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1.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 90(1): 36-43, ene.-jun. 2022. ilus, tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1393213

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: No conocemos datos sobre evaluación de pruebas inmunológicas para mejorar el diagnóstico de Giardia duodenalis y Cryptosporidium spp., agentes etiológicos de diarrea de importancia mundial, en Honduras. Objetivos: Comparar dos pruebas inmunológicas para el diagnóstico de Giardia y Cryptosporidium spp. con microscopía de rutina y determinar su aplicabilidad local. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal. En 2013, 134 muestras de heces recibidas en el Servicio de Parasitología del Hospital Escuela (HE) y 67 muestras del Centro de Salud Alonso Suazo (CSAS) se analizaron con una Prueba Rápida Inmunocromatográfica (PDR). En 2019-2020, 60 muestras de heces del HE se analizaron con una prueba inmunoenzimática ELISA. El protocolo de rutina incluyó examen directo en solución salina y solución de Lugol, coloración tricrómica y coloración ácido resistente modificada (ARM) (HE) y examen directo en solución salina y solución de Lugol (CSAS). Resultados: Cada prueba inmunológica mostró mayor positividad que la microscopía: en 134 muestras del HE para Giardia (6.7% vs 4.5%) y Cryptosporidium (3.7% vs 0.7%), similar en 67 muestras del CSAS (14.9% vs 7.5% para Giardia; 0.7% para Cryptosporidium con la prueba inmunológica). De 60 muestras analizadas por ELISA en HE, 31.7% fue positiva por Giardia vs 18.3% en examen directo y 23.3% en coloración tricrómica; 6.7% positiva por Cryptosporidium spp. vs 3.3% por coloración ARM. Discusión: Pruebas inmunológicas aumentaron significativamente el diagnóstico de ambas parasitosis; sin embargo, publicaciones sobre pruebas similares ofrecieron resultados no concluyentes. Por costo elevado podrían reservarse para pacientes pediátricos, pacientes inmunocomprometidos en hospitales, complementando microscopía. Los laboratorios de salud deben fortalecer capacidad diagnóstica...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Immunologic Tests/methods , Giardia lamblia/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/parasitology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diarrhea/complications
3.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e56061, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367436

ABSTRACT

The increase in the generation of Solid Urban Waste causes social, environmental problems and damages to the population's health. Professionals who work in the collection of recyclable waste are exposed to risks of contamination either by toxic elements or pathogenic organisms. The objective of the work was to estimate the types and prevalence of intestinal parasites inwaste pickers. A field research was carried out from December 2017 to April 2018 with the voluntary participation of 26 waste pickers belonging to three associations in the municipality of Conselheiro Lafaiete, Minas Gerais, Brazil (CAAE: nº 79937817.7.0000.8122). In addition to the application a socio-environmental questionnaire, each volunteer provided a stool sample for laboratory testing the parasitological examination. Of the 26 survey participants, four (15.4%) had a positive result and were infected by the parasites Giardia lamblia, Entamoebacoliand Iodamoeba butschlii. Among the main factors that can contribute to the infection these waste pickersare the ingestion of untreated water for consumption in addition to reduced access to Personal Protective Equipment(PPE) during waste management. One way to control the presence of parasites would be through health and environmental education actions, periodic parasitological examinations and permanent use of PPE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Parasites/parasitology , Waste Pickers , Solid Waste Use , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Parasitology , Water Pollution/analysis , Health Education , Giardia lamblia/parasitology , Entamoebiasis/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Personal Protective Equipment , Sustainable Development
4.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210099, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1375813

ABSTRACT

Background: The intrinsic sensitivity limitations of basic parasitological methods, along with the particular biological characteristics of parasites, make these methods ineffective to differentiate morphologically indistinguishable species. Molecular detection and characterization techniques could be used to overcome these problems. The purpose of this work was to standardize molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, described in the literature, for the detection and molecular characterization of intestinal protozoa and other pathogens in humans. Methods: DNA was extracted from human or animal feces, previously washed or cultured in Boeck Drbohlav's Modified Medium. DNA extraction was performed with Machery-Nagel extraction kits. The standardization of the PCR, nested-PCR or RFLP techniques was carried out according to the literature. For each molecular technique performed, the sensitivity of the test was determined based on the minimun quantity required of DNA (sensitivity A) and the minimum quantity of life forms that the test detected (sensitivity B). Results: Sensitivity A was 10 fg for G. duodenalis, 12.5 pg for Entamoeba histolytica or Entamoeba dispar, 50 fg for Cryptosporidium spp., 225 pg for Cyclospora spp. and 800 fg or 8 fg for Blastocystis spp. after performing a 1780 bp PCR or 310 bp nested PCR, respectively. The sensitivity B was 100 cysts for G. duodenalis, 500 cysts for E. histolytica or E. dispar, 1000 oocysts for Cyclospora spp. and 3600 or four vegetatives forms for PCR or nested PCR of Blastocystis spp., respectively. Conclusions: The molecular detection of protozoa and chromist was achieved and the molecular characterization allowed the genotyping of some of the parasites such as Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Blastocystis spp. This study summarizes the molecular techniques for epidemiological studies in humans and animals, and helps in the investigation of their transmission sources in countries where intestinal parasites are a public health problem.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Intestines/parasitology , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Epidemiologic Studies , Giardia lamblia , Blastocystis , Cryptosporidium
5.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 61(4): 596-602, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1395573

