Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 98
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928102


This study aimed to observe the intervention effect of Jianpi Huogu Formula(JPHGF) on the functional damage of vascular endothelial cells caused by glucocorticoid, and explore its action mechanism from the PI3 K/Akt and mitogen activated protein kinase(MAPK) signaling pathways. The extracted thoracic aorta ring of normal SD rats were intervened first with vascularendothelial growth factor(VEGF, 20 μg·L-1) and/or sodium succinate(MPS, 0. 04 g·L-1) in vitro and then with JPHGF(8, 16, and 32 μg·L-1) for five mcontinuous ethylpdays, rednisolofollowed nebythe statistics of the number, length, and area of microvessels budding fromvascular rings. In addition, the human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs) induced by VEGF(20 μg·L-1) were added with MPS(0. 04 g·L-1) and then with JPHGF(8, 16, and 32 μg·L-1) for observing the migration, invasion, and luminal formation abilities of HUVECs in the migration, invasion and luminal formation experiments. The protein expression levels of PI3 K, p-Akt, p-JN K, and p-ERK in HUVECs were assayed by Western blot. The results showed that JPHGF dose-dependently improved the num-ber,length, and area of microvessels in MPS-induced rat thoracic aortic ring, reversed the migration, invasion and lumen formation abiliti es of HUVECs reduced by MPS, and up-regulated the protein expression levels of PI3 K, p-Akt, and p-JNK in HUVECs. All thesehave suggested that JPHGF exerts the protective effect against hormone-induced damage to the angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells by activating the PI3 K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, which has provided reference for exploring the mechanism of JPHGF in treating s teroid-induced avascular necrosis of femoral head(SANFH) and also the experimental evidence for enriching the scientific connotationof spleen-invigorating and blood-activating therapy.

Animals , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(2): 111-117, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137153


Abstract Background and objectives: Sugammadex is a modified gamma-cyclodextrin that reverses the effects of aminosteroidal neuromuscular blocking agents. Likewise, some steroid molecules, such as toremifene, fusidic acid, and flucloxacillin, can also be encapsulated by sugammadex. Methylprednisolone, which is a synthetic steroid used commonly for airway edema prophylaxis, can also be encapsulated by sugammadex. The objective of this study was to compare the recovery times of sugammadex for reversing rocuronium-induced moderate neuromuscular blockade in those who received intraoperative 1 mg kg-1 methylprednisolone or saline. Method: This single-centered, randomized, controlled, prospective study included 162 adult patients undergoing elective ear-nose-throat procedures (aged from 18 to 65, an ASA physical status I-II, a BMI less than 30 kg m-2, and not taking steroid drug medication) with propofol, remifentanyl, rocuronium and sevoflurane. Neuromuscular monitoring was performed using calibrated acceleromyography. The Control Group (Group C) received 5 mL of saline, while the Methylprednisolone Group (Group M) received 1 mg kg-1 of methylprednisolone in 5 mL of saline just after induction. After the completion of surgery, regarding the TOF count, two reappeared spontaneously and 2 mg kg-1 sugammadex was administered to all patients. Recovery of the TOF ratio to 0.9 was recorded for both groups, and the estimated recovery time to reach a TOF ratio (TOFr) of 0.9 was the primary outcome of the study. Results: Median time to TOFr = 0.9 was for 130.00 s (range of 29-330) for Group C and 181.00 s (100-420) for Group M (p < 0.001). The differences between the two groups were statistically significant. Conclusion: When using 2 mg kg-1 of sugammadex to reverse rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in patients who received 1 mg kg-1 of intraoperative methylprednisolone, demonstrated delayed recovery times.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Sugammadex é uma gama-ciclodextrina modificada que reverte os efeitos de agentes de bloqueio neuromuscular aminoesteroides. Da mesma forma, algumas moléculas esteroides, como toremifene, ácido fusídico e flucloxacilina, podem ser encapsulados pelo sugammadex. A metilprednisolona, esteroide sintético usado geralmente para a profilaxia de edema de vias aéreas, também pode ser encapsulada pelo sugammadex. O objetivo do estudo foi comparar os tempos de recuperação do sugammadex na reversão de bloqueio neuromuscular moderado induzido pelo rocurônio em pacientes em que foi administrado 1 de metilprednisolona ou solução salina no período intraoperatório. Método: Este estudo prospectivo, randomizado, controlado, unicêntrico incluiu 162 pacientes adultos (idades de 18-65, ASA I-II, IMC abaixo de 30 kg.m-2, e não usando medicação esteroide) submetidos à anestesia geral para procedimento eletivo de otorrinolaringologia com propofol, remifentanil, rocurônio e sevoflurano. A monitorização neuromuscular foi realizada usando aceleromiógrafo calibrado. O grupo controle (Grupo C) recebeu 5 mL de solução salina, enquanto o grupo metilprednisolona (Grupo M) recebeu 1 de metilprednisolona em 5 mL de solução salina logo após a indução. Ao término da cirurgia, em relação à contagem do número de respostas à sequência de quatro estímulos (TOFc), dois pacientes mostraram recuperação espontânea e todos os pacientes receberam 2 de sugammadex. A recuperação da razão T4/T1 (TOFr) para 0,9 foi registrada nos dois grupos, e o desfecho primário do estudo foi o tempo estimado de recuperação, momento em que a razão TOFr alcançou o valor de 0,9 (TOFr = 0.9). Resultados: O tempo mediano para TOFr = 0,9 foi 130 s (29-330) para o Grupo C e 181s (100-420) para o Grupo M (p < 0,001). As diferenças entre os dois grupos foi estatisticamente significante. Conclusões: Pacientes que receberam 1 de metilprednisolona no intraoperatório apresentaram tempo de recuperação mais prolongado após o uso de 2 de sugammadex para reverter o bloqueio neuromuscular induzido pelo rocurônio.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Methylprednisolone/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Drug Interactions
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(12): e8754, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055467


Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Convolvulaceae) is an important herbal medicine widely used to improve sexual function, treat osteoporosis, and prevent aging, and has been reported to exhibit anti-osteoporotic effects in vitro. However, the activity of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis still remains unclear. The present study aimed to assess the protective effect and the underlying mechanism of action of Cuscuta chinensis extract (CCE) against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in vivo. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups as follows: control group, osteoporosis group, and 2 CCE-treated osteoporosis groups (100 mg·kg-1·day-1). Blood samples and femur bones were collected for immunohistochemistry, biochemical, mRNA expression, and western blot analysis. HPLC analysis revealed that chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and hyperin were the major constituents of CCE. The results indicated that CCE increased bone length, bone weight, and bone mineral density and suppressed dexamethasone (DEX)-induced reduction in body weight. In addition, TRAP staining indicated that CCE reduced osteoclasts in DEX-induced osteoporosis rats. Mechanistically, CCE treatment alleviated the increase of bone resorption markers and the decline of osteogenic markers, which might be partially mediated by regulation of RANKL/OPG and RunX2 pathways. These results suggest that CCE showed promising effects in the protection against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis through protecting osteoblasts and suppressing osteoclastogenesis.

Animals , Rats , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cuscuta/chemistry , Osteoprotegerin/metabolism , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Osteoporosis/chemically induced , RNA, Messenger , Immunohistochemistry , Bone Density/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , RANK Ligand/drug effects , RANK Ligand/metabolism , Osteoprotegerin/drug effects
Actual. osteol ; 14(2): 125-147, Mayo - Ago. 2018. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116310


En consonancia con la orientación tradicional de nuestras investigaciones, la Osteología está incorporando progresivamente el análisis estructural-biomecánico óseo y las interacciones músculo-esqueléticas. En este artículo se sintetizan los aportes originales del CEMFoC a la Osteología moderna en el terreno biomecánico en forma didáctica, para que el lector aprecie sus posibles aplicaciones clínicas. Los hallazgos aportaron evidencias sucesivas en apoyo de dos proposiciones fundamentales: a) los huesos deben interpretarse como estructuras resistivas, biológicamente servocontroladas ("Los huesos tienden siempre a mantener un factor de seguridad que permite al cuerpo trabajar normalmente sin fracturarse" ­ Paradigma de Utah) y b) los huesos interactúan con su entorno mecánico, determinado principalmente por las contracciones musculares, en forma subordinada al entorno metabólico ("Los huesos son lo que los músculos quieren que sean, siempre que las hormonas lo permitan"). Los avances producidos se refieren, tanto cronológica como didácticamente, al conocimiento osteológico en general y al desarrollo de recursos novedosos para el diagnóstico no invasivo de fragilidad ósea, para distinguir entre osteopenias y osteoporosis, y para discriminar entre sus etiologías 'mecánica' y 'sistémica'. Finalmente, el nuevo conocimiento se integra en la proposición de un algoritmo diagnóstico para osteopenias y osteoporosis. El espíritu general de la presentación destaca que la evaluación osteomuscular dinámicamente integrada genera un nuevo espacio de análisis personalizado de los pacientes para la atención de cualquier osteopatía fragilizante con criterio biomecánico. (AU)

In consonance with the traditional spirit of our studies, skeletal research is being progressively focused on the structural-biomechanical analysis of bone and the muscle-bone interactions. In this article, the CEMFoC's members summarize their original findings in bone biomechanics and their potential clinical applications. These findings provided evidence supporting two fundamental hypotheses, namely, A. bones constitute resistive structures, which are biologically servo-controlled ('Bones tend to maintain a safety factor which allows the body to function normally avoiding fractures' ­ the 'Utah paradigm'), and B. the interactions of bones with their mechanical environment mainly are determined by the contraction of local muscles - 'bone-muscle units'), and are subordinated to the control of the metabolic environment ('Bones are what muscles wish them to be, provided that hormones allow for it'). The achievements in the field are presented in a chronological and didactical sequence concerning the general knowledge in Osteology and the development of novel resources for non-invasive diagnosis of bone fragility, aiming to distinguish between osteopenias and osteoporosis and the 'mechanical' and 'metabolic' etiology of these conditions. Finally, the integrated new knowledge is presented as supporting for a proposed diagnostic algorithm for osteopenias and osteoporosis. In general terms, the article highlights the dynamic evaluation of the musculoskeletal system as a whole, opening a new diagnostic field for a personalized evaluation of the patients affected by a boneweakening disease, based on functional and biomechanical criteria. (AU)

