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1.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 376-383, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985683

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics, pathological diagnosis and prognosis of diffuse midline glioma (DMG) with H3K27 alteration in adults. Methods: Twenty cases of H3K27-altered adult DMG diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University were enrolled from 2017 to 2022. All cases were evaluated by clinical and imaging presentations, HE, immunohistochemical staining and molecular genetics; and the relevant literature was reviewed. Results: The ratio of male to female was 1∶1, and the median age was 53 years (range from 25 to 74 years); the tumors were located in the brainstem (3/20, 15%) and non-brainstem (17/20, 85%; three in thoracolumbar spinal cord and one in pineal region). The clinical manifestations were non-specific, mostly dizziness, headache, blurred vision, memory loss, low back pain, limb sensation and/or movement disorders, etc. Microscopically, the tumors showed infiltrative growth, with WHO grade 2 (3 cases), grade 3 (12 cases), and grade 4 (5 cases). The tumors showed astrocytoma-like and oligdendroglioma-like, pilocytic astrocytoma-like and epithelioid-like patterns. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for GFAP, Olig2 and H3K27M, and H3K27me3 expression was variably lost. ATRX expression was lost in four cases, p53 was strongly positive in 11 cases. Ki-67 index was about 5%-70%. Molecular genetics showed p. k27m mutation in exon 1 of H3F3A gene in 20 cases; BRAF mutation in two cases: V600E and L597Q mutation in one case each. Follow up intervals ranged from 1 to 58 months, and the survival time for brainstem (6.0 months) and non-brainstem (30.4 months) tumors was significantly different (P<0.05). Conclusions: DMG with H3K27 alteration is uncommonly found in adults, mostly occurs in non-brainstem, and can present in adults of all ages. Owing to the wide histomorphologic features, mainly astrocytic differentiation, routine detection of H3K27me3 in midline glioma is recommended. Molecular testing should be performed on any suspected cases to avoid missed diagnosis. Concomitant BRAF L597Q mutation and PPM1D mutation are novel findings. The overall prognosis of this tumor is poor, with tumors located in the brainstem showing worse outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Histones/genetics , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/metabolism , Glioma/pathology , Astrocytoma/pathology , Mutation
2.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1071-1080, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987024

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of lactic acid-induced upregulation of PLEKHA4 expression on biological behaviors of glioma cells and the possible molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#GEO database and GEPIA2 website were used to analyze the relationship between PLEKHA4 expression level and the pathological grade of glioma. A specific PLEKHA4 siRNA was transfected in glioma U251 and T98G cells, and the changes in cell proliferation ability were assessed by real-time cell analysis technology and Edu experiment. The colony-forming ability of the cells was evaluated using plate cloning assay, and cell cycle changes and cell apoptosis were analyzed with flow cytometry. The mRNA expression of PLEKHA4 was detected by PCR in glioma samples and controls and in glioma cells treated with lactic acid and glucose. Xenograft mice in vivo was used to detect tumor formation in nude mice; Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of cyclinD1, CDK2, Bcl2, β-catenin and phosphorylation of the key proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway.@*RESULTS@#The results of GEO database and online website analysis showed that PLEKHA4 was highly expressed in glioma tissues and was associated with poor prognosis; PLEKHA4 knockdown obviously inhibited the proliferation and attenuated the clone-forming ability of the glioma cells (P < 0.05). Flow cytometry showed that PLEKHA4 knockdown caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and promoted apoptosis of the cells (P < 0.01). PLEKHA4 gene mRNA expression was increased in glioma samples and glioma cells after lactate and glucose treatment (P < 0.01). PLEKHA4 knockdown, tumor formation ability of nude mice decreased; PLEKHA4 knockdown obviously lowered the expression of cyclinD1, CDK2, Bcl2 and other functional proteins, inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 and reduced the expression of β-catenin protein (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#PLEKHA4 knockdown inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells and promoted apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway and expression of β-catenin. Lactic acid produced by glycolysis upregulates the expression of PLEKHA4 in glioma cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Up-Regulation , beta Catenin/metabolism , Mice, Nude , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Lactic Acid , Cell Line, Tumor , Glioma/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Apoptosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
3.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 240-262, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982569

