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1.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550892

ABSTRACT

La esquizofrenia es una enfermedad que está caracterizada por su complejidad psicopatológica agravada por una frecuente asociación de enfermedades físicas como la obesidad, la intolerancia a la glucosa, la diabetes y la dislipidemia. Además, indicadores metabólicos como la glucemia, el colesterol y los triglicéridos en sangre, así como la obesidad, tienen relevancia en estos pacientes, según lo planteado en la literatura especializada sobre el tema. Por otra parte, las enfermedades físicas asociadas como los indicadores metabólicos, tienen su impacto en el sistema nervioso central con independencia de la esquizofrenia. La suma de los trastornos mentales y físicos implica la necesidad de atender ambos problemas simultáneamente y se recomienda la intervención interdisciplinaria. El protocolo de actuación para la atención de los pacientes con esquizofrenia y psicosis relacionadas en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras es un ejemplo del abordaje señalado(AU)


Schizophrenia is a disease characterized by a psychopathological complexity, aggravated by frequent association of physical diseases such as obesity, glucose intolerance, diabetes and dyslipidemia. In addition, there are other metabolic indicators such as blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides which are relevant in these patients, and the international literature has been suggested so. On the other hand, both associated physical diseases and metabolic indicators have their impact on the central nervous system in addition to schizophrenia. The sum of mental and physical disorders implies the need to address both problems simultaneously, which is why interdisciplinary intervention is recommended. Hermanos Ameijeiras Clinical Surgical Hospital is an example of the action protocol for patients with schizophrenia and psychosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Schizophrenia/epidemiology , Glucose Intolerance , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Obesity/epidemiology
2.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 41(3): 165-169, dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423688

ABSTRACT

Introducción: 25% de personas con hiperinsulinismo desarrolla diabetes 3-5 años luego del primer diagnóstico y 70% lo hará en el resto de la vida. Intervenir los niveles de glicemia desde que se detecta hiperinsulinemia evita la progresión a diabetes y restaura el metabolismo glicémico. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de hiperinsulinismo patológico post-carga de glucosa (HPPG) y su relación con factores de riesgo cardiovascular en adultos 100 UI/ml a las 2 horas), sexo, hipertensión arterial, dislipidemia, malnutrición por exceso, sedentarismo, tabaquismo, ateromatosis e infarto miocárdico documentado. Con STATA 17 se calculó la prevalencia de variables en población general y según categoría de HPPG y se evaluó la significancia con prueba exacta de Fisher. Se compararon medias con ANOVA y t-test con nivel de significancia <0,05. Se usó regresión binomial para estimar Razón de Prevalencia e intervalos de confianza en variables cuantitativas y cualitativas. Resultados: la prevalencia de HPPG fue 41%. La edad promedio 37,5 años, el sexo masculino 52,9%, la hipertensión-arterial 40,5% y la dislipidemia 74,4%. Al comparar las poblaciones con y sin HPPG existieron diferencia estadísticamente significativa en las variables dislipidemia, hipertensión-arterial, malnutrición por exceso y sexo-masculino. La razón de prevalencia alcanzó a un 62%, 37%, 59% y 20% respectivamente. Conclusión: Se encontró una alta prevalencia de HPPG. Los factores de riesgo asociados a ella fueron dislipidemia, hipertensión arterial, malnutrición por exceso y sexo masculino. Esto sugiere que encontrar HPPG puede ser de utilidad para detectar precozmente a la población con un mayor riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular.


Introduction: 25% of people with hyperinsulinism develop diabetes 3-5 years after the first diagnosis and 70% will do so in the rest of their lives. To control glycemia levels as soon as hyperinsulinemia is detected, progression to diabetes is prevented and glycemic metabolism is restored. Aim: To determine the prevalence of post-glucose load pathological hyperinsulinism (HPPG) and its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors in adults 100 uIU/ ml at 2 hours), sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, excess malnutrition due to, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, documented atheromatosis and myocardial infarction. The prevalence of variables in the general population was calculated and, in relation to the HPPG category, significance is evaluated with Fisher's exact test. Finally means are compared with ANOVA and t-test. With significance level <0.05. Binomial regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio and confidence intervals in quantitative and qualitative variables. Statistical analysis was performed with the STATA 17 software. Results: HPPG prevalence was 41%, mean age 37.5 years, male sex 52.9%, arterial hypertension 40.5% and dyslipidemia 74.4%. Un relation to the presence of HPPG a statistically significant difference in the variables dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, malnutrition due to excess and male sex was found. The prevalence ratios were 62%, 37%, 59% and 20%, respectively. Conclusion: A high prevalence of HPPG was found. Risk factors associated to HPPG were dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, malnutrition due to excess and male sex. Thus, HPPG can play a role in the early detection of a higher risk of cardiovascular disease in the general population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hyperinsulinism/epidemiology , Insulin Resistance , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Glucose Intolerance/epidemiology , Glucose/administration & dosage
3.
Más Vita ; 4(2): 368-385, jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1392663