ABSTRACT

En la actualidad las investigaciones entorno a la calidad de vida desde la salud, son de vital importancia a nivel mundial, puesto que la identificación de los factores que desencadenan ciertas patologías prevalentes sirven para actuar y mejorar las condiciones de vida; en específico en este trabajo nos referiremos al grupo infantil y la parasitosis pediátrica, la misma que genera índices de anemia, peso bajo, entre otros. El propósito fue identificar la prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en escolares de 6 a 12 años en poblaciones rurales, de la ciudad de Paute, Ecuador. Se realizó una investigación de tipo cuantitativa, descriptiva y transversal, se trabajó con 608 niños pertenecientes a zonas rurales de Paute, el análisis coprológico fue mediante el método convencional, se reportó número de parásitos por campo. Esta investigación fue desarrollada bajo el permiso de un Comité de Bioética. Se analizaron 608 muestras coproparasitarias, obteniéndose una significancia estadística con respecto al sexo, los varones presentaron una prevalencia de parasitismo (14,63%) sobre las mujeres (8,88%), el parásito con mayor prevalencia es la Entamoeba histolytica. La prevalencia de parasitosis infantil en el sector rural de Paute, Ecuador es de 23,52%, siendo mayor en varones, el parásito más frecuente es la E. histolytica(AU)


Currently, the research about life's quality from a health's point of view has received tremendous attention around the world, because the identification of the facts that start a variety of prevalent pathologies are being used to improve life conditions. In this work we try the child group and its pediatric parasitosis, that produce anemia, low weight, and others. The purpose was to recognize the prevalence of intestinal parasites in scholar children from 6 to 12 years old in marginal populations of the city Paute, Ecuador. A quantity type of investigation was made, descriptive and transversal, using a population of 608 children from the rural population of Paute, the coprological analysis was using conventional methods, number of parasites were reported. This research was developed under the permission of the Bioethics Committee. 608 coproparasites samples were analyzed, getting a significative statistic in reference to sex. Boy's samples show a prevalence of parasitism (14,63%) in girls' samples (8,88%), the more prevalent parasite is Entamoeba Histolytica. The prevalence of children's parasitosis in the rural sector of Paute, Ecuador is 23,52% being more affected boys than girls. The most frequent parasite is E. Histolytica(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Prevalence , Giardia lamblia , Entamoeba histolytica , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Parasitic Diseases , Rural Health , Hymenolepis nana , Ecuador/epidemiology , Anemia
6.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(3): 203-211, set-out. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348210

ABSTRACT

As parasitoses intestinais constituem um importante problema de Saúde Pública, especialmente entre os pré-escolares, devido à imaturidade do sistema imune. Assim, este estudo objetivou realizar uma revisão integrativa dos estudos publicados entre os anos de 2010 a 2017 sobre parasitoses intestinais e os fatores associados ao desenvolvimento em crianças matriculadas em creches brasileiras. Foi realizada busca bibliográfica através das bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e SciELO, utilizando os descritores: infecção, parasitoses, diarreia e creches, e seus correspondentes em inglês: "infection", "parasitc diseases", "diarrhea" e "child day care centers". No caso das buscas no Medline o descritor Brazil também foi usado. Foram identificados 59 estudos, dos quais 11 foram incluídos no presente trabalho. Foi observado variação de 19,4% a 98,4% de parasitos e, a Giardia duodenalis foi o mais prevalente em crianças entre um e seis anos de idade, gênero masculino, com baixo peso, advindas de residências com alta densidade familiar e nível socioeconômico baixo. As análises mostraram a importância da compreensão dos fatores de risco para a incidência de parasitos, indicando a necessidade da promoção de estratégias efetivas para prevenção e controle das infecções parasitárias no país, visto que, tais infecções influenciam diretamente no desenvolvimento da criança, e em alguns casos, evoluindo a óbito.


Intestinal parasitosis is an important public health issue especially among pre-school children due to the immaturity of their immune system. Thus, this study aimed at carrying out an integrative review of studies published between 2010 and 2017 regarding intestinal parasites and associated factors in children registered in Brazilian day care centers. A bibliographic survey was performed through the Medline, Lilacs, and SciELO databases using the following descriptors: infection, parasitic diseases, diarrhea, and child day care centers, as well as their corresponding translations in Portuguese: "infecção", "parasitoses", "diarreia" and "creches". In the case of Medline searches, the descriptor Brazil was also used. Fifty-nine studies were identified, from which, 11 were included in this study. A variation of 19.4% to 98.4% of parasites could be observed, with Giardia duodenalis being the most prevalent in children between one and six years old, male, with low weight, coming from homes with high family density and low socioeconomic status. The analyzes showed the importance of understanding the risk factors for the incidence of parasites, showing the need to promote effective strategies for the prevention and control of parasitic infections in the country, since such infections have direct influence on the child's development, and in some cases, even evolving to death.


