etiology , Salmonella , Shigella , Bacteria , Giardia lamblia , Rotavirus , Epidemiological Monitoring
8.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210099, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1375813

ABSTRACT

Background: The intrinsic sensitivity limitations of basic parasitological methods, along with the particular biological characteristics of parasites, make these methods ineffective to differentiate morphologically indistinguishable species. Molecular detection and characterization techniques could be used to overcome these problems. The purpose of this work was to standardize molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, described in the literature, for the detection and molecular characterization of intestinal protozoa and other pathogens in humans. Methods: DNA was extracted from human or animal feces, previously washed or cultured in Boeck Drbohlav's Modified Medium. DNA extraction was performed with Machery-Nagel extraction kits. The standardization of the PCR, nested-PCR or RFLP techniques was carried out according to the literature. For each molecular technique performed, the sensitivity of the test was determined based on the minimun quantity required of DNA (sensitivity A) and the minimum quantity of life forms that the test detected (sensitivity B). Results: Sensitivity A was 10 fg for G. duodenalis, 12.5 pg for Entamoeba histolytica or Entamoeba dispar, 50 fg for Cryptosporidium spp., 225 pg for Cyclospora spp. and 800 fg or 8 fg for Blastocystis spp. after performing a 1780 bp PCR or 310 bp nested PCR, respectively. The sensitivity B was 100 cysts for G. duodenalis, 500 cysts for E. histolytica or E. dispar, 1000 oocysts for Cyclospora spp. and 3600 or four vegetatives forms for PCR or nested PCR of Blastocystis spp., respectively. Conclusions: The molecular detection of protozoa and chromist was achieved and the molecular characterization allowed the genotyping of some of the parasites such as Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Blastocystis spp. This study summarizes the molecular techniques for epidemiological studies in humans and animals, and helps in the investigation of their transmission sources in countries where intestinal parasites are a public health problem.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Intestines/parasitology , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Epidemiologic Studies , Giardia lamblia , Blastocystis , Cryptosporidium
9.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 61(4): 596-602, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1395573

ABSTRACT

En la actualidad las investigaciones entorno a la calidad de vida desde la salud, son de vital importancia a nivel mundial, puesto que la identificación de los factores que desencadenan ciertas patologías prevalentes sirven para actuar y mejorar las condiciones de vida; en específico en este trabajo nos referiremos al grupo infantil y la parasitosis pediátrica, la misma que genera índices de anemia, peso bajo, entre otros. El propósito fue identificar la prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en escolares de 6 a 12 años en poblaciones rurales, de la ciudad de Paute, Ecuador. Se realizó una investigación de tipo cuantitativa, descriptiva y transversal, se trabajó con 608 niños pertenecientes a zonas rurales de Paute, el análisis coprológico fue mediante el método convencional, se reportó número de parásitos por campo. Esta investigación fue desarrollada bajo el permiso de un Comité de Bioética. Se analizaron 608 muestras coproparasitarias, obteniéndose una significancia estadística con respecto al sexo, los varones presentaron una prevalencia de parasitismo (14,63%) sobre las mujeres (8,88%), el parásito con mayor prevalencia es la Entamoeba histolytica. La prevalencia de parasitosis infantil en el sector rural de Paute, Ecuador es de 23,52%, siendo mayor en varones, el parásito más frecuente es la E. histolytica(AU)


