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1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 130-137, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922572

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanisms of Dangua Recipe (DGR) in improving glycolipid metabolism based on transcriptomics.@*METHODS@#Sprague-Dawley rats with normal glucose level were divided into 3 groups according to a random number table, including a conventional diet group (Group A), a DGR group (Group B, high-calorie diet + 20.5 g DGR), and a high-calorie fodder model group (Group C). After 12 weeks of intervention, the liver tissue of rats was taken. Gene sequence and transcriptional analysis were performed to identify the key genes related to glycolipid metabolism reflecting DGR efficacy, and then gene or protein validation of liver tissue were performed. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (Nampt) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) proteins in liver tissues were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, fatty acid synthase (FASN) protein was detected by Western blot, and fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5)-mRNA was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the functional verification was performed on the diabetic model rats by Nampt blocker (GEN-617) injected in vivo. Hemoglobin A@*RESULTS@#Totally, 257 differential-dominant genes of Group A vs. Group C and 392 differential-dominant genes of Group B vs. Group C were found. Moreover, 11 Gene Ontology molecular function terms and 7 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment pathways owned by both Group A vs. Group C and Group C vs. Group B were confirmed. The liver tissue target validation showed that Nampt, FASN, PEPCK protein and FABP5-mRNA had the same changes consistent with transcriptome. The in vivo functional tests showed that GEN-617 increased body weight, HbA@*CONCLUSION@#Nampt activation was one of the mechanisms about DGR regulating glycolipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycolipids , Liver , Metabolic Diseases , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transcriptome/genetics
2.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 158-163, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927860

ABSTRACT

The fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) gene encodes delta-6 desaturase (D6D) and is a member of the fatty acid desaturase gene family.D6D is the key enzyme catalyzing the transformation of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA).LC-PUFA play a crucial role in regulating the glycolipid metabolism of living organisms.In recent years,the activity of D6D and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FADS2 gene have become a hot topic in the research on glycolipid metabolism.This article reviews the role of FADS2 gene in glycolipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fatty Acid Desaturases/metabolism , Glycolipids/metabolism , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
3.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 52-59, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects of modified Linggui Zhugan Decoction (, MLZD), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, on obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats.@*METHODS@#Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups by a random number table, including normal, obese T2DM (ob-T2DM), MLZD low-dose [MLDZ-L, 4.625 g/(kg·d)], MLZD middle-dose [MLD-M, 9.25 g/(kg·d) ] and MLZD high-dose [MLD-H, 18.5 g/(kg·d)] groups, 10 rats in each group. After 4-week intervention, blood samples and liver, pancreas, muscle tissues were collected to assess the insulin resistance (IR), blood lipid, adipokines and inflammation cytokines. The alteration of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (PKB or Akt)/the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-ribosome protein subunit 6 kinase 1 (S6K1 )/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1 α) pathways were also studied.@*RESULTS@#MLZD dose-dependently reduced fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model of assessment for IR index and increased insulin sensitive index compared with ob-T2DM rats (P<0.05). Similarly, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and free fatty acids were also decreased compared with ob-T2DM rats after 4-week treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Improvements in adipokines and inflammatory cytokines were observed with a raised level of adiponectin and a reduced level of leptin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). MLZD regulated the PI3K-Akt/mTOR-S6K1/AMPK-PGC-1 α pathways and restored the tissue structure of liver and pancreas (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#MLZD ameliorated glycolipid metabolism and inflammation, which may be attributed to the regulation of PI3K-Akt/mTOR-S6K1/AMPK-PGC-1 α pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glycolipids , Inflammation , Obesity/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e228009, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249287