ABSTRACT

Detailed characterizations of genomic alterations have not identified subtype-specific vulnerabilities in adult gliomas. Mapping gliomas into developmental programs may uncover new vulnerabilities that are not strictly related to genomic alterations. After identifying conserved gene modules co-expressed with EGFR or PDGFRA (EM or PM), we recently proposed an EM/PM classification scheme for adult gliomas in a histological subtype- and grade-independent manner. By using cohorts of bulk samples, paired primary and recurrent samples, multi-region samples from the same glioma, single-cell RNA-seq samples, and clinical samples, we here demonstrate the temporal and spatial stability of the EM and PM subtypes. The EM and PM subtypes, which progress in a subtype-specific mode, are robustly maintained in paired longitudinal samples. Elevated activities of cell proliferation, genomic instability and microenvironment, rather than subtype switching, mark recurrent gliomas. Within individual gliomas, the EM/PM subtype was preserved across regions and single cells. Malignant cells in the EM and PM gliomas were correlated to neural stem cell and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell compartment, respectively. Thus, while genetic makeup may change during progression and/or within different tumor areas, adult gliomas evolve within a neurodevelopmental framework of the EM and PM molecular subtypes. The dysregulated developmental pathways embedded in these molecular subtypes may contain subtype-specific vulnerabilities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/metabolism , Glioma/pathology , Neural Stem Cells/pathology , Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
4.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 319-325, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935533

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features of pediatric diffuse midline glioma with H3K27 alteration and to analyze their relationship with prognosis. Methods: Forty-one cases of childhood diffuse midline glioma with H3K27 alteration were collected at Children's Hospital of Fudan University (39 cases) and Xi'an Children's Hospital (2 cases), from July 2016 to July 2020. The clinical manifestations, imaging data, histopathology, immunohistochemical phenotype and molecular genetics features, tumor size, site and histological grading were evaluated. Results: Among the 41 cases, 21 were males and 20 females, the age of onset was 3-14 years, the average and median age was 7.6 years and 7.0 years, respectively. The tumor sites were brain stem (n=36) and other locations (n=5). The clinical manifestations were dizziness, gait disturbance, and limb weakness, etc. The MRI features were variable. The histology varied from low-grade to high-grade glioma with neuron differentiation. Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor cells expressed H3K27M, GFAP, and Olig2. Genetic study showed that 76% (16/21) of tumors had H3F3A gene mutation, mostly accompanied by TP53 (62%, 13/21) missense mutation; five tumors (24%, 5/21) had HIST1H3B gene mutation, accompanied by missense mutations in ACVR1 and PI3K pathway-related gene PIK3CA (4/5) and PIK3R1 (1/5) mutations. The prognosis was dismal with only one alive and others died. The average and median overall survival time was 7 months and 4 months, respectively. Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that age, tumor location, radiologically maximum tumor diameter, histologic grading, and surgical methods were not significantly associated with overall survival rate (P>0.05). Conclusions: Pediatric diffuse midline gliomas with H3K27 alteration have unique clinicopathological and genetic characteristics. The prognosis is poor. The tumor location and histopathologic grading are not related to prognosis. New specific drugs and comprehensive treatment are needed to improve the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Glioma/pathology , Histones/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Prognosis
5.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 314-318, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935532

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features and treatment strategies of pituicytoma. Methods: Twenty-one cases of pituicytoma were collected at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University and Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, China from 2009 to 2020. The clinical data of 21 pituicytoma patients was retrospectively analyzed, and the relevant literature was reviewed. Results: Twenty-one patients aged 4 to 68 years, including 8 males and 13 females. All patients underwent surgical treatment. Histologically, the tumor was consisted almost entirely of elongate, bipolar spindle cells arranged in a fascicular or storiform pattern. Mitotic figures were rare. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were diffusely positive for S-100 protein (21/21), vimentin (15/15) and TTF1 (14/14), while they were weakly or focally positive for GFAP (13/16) and EMA (6/12). CKpan was negative in all cases and Ki-67 proliferation index was low (<5%). Among the 18 patients with follow-up, all survived and 2 relapsed after surgery. Conclusions: Pituicytoma is a rare low-grade glioma of the sellar area. It is easily confused with other sellar tumors. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult. It needs to be confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Microsurgery is the main treatment method at present.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Craniopharyngioma , Glioma/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Pituitary Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies
6.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 228-237, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935205