Currently, the research about life's quality from a health's point of view has received tremendous attention around the world, because the identification of the facts that start a variety of prevalent pathologies are being used to improve life conditions. In this work we try the child group and its pediatric parasitosis, that produce anemia, low weight, and others. The purpose was to recognize the prevalence of intestinal parasites in scholar children from 6 to 12 years old in marginal populations of the city Paute, Ecuador. A quantity type of investigation was made, descriptive and transversal, using a population of 608 children from the rural population of Paute, the coprological analysis was using conventional methods, number of parasites were reported. This research was developed under the permission of the Bioethics Committee. 608 coproparasites samples were analyzed, getting a significative statistic in reference to sex. Boy's samples show a prevalence of parasitism (14,63%) in girls' samples (8,88%), the more prevalent parasite is Entamoeba Histolytica. The prevalence of children's parasitosis in the rural sector of Paute, Ecuador is 23,52% being more affected boys than girls. The most frequent parasite is E. Histolytica(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Prevalence , Giardia lamblia , Entamoeba histolytica , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Parasitic Diseases , Rural Health , Hymenolepis nana , Ecuador/epidemiology , Anemia
10.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(3): 203-211, set-out. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348210

ABSTRACT

As parasitoses intestinais constituem um importante problema de Saúde Pública, especialmente entre os pré-escolares, devido à imaturidade do sistema imune. Assim, este estudo objetivou realizar uma revisão integrativa dos estudos publicados entre os anos de 2010 a 2017 sobre parasitoses intestinais e os fatores associados ao desenvolvimento em crianças matriculadas em creches brasileiras. Foi realizada busca bibliográfica através das bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e SciELO, utilizando os descritores: infecção, parasitoses, diarreia e creches, e seus correspondentes em inglês: "infection", "parasitc diseases", "diarrhea" e "child day care centers". No caso das buscas no Medline o descritor Brazil também foi usado. Foram identificados 59 estudos, dos quais 11 foram incluídos no presente trabalho. Foi observado variação de 19,4% a 98,4% de parasitos e, a Giardia duodenalis foi o mais prevalente em crianças entre um e seis anos de idade, gênero masculino, com baixo peso, advindas de residências com alta densidade familiar e nível socioeconômico baixo. As análises mostraram a importância da compreensão dos fatores de risco para a incidência de parasitos, indicando a necessidade da promoção de estratégias efetivas para prevenção e controle das infecções parasitárias no país, visto que, tais infecções influenciam diretamente no desenvolvimento da criança, e em alguns casos, evoluindo a óbito.


Intestinal parasitosis is an important public health issue especially among pre-school children due to the immaturity of their immune system. Thus, this study aimed at carrying out an integrative review of studies published between 2010 and 2017 regarding intestinal parasites and associated factors in children registered in Brazilian day care centers. A bibliographic survey was performed through the Medline, Lilacs, and SciELO databases using the following descriptors: infection, parasitic diseases, diarrhea, and child day care centers, as well as their corresponding translations in Portuguese: "infecção", "parasitoses", "diarreia" and "creches". In the case of Medline searches, the descriptor Brazil was also used. Fifty-nine studies were identified, from which, 11 were included in this study. A variation of 19.4% to 98.4% of parasites could be observed, with Giardia duodenalis being the most prevalent in children between one and six years old, male, with low weight, coming from homes with high family density and low socioeconomic status. The analyzes showed the importance of understanding the risk factors for the incidence of parasites, showing the need to promote effective strategies for the prevention and control of parasitic infections in the country, since such infections have direct influence on the child's development, and in some cases, even evolving to death.


Subject(s)
Parasitic Diseases/parasitology , Child , Child Day Care Centers , Ascariasis/parasitology , Trichuris/parasitology , Public Health , Giardia lamblia/parasitology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Infections/parasitology
11.
Rev. cientif. cienc. med ; 24(2): 90-94, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372708