ABSTRACT

La diabetes tipo 2 es un trastorno metabólico progresivo complejo, que representa una amenaza significativa para la salud humana y representa más del 91% de todos los casos de diabetes. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de la adición de tintura de Notholaena nivea al tratamiento con metformina en pacientes con tolerancia alterada a la glucosa (IGT) y diabetes de tipo 2 (DMT2). Materiales y Método: Ensayo clínico unicentral, aleatorizado, simple ciego, controlado con placebo. Todos los participantes con diagnóstico de IGT y DMT2 que tomaban metformina fueron asignados aleatoriamente a recibir kits con tintura de Notholaena nivea autentica (40 pacientes) o placebo (58 pacientes), fijando 6 gotas diarias, 30 minutos antes del desayuno y almuerzo durante 26 semanas, se hicieron 3 controles (0, 13 y 26 semanas) midiendo glucosa plasmática en ayunas (FPG), nivel de hemoglobina glucosilada (HbA1C) y perfil lipídico. Resultados: del grupo de tratamiento (tintura de Notholaena nivea más metformina) fueron significativamente eficientes a las 13 semanas de iniciado el ensayo, manteniendo la directriz de reducción de glucosa plasmática (FPG), al iniciar el estudio el grupo control y tratamiento obtuvieron niveles de FPG similares con valores de .57±1.7 y 7.84±1.9 mmol/l respectivamente (p>0.05), a las 13 semanas se redujo a 7.21±1.mmol/l para el grupo control y 6.49±2.33 mmol/l para el grupo tratamiento (p<0.01), mientras que a la semana 26 el grupo control reporto 7.09±1.41 mmol/l en tanto el grupo tratamiento obtuvo 5.98±0.71 mmol/l (p<0.01). Hubo reducción de los niveles de HbA1C dentro de los grupos, pero no se evidenciaron diferencias por efecto del tratamiento. En el perfil lipídico el tratamiento de Metformina sola evidencio una mejor respuesta con la reducción de colesterol total y aumento de lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL) pero aumento la concentración de triglicéridos, mientras que el tratamiento con tintura de Notholaena nivea mantuvo los perfiles lipídicos al igual que en un inicio (p>0.05). Conclusiones: el tratamiento combinado de metformina más tintura de Notholaena nivea reduce acelerada y eficazmente las concentraciones de FPG en sangre de pacientes con IGT o DMT2, pero es ineficaz en el tratamiento del perfil lipídico(AU)


Type 2 diabetes is a complex progressive metabolic disorder, which represents a significant threat to human health and accounts for more than 91% of all diabetes cases. Objective: to evaluate the effect of adding Notholaena nivea tincture to metformin treatment in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes (DMT2). Materials and Method: Unicentral, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. All participants diagnosed with IGT and T2DM who were taking metformin were randomly assigned to receive authentic Notholaena nivea tincture kits (40 patients) or placebo (58 patients), setting 6 drops daily, 30 minutes before breakfast and lunch for 26 weeks. , 3 controls were made (0, 13 and 26 weeks) measuring fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1C) and lipid profile. Results: the treatment group (Notholaena nivea tincture plus metformin) were significantly efficient at 13 weeks from the start of the trial, maintaining the plasma glucose reduction guideline (FPG), at the start of the study the control and treatment groups obtained levels of Similar FPG with values of .57±1.7 and 7.84±1.9 mmol/l respectively (p>0.05), at 13 weeks it was reduced to 7.21±1.mmol/l for the control group and 6.49±2.33 mmol/l for the treatment group (p<0.01), while at week 26 the control group reported 7.09±1.41 mmol/l while the treatment group obtained 5.98±0.71 mmol/l (p<0.01). There was a reduction in HbA1C levels within the groups, but no differences due to treatment effect were observed. In the lipid profile, the treatment with Metformin alone showed a better response with the reduction of total cholesterol and an increase in high-density lipoproteins (HDL) but increased the concentration of triglycerides, while the treatment with Notholaena nivea tincture maintained the lipid profiles at the same as at the beginning (p>0.05). Conclusions: the combined treatment of metformin plus Notholaena nivea tincture rapidly and effectively reduces FPG concentrations in the blood of patients with IGT or DMT2, but it is ineffective in the treatment of the lipid profile.Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Notholaena nivea, FPG, Metformin, lipid(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Glucose Intolerance , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin/administration & dosage , Patients , Exercise , Nutrition Therapy , Healthy Lifestyle , Glucose
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 665-671, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) brings health issues for both mothers and offspring, and GDM prevention is as important as GDM management. It was shown that a history of GDM was significantly associated with a higher maternal risk for GDM recurrence. The incidence of GDM recurrence was unclear because of the incidence of second-child was low before 2016 in China. We aim to investigate the prevalence of GDM recurrence and its associated high-risk factors which may be useful for the prediction of GDM recurrence in China.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted which enrolled participants who underwent regular prenatal examination and delivered twice in the same hospital of 18 research centers. All participants were enrolled from January 2018 to October 2018, where they delivered the second baby during this period. A total of 6204 women were enrolled in this study, and 1002 women with a history of GDM were analyzed further. All participants enrolled in the study had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) result at 24 to 28 weeks and were diagnosed as GDM in the first pregnancy according to the OGTT value (when any one of the following values is met or exceeded to the 75-g OGTT: 0 h [fasting], ≥5.10 mmol/L; 1 h, ≥10.00 mmol/L; and 2 h, ≥8.50 mmol/L). The prevalence of GDM recurrence and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus were calculated, and its related risk factors were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#In 6204 participants, there are 1002 women (1002/6204,16.15%) with a history of GDM and 5202 women (5202/6204, 83.85%) without a history of GDM. There are significant differences in age (32.43 ± 4.03 years vs. 33.00 ± 3.34 years vs. 32.19 ± 3.37 years, P  < 0.001), pregnancy interval (4.06 ± 1.44 years vs. 3.52 ± 1.43 years vs. 3.38 ± 1.35 years, P  = 0.004), prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) (27.40 ± 4.62 kg/m2vs. 23.50 ± 3.52 kg/m2vs. 22.55 ± 3.47 kg/m2, P < 0.001), history of delivered macrosomia (22.7% vs. 11.0% vs. 6.2%, P < 0.001) among the development of diabetes mellitus (DM), recurrence of GDM, and normal women. Moreover, it seems so important in the degree of abnormal glucose metabolism in the first pregnancy to the recurrence of GDM and the development of DM. There are significant differences in OGTT levels of the first pregnancy such as area under the curve of OGTT value (18.31 ± 1.90 mmol/L vs. 16.27 ± 1.93 mmol/L vs. 15.55 ± 1.92 mmol/L, P < 0.001), OGTT fasting value (5.43 ± 0.48 mmol/L vs. 5.16 ± 0.49 mmol/L vs. 5.02 ± 0.47 mmol/L, P < 0.001), OGTT 1-hour value (10.93 ± 1.34 mmol/L vs. 9.69 ± 1.53 mmol/L vs. 9.15 ± 1.58 mmol/L, P < 0.001), OGTT 2-hour value (9.30 ± 1.66 mmol/L vs. 8.01 ± 1.32 mmol/L vs. 7.79 ± 1.38 mmol/L, P < 0.001), incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (fasting plasma glucose ≥5.6 mmol/L) (31.3% vs. 14.6% vs. 8.8%, P < 0.001), and incidence of two or more abnormal OGTT values (68.8% vs. 39.7% vs. 23.9%, P < 0.001) among the three groups. Using multivariate analysis, the factors, such as age (1.07 [1.02-1.12], P = 0.006), prepregnancy BMI (1.07 [1.02, 1.12], P  = 0.003), and area under the curve of OGTT in the first pregnancy (1.14 [1.02, 1.26], P  = 0.02), have an effect on maternal GDM recurrence; the factors, such as age (1.28 [1.01-1.61], P  = 0.04), pre-pregnancy BMI (1.26 [1.04, 1.53], P = 0.02), and area under the curve of OGTT in the first pregnancy (1.65 [1.04, 2.62], P = 0.03), have an effect on maternal DM developed further.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The history of GDM was significantly associated with a higher maternal risk for GDM recurrence during follow-up after the first pregnancy. The associated risk factors for GDM recurrence or development of DM include age, high pre-pregnancy BMI, history of delivered macrosomia, the OGTT level in the first pregnancy, such as the high area under the curve of OGTT, IFG, and two or more abnormal OGTT values. To prevent GDM recurrence, women with a history of GDM should do the preconception counseling before preparing next pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Blood Glucose/metabolism , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational , Fetal Macrosomia , Glucose Intolerance , Retrospective Studies
5.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(3)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408254