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effects of Homeobox C10 (HOXC10) on biological characteristics such as migration, invasion and proliferation of glioma cancer cells and to explore the role of HOXC10 gene in glioma microenvironment. Methods: The expression level of HOXC10 in high grade glioma (glioblastoma) and low grade glioma and its effect on patient survival were analyzed by using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) database. Hoxc10-siRNA-1, HOXC10-siRNA-2 and siRNA negative control (NC) were transfected into U251 cells according to the operation instructions of HOXC10-siRNA transfection. 100 ng/ mL recombinant protein chemokine ligand 2 (reCCL2) was added into the transfection group, and was labeled as HOXC10-siRNA-1+ reCCL2 and HOXC10-siRNA-2+ reCCL2 groups. The expressions of HOXC10 mRNA and target protein in each group was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot. The proliferation ability of cells in each group was detected by cell counting kit 8 (CCK8) method. The migration ability of cells was detected by Transwell assay and Nick assay, and cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. The expression of chemokines in each group was detected by multiple factors. Co-incubation assays were performed to determine the role of HOXC10 and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in recruiting and polarizing tumor-associated macrophages (M2-type macrophages). Results: The median expression level of HOXC10 in high grade gliomas was 8.51, higher than 1.00 in low grade gliomas (P<0.001) in TCGA database. The median expression level of HOXC10 in high grade gliomas was 0.83, higher than 0.00 in low grade gliomas (P=0.002) in CGGA database. The 5-year survival rate of patients with high HOXC10 expression in TCGA database was 28.2%, lower than 78.7% of those with low HOXC10 expression (P<0.001), and the 5-year survival rate of patients with high HOXC10 expression in CGGA database was 20.3%, lower than 58.0% of those with low HOXC10 expression (P<0.001). The numbers of cell migration in HOXC10-siRNA-1 group and HOXC10-siRNA-2 group were (45±3) and (69±4) respectively, lower than (159±3) in NC group (P<0.05). The cell mobility of HOXC10-siRNA-1 group and HOXC10-siRNA-2 group at 48 hours were (15±2)% and (28±4)% respectively, lower than (80±5)% of NC group (P<0.05). The expressions of vimentin in HOXC10-siRNA-1 group and HOXC10-siRNA-2 group were (141 740.00±34 024.56) and (94 655.00±5 687.97), N-cadherin were (76 810.00±14.14) and (94 254.00±701.45), β-catenin were (75 786.50±789.84) and (107 296.50±9 614.53), lower than (233 768.50±34 114.37), (237 154.50±24 715.50) and (192 449.50±24 178.10) of NC group (P<0.05). The A value of HOXC10-siRNA-1 group and HOXC10-siRNA-2 group were (0.44±0.05) and (0.32±0.02) at 96 hours, lower than 0.92±0.12 of NC group (P<0.05). The apoptosis rates of HOXC10-siRNA-1 group and HOXC10 siRNA-2 group were (10.23±1.24)% and (13.81±2.16)%, higher than (4.60±0.07)% of NC group (P<0.05). The expression levels of CCL2 in U251 cells in HOXC10-siRNA-1 and HOXC10-siRNA-2 groups were (271.63±44.27) and (371.66±50.21), lower than (933.93±29.84) in NC group (P<0.05). The expression levels of CCL5 (234.81±5.95 and 232.62±5.72), CXCL10 (544.13±48.14 and 500.87±15.65) and CXCL11 (215.75±15.30 and 176.18±16.49) in HOXC10-siRNA-1 and HOXC10-siRNA-2 groups were higher than those in NC group (9.98±0.71, 470.54±18.84 and 13.55±0.73, respectively, P<0.05). The recruited numbers of CD14(+) THP1 in HOXC10-siRNA-1 and HOXC10-siRNA-2 groups were (159.33±1.15) and (170.67±1.15), respectively, lower than (360.00±7.81) in NC group (P<0.05), while addition of reCCL2 promoted the recruitment of CD14(+) THP1 cells (287.00±3.61 and 280.67±2.31 in HOXC10-siRNA-1+ reCCL2 group and HOXC10-siRNA-2+ reCCL2 group, respectively, P<0.05). The expressions level of M2-type macrophage-related gene TGF-β in HOXC10-siRNA-1 group and HOXC10-siRNA-2 group were (0.30±0.02) and (0.28±0.02), respectively, lower than (1.06±0.10) in NC group (P<0.05). The expressions level of M1-related gene NOS2 in HOXC10-siRNA-1 and HOXC10-siRNA-2 were (11 413.95±1 911.85) and (5 894.00±945.21), respectively, higher than (13.39±4.32) in NC group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The expression of HOXC10 in glioma is high and positively correlated with the poor prognosis of glioma patients. Knockdown of HOXC10 can inhibit the proliferation, migration and metastasis of human glioma U251 cells. HOXC10 may play an immunosuppressive role in glioma microenvironment by promoting the expression of CCL2 and recruiting and polarizing tumor-associated macrophages (M2 macrophages).