ABSTRACT

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common opportunistic pathogenic bacterium with the ability to develop a strong communication pathway by quorum sensing system and different virulent factors. Among the various important secretions of P. aeruginosa rhamnolipid is important biological detergent, believed to be involved in the development of the biofilm and intercellular communication. It readily dissolves the lung surfactants that are then easily catalyzed by the phospholipases and in this way is involved in the acute pulmonary infection. Objective: research work was designed to investigate virulence and gene associated with virulence in P. aeruginosa responsible for pulmonary infections. Methods: In current study polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of the rhlR (rhamnolipid encoding) gene of isolated strains. A number of assays were performed that ensured its virulent behavior. Disc diffusion method was used to check its antibiotic resistance. Isolated strains were resistant to a number of antibiotics applied. Result: It was found that males are more prone to respiratory infections as compared to females. Male members with age of 44-58 and 59-73 are at a higher risk, while females with age of 44-58 are also at a risk of pulmonary infections. Antibiotic resistance was observed by measuring zone of inhibition in strains GCU-SG-M4, GCU-SG-M3, GCU-SG-M5, GCU-SG-M2, GCU-SG-M1 and GCU-SG-M6. GCU-SG-M2 was resistant to fluconazole (FLU), clarithromycin (CLR), cefixime (CFM) and Penicillin (P10). No zone of inhibition was observed. But it showed unusual diffused zone around the Ak and MEM antibiotic discs. rhl R gene and 16s rRNA gene were characterized and analyzed. Conclusion: Findings from current study would help in raising awareness about antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa, and also the sequence of rhl R gene can be used as the diagnostic marker sequence to identify the virulent rhl R gene sequence from the samples when isolated from sputum of Pneumonia patients.


Antecedentes: Pseudomonas aeruginosa é uma bactéria patogênica oportunista comum, com a capacidade de desenvolver uma forte via de comunicação pelo sistema de detecção de quorum e diferentes fatores virulentos. Entre as várias secreções importantes de P. aeruginosa rhamnolipid, há um importante detergente biológico, que se acredita estar envolvido no desenvolvimento do biofilme e na comunicação intercelular. Dissolve rapidamente os surfactantes pulmonares que são facilmente catalisados pelas fosfolipases e, dessa maneira, estão envolvidos na infecção pulmonar aguda. Objetivo: O trabalho de pesquisa foi desenhado para investigar a virulência e o gene associado à virulência em P. aeruginosa responsável por infecções pulmonares. Métodos: No presente estudo, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) foi utilizada para a detecção do gene rhlR (codificação ramnolipídeo) de cepas isoladas. Foram realizados vários ensaios que garantiram seu comportamento virulento. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para verificar sua resistência a antibióticos. As estirpes isoladas foram resistentes a vários antibióticos aplicados. Resultado: Verificou-se que os homens são mais propensos a infecções respiratórias em comparação às mulheres. Membros do sexo masculino com idade entre 44 e 58 e 59 e 73 anos correm maior risco, enquanto mulheres com idade entre 44 e 58 anos também correm risco de infecções pulmonares. A resistência aos antibióticos foi observada medindo a zona de inibição nas cepas GCU-SG-M4, GCU-SG-M3, GCU-SG-M5, GCUSG-M2, GCU-SG-M1 e GCU-SG-M6. O GCU-SG-M2 foi resistente ao fluconazol (FLU), claritromicina (CLR), cefixima (CFM) e penicilina (P10). Nenhuma zona de inibição foi observada. Mas se notou uma zona difusa incomum ao redor dos discos antibióticos Ak e MEM. Os genes rhl R e 16s rRNA foram caracterizados e analisados. Conclusão: As conclusões do presente estudo ajudariam a aumentar a conscientização sobre a resistência a antibióticos de P. aeruginosa e, também, a sequência do gene rhl R pode ser usada como sequência de diagnóstico para identificar a sequência virulenta do gene rhl R das amostras quando isoladas do escarro de pacientes com pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Glycolipids , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
5.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210039, 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280024