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome de ovario poliquístico es una entidad que, más allá de las afectaciones reproductivas que lo caracterizan, constituye un factor de riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular. Esto último, adquiere mayor relevancia debido a que ha aumentado en la mujer que padece el síndrome y también en sus familiares. Objetivo: Demostrar que los familiares de primer grado de las mujeres con el síndrome de ovario poliquístico tienen mayor frecuencia de trastornos del metabolismo hidrocarbonado, dislipidemia y resistencia a la insulina. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con 36 familiares de primer grado de mujeres con y sin síndrome de ovario poliquístico. Se les realizó un examen físico para comprobar el peso, la talla y la tensión arterial para descartar hipertensión en el momento de la inclusión. Resultados: La media del índice HOMA-IR en el grupo de estudio fue de 3,3 y en el de control 2,4. La prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa de 2 horas diagnosticó una glucosa alterada en ayunas a 9 familiares, 5 (55,6 por ciento) del grupo de estudio y 4 (44,4 por ciento), del grupo control. Hubo 7 familiares a los que se les detectó una tolerancia a la glucosa alterada, 6 (85,7 por ciento) familiares de mujeres con el síndrome y 1 (14,3 por ciento), del grupo control. Conclusiones: Los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares clásicos estudiados son más frecuentes en los familiares de mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico que en los familiares de mujeres sin dicha enfermedad(AU)


Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome is an entity that, beyond the reproductive affectations that characterize it, constitutes a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This aspect acquires greater relevance because the associated entity is not only increasing among the women who suffers from the syndrome, but also among their family members. Objective: To show that first-degree relatives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome present a higher frequency of carbohydrate metabolism disorders, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out with 36 first-degree relatives of women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. They underwent physical examination to check their weight, height and blood pressure, in order to rule out hypertension at the time of inclusion. Results: The mean HOMA-IR index was 3.3 in the study group and 2.4 in the control group. The two-hour glucose tolerance test permitted to diagnose impaired fasting glucose in nine relatives, five (55.6 percent) from the study group and four (44.4 percent) from the control group. Seven relatives were reported with impaired glucose tolerance, six (85.7 percent) relatives of women with the syndrome and one (14.3 percent) from the control group. Conclusions: The classic cardiovascular risk factors studied are more frequent in the relatives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome than in the relatives of women without this disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/etiology , Insulin Resistance , Glucose Intolerance , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4480-4487, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888149