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la anemia es uno de los principales problemas de salud pública en los países en desarrollo; donde los niños en etapa preescolar, mujeres embarazadas y adulto mayor son los más afectados. OBJETIVO: evaluar la prevalencia de anemia entre los años 2014-2017. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio de corte transversal; la muestra estuvo conformada por todos los pacientes atendidos del Centro Poblado San Juan de Lacamaca, Cajamarca-Perú, que constaban de 2034 pacientes entre 0 y 57 años. RESULTADOS: del total de la población 1022 pacientes (50 %) pertenecían al sexo femenino y 1012 (50 %) al sexo masculino. De toda la población en estudio 1960 pacientes (96 %) no presentaban anemia y 74 (4 %) si presentaron. En cuanto a la presencia de parásitos 1365 (65 %) de la población no presentaba una infección parasitaria y 709 (35 %) si la presentaban; el parásito más encontrado fue Entamoeba coli en 340 pacientes (48 %) seguido de Giardia lamblia con 201 (28 %) en la primera muestra, mientras que en la segunda muestra el más encontrado fue Giardia lamblia con 14 (33 %). Conclusión: Se encontró una correlación positiva entre anemia y parasitismo(AU)


INTRODUCTION: anemia is one of the main public health problems in developing countries, where preschool children, pregnant women, and the elderly are the most affected. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the prevalence of anemia between the years 2014-2017. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out. The sample was made up of all the patients treated at the San Juan de Lacamaca Population Center, Cajamarca-Peru, which consisted of 2034 patients between 0 and 57 years of age from the San Juan de Lacamaca Population Center, Cajamarca, Peru. RESULTS: of the total population, 1022 patients (50%) belonged to the female sex and 1012 (50%) to the male sex. Of the entire study population, 1960 patients (96%) did not present anemia and 74 (4%) did. Regarding the presence of parasites, 1,365 (65%) of the population did not present a parasitic infection and 709 (35%) did; the most found parasite was Entamoeba coli in 340 patients (48%) followed by Giardia lamblia with 201 (28%) in the first sample, while in the second sample the most found was Giardia lamblia with 14 (33%). CONCLUSION: a positive correlation was found between anemia and parasitism(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Parasitic Diseases , Anemia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Giardia lamblia , Entamoeba
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e011721, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1347268

ABSTRACT

Abstract Helminths and protozoa are major causes of diseases in domestic animals, and many can also cause infections in humans. Knowledge of intestinal parasitoses affecting domestic animals is important for the implementation of appropriate preventive measures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples of dogs and cats attended at the Veterinary Hospital of the Metropolitan University of Santos, SP, Brazil. We also attempted to determine whether such infection was associated with sex, age, or the presence of diarrhea. We analyzed 100 fecal samples: 85 from dogs and 15 from cats. Among the dogs, 31.8% of the samples were positive, and to 40.0% among the cats. Infection was not associated with sex or age. However, among the dogs, parasitism showed a significant association with the presence of diarrhea (P = 0.013). The helminths Ancylostoma spp. and the protozoa Giardia duodenalis were the most frequent parasites in this research. Although they present unknown species and assemblages, they are parasites with a zoonotic potential of great importance in public health. Therefore, it is essential that pets are properly diagnosed and treated against gastrointestinal parasitic infection to prevent the spread of diseases.


Resumo As enfermidades causadas por helmintos e protozoários representam uma das principais causas de doenças em animais domésticos, e muitos desses parasitos podem causar infecções em seres humanos. O conhecimento das enteroparasitoses que acometem os animais domésticos é de suma importância para que medidas preventivas adequadas sejam implementadas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a frequência de ocorrência de parasitos gastrointestinais em amostras de fezes de cães e gatos atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, bem como sua associação com o sexo, a idade e a presença de diarreia. Do total das amostras de cães analisadas, 31,8% estavam positivas, em relação aos gatos, e 40% apresentaram positividade. Não houve associação entre o sexo e a idade, porém, foi observada associação significativa entre a presença da parasitose e da diarreia (p=0,013) entre os cães. O helminto Ancylostoma spp. e o protozoário Giardia duodenalis foram os mais frequentes na pesquisa. Embora apresentem espécies e "assemblages" desconhecidas, são parasitos de potencial zoonóticos de grande importância em saúde pública. Assim, é essencial que os animais de companhia sejam corretamente diagnosticados e tratados contra infecções parasitárias gastrintestinais para evitar a propagação de doenças.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Dogs , Protozoan Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Helminthiasis, Animal/epidemiology , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Trichuris/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Giardia lamblia/isolation & purification , Sarcocystis/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/veterinary , Age and Sex Distribution , Feces/parasitology , Ancylostoma/isolation & purification , Isospora/isolation & purification
13.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 60(2): 141-144, dic.2020. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1510398