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genes, Homeobox , Glioma/pathology , Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasm Invasiveness/genetics , Tumor Microenvironment
7.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 899-904, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of atorvastatin (AVT) on biological behaviors and the miR-146a/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in human glioma cells.@*METHODS@#Human glioma U251 cells were treated with 8.0 μmol/L AVT or transfected with a miR-146a inhibitor or a negative control fragment (miR-146a NC) prior to AVT treatment. RT-PCR was used to detect miR-146a expression in the cells, and the changes in cell proliferation rate, apoptosis, cell invasion and migration were detected using MTT assay, flow cytometry, and Transwell assay. Western blotting was performed to detect the changes in cellular expressions of proteins in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.@*RESULTS@#AVT treatment for 48 h resulted in significantly increased miR-146a expression and cell apoptosis (P < 0.01) and obviously lowered the cell proliferation rate, invasion index, migration index, and expressions of p-PI3K and p-Akt protein in U251 cells (P < 0.01). Compared with AVT treatment alone, transfection with miR-146a inhibitor prior to AVT treatment significantly reduced miR-146a expression and cell apoptosis (P < 0.01), increased the cell proliferation rate, promoted cell invasion and migration, and enhanced the expressions of p-PI3K and p-Akt proteins in the cells (P < 0.01); these effects were not observed following transfection with miR-146a NC group (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#AVT can inhibit the proliferation, invasion and migration and promote apoptosis of human glioma cells possibly by up-regulating miR-146a expression and inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Atorvastatin/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Glioma/pathology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 34-38, Jan. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088980

ABSTRACT

Abstract Brain tumors are one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths around the world. Angiogenesis is critical in high-grade malignant gliomas, such as glioblastoma multiforme. Objective: The aim of this study is to comparatively analyze the angiogenesis-related genes, namely VEGFA, VEGFB, KDR, CXCL8, CXCR1 and CXCR2 in LGG vs. GBM to identify molecular distinctions using datasets available on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Methods: DNA sequencing and mRNA expression data for 514 brain lower grade glioma (LGG) and 592 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients were acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the genetic alterations and expression levels of the selected genes were analyzed. Results: We identified six distinct KDR mutations in the LGG patients and 18 distinct KDR mutations in the GBM patients, including missense and nonsense mutations, frame shift deletion and altered splice region. Furthermore, VEGFA and CXCL8 were significantly overexpressed within GBM patients. Conclusions: VEGFA and CXCL8 are important factors for angiogenesis, which are suggested to have significant roles during tumorigenesis. Our results provide further evidence that VEGFA and CXCL8 could induce angiogenesis and promote LGG to progress into GBM. These findings could be useful in developing novel targeted therapeutics approaches in the future.


Resumo Os tumores cerebrais são uma das causas mais comuns de mortes relacionadas ao câncer em todo o mundo. A angiogênese tem caráter crítico em gliomas malignos de alto grau, como o glioblastoma multiforme. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar comparativamente os genes relacionados à angiogênese, VEGFA, VEGFB, KDR, CXCL8, CXCR1 e CXCR2 em GBG vs. GBM para identificar distinções moleculares usando conjuntos de dados disponíveis no The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Métodos: Os dados de sequenciamento de DNA e expressão de mRNA para 514 pacientes com glioma cerebral de baixo grau (GBG) e 592 pacientes com glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) foram adquiridos do TCGA e as alterações genéticas e os níveis de expressão dos genes selecionados foram analisados. Resultados: Identificamos seis mutações KDR distintas nos pacientes GBG e 18 mutações KDR distintas nos pacientes GBM, incluindo mutações missense e nonsense, exclusão de mudança de quadro e região de emenda alterada. Além disso, VEGFA e CXCL8 foram significativamente super-expressos nos pacientes com GBM. Conclusões: VEGFA e CXCL8 são fatores importantes para a angiogênese, os quais parecem ter um papel significativo durante a tumorigênese. Nossos resultados fornecem evidências adicionais de que o VEGFA e o CXCL8 podem induzir a angiogênese e promover o GBG a progredir no GBM. Esses achados podem ser úteis no desenvolvimento de novas abordagens terapêuticas direcionadas no futuro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Glioblastoma/genetics , Carcinogenesis/genetics , Glioma/genetics , Neovascularization, Pathologic/genetics , Reference Values , Gene Expression , Interleukin-8/analysis , Point Mutation/genetics , Glioblastoma/pathology , Receptors, Interleukin-8A/analysis , Receptors, Interleukin-8B/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor B/analysis , Glioma/pathology
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(11): 1487-1490, nov. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094178