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the mechanism of improving impaired glucose tolerance(IGT) of rats by Huanglian Wendan Decoction from the perspective of the skeletal muscle Nod-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3)/cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1(caspase-1)/interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-18(IL-18) pathway. Healthy male SD rats were fed with the diet containing 45% fat for 20 weeks, accompanied by a high-temperature and high-humidity environment and an inactive lifestyle, for the establishment of the IGT rat model. The rats were divided into the blank control group, model control group, metformin hydrochloride group(positive drug group, 0.05 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) and Huanglian Wendan Decoction group(7.8 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)). After continuous intragastric administration for 4 weeks, the obesity and glycemic indexes of all the rats were measured. The fasting serum insulin(FINS) level was determined by ELISA, with the insulin sensitivity index(ISI) and insulin resistance index(IRI) calculated. The mRNA and protein expression le-vels of nuclear factor kappaB(NF-κB), NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 in skeletal muscle tissue were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction(PCR), Western blot and immunofluorescence. Compared with the blank control group, the model control group witnessed significantly increased mRNA and protein expression of NF-κB, NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18. As revealed by the comparison with the model control group, Huanglian Wendan Decoction could effectively regulate the obesity status, reduce body weight, correct the abnormal levels of 2-hour plasma glucose(2 hPG), insulin resistance index(IRI), insulin sensitivity index(ISI), and lower the mRNA and protein expression of NF-κB, NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 in the skeletal muscle tissue of IGT rats. Combined with previous studies, the above results showed that the occurrence and development of IGT was closely related to inflammatory response and the classic pyroptosis pathway in skeletal muscle, such as NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1β, IL-18. It is inferred that the mechanism of Huanglian Wendan Decoction was to alleviate insulin resistance(IR) and then reverse the course of IGT lies in the regulation of the abnormal insulin receptor signaling pathway based on the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Caspase 1/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glucose Intolerance , Interleukin-18/genetics , Interleukin-1beta , Muscle, Skeletal , NF-kappa B/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1191-1198, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The prevalence of skin diseases and diabetes mellitus (DM) are prominent around the world. The current scope of knowledge regarding the prevalence of skin diseases and comorbidities with type 2 DM (T2DM) is limited, leading to limited recognition of the correlations between skin diseases and T2DM.@*METHODS@#We collected 383 subjects from the Da Qing Diabetes Study during the period from July 9th to September 1st, 2016. The subjects were categorized into three groups: Normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and T2DM. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of skin diseases were recorded and investigated.@*RESULTS@#In this cross-sectional study, 383 individuals with ages ranging from 53 to 89-year-old were recruited. The overall prevalence of skin diseases was 93.5%, and 75.7% of individuals had two or more kinds of skin diseases. Additionally, there were 47 kinds of comorbid skin diseases in patients with T2DM, of which eight kinds of skin diseases had a prevalence >10%. The prevalence of skin diseases in NGT, IGT, and T2DM groups were 93.3%, 91.5%, and 96.6%, respectively; stratified analysis by categories showed a statistically significant difference in "disturbances of pigmentation" and "neurological and psychogenic dermatoses". The duration of T2DM also significantly associated with the prevalence of "disturbances of pigmentation" and "neurological and psychogenic dermatoses". Subsequently, the prevalence of "disturbances of pigmentation" was higher in males than females in NGT (P < 0.01) and T2DM (P < 0.01) groups. In addition, the difference in the prevalence of "disturbances of pigmentation" was also significant in NGT and T2DM groups (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There was a high prevalence of skin diseases in the Da Qing Diabetes Study. To address the skin diseases in the Da Qing Diabetes Study, increased awareness and intervention measures should be implemented.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blood Glucose , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glucose Intolerance/epidemiology , Glucose Tolerance Test , Skin Diseases/epidemiology
8.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 155-160, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877563

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupuncture on vascular endothelial function in patients of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT).@*METHODS@#A total of 140 patients with PCOS were divided into an IGT group (70 cases, 11 dropped off) and a NGT group (70 cases, 9 cases dropped off). The patients in the two groups were treated with full-cycle acupuncture at Zhongwan (CV 12), Guanyuan (CV 4), Qihai (CV 6), Tianshu (ST 25), etc. once every other day, 3 times a week, for 3 months. Before and after treatment, TCM symptom score, insulin resistance index [including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour blood glucose (2hPG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)] and vascular endothelial related factors [including asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMD), endothelin-1 (ET-1), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO)] were compared between the two groups; in addition, the obese subgroup and non-obese subgroup of the two groups were further compared.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the TCM symptom scores, ADMD, ET-1 and MDA after treatment were decreased (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture could improve vascular endothelial function in PCOS patients, IGT patients have better efficacy than NGT patients, and obese patients have better efficacy than non-obese patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Acupuncture Therapy , Blood Glucose , Glucose , Glucose Intolerance/therapy , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/therapy
9.
Femina ; 49(9): 520-524, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342318