Humans , Animals , Rats , Bone and Bones/diagnostic imaging , Osteology/trends , Musculoskeletal System/diagnostic imaging , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/diagnostic imaging , Osteoporosis/etiology , Osteoporosis/diagnostic imaging , Parathyroid Hormone/administration & dosage , Parathyroid Hormone/therapeutic use , Biomechanical Phenomena , Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/etiology , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diagnostic imaging , Algorithms , Calcitonin/therapeutic use , Cholecalciferol/pharmacology , Human Growth Hormone/therapeutic use , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Musculoskeletal System/anatomy & histology , Musculoskeletal System/metabolism
Acta cir. bras ; 33(2): 175-184, Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886262


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and inward rectifier potassium channel 4.1 (Kir4.1) on medullospinal edema after treatment with methylprednisolone (MP) to suppress acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) in rats. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, sham, ASCI, and MP-treated ASCI groups. After the induction of ASCI, we injected 30 mg/kg MP via the tail vein at various time points. The Tarlov scoring method was applied to evaluate neurological symptoms, and the wet-dry weights method was applied to measure the water content of the spinal cord. Results: The motor function score of the ASCI group was significantly lower than that of the sham group, and the spinal water content was significantly increased. In addition, the levels of AQP4 and Kir4.1 were significantly increased, as was their degree of coexpression. Compared with that in the ASCI group, the motor function score and the water content were significantly increased in the MP group; in addition, the expression and coexpression of AQP4 and Kir4.1 were significantly reduced. Conclusion: Methylprednisolone inhibited medullospinal edema in rats with acute spinal cord injury, possibly by reducing the coexpression of aquaporin 4 and Kir4.1 in medullospinal tissues.

Animals , Male , Rats , Spinal Cord Diseases/drug therapy , Spinal Cord Injuries/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/pharmacology , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/metabolism , Edema/drug therapy , Aquaporin 4/metabolism , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Spinal Cord/cytology , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Spinal Cord Diseases/metabolism , Spinal Cord Injuries/chemically induced , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Random Allocation , Acute Disease , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Edema/metabolism , Aquaporin 4/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e6980, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889067


Hormones regulate hepatic gene expressions to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 has been thought to interfere with insulin signaling. To determine its potential role in the regulation of metabolism, we analyzed its gene (Enpp1) expression in the liver of rats experiencing fasting and refeeding cycles, and in primary rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma HepG2 cells treated with insulin and dexamethasone using northern blot and real-time PCR techniques. Hepatic Enpp1 expression was induced by fasting and reduced by refeeding in the rat liver. In primary rat hepatocytes and HepG2 hepatoma cells, insulin reduced Enpp1 mRNA abundance, whereas dexamethasone induced it. Dexamethasone disrupted the insulin-reduced Enpp1 expression in primary hepatocytes. This is in contrast to the responses of the expression of the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene to the same hormones, where insulin reduced it significantly in the process. In addition, the dexamethasone-induced Enpp1 gene expression was attenuated in the presence of 8-Br-cAMP. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that hepatic Enpp1 is regulated in the cycle of fasting and refeeding, a process that might be attributed to insulin-reduced Enpp1 expression. This insulin-reduced Enpp1 expression might play a role in the development of complications in diabetic patients.

Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Pyrophosphatases/genetics , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/genetics , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , Liver/enzymology , Pyrophosphatases/biosynthesis , Pyrophosphatases/drug effects , Insulin Resistance , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Enzyme Induction/drug effects , Fasting/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/biosynthesis , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/drug effects , Hep G2 Cells , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(4): 222-225, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794577


ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Methods: Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1). From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2), 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Group 3), and the remaining 10 rats were administered intraperitoneal streptozocin to induce diabetes mellitus (Group 4). Total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI) measurements of the crystalline lenses were analyzed. Results: The mean OSI was the lowest in group 1 and highest in group 4. Nevertheless, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant in terms of OSI (p >0.05). The mean TOS values were similar between the groups (p >0.05), whereas the mean TAC of group 1 was significantly higher than that of the other groups (p <0.001). Conclusions: Our results indicate that menopause may not promote cataract formation.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o estresse oxidativo lenticular em modelos de ratas na menopausa. Métodos: Quarenta ratos albinos femininos tipo Wistar foram incluídos neste estudo. Trinta ratas foram submetidas à ooforectomia para gerar o modelo de menopausa e 10 ratas formaram o grupo controle (Grupo 1). Dentre as ratas ooforectomizadas, 10 formaram o grupo controle menopausa (Grupo 2), 10 ratas receberam injeção diária de metilprednisolona até ao final do estudo (Grupo 3) e 10 ratas receberam estreptozotocina por via intraperitoneal para induzir diabetes mellitus (Grupo 4). O estado oxidante total (TOS), a capacidade total antioxidante (TAC) e as medições do índice de estresse oxidativo (OSI) dos cristalinos foram analisados. Resultados: A média de OSI foi menor no grupo 1 e maior no grupo 4. Todavia, a diferença entre os grupos não foi estatisticamente significativa (p>0,05). Os valores médios TOS foram semelhantes entre os grupos (p>0,05), enquanto a média de TAC grupo 1 foi mais elevada do que nos outros grupos ( p<0,001). Conclusões: Nossos resultados indicam que a menopausa podem não promover a formação de catarata.