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar os fatores de risco associados ao adoecimento por hanseníase em contatos de casos da doença. Métodos: Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática e metanálise com busca nas bases de dados: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Embase, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Scopus e Web of Science até setembro de 2019. A seleção, a análise e a avaliação da qualidade dos estudos foram realizadas por quatro revisores. Utilizou-se modelo de efeitos aleatórios para calcular o risco relativo agrupado (RR) e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) quando na presença de heterogeneidade superior a 50%. Resultados: A busca resultou em 2.148 referências e foram incluídos 24 estudos. Estes, em sua maioria, foram realizados no Brasil e na Índia, com delineamento coorte, e incluíram contatos domiciliares, peridomiciliares e sociais. Mostraram-se associados ao adoecimento por hanseníase em contatos: o analfabetismo (RR = 1,48; IC95% 1,22 - 1,79), a convivência intradomiciliar (RR = 2,41; IC95% 1,87 - 3,10) com caso de hanseníase apresentando alta carga bacilar (RR = 2,40; IC95% 1,69 - 3,41), a soropositividade ao antígeno PGL-1(glicolipídeo fenólico-1) do Mycobacterium leprae (RR = 3,54; IC95% 2,21 - 5,67), presença do bacilo na corrente sanguínea (RR = 10,61; IC95% 4,74 - 23,77) e reação de Mitsuda negativa (RR = 2,68; IC95% 1,76 - 4,07). A imunização com bacilo Calmette-Guérin (BCG) teve efeito protetor contra o adoecimento (RR = 0,52; IC95% 0,34 - 0,78). Conclusão: O adoecimento por hanseníase em contatos perpassa pela determinação social, pela susceptibilidade individual e por fragilidades no acesso às ações de controle da doença; contudo, fatores de risco modificáveis são os principais determinantes do adoecimento nessa população.


ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the risk factors associated with leprosy in contacts of patients. Method: We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis by searching the databases MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, LILACS, Scopus, and Web of Science until September 2019. Four reviewers carried out the selection, analysis, and evaluation of quality of studies. The random effects model was used to calculate the pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) when heterogeneity was greater than 50%. Results: The search resulted in 2,148 references and included 24 reports. Most of the studies had been conducted in Brazil and India, had a cohort design and included household, neighbors, and social contacts. The risk factors associated with illness due to leprosy in contacts were: illiteracy (RR = 1,48; 95%CI 1,22 - 1,79), living in the same house (RR = 2,41; 95%CI 1,87 - 3,10) of a case of leprosy with high bacillary load (RR = 2.40; 95%CI 1.69 - 3.41), seropositivity to the Mycobacterium leprae PGL-1 (phenolic glycolipid-1) antigen (RR = 3.54; 95%CI 2.21 - 5.67), presence of the bacillus in the bloodstream (RR = 10.61; 95%CI 4.74 - 23.77) and negative Mitsuda reaction (RR = 2,68; 95%CI 1,76 - 4,07). Immunization with BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine had a protective effect against leprosy. Conclusion: Leprosy in contacts of patients involves social determination, individual susceptibility, and difficulties in access to disease control actions, but modifiable risk factors are the main determinants of illness in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leprosy/epidemiology , Antigens, Bacterial , Brazil/epidemiology , Glycolipids , Mycobacterium leprae
6.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(5): 101634, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350321

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Leprosy can be considered a dissimulated disease, mainly when presented as atypical cases leading to mistaken diagnosis at the emergency setting. Herein we report six patients referred to the emergence room with hypotheses of acute myocardial infarction and arterial and venous thrombosis, although with chronic neurological symptoms; the seventh patient was referred with a wrong suspicion of infected skin ulcer. Positive findings included hypo-anesthetic skin lesions and thickened nerves; 100% were negative for IgM anti-phenolic glycolipid-I, while 71.4%, 100% and 42.8% were positive for IgA, IgM and IgG Mce1A. RLEP-PCR was positive in all patients. Ultrasound of peripheral nerves showed asymmetric and focal multiple mononeuropathy for all patients. Unfortunately, in many patients leprosy is often misdiagnosed as other medical conditions for long periods thus delaying initiation of specific treatment. This paper is intended to increase physicians' awareness to recognize leprosy cases presented as both classical and unusual forms, including in emergency department.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leprosy , Glycolipids , Emergency Service, Hospital , Mycobacterium leprae
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180568, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132273

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sophorolipids are glycolipids that have natural antimicrobial properties and present great potential in the pharmaceutical field. The present study aimed to produce sophorolipids from Candida bombicola using a chicken fat-based medium and evaluate the antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative (Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica) and Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans). The production of sophorolipids reached 27.86 g L-1. Based on the structural characterization, 73.55% of the sophorolipids present a mixture of acidic monoacetylated C18:2 and lactonic diacetylated C16:0, and 26.45% were present in the diacetylated C18:1 lactonic form. Bacteria submitted to sophorolipid exposure showed a reduction in viability at doses of 500 μg mL-1 and 2,000 μg mL-1 against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. These results suggest that sophorolipids produced in chicken fat medium may be used as antimicrobial agents to prevent or eliminate contamination by different pathogens.