ABSTRACT

A síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP) é frequentemente acompanhada de distúrbio metabólico, principalmente dos carboidratos e dos lipídeos, aumentando o risco de síndrome metabólica. Por essa razão, alguns investigadores ainda denominam a SOP de síndrome metabólica-reprodutiva. O objetivo deste capítulo é descrever as principais repercussões metabólicas, bem como como investigá-las e saber como suas consequências podem ser deletérias para a saúde da mulher. Esta é uma revisão narrativa mostrando a implicação do metabolismo dos carboidratos e dos lipídeos nas dislipidemias, bem como da síndrome metabólica sobre o sistema reprodutor, e o risco cardiovascular da mulher com SOP. Conclui-se que o manejo adequado dos distúrbios metabólicos na SOP é benéfico a curto e a longo prazo tanto para o sistema reprodutor quanto para o cardiovascular.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Insulin Resistance , Risk Factors , Glucose Intolerance/diagnosis , Glucose Metabolism Disorders/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/physiopathology , Lipid Metabolism Disorders/physiopathology
10.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(9): e00255920, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345630

ABSTRACT

Abstract: There is a conflict in the literature regarding the association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and glycemic status. Therefore, we evaluated the association between SUA level and glycemic status - impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes mellitus - and insulin resistance, in a large Brazilian study. This is a cross-sectional, observational study with 13,207 participants aged 35-74 years, at baseline (2008-2010) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). A multinomial regression analysis was performed to test the association between SUA and glycemic status (IFG, IGT, and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes at the cohort baseline) after adjustments by age, sex, skin color, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, comorbidities, and medicines use. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between SUA and insulin resistance by HOMA-IR. Stratified analyses by sex were performed. The mean age (standard deviation) was 51.4 (8.9) years, 55.2% of participants were women. There were 1,439 newly diagnosed diabetes. After all adjustments, higher SUA was associated with IFG, IGT, and diabetes, with odds ratio (OR) = 1.15 (95%CI: 1.06; 1.25), 1.23 (95%CI: 1.14; 1.33), and 1.37 (95%CI: 1.24; 1.51), respectively. There was association between SUA levels and insulin resistance with OR = 1.24 (95%CI: 1.13; 1.36). In analysis stratified by sex, higher SUA persisted independently associated with impaired glycemic status. Our results suggest that a higher SUA levels were significantly associated with glycemic status in a large Latin American population, mainly among women.


Resumo: Há uma controvérsia na literatura a respeito da associação entre níveis de ácido úrico sérico (AUS) e glicemia. Portanto, avaliamos a associação entre AUS e glicemia (glicemia em jejum alterada, intolerância glicêmica e diabetes mellitus), além da resistência insulínica, em uma amostra grande no Brasil. O estudo transversal observacional incluiu 13.207 participantes com idade entre 35 e 74 anos na linha de base (2008-2010) do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Foi realizada análise de regressão multivariada para testar a associação entre AUS e glicemia (glicemia em jejum alterada, intolerância glicêmica e diagnóstico novo de diabetes tipo 2 na linha de base da coorte) depois de ajustar para idade, sexo, cor, índice de massa corporal, atividade física, tabagismo, consumo de álcool, comorbidades e uso de medicação. O modelo de regressão logística foi usado para avaliar a associação entre AUS e resistência insulínica por HOMA-IR. Foram realizadas análises estratificadas por sexo. A média de idade (DP) foi 51,4 (8,9) anos, e 55,2% dos participantes eram mulheres. Houve 1.439 novos diagnósticos de diabetes. Depois de todos os ajustes, o AUS esteve associado à glicemia em jejum alterada, intolerância glicêmica e diabetes, com odds ratio (OR) = 1,15 (IC95%: 1,06; 1,25), 1,23 (IC95%: 1,14; 1,33) e 1,37 (IC95%: 1,24; 1,51), respectivamente. Houve uma associação entre níveis de AUS e resistência insulínica, com OR = 1,24 (IC95%: 1,13; 1,36). Na análise estratificada por sexo, persistiu a associação independente entre AUS elevado e glicemia. Os resultados sugerem que níveis elevados de AUS estão associados de maneira significativa com a glicemia em uma população latino-americana grande, sobretudo entre mulheres.


Resumen: Hay un conflicto en la literatura respecto a la asociación entre los niveles de ácido úrico sérico (AUS) y el estado glucémico. Por eso, evaluamos la asociación entre el nivel AUS y el estatus glucémico: glucosa alterada en ayunas (GAA), tolerancia a la glucosa alterada (TGA) y diabetes mellitus (diabetes), comparados con la resistencia a la insulina en un amplio estudio en Brasil. Se realizó un estudio transversal, observacional con 13.207 participantes, con edades comprendidas entre los 35-74 años, en la base de referencia del Estudio Longitudinal de Salud entre Adultos brasileños (2008-2010) (ELSA-Brasil). Se realizó un análisis de regresión multinomial para probar la asociación entre AUS y el estado glucémico (GAA, TGA y de nuevo la diabetes tipo 2, diagnosticada en la cohorte como base de referencia) tras los ajustes por edad, sexo, color de piel, índice de masa corporal, actividad física, fumar, consumo de alcohol, comorbilidades, uso de medicinas. Se usó el modelo de regresión logística para evaluar la asociación entre AUS y la resistencia a la insulina por el HOMA-IR. Se realizó también un análisis estratificado por sexo. La media de edad (desviación estándar) fue 51,4 (8,9) años, un 55,2% de los participantes eran mujeres. Hubo 1.439 nuevos casos de diabetes diagnosticados. Tras todos los ajustes, una AUS más alta estuvo asociada con GAA, TGA y diabetes, con odds ratio (OR) = 1,15 (IC95%: 1,06; 1,25), 1,23 (IC95%: 1,14; 1,33), y 1,37 (IC95%: 1,24; 1,51), respectivamente. Hubo asociación entre los niveles AUS y la resistencia a la insulina con OR = 1,24 (IC95%: 1,13; 1,36). En el análisis estratificado por sexo, una AUS más alta persistía independientemente asociada con un estado glucémico alterado. Nuestros resultados sugieren que unos niveles más altos de AUS estuvieron significativamente asociados con el estado glucémico en una amplia población latinoamericana, principalmente entre mujeres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Glucose Intolerance/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Uric Acid , Blood Glucose , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Fasting , Middle Aged
11.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(3): e677, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1126771