Humans , Animals , Female , Menopause/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Lens, Crystalline/metabolism , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Cataract/etiology , Cataract/metabolism , Methylprednisolone/pharmacology , Ovariectomy , Oxidants/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(12): 1101-1108, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762919


We aimed to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training (4 days) and metformin exposure on acute glucose intolerance after dexamethasone treatment in rats. Forty-two adult male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided randomly into four groups: sedentary control (SCT), sedentary dexamethasone-treated (SDX), training dexamethasone-treated (DPE), and dexamethasone and metformin treated group (DMT). Glucose tolerance tests and in situ liver perfusion were undertaken on fasting rats to obtain glucose profiles. The DPE group displayed a significant decrease in glucose values compared with the SDX group. Average glucose levels in the DPE group did not differ from those of the DMT group, so we suggest that exercise training corrects dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance and improves glucose profiles in a similar manner to that observed with metformin. These data suggest that exercise may prevent the development of glucose intolerance induced by dexamethasone in rats to a similar magnitude to that observed after metformin treatment.

Animals , Male , Glucose Intolerance/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Blood Glucose/analysis , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Fasting/blood , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Glucose Intolerance/chemically induced , Glucose/analysis , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Liver/chemistry , Perfusion , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Swimming
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 159-162, 02/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741173


Initially the trajectory of the historical forerunners and conceptions of senile dementia are briefly presented, being highlighted the name of Alois Alzheimer who provided clinical and neuropathological indicators to differentiate a group of patients with Senile dementia. Alzheimer's examination of Auguste D’s case, studied by him with Bielschowsky’s silver impregnation technique, permitted to identify a pathological marker, the intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, characterizing a new disease later named after him by Kraepelin – Alzheimer’s disease. Over the time this disorder became one of the most important degenerative dementing disease, reaching nowadays a status that may be considered as epidemic.

Incialmente é apresentada brevemente a trajetória histórica dos precursores e dos conceitos da demência senil, sendo destacado o nome de Alois Alzheimer que forneceu indicadores clínicos e neuropatológicos para diferenciar um grupo de pacientes com Demência senil. O exame de Alzheimer do caso de Auguste D, estudado por ele com a técnica de impregnação argêntica de Bielschowsky, permitiu identificar um marcador patológico, os emaranhados neurofibrilares intraneuronais, caracterizando uma nova doença, mais tarde denominada com seu nome por Kraepelin – doença de Alzheimer. Com o passar do tempo esta desordem tornou-se uma das mais importantes doenças demenciante degenerativa, alcançando, na atualidade, um status que pode ser considerado como epidêmico.

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Fetal Diseases/prevention & control , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Prenatal Care/methods , Drug Administration Schedule , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Lung/embryology , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 147-154, 02/2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741177


The aim was to describe current reports in the scientific literature on sleep in the intensive care environment and sleep deprivation associated with painful experiences in premature infant. A systematic search was conducted for studies on sleep, pain, premature birth and care of the newborn. Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, VHL and SciELO databases were consulted. The association between sleep deprivation and pain generates effects that are observed in the brain and the behavioral and physiological activity of preterm infants. Polysomnography in intensive care units and pain management in neonates allow comparison with the first year of life and term infants. We have found few references and evidence that neonatal care programs can influence sleep development and reduce the negative impact of the environment. This evidence is discussed from the perspective of how hospital intervention can improve the development of premature infants.

O objetivo foi descrever o estado atual na literatura científica sobre privação do sono associado a experiências dolorosas no prematuro e o papel na evolução do sono em ambiente de terapia intensiva. Realizou-se uma busca sistemática para estudos sobre sono, dor, prematuridade e programas de atenção ao neonato. Foram consultados as bases Web-of-Knowledge, MEDLINE, LILACS, Biblioteca Cochrane, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, BVS e SciELO. A associação entre privação do sono e dor gera efeitos que são observados na atividade cerebral, fisiológica e comportamental dos prematuros. A polissonografia nas unidades intensivas e o manejo da dor em neonatos permitem comparação no primeiro ano de vida com crianças nascidas a termo. Encontraram-se poucas evidências de que programas de cuidado neonatal podem influenciar o desenvolvimento do sono e diminuir o impacto negativo do ambiente. Estas evidências são discutidas na perspectiva de como a intervenção hospitalar pode melhorar o desenvolvimento do prematuro.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Betamethasone/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Brain/embryology , Cytoskeleton/drug effects , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Presynaptic Terminals/drug effects , Body Weight , Brain Chemistry/drug effects , Cytoskeleton/chemistry , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/analysis , Papio
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 140-146, 02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741179


The objective of this article is to highlight some of the most important pioneering books specifically focused on the neurological examination and their authors. During the XIX Century, Alexander Hammond, William Gowers and Charles Mills pioneered the neurological literature, followed in the XX Century by Aloysio de Castro, Monrad-Krohn, Derek Denny-Brown, Robert Wartenberg, Gordon Holmes, and Russel DeJong. With determination and a marked sense of observation and research, they competently developed and spread the technique and art of the neurological exam.

