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1.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353031

ABSTRACT

.Introdução: O hipertireoidismo decorre da elevação sérica dos hormônios tireoidianos, secundária à hiperfunção da glândula tireoide, sendo as principais causas a Doença de Graves (DG) e os Bócios Nodulares Tóxicos (BNT). Objetivos: Avaliar o perfil clínico e modalidades terapêuticas aplicadas em pacientes com diagnóstico de hipertireoidismo acompanhados em um Hospital Universitário no Sul do Brasil. Métodos: Estudo observacional, transversal e descritivo, com inclusão de pacientes com diagnóstico de hipertireoidismo por DG e BNT; foram coletados dados epidemiológicos, clínicos, laboratoriais e de tratamento. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes foi referenciada pela atenção primária e encontrava-se em uso prévio de droga antitireoidiana (DAT). A variável idade obteve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as etiologias de DG e BNT; em ambas houve predomínio de incidência no sexo feminino. A DG apresentou maior frequência de sinais e sintomas de tireotoxicose, ao passo que o BNT mostrou mais sinais e sintomas de compressão. Houve remissão da doença em 23,2% dos pacientes com DG tratados com DAT; em 23,2% dos pacientes optou-se pela manutenção de metimazol em baixa dose por mais de 36 meses e em 16,1% foi realizado tratamento definitivo. No BNT foram preferidas terapias definitivas, principalmente a tireoidectomia, em 27,5% dos pacientes. Doses baixas de metimazol por mais de 36 meses foram utilizados também no BNT, em 22,5% dos pacientes. Conclusão: O hipertireoidismo é uma doença heterogênea, desde a clínica inicial até a terapêutica, entre suas etiologias mais prevalentes. Observou-se uma tendência de priorizar as terapias medicamentosas em longo prazo com baixas doses, tanto na DG quanto no BNT. (AU)


Perfil clínico e terapêutico dos pacientes com hipertireoidismo do ambulatório de endocrinologia de um hospital universitário do sul do BrasilClinical and therapeutic profile of patients with hyperthyroidism in an outpatient endocrine clinic at a university hospital in southern Brazil ARTIGO ORIGINALRafael Antonio Parabocz1, Renata Soares Carvalho1, Gianna Carla Alberti Schrut1, Ana Claudia Garabeli Cavalli Kluthcovsky1, Matheo Augusto Morandi Stumpf1Introduction: Hyperthyroidism results from the serum elevation of thyroid hormones, secondary to hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. The main causes are Graves' disease (DG) and Toxic Nodular Goiters (BNT). Objectives: Evaluate the clinical profile and therapeutic modalities applied in patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism followed up at a University Hospital in Southern Brazil. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study, including patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism by DG and BNT; epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and treatment data were collected. Results: Most patients were referred by primary care and had been using antithyroid drugs (DAT). The age variable obtained showed a statistically significant difference between the etiologies of DG and BNT; in both, there was a predominance of incidence in females. DG showed a higher frequency of signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, while BNT showed more signs and symptoms of compression. There was remission of the disease in 23.2% of patients with DG treated with DAT; in 23.2% of the patients, low-dose methimazole was maintained for more than 36 months and in 16.1%, definitive treatment was performed. In BNT, definitive therapies were preferred, mainly thyroidectomy, in 27.5% of patients. Low doses of methimazole for more than 36 months were also used in BNT in 22.5% of patients. Conclusion: Hyperthyroidism is a heterogeneous disease, from initial clinic to therapy, among its most prevalent etiologies. There was a tendency to prioritize long-term drug therapies with low doses, both in DG and BNT. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotoxicosis , Graves Disease , Morbidity , Goiter, Nodular , Hospitals, University , Hyperthyroidism
2.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(2): 127-132, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280102