ABSTRACT

La prevalencia de los parásitos intestinales presenta una mayor incidencia en los niños con respecto a los casos de los adultos. Se ha notado un crecimiento sostenido de la ocurrencia de casos de parasitosis en los niños en épocas reciente. Es por ello que el presente estudio presenta como fin estimar la prevalencia y factores asociados de protozoarios intestinales en niños 3 a 7 años en la Unidad Educativa del Milenio, parroquia de Quisapincha. Ambato- Ecuador 2018. Para lo cual el estudio se desarrolló de corte transversal, siendo una investigación de campo, la cual posee un nivel descriptivo. La población estuvo integrada por 79 niños, quienes son estudiantes de la etapa inicial, primero y segundo año de la Unidad Educativa el Milenio y sus 79 representantes. Como técnica de recolección de datos se empleó la encuesta y las muestras biológicas, como instrumentos se utilizó el cuestionario y la prueba de Graham. Como técnica de análisis de datos se contó con la tabulación y el procesamiento de los datos se realizó mediante el programa SPSS statistics 22. El resultado obtenido fue que 58 escolares resultaron parasitados lo que arroja un nivel de contagio del 73,42%, de este porcentaje de infectado los estudiantes masculinos presentan el 41,75% de los casos, mientras que las niñas obtuvieron el 31,62%. Siendo la edad con la mayor prevalencia los 6 años con un porcentaje de casos de 18,98%(AU)


in children compared to adult cases. A sustained growth in the occurrence of parasitic cases in children has been noted in recent times. That is why the present study aims to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of intestinal protozoa in children 3 to 7 years old at the Millennium Educational Unit, Quisapincha parish. Ambato- Ecuador 2018. For which the study was developed in a cross section, being a field investigation, which has a descriptive level. The population was made up of 79 children, who are students of the initial, first and second years of the Millennium Educational Unit and its 79 representatives. The data collection technique used was the survey and biological samples, as instruments the questionnaire and the Graham test were used. As a data analysis technique, tabulation was used and the data was processed using the SPSS statistics 22 program. The result obtained was that 58 schoolchildren were parasitized, which gives a contagion level of 73.42%, of this percentage of infected male students present 41.75% of cases, while girls obtained 31.62% . The age with the highest prevalence being 6 years with a percentage of cases of 18.98%(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Parasites , Protozoan Infections , Intestinal Diseases , Parasitic Diseases , Hand Disinfection , Hygiene , Giardia lamblia , Blastocystis hominis , Amoeba
14.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 24(3): 124-130, sept. 2020. tab.
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1146404

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The decreasing prevalence of parasitosis from north to south in Argentina has led the scientific community to focus the epidemiological studies on the most vulnerable areas and, consequently, neglect the populations of Patagonia (South Argentina). The objectives of the present study were (i) to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children and youth of Puerto Madryn (Chubut province, Patagonia), and (ii) to evaluate the parasitic infections found concerning socio-environmental factors and hygiene practices of the population. Materials and methods: Serial stool samples were processed using modified Ritchie and FLOTAC dual pellet techniques, and samples of anal swabs were examined by sedimentation. Socio-environmental variables and hygiene practices of the participants were surveyed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Of all examined participants, 39.1% (68/174) were parasitized. A total of 6 parasite species were found and the most prevalent were Blastocystis sp (19.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (17.8%), and Giardia lamblia (6.3%). The risk of parasitosis and infection for Blastocystis sp was greater in participants who lived in houses without piped water (OR = 2.9 and OR = 3.2, respectively). The risk of infection for G. lamblia was positively associated with the lack of public waste collection service (OR = 5.6). Infection for E. vermicularis was higher in participants whose parents had a basic level of education (OR = 5.0). Conclusion: The parasitic infections observed reflect the environmental conditions of Patagonia and the need to focus studies on populations from peripheral areas to urban centers that are exposed to greater socio-economic vulnerability.