O objetivo deste artigo é destacar alguns dos primeiros e mais importantes livros-texto interessados em difundir o ensino do exame neurológico e seus autores. Durante o século XIX, Alexander Hammond, William Gowers e Charles Mills foram pioneiros na literatura neurológica, seguidos por Aloysio de Castro, Monrad-Krohn, Derek Denny-Brown, Robert Wartenberg, Gordon Holmes e Russel DeJong no século XX. Com determinação, grande senso de observação e pesquisa, eles competentemente disseminaram a técnica e a arte de se realizar o exame neurológico.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Betamethasone/pharmacology , Gestational Age , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases/analysis , Placenta/enzymology , Blotting, Northern , Blotting, Western , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Hydrocortisone/blood , Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases/genetics , Labor, Obstetric/physiology , Papio , RNA, Messenger/analysis
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 155-158, 02/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741182


Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) is considered the Father of Modern Anatomy, and an authentic representative of the Renaissance. His studies, founded on dissection of human bodies, differed from Galeno, who based his work on dissection of animals, constituted a notable scientific advance. Putting together science and art, Vesalius associated himself to artists of the Renaissance, and valued the images of the human body in his superb work De Humani Corporis Fabrica.This paper aims to honor this extraordinary European Renaissance physician and anatomist, who used aesthetic appeal to bind text and illustration, science and art. His achievements are highlighted, with an especial attention on neuroanatomy. Aspects about his personal life and career are also focused.

Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) é considerado o Pai da Anatomia Moderna e um autêntico representante da Renascença. Seus estudos, baseados na dissecação de corpos humanos, diferiam dos de Galeno, que baseava seu trabalho em dissecação de animais, constituiu-se em um notável avanço científico. Reunindo ciência e arte, Vesalius associou-se a artistas da Renascença e valorizou as imagens do corpo humano em seu soberbo trabalho De Humani Corporis Fabrica. Este artigo visa honrar esse extraordinário médico e anatomista da Renascença europeia, que fez uso do apelo estético para coligar texto e ilustração, ciência e arte. Suas realizações são realçadas, com atenção especial na neuroanatomia. Também são colocados em foco aspectos da sua vida pessoal e de sua carreira.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/enzymology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Microcirculation/drug effects , Microcirculation/physiology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Nitric Oxide Synthase/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Vasodilation/physiology
Rev. bras. queimaduras ; 13(4): 240-244, out-dez. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-754565


Introdução: O tratamento das sequelas cicatriciais permanece um desafio na prática diária. Corticosteroides injetáveis são amplamente utilizados no combate a queloides e cicatrizes hipertróficas, mas substâncias como a pentoxifilina (PTF) também têm demonstrado eficácia clínica na modulação dessas cicatrizes. Objetivos: No presente estudo, propusemos a comparação dos efeitos da PTF e do corticosteroide triancinolona nas cicatrizes hipertróficas de pacientes vítimas de queimaduras por meio de análise histológica da organização das fibras que contêm colágeno e das fibras do sistema elástico. Métodos: Foram estudadas amostras de pele cicatricial de 10 pacientes, entre 20 e 40 anos, com história de queimaduras em tronco, com até 24 meses de evolução, não tratadas cirurgicamente. Cada paciente teve duas áreas cicatriciais tratadas, uma com Hexacetonido de Triancinolona 20 mg/ml e outra com Pentoxifilina 1 mg/ ml; tendo sido realizadas três aplicações intracicatriciais com intervalos mensais. Uma biópsia de cada área tratada foi colhida após 30 dias de cada aplicação. Resultados: Os resultados clínicos foram evidentes e semelhantes para as duas drogas: diminuição da espessura, do prurido, da hiperemia e da consistência da cicatriz. Não se observaram diferenças arquiteturais no tecido conjuntivo subepidérmico quando comparadas a cicatriz original com as cicatrizes após cada tipo de tratamento (grandes feixes de fibras colágenas em todas as direções, com ausência de fibras do sistema elástico). Estudos subsequentes envolvendo a análise da espessura total da cicatriz e o grau de vascularização/ inflamação presentes se fazem necessários na investigação da justificativa da eficácia clínica dos tratamentos. Conclusão: Concluímos que a PTF teve uma resposta clínica e morfológica similar à triancinolona nos casos tratados.