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Conheça as características demográficas e clínicas da Órbita Associada da Tiroide (OAT), bem como a taxa de exigência da cirurgia orbital em pacientes do Centro Médico Nacional do Oeste. Métodos. Estudo observacional, transversal, descritivo e retrospetivo realizado analisando os registos de pacientes diagnosticados com OAT tratados num centro de cuidados de terceiro nível de janeiro de 2005 a julho de 2016. Os resultados. Um total de 236 órbitas de 118 pacientes foram avaliados, com uma idade média de 47,3 (13,2 anos, 74,6% eram do sexo feminino e 25,4% masculinos. 4,2% dos doentes foram tratados com hipotiroidismo, 94,1% com hipertireoidismo e 1,7% com goiter tóxico difuso. 44,9% dos doentes estudados com restrição de movimento ocular,10,2% com queratopatia de exposição e 51,7% com hipertensão intraocular. 34,7% dos doentes avaliados no serviço necessitaram de descompressão orbital, 16,1% de cirurgia palpebral e 8,5% de correção do hatrabisma. Na gestão conservadora destes doentes, 48,3% exigiam o uso de lubrificantes tópicos dos olhos, enquanto 52,5% dos pacientes necessitavam do uso de hipotensivos oculares em número variável. As conclusões. A OAT foi associada principalmente ao hipertiroidismo, sendo mais comum em pacientes do sexo feminino entre os 40 e os 59 anos; mais de 50% dos pacientes necessitaram do uso de hipotensivos oculares. Da mesma forma, a gestão cirúrgica foi realizada em mais de 50% dos pacientes, sendo a descompressão orbital a intervenção mais frequente.


ABSTRACT Objective. To know the demographic and clinical characteristics of Thyroid Associated Orbitopathy (TAO), as well as the requirement rate of orbital surgery in patients of the Orbit Service in the National Medical Center of the West, IMSS. Methods. Observational, cross-cutting, descriptive and retrospective study carried out analyzing the records of patients diagnosed with TAO and treated at a third-level care center from January 2005 to July 2016. Results. A total of 236 orbits of 118 patients were valued, with an average age of 47.3 ± 13.2 years, 74.6% were female and 25.4% male. 4.2% of patients were treated with hypothyroidism, 94.1% with hyperthyroidism and 1.7% with diffuse toxic goiter. 44.9% of patients studied had eye movement restriction,10.2% exposure keratopathy and 51.7% intraocular hypertension. 34.7% of patients valued in the service required orbital decompression, 16.1% palpebral surgery and 8.5% strabism correction. In the conservative management of these patients 48.3% required the use of topical eye lubricants, while 52.5% required the use of eye hypotensives in variable numbers. Conclusions. TAO was mainly associated with hyperthyroidism, being more common in female patients between the age of 40 and 59; more than 50% of patients required the use of eye hypotensives. Likewise, surgical management was performed in more than 50% of patients, with orbital decompression being the most frequent intervention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Orbital Diseases/surgery , Orbital Diseases/etiology , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Exophthalmos/surgery , Exophthalmos/etiology , Orbit/surgery , Exophthalmos/diagnosis , Graves Disease/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Decompression, Surgical/methods , Intraocular Pressure
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): S1-S7, feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147352

ABSTRACT

El hipertiroidismo es el cuadro clínico resultante del exceso de hormonas tiroideas debido a hiperfunción glandular. Es una enfermedad rara en niños y adolescentes, pero con una alta morbilidad. La causa más frecuente es la enfermedad de Graves. El objetivo de esta publicación es realizar una revisión y actualización del hipertiroidismo infantojuvenil para guiar su detección y derivación temprana al endocrinólogo pediatra. Debe ser considerado cuando el niño o adolescente presente síntomas asociados a esta patología y bocio de grado variable. Se confirma con el perfil bioquímico característico.El tratamiento consiste, inicialmente, en bloquear los efectos del exceso de hormonas tiroideas con betabloqueantes y, además, disminuir su producción con drogas antitiroideas como primera elección. Ante efectos secundarios a su administración, recidivas o ausencia de remisión de la enfermedad, se optará por el tratamiento definitivo: yodo radioactivo o cirugía con el objetivo de lograr el hipotiroidismo o eutiroidismo