Subject(s)
Candida/metabolism , Glycolipids/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Proteus mirabilis/drug effects , Glycolipids/isolation & purification , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1021-1028, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771826

ABSTRACT

Adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein activated protein kinase (AMPK), a heterotrimeric complex, is an important kinase to regulate glycolipid metabolism and energy balance involved in a variety physiological processes in human body. Many research indicated that the function and activity of AMPK were closely related to inflammation, diabetes and cancers. Recent reports show that inhibition of metformin (a first-line drug) on hepatic glucose in patients with hyperglycemia is associated with AMPK pathway, suggesting that targeting AMPK may be one of the effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of a variety of chronic diseases. Here, we review research progress on the structure, activation and regulation of AMPK in glycolipid metabolism to provide an insight into the basic and clinical research of diabetes therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Adenosine , Adenosine Monophosphate , Energy Metabolism , Enzyme Activation , Glycolipids
9.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 113-120, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728017

ABSTRACT

Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipids and have several pharmacological efficacies. MELs also show skin-moisturizing efficacy through a yet-unknown underlying mechanism. Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is a membrane protein that contributes to the water homeostasis of the epidermis, and decreased AQP3 expression following ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation of the skin is associated with reduced skin moisture. No previous study has examined whether the skin-moisturizing effect of MELs might act through the modulation of AQP3 expression. Here, we report for the first time that MELs ameliorate the UVA-induced downregulation of AQP3 in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT keratinocytes). Our results revealed that UVA irradiation decreases AQP3 expression at the protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, but that MEL treatment significantly ameliorated these effects. Our mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor analysis revealed that phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase or p38, mediates UVA-induced AQP3 downregulation, and that MEL treatment significantly suppressed the UVA-induced phosphorylation of JNK. To explore a possible mechanism, we tested whether MELs could regulate the expression of peroxidase proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), which acts as a potent transcription factor for AQP3 expression. Interestingly, UVA irradiation significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of PPAR-γ in HaCaT keratinocytes, whereas a JNK inhibitor and MELs significantly rescued this effect. Taken together, these findings suggest that MELs ameliorate UVA-induced AQP3 downregulation in HaCaT keratinocytes by suppressing JNK activation to block the decrease of PPAR-γ. Collectively, our findings suggest that MELs can be used as a potential ingredient that modulates AQP3 expression to improve skin moisturization following UVA irradiation-induced damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Down-Regulation , Epidermis , Glycolipids , Homeostasis , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Keratinocytes , Membrane Proteins , Peroxidase , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , PPAR gamma , Protein Kinases , RNA, Messenger , Skin , Transcription Factors , Water
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3834-3840, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775409

ABSTRACT

The bitter taste is one of the important properties among five flavors of Chinese materia medica (CMM), characterized by downbearing and discharging, drying dampness, and consolidating Yin. In common CMM, bitter-taste CMM accounts for a large proportion, indicating the importance of it. Through the efficacy of clearing away heat and dampness, reducing fire and removing toxin, bitter-taste CMM has achieved good results in treating diabetes in clinical application, proving their definite therapeutic effect on regulating glucose and lipid metabolism (main features of diabetes). At present, there are many reports about the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of CMM on diabetes, but there are few reviews on the chemistry and biology of bitter-taste CMM. This study summarized the properties and compatibility characteristics of bitter-taste CMM for treating diabetes, and mainly analyzed the chemistry and biology basis of bitter-taste CMM with function of regulating glycolipid metabolism, laying foundation for further researches on properties theory of CMM.


Subject(s)
Glycolipids , Metabolism , Materia Medica , Chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Research , Taste
11.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 76(6): 316-318, nov.-dez. 2017. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899100

ABSTRACT

Resumo Relata-se um caso de uma paciente com doença de Guacher tipo III, com mutação no Exon9, 1246G>A e 1251G>C, buscando investigar a suspeita de glaucoma, descrever os achados oftalmológicos, como acumulo de glicolipideo em região pré- retiniana e investigar a possível correlação com a diminuição da camada de fibras nervosas.