ABSTRACT

The 2016 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System incorporates a new diagnostic entity: the mutant diffuse midline glioma H3K27, a tumor with a characteristic location and special molecular biology. We report the case of a 51-year-old male patient with progressive diplopia. The imaging study showed a mesencephalic tumor; the stereotacic biopsy disclosed an Anaplastic Astrocytoma Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild type. The molecular study concludes H3K27 mutation. The patient was treated with radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy (temozolomide) with partial recovery of the diplopia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Histones/genetics , Glioma/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Biomarkers, Tumor , Genetic Markers , Neuroimaging , Glioma/pathology , Glioma/diagnostic imaging
10.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 439-446, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286540

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Gliomas are neoplasms with high recurrence and mortality. Due to the difficulty to apply the World Health Organization (2016) classification, developing countries continue to use histological evaluation to diagnose and classify these neoplasms. Objective: To develop a semi-quantitative scale to numerically grade gliomas by its morphological characteristics. Method: A cohort of patients with gliomas was assessed and followed for 36 months. Tumor tissue sections were analyzed and graded, including aspects such as cell line, cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, mitosis, endothelial hyperplasia, hypoxic changes, apoptotic bodies, necrosis, hemorrhage and proliferation index. Results: 58 cases were analyzed. Low-grade gliomas median score was 12 points (9 and 13.5 for percentiles 25 and 75, respectively), whereas for high-grade gliomas it was 17 points (16 and 20.5 for percentiles 25 and 75, respectively) (p < 0.0001). Thirty-six-month survival of patients with low (13/17) and high grade gliomas (6/41) was also significantly different (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The semi-quantitative morphological scale allows an objective evaluation of gliomas, with an adequate correlation between the score, tumor grade and survival time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Glioma/pathology , Oligodendroglioma/mortality , Oligodendroglioma/pathology , Astrocytoma/mortality , Astrocytoma/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/classification , Brain Neoplasms/mortality , Survival Analysis , Cohort Studies , Glioblastoma/mortality , Glioblastoma/pathology , Ependymoma/mortality , Ependymoma/pathology , Neoplasm Grading , Glioma/classification
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(6): 648-654, Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983804

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Chordoid glioma (CG) is considered a slow growing glial neoplasm. We report two new cases with endocrinological presentation, management and outcome. Case reports: 1) An 18 year-old female patient was admitted due to headaches, nausea and vomiting and visual abnormalities. She was in amenorrhea. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a 35 mm-diameter sellar and suprasellar mass. An emergency ventricular peritoneal valve was placed due to obstructive hydrocephalus. Transcraneal surgery was performed. The patient developed central hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and transient diabetes insipidus; she never recovered spontaneous menstrual cycles. Histopathologic study showed cells in cords, inside a mucinous stroma, positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Due to residual tumor gamma knife radiosurgery was performed. Three years after surgery, the patient is lucid, with hypopituitarism under replacement. 2) A 46 year-old woman complained about a three year-history of amenorrhea, galactorrhea and headache. An MRI showed a solid-cystic sellar mass 40 mm-diameter that extended to the suprasellar cistern. She had hypogonatropic hypogonadism and mild hyperprolactinemia. The tumor mass was removed via nasal endoscopic approach. Histopathological study reported cellular proliferation of glial lineage positive for GFAP. The patient evolved with central hypothyroidism and diabetes insipidus. She was re-operated for fistula and again under the diagnosis of extradural abscess. She evolved with cardiorespiratory descompensation and death, suspected to be due to a thromboembolism. In conclusion, the first case confirms that best treatment for CG is surgery considering radiotherapy as an adjuvant therapy. The other case, on the contrary, illustrates the potentially fatal evolution due to surgical complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Third Ventricle/pathology , Glioma/pathology , Sella Turcica , Biopsy , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Treatment Outcome , Fatal Outcome , Third Ventricle/surgery , Third Ventricle/diagnostic imaging , Glioma/surgery , Glioma/diagnostic imaging
12.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(6): 393-398, June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950553