Introducción: La prevalencia de parasitosis decreciente de norte a sur en la Argentina, ha llevado a la comunidad científica a enfocar sus estudios epidemiológicos hacia las zonas más vulnerables y desatender a las poblaciones de la Patagonia (sur de Argentina). Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron: determinar la prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en niños y jóvenes de Puerto Madryn (Chubut, Patagonia), y evaluar las infecciones parasitarias en relación con los factores socioambientales y las prácticas de higiene de la población. Materiales y métodos: Se procesaron muestras seriadas de materia fecal mediante las técnicas Ritchie modificada y FLOTAC dual pellet, y muestras de escobillado anal por sedimentación. Se relevaron las variables socioambientales y las prácticas de higiene de los participantes mediante cuestionarios semiestructurados. Resultados: El 39.1% (68/174) de la población analizada estuvo parasitado. Se halló un total de 6 especies parásitas, las más prevalentes de las cuales fueron Blastocystis sp (19.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (17.8%) y Giardia lamblia (6.3%). El riesgo de parasitosis y de infección por Blastocystis sp fue mayor en los participantes que no poseían agua de red (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9 y OR = 3.2, respectivamente). La infección por G. lamblia se asoció de manera positiva con la falta de recolección pública de residuos (OR = 5.6). La infección por E. vermicularis fue superior en los participantes con padres que tenían un nivel de estudios primario (OR = 5.0). Conclusión: Las infecciones parasitarias observadas reflejan las condiciones ambientales de la Patagonia y la necesidad de orientar los estudios a poblaciones periféricas de los centros urbanos, las cuales están expuestas a mayor vulnerabilidad socioeconómica


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Parasites , Argentina , Sanitation , Hygiene , Giardia lamblia , Blastocystis , Education , Enterobius , Intestines/parasitology
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190348, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND It was previously demonstrated that CMC-20, a nitazoxanide and N-methyl-1H-benzimidazole hybrid molecule, had higher in vitro activity against Giardia intestinalis WB strain than metronidazole and albendazole and similar to nitazoxanide. OBJETIVES To evaluate the in vitro activity of CMC-20 against G. intestinalis strains with different susceptibility/resistance to albendazole and nitazoxanide and evaluate its effect on the distribution of parasite cytoskeletal proteins and its in vivo giardicidal activity. METHODS CMC-20 activity was tested against two isolates from patients with chronic and acute giardiasis, an experimentally induced albendazole resistant strain and a nitazoxanide resistant clinical isolate. CMC-20 effect on the distribution of parasite cytoskeletal proteins was analysed by indirect immunofluorescence and its activity was evaluated in a murine model of giardiasis. FINDINGS CMC-20 showed broad activity against susceptible and resistant strains to albendazole and nitaxozanide. It affected the parasite microtubule reservoir and triggered the parasite encystation. In this process, alpha-7.2 giardin co-localised with CWP-1 protein. CMC-20 reduced the infection time and cyst load in feces of G. muris infected mice similar to albendazole. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The in vitro and in vivo giardicidal activity of CMC-20 suggests its potential use in the treatment of giardiasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Albendazole/pharmacology , Giardia lamblia/drug effects , Cytoskeletal Proteins/drug effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Thiazoles/chemistry , Time Factors , Albendazole/chemistry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Antiprotozoal Agents/chemistry
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190242, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like proteins (Ub-L) are critical regulators of complex cellular processes such as the cell cycle, DNA repair, transcription, chromatin remodeling, signal translation, and protein degradation. Giardia intestinalis possesses an experimentally proven Ub-conjugation system; however, a limited number of enzymes involved in this process were identified using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). This is due to the limitations of BLAST's ability to identify homologous functional regions when similarity between the sequences dips to < 30%. In addition Ub-Ls and their conjugating enzymes have not been fully elucidated in Giardia. OBJETIVE To identify the enzymes involved in the Ub and Ub-Ls conjugation processes using intelligent systems based on the hidden Markov models (HMMs). METHODS We performed an HMM search of functional Pfam domains found in the key enzymes of these pathways in Giardia's proteome. Each open reading frame identified was analysed by sequence homology, domain architecture, and transcription levels. FINDINGS We identified 118 genes, 106 of which corresponded to the ubiquitination process (Ub, E1, E2, E3, and DUB enzymes). The E3 ligase group was the largest group with 82 members; 71 of which harbored a characteristic RING domain. Four Ub-Ls were identified and the conjugation enzymes for NEDD8 and URM1 were described for first time. The 3D model for Ub-Ls displayed the β-grasp fold typical. Furthermore, our sequence analysis for the corresponding activating enzymes detected the essential motifs required for conjugation. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our findings highlight the complexity of Giardia's Ub-conjugation system, which is drastically different from that previously reported, and provides evidence for the presence of NEDDylation and URMylation enzymes in the genome and transcriptome of G. intestinalis.