Abstract We report a case of a patient with Guacher's disease type III, with mutation in Exon9, 1246G> A and 1251G> C, seeking to investigate the suspected glaucoma, to describe the ophthalmological findings, as glycolipid accumulation in the pre-retinal region and to investigate The possible correlation with the decrease of the layer of nerve fibers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Eye Diseases/etiology , Gaucher Disease/complications , Optic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Glycolipids/metabolism , Visual Acuity , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Eye Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Gaucher Disease/genetics , Nerve Fibers
12.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(5): 557-561, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039204

ABSTRACT

Abstract Considering that the main route of Mycobacterium leprae transmission is the upper respiratory tract, detection of salivary antibodies can be a useful tool for diagnosing early infection. The study aimed to analyze salivary anti-PGL-1 IgA and IgM antibodies in 169 children aged 4-16 years old, who lived nearby or inside the house of multibacillary or paucibacillary leprosy patients in two endemic cities in Alagoas State - Brazil. Salivary anti-PGL-1 antibodies were quantified by modified ELISA method. The frequency of contact and clinical form of the index case were significantly associated with salivary antibody levels. High frequency of IgM positivity strongly suggests active transmission of M. leprae in these communities. We suggest in the present work that salivary anti-PGL IgA and IgM are important biomarkers to be used for identifying communities with probable active transmission of M. leprae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Glycolipids/analysis , Family , Contact Tracing , Leprosy, Multibacillary/diagnosis , Antibodies, Bacterial/administration & dosage , Antigens, Bacterial/analysis , Saliva/immunology , Saliva/chemistry , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Glycolipids/immunology , Leprosy, Paucibacillary/diagnosis , Mycobacterium leprae/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(9): 609-616, Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND There is a lack of straightforward tests for field application and known biomarkers for predicting leprosy progression in infected individuals. OBJECTIVE The aim was to analyse the response to infection by Mycobacterium leprae based on the reactivity of specific antigens: natural disaccharide linked to human serum albumin via an octyl (NDOHSA), a semisynthetic phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I); Leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute Diagnostic-1 (LID-1) and natural disaccharide octyl - Leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute Diagnostic-1 (NDOLID). METHODS The study population consisted of 130 leprosy cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 and 277 household contacts. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyse the reactivity of antibodies against NDOHSA, LID-1 and NDOLID. The samples and controls were tested in duplicate, and the antibody titer was expressed as an ELISA index. Data collection was made by home visits with application of questionnaire and dermatological evaluation of all household contacts to identify signs and symptoms of leprosy. FINDINGS Significant differences in the median ELISA results were observed among leprosy cases in treatment, leprosy cases that had completed treatment and household contacts. Higher proportions of seropositivity were observed in leprosy cases in treatment. Seropositivity was also higher in multibacillary in relation to paucibacillary, with the difference reaching statistical significance. Lower titers were observed among cases with a longer treatment time or discharge. For household contacts, the differences according to the clinical characteristics of the leprosy index case were less pronounced than expected. Other factors, such as the endemicity of leprosy, exposure outside the residence and genetic characteristics, appeared to have a greater influence on the seropositivity. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Serologic tests could be used as auxiliary tools for determining the operational classification, in addition to identifying infected individuals and as a strategy for surveillance of household contacts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Disease Progression , Leprosy/diagnosis , Leprosy/blood , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Mycobacterium leprae/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Glycolipids/blood , Family Characteristics
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(2): 158-164, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782101

ABSTRACT

Abstract: An integrative literature review was conducted to synthesize available publications regarding the potential use of serological tests in leprosy programs. We searched the databases Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Índice Bibliográfico Espanhol em Ciências da Saúde, Acervo da Biblioteca da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Hanseníase, National Library of Medicine, Scopus, Ovid, Cinahl, and Web of Science for articles investigating the use of serological tests for antibodies against phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I), ML0405, ML2331, leprosy IDRI diagnostic-1 (LID-1), and natural disaccharide octyl-leprosy IDRI diagnostic-1 (NDO-LID). From an initial pool of 3.514 articles, 40 full-length articles fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Based on these papers, we concluded that these antibodies can be used to assist in diagnosing leprosy, detecting neuritis, monitoring therapeutic efficacy, and monitoring household contacts or at-risk populations in leprosy-endemic areas. Thus, available data suggest that serological tests could contribute substantially to leprosy management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Serologic Tests/methods , Glycolipids/blood , Leprosy/diagnosis , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Mycobacterium leprae/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/blood
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(1): 83-89, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776532