Introduction: The treatment of scarring sequelae remains challenge in daily practice. Injecting corticosteroids are widely used to combat keloids and hypertrophic scars, but substances such as pentoxifylline (PTF) have also demonstrated clinical efficacy in modulating these scars. Objectives: This study set out to compare the effects of TFP and corticosteroid triamcinolone in hypertrophic scars of burn victims by histological analysis of the organization of the fibers containing collagen and elastic system fibers. Methods: Scar skin samples from 10patients were studied between 20 and 40 years, with a history of burns on the trunk, up to 24 months of evolution, not surgically treated. Each patient had two treated scar areas, one with triamcinolone hexacetonide 20 mg/ml and the other with pentoxifylline 1 mg/ml; having been held three intracicatriciais applications at monthly intervals. A biopsy of each treated area was harvested after 30 days of each application. Results: The clinical results were evident and similar for the two drugs: thinning, itching, hyperemia and scar consistency. There were no differences in architectural subepidermal connective tissue when compared with the original scar scars after each treatment (large bundles of collagen fibers in all directions with no elastic system fibers). Subsequent studies involving the analysis of the total thickness of the scar and the extent of vascularization/inflammation gifts are needed to investigate the reasons of clinical efficacy of treatments. Conclusion: We conclude that TFP had a clinical and morphological response similar to triamcinolone in treated cases.

Humans , Benchmarking/methods , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/therapy , Collagen , Pentoxifylline/analysis , Burns/diagnosis , Elastic Tissue/abnormalities , Triamcinolone/analysis , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology
J. bras. pneumol ; 39(2): 173-180, mar.-abr. 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-673308


OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da administração sistêmica precoce e tardia de metilprednisolona nos pulmões em um modelo de morte encefálica em ratos. MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro ratos Wistar machos foram anestesiados e randomizados em quatro grupos (n = 6 por grupo): sham, somente morte encefálica (ME), metilprednisolona i.v. (30 mg/kg) administrada 5 min após a morte encefálica (MP5) e 60 min após a morte encefálica (MP60). Os grupos ME, MP5 e MP60 foram submetidos à morte encefálica por insuflação de um balão no espaço extradural. Todos os animais foram observados e ventilados durante 120 min. Foram determinadas variáveis hemodinâmicas e gasométricas, relação peso úmido/seco, escore histológico, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico), atividade de superóxido dismutase (SOD) e de catalase, assim como contagem diferencial de células brancas, proteína total e nível de desidrogenase lática no LBA. A atividade da mieloperoxidase, peroxidação lipídica e níveis de TNF-α foram avaliados no tecido pulmonar. RESULTADOS: Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas variáveis hemodinâmicas e gasométricas, relação peso úmido/seco, análises do LBA, escore histológico, SOD, mieloperoxidase e catalase entre os grupos. Os níveis de TBARS foram significativamente maiores nos grupos MP5 e MP60 do que nos grupos sham e ME (p < 0,001). Os níveis de TNF-α foram significativamente menores nos grupos MP5 e MP60 do que no grupo ME (p < 0,001). CONCLUSÕES: Neste modelo de morte cerebral, a administração precoce e tardia de metilprednisolona apresentou efeitos semelhantes sobre a inflamação e a peroxidação lipídica no tecido pulmonar.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects that early and late systemic administration of methylprednisolone have on lungs in a rat model of brain death. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were anesthetized and randomly divided into four groups (n = 6 per group): sham-operated (sham); brain death only (BD); brain death plus methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg i.v.) after 5 min (MP5); and brain death plus methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg i.v.) after 60 min (MP60). In the BD, MP5, and MP60 group rats, we induced brain death by inflating a balloon catheter in the extradural space. All of the animals were observed and ventilated for 120 min. We determined hemodynamic and arterial blood gas variables; wet/dry weight ratio; histological score; levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS); superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity; and catalase activity. In BAL fluid, we determined differential white cell counts, total protein, and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Myeloperoxidase activity, lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α levels were assessed in lung tissue. RESULTS: No significant differences were found among the groups in terms of hemodynamics, arterial blood gases, wet/dry weight ratio, BAL fluid analysis, or histological score-nor in terms of SOD, myeloperoxidase, and catalase activity. The levels of TBARS were significantly higher in the MP5 and MP60 groups than in the sham and BD groups (p < 0.001). The levels of TNF-α were significantly lower in the MP5 and MP60 groups than in the BD group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this model of brain death, the early and late administration of methylprednisolone had similar effects on inflammatory activity and lipid peroxidation in lung tissue.

Animals , Male , Rats , Brain Death , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Lung/metabolism , Methylprednisolone/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Disease Models, Animal , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Inflammation/metabolism , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
Acta cir. bras ; 28(supl.1): 8-12, 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-663885


PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of corticosteroids on intestinal and liver interleukin profile in an experimental model of gastroschisis in fetal rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats at 19.5 days of gestation had its fetuses operated for the creation of gastroschisis. Two groups of fetuses were studied with and without maternal administration of dexamethasone. Each group was composed of fetuses who underwent gastroschisis (G), control fetuses without manipulation (C) and sham fetuses (S). A dosage of the following interleukins was carried out in fetal intestinal and liver tissues: IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). The differences between the groups and subgroups were tested by ANOVA with Tukey post-test, with significant values of p<0.05. RESULTS: Dexamethasone led to an increase in intestinal and liver IL-6 (p<0.05) and a decrease in intestinal TNF-α (p<0.001) in fetuses with gastroschisis. CONCLUSION: Corticosteroids had an effect on the intestinal interleukin profile and a small effect on the liver interleukin profile due to immunological immaturity of the fetus, and also of fetuses with gastroschisis. The steroid action may not be exclusively anti-inflammatory, but also pro-inflammatory, varying with time of pregnancy.