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Glioma, the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, is highly aggressive and associated with a poor prognosis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the association of genetic polymorphisms related to angiogenesis and apoptosis with gliomas, as well as comorbidities, lifestyle, clinical profile, survival and response to treatment (temozolomide [TMZ] and radiotherapy [RT]) in patients with the disease. Methods In a total of 303 individuals, genotypes were performed by real-time PCR, and clinical data, lifestyle and comorbidities were obtained from medical records and questionnaires. The significance level was set at 5%. Results Smoking, alcohol consumption, systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and body mass index prevailed among patients, compared to controls (p < 0.05). The heterozygous genotype rs1468727 (T/C) and the homozygous genotype rs2010963 (G/G) (p > 0.05) were observed in both groups. Lifestyle and comorbidities showed independent risk factors for the disease (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0069, p = 0.0394, respectively). Patients with low-grade gliomas had a survival rate of 80.0 ± 1.7% in three years. For the combination of TMZ+RT, survival was 78.7 ± 7.6% in 20 months, compared to TMZ only (21.9 ± 5.1%, p = 0.8711). Conclusions Genetic variants were not associated with gliomas. Specific lifestyle habits and comorbidities stood out as independent risk factors for the disease. Low-grade gliomas showed an increase in patient survival with TMZ+RT treatment.


RESUMO Introdução Glioma, tumor cerebral maligno, é altamente agressivo e associado a mau prognóstico. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a associação de polimorfismos genéticos relacionados a angiogênese e apoptose em pacientes com glioma, bem como suas comorbidades, hábitos de vida, perfil clínico, sobrevida e resposta ao tratamento (temozolomida [TMZ] e radioterapia [RT]). Métodos 303 indivíduos foram genotipados por PCR em tempo real, e foram coletados dados clínicos, hábitos de vida e comorbidades. Admitiu-se nível de significância para valor p < 0,05. Resultados Tabagismo, elitismo, hipertensão arterial sistêmica, diabetes mellitus e índice de massa corporal prevaleceram entre os pacientes, comprados aos controles (p < 0,05). O genótipo heterozigoto rs1468727 (T/C) e homozigoto rs2010963 (G/G) (p > 0,05) foram observados em ambos os grupos. Tabagismo, elitismo, hipertensão arterial sistêmica, diabetes mellitus e índice de massa corporal apresentaram fatores de risco independentes para a doença (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0069, p = 0.0394, respectivamente). Os pacientes com gliomas de baixo grau apresentaram sobrevida de 80,0 ± 1,7% em três anos. Para a combinação de RT e TMZ, a sobrevida foi de 78,7±7,6% em 20 meses, em comparação com TMZ (21,9 ± 5,1%, p = 0,8711). Conclusões As variantes genéticas não estiveram associadas aos gliomas. Hábitos de vida e comorbidades específicas destacaram-se como fatores de risco independentes para a doença. O tratamento com TMZ + RT mostrou aumento na sobrevida dos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Apoptosis/genetics , Glioma/genetics , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/administration & dosage , Dacarbazine/administration & dosage , Dacarbazine/analogs & derivatives , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Temozolomide , Genotype , Glioma/pathology , Glioma/therapy , Life Style , Neovascularization, Pathologic
13.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 33(1): 25-33, jun. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283818

ABSTRACT

Development of neuroimaging in the last decades has revolutionized the neurological diagnosis, however for they interpretation clinical picture of the patient remains as a relevant aspect. Clinical case: a 30-year-old male patient with recent epileptic seizures, Jaksonian type, secondarily generalized, with no relevant history and normal neurological examination was presented. Initially a Magnetic Resonance of the brain was performed, the case was interpreted as Brain Abscess and treatment with intravenous antimicrobials was instituted for three weeks. A further analysis of the case revolves the diagnosis towards the possibility of a high degree malignant cerebral glioma, which was verified with the accomplishment of a craneotomy and biopsy. Conclusions: focal structural lesions of the brain, such as those caused by neuroepithelial tumors and abscesses, are among the most common causes of Epileptic Syndrome in adulthood. To date, there are no pathognomonic signs in the neuroimagenological differential diagnosis between the two entities. Despite the help of some advanced Magnetic Resonance techniques, the clinical correlation remains as the cornerstone for correct etiological interpretation, as well as pathological examination for the definitive diagnosis of both lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Brain Abscess/diagnosis , Brain Abscess/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Glioma/surgery , Chile , Diagnosis, Differential , Epilepsy/etiology , Glioma/pathology
15.
Biol. Res ; 50: 31, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: MiR-320 is downregulated in multiple cancers, including glioma and acts as tumor suppressor through inhibiting tumor cells proliferation and inducing apoptosis. PBX3 (Pre-B cell leukemia homeobox 3), a putative target gene of miR-320, has been reported to be upregulated in various tumors and promote tumor cell growth through regulating MAKP/ERK pathway. This study aimed to verify whether miR-320 influences glioma cells growth through regulating PBX3. METHODS: Twenty-four human glioma and paired adjacent nontumorous tissues were collected for determination of miR-320 and PBX3 expression using RT-qPCR and western blot assays. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to verify the interaction between miR-320 and its targeting sequence in the 3' UTR of PBX3 in glioma cells U87 and U251. Increased miR-320 level in U87 and U251 cells was achieved through miR-320 mimic transfection and the effect of which on glioma cells growth, proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and activation of Raf-1/MAPK pathway was determined using MTT, colony formation, flow cytometry and western blot assays. PBX3 knockdown was performed using shPBX3 and the influence on MAPK pathway activation was evaluated. RESULTS: MiR-320 downregulation and PBX3 upregulation was found in glioma tissues. Luciferase reporter assays identified miR-320 directly blinds to the 3' UTR of PBX3 in glioma cells. MiR-320 mimic transfection suppressed glioma cells proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Both miR-320 overexpression and PBX3 knockdown inhibited Raf-1/MAPK activation. CONCLUSION: MiR-320 may suppress glioma cells growth and induced apoptosis through the PBX3/Raf-1/MAPK axis, and miR-320 oligonucleotides may be a potential cancer therapeutic for glioma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Glioma/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Up-Regulation , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Glioma/pathology
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(7): e5403, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951700