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La malabsorción de glucosa y de galactosa es una enfermedad genética autosómica recesiva debida a una mutación que afecta al cotransportador de sodio-glucosa. Objetivo: Describir una asociación infrecuente entre el síndrome de Down y la mala absorción de glucosa y de galactosa. Presentación del caso: Niño desnutrido de 3 ½ meses de edad con síndrome de Down, de padres consanguíneos. Presentó precozmente diarrea explosiva, vómitos con deshidratación. Se mejoró tras la eliminación de la alimentación oral y la perfusión hidroelectrolítica y empeoró con la utilización de las sales de rehidratación oral y las fórmulas lácteas, sin proteínas de leche de vaca. El estudio de las heces mostró un pH fecal /5, presencia de glucosa, ionograma de las 24 horas fue: sodio 0,5 mEq (1-10), potasio 2,6 mEq (8-22) y el cálculo realizado para distinguir entre diferentes causas de diarrea dio aumentado: 168 mOsm/kg (50-125). Ante este cuadro clínico se consideró el diagnóstico de malabsorción de glucosa y de galactosa sobre todo tras la mejora de la sintomatología bajo dieta exclusivamente azucarada con fructosa. Conclusiones: Es importante tener en cuenta la malabsorción de glucosa y de galactosa dentro de los diagnósticos diferenciales de las diarreas acuosas congénitas. El diagnóstico precoz y la dieta adecuada con fructosa evitan deshidratación y malnutrición. La particularidad de nuestro caso es la asociación de la malabsorción de glucosa y de galactosa con el síndrome de Down, que, según nuestro conocimiento, es la primera vez que se describe y podría aumentar la morbilidad(AU)


Introduction: Malabsorption of glucose and galactose is a genetic autosomic recesive disease caused by a mutation that affects the co-transportator of sodium-glucose. Objective: To describe an unfrequent relation between the Down syndrome and the malabsortion of glucose and galactose. Case presentation: Undernourished child, 3 and half months old with Down syndrome from parents by blood. He early presented explosive diarrhea and vomiting with dehydration. He improved his state after elimination of oral feeding and a hydroelectrolitic perfusion, and his state worsened with the use of oral rehydration salts and dairy formula, even without cow´s milk proteins. The study of feces showed a fecal pH /5, presence of glucose, and the ionogram after 24 hours showed: sodium 0,5mEg (1-10), potasium 2,6 mEg (8-22) and the calculation made to identify the different causes of diarrhea was increased: 168 mOsm/kg (50-125). Having this clinical records, it was considered a diagnostic of glucose and galactose malabsorption, mainly after the improvement of the symptoms under a diet exclusively sugared with fructose. Conclusions: It is important to take into account glucose and galactose malabsortion in the differential diagnosis of congenital watery diahrrea. The early diagnosis and an adequate diet with fructose avoid dehytration and malnutrition. The particularity of this case is the relation of glucose and galactose malabsorption with Down syndrome, that according to our knowledge is the first time it is described and it can increase the morbility(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Down Syndrome/complications , Glucose Intolerance/complications , Malabsorption Syndromes/complications , Galactose/analysis
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(4): 436-443, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127083

ABSTRACT

Background An instrument to help clinicians to evaluate the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at-a-glance is lacking. Aim To generate a program written in HTML squeezing relevant information from the OGTT with glucose and insulin measurements. Material and Methods We reanalyzed a database comprising 90 subjects. All of them had both an OGTT and a pancreatic suppression test (PST) measuring insulin resistance directly. Thirty-seven of the 90 studied participants were insulin resistant (IR). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Bayesian analyses delineated the diagnostic performances of four predictors of insulin resistance: HOMA, QUICKI, ISI-OL (Matsuda-DeFronzo) and I0*G60. We validated a new biochemical predictor, the Percentual Relative Insulin Sensitivity (%RIS), and calculated the Percentual Relative Beta Cell Function (%RBCF). Results The best diagnostic performance of the five predictors were those of the I0*G60 and the %RIS. The poorest diagnostic performances were those of the HOMA and QUICKI. The ISI-OL's performance was in between. The %RIS of participants with and without IR was 44.4 ± 7.3 and 101.1 ± 8.8, respectively (p < 0.05). The figures for % RBCF were 55.8 ± 11.8 and 90.8 ± 11.6, respectively (p < 0.05). Mathematical modeling of the relationship between these predictors and the Steady State Plasma Glucose Value from the PST was performed. We developed a program with 10 inputs (glucose and insulin values) and several outputs: I0*G60, HOMA, QUICKI, ISI-OL, Insulinogenic Index, Disposition Index, %RBCF, %RIS, and metabolic categorization of the OGTT (ADA 2003). Conclusions The OGTT data permitted us to write successfully an HTML program allowing the user to fully evaluate at-a-glance its metabolic information.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin Resistance , Blood Glucose , Glucose Intolerance , Glucose Tolerance Test , Insulin
13.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 125-134, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092752