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ação do corticosteroide no perfil de interleucinas intestinais e hepáticas no modelo experimental de gastrosquise em fetos de ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratas Sprague-Dawley com 19,5 dias de gestação tiveram fetos operados para criação de gastrosquise. Dois grupos de fetos foram estudados: com e sem administração materna de dexametasona. Cada grupo foi composto por fetos submetidos a gastrosquise (G), fetos controles sem manipulação (C) e fetos sham (S). Realizou-se a dosagem das seguintes interleucinas no tecido intestinal e hepático fetal: IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, fator de necrose tumoral-alfa (TNF-α) e interferon-gama (IFN-γ). As diferenças entre os grupos e subgrupos foram testadas pelo teste de ANOVA com pós-teste de Tukey, com valores significativos de p<0,05. RESULTADOS: A dexametasona levou a um aumento da IL-6 intestinal e hepática (p<0,05) e a uma diminuição do TNF-α intestinal (p<0,001) em fetos com gastrosquise. CONCLUSÃO: O corticosteróide apresentou efeito sobre o perfil de IL intestinal e pouco na hepática, devido a imaturidade imunológica dos fetos e também dos fetos com gastrosquise a ação do esteróide pode não ser exclusivamente anti-inflamatória, mas também pró inflamatória.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Cytokines/analysis , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Gastroschisis/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Intestines/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Gastroschisis/embryology , Gastroschisis/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukins/analysis , Interleukins/metabolism , Intestines/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
Clinics ; 67(12): 1455-1461, Dec. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660475


OBJECTIVE: During the neonatal and infancy periods, some chronic liver diseases may lead to progressive hepatic fibrosis, which is a condition that can ultimately result in the loss of organ function and severe portal hypertension necessitating hepatic transplantation. In a previous report, pharmacological interventions were demonstrated to modulate hepatic fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation in young rats. The administration of pentoxifylline or prednisolone, or the combination of both, resulted in reduced fibrogenesis in portal spaces. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor β and vascular endothelial growth factor after bile duct ligation in young rats and to assess the effect of those same drugs on cytokine expression. METHODS: In this experimental study, 80 young rats (21 or 22 days old) were submitted either to laparotomy and common bile duct ligation or to sham surgery. The animals were allocated into four groups according to surgical procedure, and the following treatments were administered: (1) common bile duct ligation + distilled water, (2) sham surgery + distilled water, (3) common bile duct ligation + pentoxifylline, or (4) common bile duct ligation + prednisolone. After 30 days, a hepatic fragment was collected from each animal for immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies against transforming growth factor β and vascular endothelial growth factor. Digital morphometric and statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: The administration of pentoxifylline reduced the transforming growth factor β-marked area and the amount of transforming growth factor β expressed in liver tissue. This effect was not observed after the administration of prednisolone. There was a significant reduction in vascular endothelial growth factor expression after the administration of either drug compared with the non-treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of pentoxifylline to cholestatic young rats resulted in the diminished expression of transforming growth factor β and vascular endothelial growth factor in liver tissue. The administration of steroids resulted in the diminished expression of vascular endothelial growth factor only. These pathways may be involved in hepatic fibrogenesis in young rats submitted to bile duct ligation and exposed to pentoxifylline or prednisolone.

Animals , Rats , Cholestasis/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/prevention & control , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Prednisolone/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Cholestasis/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Immunohistochemistry , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Random Allocation
West Indian med. j ; 61(6): 627-630, Sept. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672969


Glucocorticoids have been used in nephrotic syndrome (NS) treatment for many years. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of steroids on bone mineralization in children with glucocorticoid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (GSNS). Twenty children who were first diagnosed as GSNS received glucocorticoid therapy for four months. Before treatment, at the 4th and 12th week of initial therapy, bone mineral density (BMD) and levels of the markers for bone turnover were evaluated. At the 4th and 12th week of treatment, mean serum calcium (Ca) and osteocalcin levels were found to be significantly lower than those at the beginning ofthe therapy. Mean serum total alkaline phosphatase (t-ALP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) and urine calcium creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr), urinary deoxypyridinoline levels were significantly increased in comparison to the beginning of therapy. There was no significant relationship between serum levels of phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) at the beginning of treatment and at the 4th and 12th week of treatment. Mean value of BMD was significantly lower at the 4th and 12th week of treatment than that at the beginning of the therapy. In conclusion, bone mineralization was negatively affected by steroid treatment in children with NS. These children should undergo regular BMD evaluation, and an appropriate therapeutic approach should be planned.