Hyperthyroidism is a serious and rare disorder in childhood characterized by the overproduction of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. Graves disease is the most common cause. The objective of this paper is to review and update hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents aiming to guide its early detection and referral to the pediatric endocrinologist. The disease should be suspected if typical symptoms and goiter are present and has to be confirmed with the characteristic biochemical profile. Initially, treatment to block the effect of the thyroid excess is needed. Antithyroid drugs are the recommended first-line treatment to diminish hormone production. Alternative treatments, such us radioactive iodine or thyroidectomy, are considered in cases of adverse effects to drugs, relapse or non-remission of the disease, in order to achieve hypothyroidism or euthyroidism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/drug therapy , Antithyroid Agents/therapeutic use , Graves Disease , Hyperthyroidism/etiology , Hyperthyroidism/therapy , Iodine/therapeutic use
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880621

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#A variety of causes can lead to cholestasis, however, cholestasis caused by Graves' disease is usually overlooked clinically. Here we analyze the clinical characteristics of Graves' disease associated cholestasis so as to have a better understanding for the disease.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively collected 13 inpatients' data who suffered from the Graves' disease associated cholestasis in the Department of Infectious Disease of Xiangya Hospital from January 2000 to December 2018. The characteristics of the patients' age, gender, liver function, thyroid function, coagulation function, the special cardiac examination, treatment, and follow-up data were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Thirteen patients, including 10 males and 3 females with the age range from 33 to 55 (median 43) years old presented cholestasis, pruritus, and hypermetabolic symptoms. The levels of total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), glutamic-pyruvic transferase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transferase, alkaline phosphosphatase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase were 170.4-976.7 (median 388.8) µmol/L, 93.2-418.1 (median 199.2) µmol/L, 25.1-182.1 (median 106.4) U/L, 38.2-265.7 (median 59.7) U/L, 105.3-332.0 (median 184.5) U/L, and 20.7-345.1 (median 47.6) U/L, respectively. The levels of free triiodothyronine (FT@*CONCLUSIONS@#Graves' disease can cause cholestasis, with the low incidence. The symptoms of cholestasis can be improved or even eradicated with the cure of the Graves' disease. The cholestasis may be idiopathic. For patients with cholestasis and hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease should be considered for differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cholestasis/etiology , Female , Graves Disease/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine
5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(4): 469-472, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130922

ABSTRACT

Abstract Localized pretibial myxedema is a dermopathy whose treatment is a challenge in dermatology, occurring in 0.5-4% of patients with Graves' disease. This autoimmune thyroid condition stimulates the production of hyaluronic acid and glycosaminoglycans that are deposited particularly in the pretibial region. Clinically, it presents as a localized, circumscribed, and non-depressible infiltrate in plaques. Several treatment modalities have been proposed, and their results vary, with worse response observed in severe cases. This report presents the case of a patient with elephantiasic pretibial myxedema who was subjected to intralesional corticosteroid applications, resulting in an excellent and encouraging therapeutic response that was maintained.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Graves Disease , Leg Dermatoses , Myxedema , Triamcinolone , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Middle Aged
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 336-339, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130869

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis is a rare skin disorder characterized by the presence of umbilicated pruritic papules and nodules. Transepidermal elimination of altered and perforating bundles of basophilic collagen from the epidermis is a characteristic histologic feature of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis. Along with its well-known association with systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and dermatomyositis, there are reports of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis being associated with malignancies. Herein, we present a case of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, prostate adenocarcinoma, and Graves's disease. Clinicians are required to be more vigilant in evaluating patients with acquired reactive perforating collagenosis due to its unique association with malignancies and other systemic diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Skin Diseases/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Graves Disease/complications , Collagen Diseases/complications , Skin Diseases/pathology , Collagen , Collagen Diseases/pathology
7.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(5): 697-701, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139355

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Hyperthyroidism can induce elevation in several liver function tests including aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatases and, less frequently, serum bilirubin. These alterations are usually mild and asymptomatic. We report a 26 year-old male presenting with palpitations, progressive jaundice, choluria and generalized itching. Laboratory tests were compatible with hyperthyroidism and a mild elevation of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatases and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. A liver biopsy showed portal hepatitis with canalicular cholestasis. The patient was treated temporarily with glucocorticoids, cholestyramine and betablockade. Thereafter, he was treated with radioactive iodine, after which serum bilirubin decreased steadily until normalization in ten weeks.