Subject(s)
Parasitic Diseases/parasitology , Child , Child Day Care Centers , Ascariasis/parasitology , Trichuris/parasitology , Public Health , Giardia lamblia/parasitology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Infections/parasitology
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e011721, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1347268

ABSTRACT

Abstract Helminths and protozoa are major causes of diseases in domestic animals, and many can also cause infections in humans. Knowledge of intestinal parasitoses affecting domestic animals is important for the implementation of appropriate preventive measures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples of dogs and cats attended at the Veterinary Hospital of the Metropolitan University of Santos, SP, Brazil. We also attempted to determine whether such infection was associated with sex, age, or the presence of diarrhea. We analyzed 100 fecal samples: 85 from dogs and 15 from cats. Among the dogs, 31.8% of the samples were positive, and to 40.0% among the cats. Infection was not associated with sex or age. However, among the dogs, parasitism showed a significant association with the presence of diarrhea (P = 0.013). The helminths Ancylostoma spp. and the protozoa Giardia duodenalis were the most frequent parasites in this research. Although they present unknown species and assemblages, they are parasites with a zoonotic potential of great importance in public health. Therefore, it is essential that pets are properly diagnosed and treated against gastrointestinal parasitic infection to prevent the spread of diseases.


Resumo As enfermidades causadas por helmintos e protozoários representam uma das principais causas de doenças em animais domésticos, e muitos desses parasitos podem causar infecções em seres humanos. O conhecimento das enteroparasitoses que acometem os animais domésticos é de suma importância para que medidas preventivas adequadas sejam implementadas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a frequência de ocorrência de parasitos gastrointestinais em amostras de fezes de cães e gatos atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, bem como sua associação com o sexo, a idade e a presença de diarreia. Do total das amostras de cães analisadas, 31,8% estavam positivas, em relação aos gatos, e 40% apresentaram positividade. Não houve associação entre o sexo e a idade, porém, foi observada associação significativa entre a presença da parasitose e da diarreia (p=0,013) entre os cães. O helminto Ancylostoma spp. e o protozoário Giardia duodenalis foram os mais frequentes na pesquisa. Embora apresentem espécies e "assemblages" desconhecidas, são parasitos de potencial zoonóticos de grande importância em saúde pública. Assim, é essencial que os animais de companhia sejam corretamente diagnosticados e tratados contra infecções parasitárias gastrintestinais para evitar a propagação de doenças.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Dogs , Protozoan Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Helminthiasis, Animal/epidemiology , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Trichuris/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Giardia lamblia/isolation & purification , Sarcocystis/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/veterinary , Age and Sex Distribution , Feces/parasitology , Ancylostoma/isolation & purification , Isospora/isolation & purification
8.
Rev. cientif. cienc. med ; 24(2): 90-94, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372708

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la anemia es uno de los principales problemas de salud pública en los países en desarrollo; donde los niños en etapa preescolar, mujeres embarazadas y adulto mayor son los más afectados. OBJETIVO: evaluar la prevalencia de anemia entre los años 2014-2017. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio de corte transversal; la muestra estuvo conformada por todos los pacientes atendidos del Centro Poblado San Juan de Lacamaca, Cajamarca-Perú, que constaban de 2034 pacientes entre 0 y 57 años. RESULTADOS: del total de la población 1022 pacientes (50 %) pertenecían al sexo femenino y 1012 (50 %) al sexo masculino. De toda la población en estudio 1960 pacientes (96 %) no presentaban anemia y 74 (4 %) si presentaron. En cuanto a la presencia de parásitos 1365 (65 %) de la población no presentaba una infección parasitaria y 709 (35 %) si la presentaban; el parásito más encontrado fue Entamoeba coli en 340 pacientes (48 %) seguido de Giardia lamblia con 201 (28 %) en la primera muestra, mientras que en la segunda muestra el más encontrado fue Giardia lamblia con 14 (33 %). Conclusión: Se encontró una correlación positiva entre anemia y parasitismo(AU)


INTRODUCTION: anemia is one of the main public health problems in developing countries, where preschool children, pregnant women, and the elderly are the most affected. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the prevalence of anemia between the years 2014-2017. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out. The sample was made up of all the patients treated at the San Juan de Lacamaca Population Center, Cajamarca-Peru, which consisted of 2034 patients between 0 and 57 years of age from the San Juan de Lacamaca Population Center, Cajamarca, Peru. RESULTS: of the total population, 1022 patients (50%) belonged to the female sex and 1012 (50%) to the male sex. Of the entire study population, 1960 patients (96%) did not present anemia and 74 (4%) did. Regarding the presence of parasites, 1,365 (65%) of the population did not present a parasitic infection and 709 (35%) did; the most found parasite was Entamoeba coli in 340 patients (48%) followed by Giardia lamblia with 201 (28%) in the first sample, while in the second sample the most found was Giardia lamblia with 14 (33%). CONCLUSION: a positive correlation was found between anemia and parasitism(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Parasitic Diseases , Anemia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Giardia lamblia , Entamoeba
9.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 24(3): 124-130, sept. 2020. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1146404