Subject(s)
Ubiquitins/genetics , Giardia lamblia/metabolism , Ubiquitin/genetics , Ubiquitination , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Models, Molecular , Giardia lamblia/genetics , Ubiquitin/metabolism
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200127, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Kaempferol (KPF) is a flavonoid with antiparasitic activity including experimental giardiasis which mechanism of action is unknown. OBJECTIVE To analyse the cytotoxic effects of KPF on Giardia duodenalis trophozoites and to identify a likely parasite target of this compound. METHODS We used inhibitory concentrations of KPF (IC25, IC50 and IC100) and albendazole (ABZ) as reference drug. The ultrastructure of the trophozoites was analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) whilst apoptosis/necrosis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle progression were assessed by flow cytometry (FCM) and confocal laser microscopy (CLM). Ligand-protein docking analyses were carried out using KPF structure from a drug library and crystal structure of a G. duodenalis aldose reductase (GdAldRed) homolog. RESULTS KPF provoked appearance of perinuclear and periplasmic spaces devoid of cytosolic content and multilamellar structures. KPF induced proapoptotic death associated with partial arrest in the S phase without ROS production. Bioinformatics approaches predicted that GdAldRed is a viable KPF target (ΔG = -7.09 kCal/mol), exhibiting 92% structural identity and a similar coupling pattern as its human homolog. CONCLUSIONS KPF exerted a proapoptotic effect on G. duodenalis trophozoites involving partial interruption of DNA synthesis without oxidative stress or structure damage to chromatin and cytoskeletal structures. GdAldRed is a likely target underlying its antigiardial activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Giardiasis , Giardia lamblia/drug effects , Kaempferols , Computational Biology , Trophozoites
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200303, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135270