El hipertiroidismo puede producir elevación de aminotransferasas, fosfatasas alcalinas y, menos frecuentemente, de bilirrubina sérica. Habitualmente, estas alteraciones son leves y asintomáticas. Reportamos un hombre de 26 años con hipertiroidismo secundario a enfermedad de Basedow-Graves, que debutó con un cuadro colestásico, inicialmente estudiado por sospecha de patología hepática autoinmune que incluyó biopsia hepática. Posteriormente, se diagnosticó hipertiroidismo que fue tratado con glucocorticoides, colestiramina y beta bloqueo como puente a terapia definitiva con radioyodo. La evolución mostró disminución progresiva hasta la normalización de bilirrubina sérica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Graves Disease/complications , Cholestasis/diagnosis , Cholestasis/etiology , Hyperthyroidism/complications
8.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(1): 39-47, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099200

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En el tratamiento del hipertiroidismo se recurre a la cirugía en casos de bocio grande, fracaso del tratamiento médico o indicación social de tratamiento definitivo. OBJETIVO: Analizar los resultados en cuanto a función tiroidea del tratamiento del hipertiroidismo mediante tiroidectomía total (TT). MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo de 26 pacientes con hipertiroidismo, intervenidos en el Hospital de la Plana durante 2015-2018, con seguimiento de 36 meses. Tras estudio estadístico descriptivo e inferencial, se analizó la probabilidad de recidiva del hipertiroidismo mediante el método de Kaplan-Meier, y se utilizó el modelo de Cox para ajustar los efectos sobre la recidiva de las diferentes variables. RESULTADOS: El 73,1% tenían normofunción tiroidea; el 19,2%, hiperfunción, y en otro 7,7% existía hipofunción. El tiempo medio de supervivencia (normofunción) fue de 25,87 meses (IC: 17,52-34,21). En el estudio de supervivencia con el log-rank en función de la variable anatomía patológica y complicaciones, no hay diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la supervivencia de ambos grupos. DISCUSIÓN: Coincide con otros trabajos publicados. CONCLUSIÓN: La TT es un método efectivo de tratamiento para el hipertiroidismo, con baja incidencia de complicaciones. Sin embargo, no hemos encontrado ninguna variable que nos permita predecir el resultado.


INTRODUCTION: Surgery is used in the management of hyperthyroidism in cases of large goiter, failure of medical treatment or social indication of definitive treatment. AIM: To analyze the results of the treatment of hyperthyroidism by total thyroidectomy (TT) regarding to thyroid function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 26 patients with hyperthyroidism, operated on the Hospital de la Plana during 2015-2018, with a follow-up of 36 months. After a descriptive and inferential statistical study, the probability of recurrence of hyperthyroidism was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Cox model was used to adjust the effects on recurrence of the different variables. RESULTS: 73.1% had thyroid normofunction; in 19.2% there was hyperfunction, and in another 7.7% there was hypofunction. The average survival time (normofunction) was 25,87 months (CI: 17,52-34,21). In the study of survival with the log-rank depending on the pathological results and complications, there are no statistically significant differences in the survival of both groups. DISCUSSION: This coincides with other published works. CONCLUSION: TT is an effective method of treatment for hyperthyroidism, with a low incidence of complications. However, we have not found any variable that allows us to predict the result.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thyroidectomy/methods , Hyperthyroidism/surgery , Survival Analysis , Graves Disease , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hyperthyroidism/physiopathology
9.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(4): 166-169, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123623