Por muchos años se han venido usando glucocorticoides en el tratamiento del síndrome nefrótico (SN). Este estudio se encamina a evaluar el efecto de los esteroides sobre la mineralización ósea en niños con síndrome nefrótico sensible a los glucocorticoides (SNSG). Veinte niños que fueron diagnosticados primeramente con SNSG, recibieron terapia con glucocorticoides durante cuatro meses. Antes del tratamiento, en las semanas 4 y 12 de la terapia inicial, se evaluaron la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) y los niveles de los marcadores del recambio óseo. En el tratamiento de las semanas 4 y 12, se halló que el calcio (Ca) sérico promedio y los niveles de osteocalcina eran significativamente más bajos que los existentes a comienzos de la terapia. Los niveles de fosfatasa alcalina sérica total promedio, fosfatasa alcalina (t-ALP), fosfatasa alcalina especifica ósea media (b-ALP), la relación calcio/creatinina en la orina (Ca/Cr), y los niveles de deoxipiridinolina urinaria, aumentaron significativamente en comparación con los existentes al comienzo de la terapia. No hubo relación significativa alguna entre los niveles séricos de fosfato y hormona paratiroidea (PTH) ni al principio del tratamiento ni en las semanas 4 y 12 de tratamiento. El valor promedio de la DMO fue significativamente más bajo en las semanas 4 y 12 de tratamiento que al principio de la terapia. En conclusión, la mineralización del hueso fue afectada negativamente por el tratamiento con esteroides en los niños con SN. Estos niños deben tener una evaluación regular de DMO, para lo cual es necesario planear un enfoque terapéutico apropiado.

Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Bone Density/drug effects , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy , Prednisolone/pharmacology , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Amino Acids/urine , Biomarkers/blood , Bone Density/physiology , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Calcium/blood , Calcium/urine , Creatinine/urine , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Osteocalcin/blood , Prednisolone/therapeutic use
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 72(2): 158-170, abr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-639670


Los glucocorticoides o corticosteroides son fármacos antiinflamatorios, antialérgicos e inmunosupresores derivados del cortisol o hidrocortisona, hormona producida por la corteza adrenal. Su uso terapéutico fuera de la endocrinología data de la observación hecha por el reumatólogo Philip Hench quien, suponiendo que los pacientes con artritis reumatoidea tenían un déficit adrenal, inyectó en algunos cortisona, molécula de reciente producción industrial. El resultado obtenido fue tan contundente que se toma como ejemplo de la medicina traslacional. En la actualidad, los glucocorticoides figuran entre las drogas más usadas y, paralelamente, más temidas. Así, el objetivo de esta revisión es señalar los aspectos destacados de su farmacología para su uso racional en la práctica clínica.

Glucocorticoids are anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant and anti-allergic drugs derived from hydrocortisone. Their widespread use was originated from Hench's observations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These drugs are examples of translational medicine and they can be envisaged as one of the most prescribed and feared drugs. The objective of this review is to highlight their pharmacological properties and thus, allow a more suitable prescription.

Humans , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Translational Research, Biomedical , Anti-Allergic Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/chemistry , Glucocorticoids/pharmacokinetics , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012; 25 (3): 617-621
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-144414


Glucocorticoids [GC] actuate apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest in lymphocytes, and included as core element in the lymphoid malignancy treatment. Despite clinical significance of GC and considerable efforts to understand it, the molecular basis of GC regulated cell death and the resistance phenomenon remains, however, poorly understood. Using Affymetrix-based whole genome expression profiling our group has previously identified a number of prominent glucocorticoid-response genes [Blood 107: 2061, 2006]. Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger [PLZF] was one of the best candidate genes. This study was proposed to investigate the possible role of PLZF in GC regulated cell death in leukemic model cell line NALM6. To this end, we generated NALM6 cell line [bulk] transduced with a retroviral expression vectors, pHR-SFFV-PLZF-IRES-Puro [U426] and pHR-SFFV-Venus-IRES-Puro [U417], as control, for constitutive gene-expression. HEK293T cells were transfected transiently to generate viral particles. These cell lines were characterized by Western blotting and used to assay the effect of constitutive PLZF expression. In conclusion, we report that bona fide transcription repressor PLZF, which turned out as prominent GC-regulated gene both in vivo and in vitro situations was found to enhance the GC-induced cell death [basal] in leukemic model cell line NALM6 after 48 and 72h time points

Humans , Leukemia/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors/physiology , Cell Line, Tumor , HEK293 Cells
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-214933


PURPOSE: We investigated whether oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) results in changes in the protein expression of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthases (nNOS and iNOS, respectively) in rat model of OIR. In addition, we evaluated whether treatment of rats with triamcinolone acetonide (TA) prevents this response. METHODS: To promote OIR, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to hyperoxia from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P14. They were then returned to normoxia after P15. TA was injected into the right vitreous of P15 rats, while saline was injected into the left vitreous. At P18 the expression of nNOS and iNOS was determined using Western blotting and immunostaining techniques in retinas obtained from control rats. RESULTS: In P18 OIR rats, the abundance of nNOS and iNOS protein was significantly increased compared with controls. These increases were not observed in the retinas of rats treated with TA. The change in expression of nNOS and iNOS were specific to parvalbumin and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells. Treatment with TA prevented the increased expression of nNOS and iNOS in all samples. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoxia upregulates expression of nNOS and iNOS in OIR rat retinas, which is can be prevented by treatment with TA.

Animals , Animals, Newborn , Hypoxia/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Neurons/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/biosynthesis , Oxygen/toxicity , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Animal , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retina/metabolism , Retinal Diseases/chemically induced , Triamcinolone Acetonide/pharmacology