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The decreasing prevalence of parasitosis from north to south in Argentina has led the scientific community to focus the epidemiological studies on the most vulnerable areas and, consequently, neglect the populations of Patagonia (South Argentina). The objectives of the present study were (i) to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children and youth of Puerto Madryn (Chubut province, Patagonia), and (ii) to evaluate the parasitic infections found concerning socio-environmental factors and hygiene practices of the population. Materials and methods: Serial stool samples were processed using modified Ritchie and FLOTAC dual pellet techniques, and samples of anal swabs were examined by sedimentation. Socio-environmental variables and hygiene practices of the participants were surveyed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Of all examined participants, 39.1% (68/174) were parasitized. A total of 6 parasite species were found and the most prevalent were Blastocystis sp (19.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (17.8%), and Giardia lamblia (6.3%). The risk of parasitosis and infection for Blastocystis sp was greater in participants who lived in houses without piped water (OR = 2.9 and OR = 3.2, respectively). The risk of infection for G. lamblia was positively associated with the lack of public waste collection service (OR = 5.6). Infection for E. vermicularis was higher in participants whose parents had a basic level of education (OR = 5.0). Conclusion: The parasitic infections observed reflect the environmental conditions of Patagonia and the need to focus studies on populations from peripheral areas to urban centers that are exposed to greater socio-economic vulnerability.


Introducción: La prevalencia de parasitosis decreciente de norte a sur en la Argentina, ha llevado a la comunidad científica a enfocar sus estudios epidemiológicos hacia las zonas más vulnerables y desatender a las poblaciones de la Patagonia (sur de Argentina). Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron: determinar la prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en niños y jóvenes de Puerto Madryn (Chubut, Patagonia), y evaluar las infecciones parasitarias en relación con los factores socioambientales y las prácticas de higiene de la población. Materiales y métodos: Se procesaron muestras seriadas de materia fecal mediante las técnicas Ritchie modificada y FLOTAC dual pellet, y muestras de escobillado anal por sedimentación. Se relevaron las variables socioambientales y las prácticas de higiene de los participantes mediante cuestionarios semiestructurados. Resultados: El 39.1% (68/174) de la población analizada estuvo parasitado. Se halló un total de 6 especies parásitas, las más prevalentes de las cuales fueron Blastocystis sp (19.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (17.8%) y Giardia lamblia (6.3%). El riesgo de parasitosis y de infección por Blastocystis sp fue mayor en los participantes que no poseían agua de red (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9 y OR = 3.2, respectivamente). La infección por G. lamblia se asoció de manera positiva con la falta de recolección pública de residuos (OR = 5.6). La infección por E. vermicularis fue superior en los participantes con padres que tenían un nivel de estudios primario (OR = 5.0). Conclusión: Las infecciones parasitarias observadas reflejan las condiciones ambientales de la Patagonia y la necesidad de orientar los estudios a poblaciones periféricas de los centros urbanos, las cuales están expuestas a mayor vulnerabilidad socioeconómica


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Parasites , Argentina , Sanitation , Hygiene , Giardia lamblia , Blastocystis , Education , Enterobius , Intestines/parasitology
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200303, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135270