ABSTRACT

Actualmente los edulcorantes no nutritivos (ENN) son ampliamente usados para endulzar los alimentos en reemplazo de los azúcares simples, con la ventaja de no aportar energía. A pesar de que en general no presentan efectos tóxicos, los estudios epidemiológicos no han podido evidenciar que su uso contribuya a mejorar la pérdida de peso, sino por el contrario, han revelado que los ENN pueden inducir alteraciones metabólicas como intolerancia a la glucosa. Estudios in vivo e in vitro han mostrado que muchos ENN activan a receptores del sabor dulce no sólo en los botones gustativos, sino que también en los receptores presentes en tejidos como el adiposo y pancreático, interfiriendo con su función normal. Además, el consumo ENN se ha asociado a alteraciones de la composición de la microbiota intestinal que conducen a una respuesta inflamatoria de bajo grado. La nueva evidencia disponible sobre los ENN hace necesario evaluar el uso cada vez más intenso de los ENN en Chile. Debido a que el gusto exacerbado por el sabor dulce que cultivamos desde la infancia es un potente catalizador del uso de ENN, proponemos que una oportuna educación del sentido del gusto puede contribuir a mejorar las elecciones alimentarias.


Currently, non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are widely used to sweeten foods instead of simple sugars, as they possess the advantage of not contributing to energy intake. Although they do not present toxic effects in general, epidemiological studies have not been able to show benefits when they are used in weight loss programs. However, they could induce metabolic alterations such as glucose intolerance. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that many NNSs activate sweet taste receptors not only in the taste buds, but also in receptors present in adipose and pancreatic tissues, interfering with their normal function. In addition, NNS consumption has been associated with an alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota that leads to a low-grade inflammatory response. Due to the wide use of NNS in Chile, it is necessary to evaluate the potential health effects of using NNS in the Chilean population. We propose that a timely education of the sense of taste can contribute to moderating the preference for higher levels of sweet taste that humans develop in childhood, which could help to improve food choices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glucose Intolerance/chemically induced , Non-Nutritive Sweeteners/adverse effects , Chile , Global Health , Diabetes Mellitus/chemically induced , Obesity
14.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 71-76, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the associations of impaired glucose metabolism and insulin resistance with chronic periodontitis in pre-diabetes patients.@*METHODS@#A cross-sectional analysis was conducted and we included a total of 171 pre-diabetes patients aged 30-65 years, free of diabetes. pre-diabetes was defined as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) [fasting glucose (FG): 6.1-7.0 mmol/L] and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) [oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): 7.8-11.0 mmol/L]. Chronic periodontitis was defined according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) definition and the patients were divided into mild, moderate, and severe chronic periodontitis groups [mild: at least two interproximal sites with clinical attachment loss (CAL) ≥3 mm and at least two interproxima sites with probing depth (PD) ≥4 mm or 1 site with PD≥5 mm; moderate: at least two interproximal sites with CAL ≥4 mm and at least two interproxima sites with at least two interproximal sites with PD ≥5 mm; severe: at least two interproximal sites with CAL ≥6 mm and at least one interproxima site with at least two interproximal sites with PD≥5 mm]. A periodontal examination indexes [plaque index (PLI), PD, CAL, and bleeding on probing (BOP)] and glucose metabolism indexes [FG, OGTT, hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c), fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessments of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)] were measured. The association of glucose metabolism and chronic periodontitis was investigated by multivariable logistic regression analysis.@*RESULTS@#FG in the moderate and severe chronic periodontitis groups was significantly higher compared with mild chronic periodontitis group, HOMA-IR in the moderate and severe chronic periodontitis groups was significantly higher compared with mild chronic periodontitis group, OGTT in the severe chronic periodntitis group was significantly higher compared with mild chronic peridontitis group and moderate chronic periodontitis groups, and there was no significant difference between moderate and mild chronic periodontitis groups. For the insulin and HbA1c, there was no significant difference among mild, moderate and severe chronic periodontitis groups. After multivariable adjustment of age, gender, smoking status, hypertension and body mass index, IFG (OR=1.39, 95%CI: 1.01-1.98) and HOMA-IR (OR=1.36, 95%CI: 1.04-1.76) were associated with moderate periodontitis; IFG (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.17-2.40), IGT (OR=1.65, 95%CI: 1.21-2.26), and HOMA-IR (OR=1.72, 95%CI: 1.23-2.41) were significantly associated with severe periodontitis.@*CONCLUSION@#Our data provided evidences that impaired glucose metabolism were associated with chronic periodontitis among pre-diabetes patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Blood Glucose , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glucose , Glucose Intolerance , Glucose Tolerance Test , Prediabetic State
15.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 97-105, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) at mid-pregnancy and postpartum glucose intolerance in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).METHODS: We enrolled 348 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM from August 2012 to October 2016. We measured serum 25(OH)D levels at mid-pregnancy and carried out a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 6 to 12 weeks after delivery. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL.RESULTS: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 76.7% (n=267). Women with vitamin D deficiency had a higher prevalence of postpartum glucose intolerance than did those without vitamin D deficiency (48.7% vs. 32.1%, P=0.011). Serum 25(OH)D level was negatively correlated with hemoglobin A1c at antepartum and postpartum period (antepartum: r=−0.186, P=0.001; postpartum: r=−0.129, P=0.047). Homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function was positively correlated with serum 25(OH)D level only postpartum (r=0.138, P=0.035). The risk of postpartum glucose intolerance was 2.00 times (95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 3.55) higher in women with vitamin D deficiency than in those without vitamin D deficiency (P=0.018).CONCLUSION: In women with GDM, vitamin D deficiency at mid-pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk of postpartum glucose intolerance.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational , Glucose Intolerance , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glucose , Homeostasis , Postpartum Period , Pregnant Women , Prevalence , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Vitamins
16.
Biol. Res ; 53: 39, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a representative prediabetes characterized by defective glucose homeostasis, and palmatine (PAL) is a natural isoquinoline alkaloid with multiple pharmacological effects. Our study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of PAL on the impaired glucose tolerance. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish an IGT model with high fat diet (HFD). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and further biochemical analysis were conducted to determine the effect of PAL on glucose intolerance in vivo. Molecular details were clarified in a cellular model of IGT induced by Palmitate (PA) on INS-1 cells. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated a relief of IGT with improved insulin resistance in HFD induced rats after PAL treatment. Besides, promoted pancreas islets function was validated with significantly increased ß cell mass after the treatment of PAL. We further found out that PAL could alleviate the ß cell apoptosis that accounts for ß cell mass loss in IGT model. Moreover, MAPK signaling was investigated in vivo and vitro with the discovery that PAL regulated the MAPK signaling by restricting the ERK and JNK cascades. The insulin secretion assay indicated that PAL significantly promoted the defective insulin secretion in PA-induced INS-1 cells via JNK rather than ERK signaling. Furthermore, PAL treatment was determined to significantly suppress ß cell apoptosis in PA-induced cells. We thus thought that PAL promoted the PA-induced impaired insulin release by inhibiting the ß; cell apoptosis and JNK signaling in vitro. CONCLUSION: In summary, PAL ameliorates HFD-induced IGT with novel mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Berberine Alkaloids/pharmacology , Insulin Resistance , Glucose Intolerance/drug therapy , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Blood Glucose , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Insulin
18.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 500-503, Sep.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286550