ABSTRACT

Solution reflux and edema hamper the convection-enhanced delivery of the standard treatment for glioma. Therefore, a real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method was developed to monitor the dosing process, but a quantitative analysis of local diffusion and clearance parameters has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to compare diffusion into the extracellular space (ECS) at different stages of rat C6 gliomas, and analyze the effects of the extracellular matrix (ECM) on the diffusion process. At 10 and 20 days, after successful glioma modeling, gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was introduced into the ECS of rat C6 gliomas. Diffusion parameters and half-life of the reagent were then detected using MRI, and quantified according to the mathematical model of diffusion. The main ECM components [chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), collagen IV, and tenascin C] were detected by immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses. In 20-day gliomas, Gd-DTPA diffused more slowly and derived higher tortuosity, with lower clearance rate and longer half-life compared to 10-day gliomas. The increased glioma ECM was associated with different diffusion and clearance parameters in 20-day rat gliomas compared to 10-day gliomas. ECS parameters were altered with C6 glioma progression from increased ECM content. Our study might help better understand the glioma microenvironment and provide benefits for interstitial drug delivery to treat brain gliomas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Extracellular Space/diagnostic imaging , Glioma/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Progression , Gadolinium DTPA , Diffusion , Glioma/diagnostic imaging
17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(3): e00169, 2017. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889384

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Gliomas account for the majority of primary malignant brain tumors and present invasive behavior into adjacent healthy tissue. While 4-NC had previously shown to induce apoptotic cell death in a melanoma model, for the glioma model described in this paper 4-NC is cytotoxic for the cells with the induction of the autophagic pathway. Trypan blue exclusion assay showed that 4-NC was cytotoxic in a dose-dependent manner for A172 and T98G cell lines. IC10 and IC50 values were at 32 µM and 41 µM for A172 and T98G respectively. Inhibition of cell proliferation was observed by total cell counts and by cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry, with cell cycle arrest of A172 and T98G cell lines respectively in the G1/G0 and S phases of the cell cycle. 4-NC induced up-regulation of autophagic pathways, as shown by immunoblotting for LC3-I/II, Real-Time PCR for ATG-7 and Beclin-1 genes, and by fluorescence microscopy observation of autophagic vacuoles in cells transfected with GFP-LC3 and electron microscopy. Glioma cells concomitantly treated with 4-NC and 3-MA, an inhibitor of the autophagic process, are more sensible to cell death, suggesting that autophagy protects the cells from the action of 4-NC.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Glioblastoma , Plant Extracts , Cell Death , Piperaceae/classification , Flow Cytometry/instrumentation , Glioma/pathology
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(11): 924-928, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762888

ABSTRACT

Objective To present a surgical series of patients with low grade temporal gliomas causing intractable epilepsy, focusing on long-term seizure outcome.Method A retrospective study was conducted with patients with temporal low-grade gliomas (LGG).Results Sixty five patients with were operated in our institution. Males were more affected than females and the mean age at surgery was 32.3 ± 8.4 (9-68 years). The mean age at seizure onset was 25.7 ± 9.2 (11-66 years). Seizure outcome was classified according with Engel classification. After one year of follow up, forty two patients (64.6%) were Engel I; seventeen (26.2%) Engel II; four (6.2%) Engel III and two (3.1%) Engel IV. Statistically significant difference in seizure outcome was obtained when comparing the extension of resection. Engel I was observed in 39 patients (69.6%) with total resection and in only 3 (33.3%) patients with partial resection.Conclusion Gross-total resection of temporal LGGs is a critically important factor in achieving seizure-freedom.