ABSTRACT

Giardiasis is an infectious disease caused by Giardia duodenalis. The pro-drug metronidazole (MTZ) is the first-line treatment for giardiasis. Parasite's proteins as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), ferredoxin (Fd), nitroreductase-1 (NR-1) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) participate in MTZ activation. Here, we showed Giardia trophozoites long-term exposed to MTZ presented higher IC50 than controls, showing the drug influenced the parasite survival. That reduction in MTZ's susceptibility does not seem to be related to mutations in the genes pfor, fd, nr-1 or trxr. It points that different mechanism as alterations in other metabolic pathways can account for Giardia resistance to MTZ therapy.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance/genetics , Prodrugs , Giardia lamblia/drug effects , Giardia lamblia/genetics , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Activation, Metabolic , Nucleotides
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200127, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Kaempferol (KPF) is a flavonoid with antiparasitic activity including experimental giardiasis which mechanism of action is unknown. OBJECTIVE To analyse the cytotoxic effects of KPF on Giardia duodenalis trophozoites and to identify a likely parasite target of this compound. METHODS We used inhibitory concentrations of KPF (IC25, IC50 and IC100) and albendazole (ABZ) as reference drug. The ultrastructure of the trophozoites was analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) whilst apoptosis/necrosis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle progression were assessed by flow cytometry (FCM) and confocal laser microscopy (CLM). Ligand-protein docking analyses were carried out using KPF structure from a drug library and crystal structure of a G. duodenalis aldose reductase (GdAldRed) homolog. RESULTS KPF provoked appearance of perinuclear and periplasmic spaces devoid of cytosolic content and multilamellar structures. KPF induced proapoptotic death associated with partial arrest in the S phase without ROS production. Bioinformatics approaches predicted that GdAldRed is a viable KPF target (ΔG = -7.09 kCal/mol), exhibiting 92% structural identity and a similar coupling pattern as its human homolog. CONCLUSIONS KPF exerted a proapoptotic effect on G. duodenalis trophozoites involving partial interruption of DNA synthesis without oxidative stress or structure damage to chromatin and cytoskeletal structures. GdAldRed is a likely target underlying its antigiardial activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Giardiasis , Giardia lamblia/drug effects , Kaempferols , Computational Biology , Trophozoites
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190348, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND It was previously demonstrated that CMC-20, a nitazoxanide and N-methyl-1H-benzimidazole hybrid molecule, had higher in vitro activity against Giardia intestinalis WB strain than metronidazole and albendazole and similar to nitazoxanide. OBJETIVES To evaluate the in vitro activity of CMC-20 against G. intestinalis strains with different susceptibility/resistance to albendazole and nitazoxanide and evaluate its effect on the distribution of parasite cytoskeletal proteins and its in vivo giardicidal activity. METHODS CMC-20 activity was tested against two isolates from patients with chronic and acute giardiasis, an experimentally induced albendazole resistant strain and a nitazoxanide resistant clinical isolate. CMC-20 effect on the distribution of parasite cytoskeletal proteins was analysed by indirect immunofluorescence and its activity was evaluated in a murine model of giardiasis. FINDINGS CMC-20 showed broad activity against susceptible and resistant strains to albendazole and nitaxozanide. It affected the parasite microtubule reservoir and triggered the parasite encystation. In this process, alpha-7.2 giardin co-localised with CWP-1 protein. CMC-20 reduced the infection time and cyst load in feces of G. muris infected mice similar to albendazole. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The in vitro and in vivo giardicidal activity of CMC-20 suggests its potential use in the treatment of giardiasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Albendazole/pharmacology , Giardia lamblia/drug effects , Cytoskeletal Proteins/drug effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Thiazoles/chemistry , Time Factors , Albendazole/chemistry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Antiprotozoal Agents/chemistry
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190348, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND It was previously demonstrated that CMC-20, a nitazoxanide and N-methyl-1H-benzimidazole hybrid molecule, had higher in vitro activity against Giardia intestinalis WB strain than metronidazole and albendazole and similar to nitazoxanide. OBJETIVES To evaluate the in vitro activity of CMC-20 against G. intestinalis strains with different susceptibility/resistance to albendazole and nitazoxanide and evaluate its effect on the distribution of parasite cytoskeletal proteins and its in vivo giardicidal activity. METHODS CMC-20 activity was tested against two isolates from patients with chronic and acute giardiasis, an experimentally induced albendazole resistant strain and a nitazoxanide resistant clinical isolate. CMC-20 effect on the distribution of parasite cytoskeletal proteins was analysed by indirect immunofluorescence and its activity was evaluated in a murine model of giardiasis. FINDINGS CMC-20 showed broad activity against susceptible and resistant strains to albendazole and nitaxozanide. It affected the parasite microtubule reservoir and triggered the parasite encystation. In this process, alpha-7.2 giardin co-localised with CWP-1 protein. CMC-20 reduced the infection time and cyst load in feces of G. muris infected mice similar to albendazole. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The in vitro and in vivo giardicidal activity of CMC-20 suggests its potential use in the treatment of giardiasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Albendazole/pharmacology , Giardia lamblia/drug effects , Cytoskeletal Proteins/drug effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Thiazoles/chemistry , Time Factors , Albendazole/chemistry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Antiprotozoal Agents/chemistry
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190242, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like proteins (Ub-L) are critical regulators of complex cellular processes such as the cell cycle, DNA repair, transcription, chromatin remodeling, signal translation, and protein degradation. Giardia intestinalis possesses an experimentally proven Ub-conjugation system; however, a limited number of enzymes involved in this process were identified using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). This is due to the limitations of BLAST's ability to identify homologous functional regions when similarity between the sequences dips to < 30%. In addition Ub-Ls and their conjugating enzymes have not been fully elucidated in Giardia. OBJETIVE To identify the enzymes involved in the Ub and Ub-Ls conjugation processes using intelligent systems based on the hidden Markov models (HMMs). METHODS We performed an HMM search of functional Pfam domains found in the key enzymes of these pathways in Giardia's proteome. Each open reading frame identified was analysed by sequence homology, domain architecture, and transcription levels. FINDINGS We identified 118 genes, 106 of which corresponded to the ubiquitination process (Ub, E1, E2, E3, and DUB enzymes). The E3 ligase group was the largest group with 82 members; 71 of which harbored a characteristic RING domain. Four Ub-Ls were identified and the conjugation enzymes for NEDD8 and URM1 were described for first time. The 3D model for Ub-Ls displayed the β-grasp fold typical. Furthermore, our sequence analysis for the corresponding activating enzymes detected the essential motifs required for conjugation. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our findings highlight the complexity of Giardia's Ub-conjugation system, which is drastically different from that previously reported, and provides evidence for the presence of NEDDylation and URMylation enzymes in the genome and transcriptome of G. intestinalis.