ABSTRACT

Giardiasis is an infectious disease caused by Giardia duodenalis. The pro-drug metronidazole (MTZ) is the first-line treatment for giardiasis. Parasite's proteins as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), ferredoxin (Fd), nitroreductase-1 (NR-1) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) participate in MTZ activation. Here, we showed Giardia trophozoites long-term exposed to MTZ presented higher IC50 than controls, showing the drug influenced the parasite survival. That reduction in MTZ's susceptibility does not seem to be related to mutations in the genes pfor, fd, nr-1 or trxr. It points that different mechanism as alterations in other metabolic pathways can account for Giardia resistance to MTZ therapy.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance/genetics , Prodrugs , Giardia lamblia/drug effects , Giardia lamblia/genetics , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Activation, Metabolic , Nucleotides
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190348, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND It was previously demonstrated that CMC-20, a nitazoxanide and N-methyl-1H-benzimidazole hybrid molecule, had higher in vitro activity against Giardia intestinalis WB strain than metronidazole and albendazole and similar to nitazoxanide. OBJETIVES To evaluate the in vitro activity of CMC-20 against G. intestinalis strains with different susceptibility/resistance to albendazole and nitazoxanide and evaluate its effect on the distribution of parasite cytoskeletal proteins and its in vivo giardicidal activity. METHODS CMC-20 activity was tested against two isolates from patients with chronic and acute giardiasis, an experimentally induced albendazole resistant strain and a nitazoxanide resistant clinical isolate. CMC-20 effect on the distribution of parasite cytoskeletal proteins was analysed by indirect immunofluorescence and its activity was evaluated in a murine model of giardiasis. FINDINGS CMC-20 showed broad activity against susceptible and resistant strains to albendazole and nitaxozanide. It affected the parasite microtubule reservoir and triggered the parasite encystation. In this process, alpha-7.2 giardin co-localised with CWP-1 protein. CMC-20 reduced the infection time and cyst load in feces of G. muris infected mice similar to albendazole. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The in vitro and in vivo giardicidal activity of CMC-20 suggests its potential use in the treatment of giardiasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Albendazole/pharmacology , Giardia lamblia/drug effects , Cytoskeletal Proteins/drug effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Thiazoles/chemistry , Time Factors , Albendazole/chemistry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Antiprotozoal Agents/chemistry
20.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 78: e1771, dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1489604

ABSTRACT

As infecções parasitárias intestinais são amplamente distribuídas em todo o mundo e a população infantil é a mais afetada. A prevalência das infecções parasitárias intestinais materna e infantil de pacientes atendidos em uma unidade de saúde pública do município de Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais foi avaliada pela técnica de centrífugo sedimentação em formol-éter. A positividade foi de 41,7% para gestantes, 37,3% para mães e 35,7% em crianças. Endolimax nana (17,1%) e Giardia intestinalis (17,1%) foram os parasitos mais frequentemente detectados em crianças com idade inferior a dois anos e em gestantes (33,3%). Para as mães, G. intestinalis (20,3%) foi o parasito mais prevalente seguido de Entamoeba coli (17%). A infecção simultânea de mãe e filho foi detectada em 7 das 25 crianças infectadas. Apesar das ações de educação em saúde, melhoria no nível educacional e acesso a serviços médicos, a frequência de infecções por endoparasitas permanece alta. A literatura é escassa em relação ao tema e acredita-se que a deficiência na aplicação de medidas de educação sanitária possa fazer com que mães infectadas possam contribuir para a infecção parasitária de seus filhos, assim como os filhos podem ser fonte de infecção para suas mães.


Intestinal parasitic infections are widely distributed throughout the world and children are the most affected population. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitic maternal and infant intestinal infection of patients attended at a public health unit in the municipality of Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais. The centrifugal-sedimentation in formol-ether was the technica used for stool analysis. Positivity was observed in 41.7% for pregnant women, 37.3% for mothers and 35.7% for children. Endolimax nana (17.1%) and Giardia intestinalis (17.1%) were the most frequently detected parasites in children under two-years old and pregnant women (33.3%). For mothers, G. intestinalis (20.3%) was the most prevalent parasite followed by Entamoeba coli (17%). Simultaneous infection of mother and child was detected in 7 of 25 infected children. Despite health educations actions, improvement in educational level, and access to medical services, the frequency of endoparasite infections remains high. Literature is scarce in relation to the present theme and it is believed that infected mothers can contribute for parasitic infection of their kids, just as children can be a source of infection for their mothers.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Parasitic Diseases/epidemiology , Protozoan Infections/epidemiology , Intestines/parasitology , Brazil , Endolimax , Entamoeba , Giardia lamblia , Public Health
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