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is mainly transmitted among family members who share genetic and ambient factors. The clinical form of leprosy in the index case and kinship could be risk factors for leprosy transmission. High antibody levels in household contacts (HC) in the absence of neural or skin lesions may characterize latent infection. This study aimed to evaluate the association between seropositivity for anti-phenolic glycolipid-I immunoglobulin M antibodies (APGL-I) in HC and the clinical classification of the index case and to analyze the association between APGL-I positivity with other factors such as age, kinship, and gender. METHODS: We performed a survey among 320 HC of 120 leprosy patients who were evaluated and followed-up in a leprosy outpatient clinic of a university hospital. All HC underwent complete skin examination, peripheral nerve palpation, skin sensory tests, and serologic tests for the detection and quantification of APGL-I. RESULTS: The overall seropositivity rate was 20%, and was greatly affected by kinship. APGL-I seropositivity was higher in siblings (41%), followed by parents (28%), spouses (26%), other (19%), and offspring (14%). Independent risk factors for seropositivity were being siblings (OR 3.3) and being a HC of an index case with indeterminate leprosy (OR 5.3). APGL-I seropositivity was associated with index cases with a bacillary index of 4 (88%; p<.001). Seropositivity among HC was not significantly associated with their gender and age. There was no statistical difference in the seropositivity rates of HC of index patients with paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy. CONCLUSIONS: Strict evaluation and follow-up of HC with positive results for APGL-I is recommended. Special attention should be paid during the screening of siblings of the index cases, HC of patients with a high bacillary index, and HC of patients with indeterminate leprosy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Glycolipids/blood , Leprosy/diagnosis , Leprosy/transmission , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Antigens, Bacterial/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Family Characteristics , Risk Factors , Contact Tracing , Middle Aged
16.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 450-454, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262329

ABSTRACT

Spermatogenesis is a complex developmental process in which a diploid progenitor germ cell transforms into highly specialized spermatozoa. During spermatogenesis, membrane remodeling takes place, and cell membrane permeability and liquidity undergo phase-specific changes, which are all associated with the alteration of membrane lipids. Lipids are important components of the germ cell membrane, whose volume and ratio fluctuate in different phases of spermatogenesis. Abnormal lipid metabolism can cause spermatogenic dysfunction and consequently male infertility. Germ cell membrane lipids are mainly composed of cholesterol, phospholipids and glycolipids, which play critical roles in cell adhesion and signal transduction during spermatogenesis. An insight into the correlation of membrane lipids with spermatogenesis helps us to better understand the mechanisms of spermatogenesis and provide new approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cell Adhesion , Cell Membrane , Chemistry , Cholesterol , Chemistry , Glycolipids , Chemistry , Infertility, Male , Membrane Lipids , Chemistry , Phospholipids , Chemistry , Signal Transduction , Spermatogenesis , Spermatozoa , Cell Biology
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(6): 739-745, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767834

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Despite multidrug therapy, leprosy remains a public health issue. The intradermal Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, Mitsuda test (lepromin skin test), and anti-phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) serology are widely used in leprosy studies and have shown great epidemiological value. METHODS: This longitudinal study evaluated the relative risks and benefits of these three tools by comparing results observed in household contacts (HHCs) of leprosy patients who developed leprosy with those of HHCs who did not in a population of 2,992 individuals monitored during a 10-year period. RESULTS : Seventy-five (2.5%) new leprosy cases were diagnosed, including 28 (0.9%) co-prevalent cases. Therefore, for the risk-benefit assessment, 47 (1.6%) HHCs were considered as truly diagnosed during follow-up. The comparison between healthy and affected contacts demonstrated that not only did BCG vaccination increase protection, but boosters also increased to 95% relative risk (RR) reduction when results for having two or more scars were compared with having no scars [RR, 0.0459; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.006-0.338]. Similarly, Mitsuda reactions >7mm in induration presented 7-fold greater protection against disease development compared to reactions of 0-3mm (RR, 0.1446; 95% CI, 0.0566-0.3696). In contrast, anti-PGL-I ELISA seropositivity indicated a 5-fold RR increase for disease outcome (RR, 5.688; 95% CI, 3.2412-9.9824). The combined effect of no BCG scars, Mitsuda reaction of <7mm, and seropositivity to anti-PGL-I increased the risk for leprosy onset 8-fold (RR, 8.109; 95% CI, 5.1167-12.8511). CONCLUSIONS: The adoption of these combined assays may impose measures for leprosy control strategies.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , BCG Vaccine/immunology , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Glycolipids/immunology , Leprosy/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Longitudinal Studies , Lepromin/immunology , Leprosy/prevention & control , Leprosy/transmission , Risk Assessment
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(7): 914-920, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764594