Subject(s)
Ubiquitins/genetics , Giardia lamblia/metabolism , Ubiquitin/genetics , Ubiquitination , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Models, Molecular , Giardia lamblia/genetics , Ubiquitin/metabolism
15.
NOVA publ. cient ; 17(32): 65-74, jul.-dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056789

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. La falta de estudios en intercomunicadores como medios de propagación de enteroparásitos en Venezuela, motivó el presente estudio. Metodología. Se frotó el intercomunicador tres veces con un hisopo impregnado con solución salina 0,85% (SSI), resuspendiéndolo en un tubo con 10 ml de SSI, el cual se centrifugó a 3000 rpm por 10 minutos para luego observar el sedimente al microscopio. Resultados. El 65% de las muestras estuvieron contaminadas, encontrando 10 taxones de enteroparásitos, a saber: Blastocystis sp (49% del total de muestras examinadas), Endolimax nana (36%), lodamoeba butschlii (8%), Giardia lamblia (7%), Entamoeba coli (4%), Chilomastix mesnili (2%), Entamoeba hartmanni (2%), Trichuris trichiura (2%), Hymenolepis nana (2%) y Taenia sp (1%). Discusión. La diversidad de parásitos encontrados y su abundancia, se corresponden con lo reportado en poblaciones de la misma zona. Conclusión. La falta de higiene en la mayoría de los intercomunicadores facilitan el potencial de estos para transmitir los parásitos endémicos del estado Lara.


Abstract Introduction. The lack of studies in intercoms as means of propagation of enteroparasites in Venezuela, motivated the present study. Methodology. The intercom was rubbed three times with a swab impregnated with 0.85% saline solution (SSI), resuspending it in a tube with 10 ml of SSI, which was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes to then observe the pellet under a microscope. Results. 65% of the samples were contaminated, finding 10 taxa of enteroparasites, namely: Blastocystis sp (49% of the samples examined), Endolimax nana (36%), Iodamoeba butschlii (8%), Giardia lamblia (7%), Entamoeba coli (4%), Chilomastix mesnili (2%), Entamoeba hartmanni (2%), Trichuris trichiura (2%), Hymenolepis nana (2%) and Taenia sp (1%). Discussion. The diversity of parasites found and their abundance correspond to that reported in populations of the same area. Conclusion. The lack of hygiene of most of the intercoms facilitates the potential of these to transmit the endemic parasites of the Lara State.


Subject(s)
Giardia lamblia , Blastocystis , Hymenolepis nana , Environmental Pollution
16.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 7(1): 57-66, abr. 2019. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178662

ABSTRACT

La Giardiasis ocasionada por Giardia intestinalis (conocida como Giardia lamblia), es una de las infecciones parasíticas más comunes en todo el mundo y con mayor prevalencia en países en desarrollo como el nuestro. Existen muchas drogas para el tratamiento de la giardiasis, de diferente eficacia y efectos adversos como la curcumina que inhibe la polimerización de los microtubulos por un mecanismo distinto al de la colchicina. Sin embargo, la estructura cristalográfica de la Tubulina de G. lamblia (cadenas α y ß) permanece desconocida. El análisis de alineamiento de secuencias (PBLAST) indica una identidad del 86,98 y 88,32 % entre las cadenas α y ß de la Tubulina de G. lamblia y B. taurus (PDB:5NQT). El Modelamiento por Homología de la estructura proteica de la Tubulina de G. lamblia utilizando como molde a la Tubulina de B. taurus mediante el servidor SWISS-MODEL, generó una estructura proteica con los siguientes parámetros: z-core = -1,16 y -1,41, QMEANscore6 = 0,71 y 0,70, % de confiabilidad (de los diagramas de Ramachandran) = 96,08 y 96,95 %, RMS (Root Mean Square) = 0,081 y MOLPROBITYscore = 1,26. Estos parámetros indican que la estructura proteica de la Tubulina de G. lamblia obtenida a partir del Modelamiento por Homología es de buena calidad, por tanto, esta estructura podría ser utilizada en futuras evaluaciones, como el análisis in silico de compuestos antiGiardia.