ABSTRACT

The metabolic syndrome describes a group of signs that increase the likelihood for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. The action of insulin depends on its binding to membrane receptors on its target cells. We wonder if blood insulin could travel bound to proteins and if, in the presence of hyperinsulinemia, a soluble insulin receptor might be generated. We used young adult Wistar rats (which have no predisposition to obesity or diabetes), whose drinking water was added 20 % of sugar and that were fed a standard diet ad libitum for two and six months. They were compared with control rats under the same conditions, but that had running water for consumption. At two months, the rats developed central obesity, moderate hypertension, high triglyceride levels, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, i.e., metabolic syndrome. Electrophoresis of the rats’ plasma proteins was performed, followed by Western Blot (WB) for insulin and for the outer portion of the insulin receptor. The bands corresponding to insulin and to the receptor external part were at the same molecular weight level, 25-fold higher than that of free insulin. We demonstrated that insulin, both in control animals and in those with hyperinsulinemia, travels bound to the receptor outer portion (ectodomain), which we called soluble insulin receptor, and that is released al higher amounts in response to plasma insulin increase; in rats with metabolic syndrome and hyperinsulinemia, plasma levels are much higher than in controls. Soluble insulin receptor increase in blood might be an early sign of metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Receptor, Insulin/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Hyperinsulinism/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Hypertriglyceridemia/etiology , Rats, Wistar , Glucose Intolerance/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Disease Models, Animal , Obesity, Abdominal/etiology , Hypertension/etiology , Insulin/blood
19.
Femina ; 47(9): 529-534, 20190930.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425746

ABSTRACT

A síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP) é um distúrbio endócrino-metabólico muito frequente no período reprodutivo. Quando associado ao distúrbio metabólico, as mulheres com SOP podem ter ainda risco acrescido para doença cardiovascular. O objetivo deste manuscrito é descrever as repercussões metabólicas, incluindo quais as principais, como investigar e as consequências desse distúrbio sobre a saúde da mulher. É uma revisão narrativa mostrando a implicação da resistência insulínica, das dislipidemias e da síndrome metabólica sobre o sistema reprodutor e sobre o risco cardiovascular da mulher com SOP, bem como do uso de sensibilizadores de insulina no seu tratamento. Conclui-se que a correção dos distúrbios metabólicos na SOP é benéfica tanto para o sistema reprodutor quanto para o cardiovascular. A primeira linha de tratamento é a mudança de estilo de vida e a perda de peso. Na resposta inadequada, o tratamento medicamentoso está recomendado. Nas mulheres com obesidade mórbida que não tiveram bons resultados com o tratamento clínico, a cirurgia bariátrica é uma opção.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Insulin/therapeutic use , Obesity, Morbid , Insulin Resistance , Weight Loss , Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate/therapeutic use , Risk , Glucose Intolerance , Dyslipidemias , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Life Style , Metformin/therapeutic use
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