ABSTRACT

Leprosy inflammatory episodes [type 1 (T1R) and type 2 (T2R) reactions] represent the major cause of irreversible nerve damage. Leprosy serology is known to be influenced by the patient’s bacterial index (BI) with higher positivity in multibacillary patients (MB) and specific multidrug therapy (MDT) reduces antibody production. This study evaluated by ELISA antibody responses to leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute diagnostic-1 (LID-1) fusion protein and phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) in 100 paired serum samples of 50 MB patients collected in the presence/absence of reactions and in nonreactional patients before/after MDT. Patients who presented T2R had a median BI of 3+, while MB patients with T1R and nonreactional patients had median BI of 2.5+ (p > 0.05). Anti-LID-1 and anti-PGL-I antibodies declined in patients diagnosed during T1R (p < 0.05). Anti-LID-1 levels waned in MB with T2R at diagnosis and nonreactional MB patients (p < 0.05). Higher anti-LID-1 levels were seen in patients with T2R at diagnosis (vs. patients with T1R at diagnosis, p = 0.008; vs. nonreactional patients, p = 0.020) and in patients with T2R during MDT (vs. nonreactional MB, p = 0.020). In MB patients, high and persistent anti-LID-1 antibody levels might be a useful tool for clinicians to predict which patients are more susceptible to develop leprosy T2R.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Glycolipids/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Leprosy, Multibacillary/diagnosis , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology , Disease Susceptibility , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Mycobacterium leprae/immunology
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 855-859, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755807

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956). The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production.

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Subject(s)
Cultured Milk Products/microbiology , Fish Products/microbiology , Glycolipids/metabolism , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants , Turkey , Ultraviolet Rays
20.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(3): 265-271, May-Jun/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-752429

ABSTRACT

Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common salivary gland tumor and its microscopic features and histogenesis are a matter of debate. Human milk fat globule protein membrane (HMFG) monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) comprise a set of antibodies against the mucin 1 (MUC-1) protein detected in several salivary gland tumors. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the immunoexpression of the PA neoplastic cells to MUC-1 protein using HMFG-1 and HMFG-2 MoAbs, contrasting these results with those from normal salivary gland tissue. Material and Methods Immunohistochemical detection of MUC-1 protein using HMFG-1 and HMFG-2 MoAbs was made in 5 mm thick, paraffin embedded slides, and the avidin-biotin method was used. Results Positivity to HMFG-1 and HMFG-2 MoAbs was found in ductal, squamous metaplastic and neoplastic myoepithelial cells, keratin pearls and intraductal mucous material. Two kinds of myoepithelial cells were identified: classic myoepithelial cells around ducts were negative to both MoAbs, and modified myoepithelial cells were positive to both MoAbs. This last cellular group of the analyzed tumors showed similar MUC-1 immunoexpression to ductal epithelial cells using both HMFG antibodies. Intraductal mucous secretion was also HMFG-1 and HMFG-2 positive. Conclusions Our results showed there are two kinds of myoepithelial cells in PA. The first cellular group is represented by the different kinds of neoplastic myoepithelial cells and is HMFG-positive. The second one is HMFG-negative and represented by the neoplastic myoepithelial cells located around the ducts. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenoma, Pleomorphic/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Glycolipids , Glycoproteins , Membrane Proteins , Mucin-1/analysis , Salivary Gland Neoplasms/chemistry , Adenoma, Pleomorphic/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Immunohistochemistry , Paraffin Embedding , Reference Values , Salivary Gland Neoplasms/pathology , Salivary Glands/chemistry , Salivary Glands , Staining and Labeling/methods
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