Giardiasis caused by Giardia intestinalis (known as Giardia lamblia), is one of the most common parasitic infections in the world and with a higher prevalence in developing countries like ours. There are many drugs for the treatment of giardiasis, of different efficacy and adverse effects such as curcumin that inhibits the polymerization of microtubules by a mechanism other than colchicine. However, the crystallographic structure of G. lamblia Tubulin (α and ß chains) remains unknown. The sequence alignment analysis (PBLAST) indicates an identity of 86,98 and 88,32 % between the α and ß chains of the Tubulin of G. lamblia and B. taurus (PDB: 5NQT). Homologous Modeling of the protein structure of G. lamblia Tubulin using the B. taurus Tubulin as a template employing the SWISS-MODEL server, generated a protein structure with the following parameters: z-core = -1,16 and -1,41, QMEANscore6 = 0,71 and 0,70, % of reliability (from Ramachandran plots) = 96,08 y 96,95 %, RMS (Root Mean Square) = 0,081 and MOLPROBITYscore = 1,26. These parameters indicate that the protein structure of G. lamblia Tubulin obtained from Homology Modeling is of good quality, therefore, this structure could be used in further evaluations, such as the in silico analysis of antiGiardia compounds.


Subject(s)
Parasitic Diseases , Tubulin , Giardia lamblia , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Polymerization
17.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 40(1): 89-98, jan./jul. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051429

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of enteroparasitosis and the factors involved in their transmission in children between the ages of 0 and 15 in the city of São Jerônimo da Serra, Paraná. The study was carried out from July 2014 to June 2017. 362 samples were analyzed using the methods of Hoffman, Pons and Janer, Faust and collaborators, and Kato-Katz modified. Associations between the socioeconomic variables, as it relates to the habits and environment of the children, and enteroparasitosis were verified by logistic regression, considering a level of significance of 5%. We encountered a high prevalence of enteroparasites (36.5%), a high frequency of polyparasitism (43.9%) and a higher frequency of protozoa (34.5%) in relation to helminths (3.9%). The pathogenic parasites found were Giardia lamblia (8.0%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (3.6%), Hymenolepis nana (2.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%), hookworms (0.8%) and Trichuris trichiura (0.3%). Endolimax nana was the most frequent (19.3%); even though it is a commensal amoeba, its detection is concerning since the transmission mechanism (fecal-oral) is equal to pathogenic microorganisms. We observed an association between the presence of enteroparasitosis and age group, household income, education level of parents/guardians, living in rural area, consumption of untreated water, inadequate garbage disposal, contact with sand or dirt and presence of a household pet. Hygienic habits, sanitary, socioeconomic and socio-demographic conditions are directly related to infection by intestinal parasites and must be improved to avoid dissemination in the population (AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência de enteroparasitoses e os fatores envolvidos na transmissão de enteroparasitoses em crianças de 0 a 15 anos de idade do município de São Jerônimo da Serra, Paraná. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no período de julho de 2014 a junho 2017. Analisou-se 362 amostras pelos métodos de Hoffman, Pons e Janer e Faust e cols. As associações entre variáveis socioeconômicas, referentes aos hábitos das crianças e ao ambiente em que vivem e enteroparasitoses foram verificadas por meio de regressão logística, considerado nível de significância de 5%. Encontrou-se alta prevalência de parasitismo (36,5%), uma alta frequência de poliparasitismo (43,9%) e uma freqüência maior de protozoários (34,5%) em relação aos helmintos (3,9%). Os enteroparasitas patogênicos encontrados foram Giardia lamblia (8,0%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (3,6%), Hymenolepis nana (2,5%), Enterobius vermicularis (2,2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1,1%), ancilostomídeos (0,8%) e Trichuris trichiura (0,3%). Endolimax nana foi o mais frequentemente encontrado (19,3%). Mesmo sendo comensal, sua detecção é preocupante uma vez que o mecanismo de transmissão (fecal-oral) é igual dos microrganismos patogênicos. Observou-se associação entre a presença de enteroparasitoses e faixa etária, renda familiar, escolaridade dos responsáveis, morar em zona rural, consumo de água não tratada, destino inadequado do lixo, contato com areia ou terra e presença de um animal de estimação Hábitos de higiene, condições sanitárias, socioeconômicas e sociodemográficas estão diretamenterelacionados às infecções por parasitos intestinais e devem ser melhoradas para evitar disseminação na população(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Child , Intestinal Diseases , Parasitic Diseases , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Giardia lamblia , Ascaris lumbricoides , Habits
18.
Infectio ; 23(1): 33-38, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-975560

ABSTRACT

Abstract Intestinal parasitosis (IP) is a public health problem in developing countries affecting one fourth of the global population. IP are common studied in children, ne glecting the adults that are also at high risk and source of transmission. A screening study was performed with a convenience sample in three Colombian regions: Guachené (Cauca), Quibdó (Chocó), and Urabá (Antioquia). Feces samples from 284 volunteers (older than 18 years old) were tested by microscopy to identify para site ova and cysts. The IP frequency was 14.5%, and 52.1% were males. 63.2% of the parasitized patients exhibited diarrhea, and/or abdominal pain with significant association. 39.5% had single parasitic infection and 60.5% had multiple parasites: Blastocystis hominis (63.9%), Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar (39.4%), Endolimax nana (33.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (22.2%), Giardia lamblia (19.4%), Entamoeba coli (13.9%), Trichuris trichiura (11.1%), hookworm species (11.1%), Strongyloides stercolaris (5.6%), and Iodamoeba butschlii (2.8%). A multivariate approach was used to determine predictor factors for IP: male gender, rainwater as drinking sour ce, and feces disposal different to toilet, latrine or septic tank were positively associated with infection. This study evidences that adult population, not only children from vulnerable areas of Colombia, must have to include as a risk for intestinal parasitism.