Objetivo Apresentar uma série cirúrgica de pacientes com gliomas temporais de baixo grau, causando epilepsia de difícil controle.Método Estudo retrospectivo de pacientes com diagnóstico de glioma temporal de baixo grau temporais.Resultados 65 pacientes com foram operados em nossa instituição. A média de idade de início das crises foi de 25,7 ± 9,2 (11-66 anos). Após um ano de acompanhamento, quarenta e dois pacientes (64,6%) estavam Engel I; dezessete (26,2%) Engel II; quatro (6,2%) Engel III e dois (3,1%) Engel IV. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa no resultado do controle das crises quando se compara a extensão da ressecção. Engel I foi observada em 39 pacientes (69,6%) com a ressecção total e em apenas 3 (33,3%) pacientes com ressecção parcial.Conclusão A ressecção total de glioma temporal de baixo grau temporais é um fator extremamente importante no controle das crises.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/surgery , Glioma/surgery , Seizures/surgery , Temporal Lobe/surgery , Brain Neoplasms/complications , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/etiology , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/prevention & control , Electroencephalography , Glioma/complications , Glioma/pathology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Grading , Retrospective Studies , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/prevention & control , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Temporal Lobe/pathology
19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(2): 337-343, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748301

ABSTRACT

Objectives To examine the usefulness of an absorbable hemostatic gelatin sponge for hemostasis after transrectal prostate needle biopsy. Subjects and Methods The subjects comprised 278 participants who underwent transrectal prostate needle biopsy. They were randomly allocated to the gelatin sponge insertion group (group A: 148 participants) and to the non-insertion group (group B: 130 participants). In group A, the gelatin sponge was inserted into the rectum immediately after biopsy. A biopsy-induced hemorrhage was defined as a case in which a subject complained of bleeding from the rectum, and excretion of blood clots was confirmed. A blood test was performed before and after biopsy, and a questionnaire survey was given after the biopsy. Results Significantly fewer participants in group A required hemostasis after biopsy compared to group B (3 (2.0%) vs. 11 (8.5%), P=0.029). The results of the blood tests and the responses from the questionnaire did not differ significantly between the two groups. In multivariate analysis, only “insertion of a gelatin sponge into the rectum” emerged as a significant predictor of hemostasis. Conclusion Insertion of a gelatin sponge into the rectum after transrectal prostate needle biopsy significantly increases hemostasis without increasing patient symptoms, such as pain and a sense of discomfort. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Glioma/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , RNA , Telomerase/genetics , Telomere/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Glioma/pathology , Leukocytes/metabolism , Leukocytes/pathology , Neoplasm Grading , Prognosis , Risk Factors
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 388-396, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210026

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although conventional neuro-navigation is a useful tool for image-guided glioma surgery, there are some limitations, such as brain shift. We introduced our methods using an identifiable marker, a "tailed bullet", to overcome the limitation of conventional neuro-navigation. A tailed bullet is an identifiable tumor location marker that determines the extent of a resection and we have introduced our technique and reviewed the clinical results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have developed and used "tailed bullets" for brain tumor surgery. They were inserted into the brain parenchyma or the tumor itself to help identify the margin of tumor. We retrospectively reviewed surgically resected glioma cases using "tailed bullet". Total 110 gliomas included in this study and it contains WHO grade 2, 3, and 4 glioma was 14, 36, and 60 cases, respectively. RESULTS: Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 71 patients (64.5%), subtotal resection in 36 patients (32.7%), and partial resection in 3 patients (2.7%). The overall survival (OS) duration of grade 3 and 4 gliomas were 20.9 (range, 1.2-82.4) and 13.6 months (range, 1.4-173.4), respectively. Extent of resection (GTR), younger age, and higher initial Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score were related to longer OS for grade-4 gliomas. There was no significant adverse event directly related to the use of tailed bullets. CONCLUSION: Considering the limitations of conventional neuro-navigation methods, the tailed bullets could be helpful during glioma resection. We believe this simple method is an easily accessible technique and overcomes the limitation of the brain shift from the conventional neuro-navigation. Further studies are needed to verify the clinical benefits of using tailed bullets.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Glioma/pathology , Karnofsky Performance Status , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional , Neuronavigation/methods , Retrospective Studies , Surgery, Computer-Assisted/methods , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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