Resumen La parasitosis intestinal (PI) es un problema de salud pública en países en desarrollo que afecta un cuarto de la población mundial. Las PI son comúnmente estudia das en niños, olvidando que los adultos están también en riesgo y a su vez pueden ser fuentes de transmisión. Se realizó un estudio de tamizaje con una muestra escogida por conveniencia en tres regiones de Colombia: Guachené (Cauca), Quibdó (Chocó) y Urabá (Antioquia). Las muestras de materia fecal de 284 voluntarios mayores de 18 años, fueron estudiadas por microscopía para identificar parásitos, huevos y quistes. La frecuencia de las PI fue del 14.5%, 52.1% de los positivos fueron hombres. 63.2% de los individuos parasitados tenían asociación significativa con diarrea, y/o dolor abdominal. 39.5% tuvieron infección por un solo parásito y 60.5% fueron positivos para varios parásitos: Blastocystis hominis (63.9%), Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar (39.4%), Endolimax nana (33.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (22.2%), Giardia lamblia (19.4%), Entamoeba coli (13.9%), Trichuris trichiura (11.1%), Strongyloides stercolaris (5.6%), y Iodamoeba butschlii (2.8%). Se realizó un aná lisis multivariado para determinar factores predictores para PI: el género masculino, el agua lluvia para consumo, y la disposición de excretas diferente a sanitario, letrina o pozo séptico, están asociados positivamente a la PI. Este estudio evidencia que la población adulta, no solo la infantil, residentes en áreas vulnerables de Colombia, deben incluirse como población de riesgo al parasitismo intestinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Parasites , Parasitic Diseases , Mass Screening , Helminthiasis , Toilet Facilities , Ancylostomatoidea , Water , Abdominal Pain , Septic Tanks , Giardia lamblia , Blastocystis hominis , Ascaris lumbricoides , Colombia , Diarrhea , Drinking , Coliforms
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741763

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasites in the population of San Juan Cosala, Jalisco, Mexico. METHODS: A total of 277 samples from 104 participants were analysed using direct smear, flotation, formaldehyde/ethyl acetate, and modified Kinyoun’s acid-fast stain methods. The Graham method was applied only for samples from children under 12 years of age for the diagnosis of Enterobius vermicularis. RESULTS: The prevalence of parasite infections in the study population was 77.9% including: Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii/E. bangladeshi (37.5%), Giardia intestinalis (11.5%); commensals: Endolimax nana (44.2%), Entamoeba coli (27.9%), Chilomastix mesnili (6.7%) and Iodamoeba bütschlii, (2.9%); emerging intestinal protozoans: Blastocystis spp. (49%), Cryptosporidium spp. (7.7%) and Cyclospora cayetanensis (2.9%); and helminths: Enterobius vermicularis (18.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.8%). The results also showed that 58.64% of the studied population presented polyparasitism. A significant association was found between protozoan infections and housewives, and houses that were not built with concrete ceilings, brick walls and cement floors (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Polyparasitism was observed in over half the study population. The most prevalent parasite was Blastocystis spp, whilst the prevalence of helminths was less than that of protozoans. The risk factors for infection to intestinal parasites were being a housewife and not having solid brick, cement and concrete materials for house construction.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ascaris lumbricoides , Blastocystis , Child , Cryptosporidium , Cyclospora , Diagnosis , Endolimax , Entamoeba , Enterobius , Giardia lamblia , Helminths , Humans , Methods , Mexico , Parasites , Prevalence , Protozoan Infections , Retortamonadidae , Risk Factors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786648

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to determine the species of parasites that affected the inhabitants of the city of Acre on the coast of the eastern Mediterranean during the Ottoman Period. This is the first archaeological study of parasites in the Ottoman Empire. We analysed sediment from a latrine dating to the early 1800s for the presence of helminth eggs and protozoan parasites which caused dysentery. The samples were examined using light microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. We found evidence for roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), fish tapeworm (Dibothriocephalus sp.), Taenia tapeworm (Taenia sp.), lancet liver fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum), and the protozoa Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica. The parasite taxa recovered demonstrate the breadth of species present in this coastal city. We consider the effect of Ottoman Period diet, culture, trade and sanitation upon risk of parasitism in this community living 200 years ago.


Subject(s)
Cestoda , Diet , Dysentery , Eggs , Entamoeba histolytica , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fasciola hepatica , Giardia lamblia , Helminths , Microscopy , Ottoman Empire , Ovum , Parasites , Sanitation , Taenia , Toilet Facilities
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