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En Chile en las últimas décadas ha aumentado la población de personas mayores de 65 años. La tirotoxicosis en este grupo está asociada a complicaciones como fibrilación auricular (FA), insuficiencia cardiaca (ICC), osteoporosis y aumento de la mortalidad. En algunos casos puede presentarse con síntomas no específicos, cuadro conocido como hipertiroidismo apático. Objetivos: Evaluar las características clínicas de la tirotoxicosis en personas mayores. Método: Serie de casos retrospectiva. Se analizaron fichas clínicas de pacientes mayores de 65 años con el diagnóstico de tirotoxicosis controlados en nuestro centro entre enero de 2012 y mayo de 2018. Resultados: En el periodo estudiado 54 pacientes fueron diagnosticados de tirotoxicosis. Se excluyen 4 por datos incompletos. El 80% corresponden a mujeres. La mediana de edad fue 71 años (rango 65-94), sin diferencias por género (p=0,61). La etiología más frecuente fue enfermedad de Graves (EG) en 64%, seguido por bocio multinodular hiperfuncionante en 20%, adenoma tóxico en 10% y asociada a fármacos en 6%. De los pacientes con EG, 28% presentó orbitopatía distiroidea (OD) clínicamente evidente. Un 30% se diagnosticó en contexto de baja de peso, deterioro cognitivo o patología cardiovascular, sin presentar síntomas clásicos de hipertiroidismo. Un 16% presentó FA, 14% ICC y 6% fractura osteoporótica. El 28% fue diagnosticado durante una hospitalización o requirió ser hospitalizado durante los meses siguientes. Los mayores de 75 años presentan una mayor probabilidad de hipertiroidismo apático (OR 5,1, IC95% 1,15-22,7 p=0,01). Además, las complicaciones aumentan en mayores de 75 años, encontrándose en este grupo todos los casos de FA. Conclusiones: La etiología más común de tirotoxicosis fue la EG, a diferencia de lo reportado en otras poblaciones. Un número importante de pacientes debutó sin síntomas clásicos de hipertiroidismo, principalmente mayores de 75 años, por lo que se debe tener una alta sospecha en este grupo etario.


Introduction: Hyperthyroidism in the elderly can produce severe complications such as atrial fibrillation (AF), heart failure (CHF) and osteoporosis. In the elderly, thyrotoxicosis may have only nonspecific symptoms, known as apathetic hyperthyroidism. Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of thyrotoxicosis in the elderly. Methods: Retrospective case series. We reviewed clinical records of patients with thyrotoxicosis older than 65 years, between January 2012 and March 2019. Results: During this period, 54 patients were diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis. Four patients were excluded due to incomplete data. 80% were women. The average age was 73 years (range 65-94), without age difference between gender (p=0,61). The most frequent etiology was Graves' disease in 64%. Hyperfunctioning multinodular goiter was confirmed in 20%, toxic adenoma in 10% and drug-associated in 6%. Twenty eight percent of Graves' disease patients had dysthyroid orbitopathy. Thirty percent presented as apathetic hyperthyroidism. Sixteen percent of the patients presented AF, 14% CHF, and 6% osteoporotic fracture. Twenty-eight percent were diagnosed during hospitalization or required hospitalization in the following months. Those older than 75 years had a greater probability of presenting apathetic hyperthyroidism (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.15- 22.7 p=0.01). Complications increase in this age group, with all cases of AF. Conclusions: The most common etiology of thyrotoxicosis in this group was GD. This differs from other populations. A significant number of patients presented without classic symptoms of hyperthyroidism, especially in people older than 75 years. Special attention should be paid to atypical symptoms of hyperthyroidism in this group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Thyrotoxicosis/epidemiology , Thyrotoxicosis/complications , Thyrotoxicosis/diagnosis , Thyrotoxicosis/etiology , Adenoma , Graves Disease , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Age Distribution , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Hyperthyroidism/epidemiology
10.
Biol. Res ; 53: 32, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Circulating RNA (circRNA) regulates various bioactivities in cells. A better understanding of the exosomal circRNA can provide novel insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of Graves' disease (GD). We aimed to profile the differentially expressed circRNAs (DEcRs) in plasma exosomes of patients with GD and speculate and probe the functions of the DEcR by comprehensive bioinformatics analyses. METHODS: Serum exosomes were isolated from five primary GD patients and five healthy controls via ultracentrifugation. After verification with transmission electron microscopy, exosome samples were subjected to microarray profiling using human circRNA microarrays. Two up-regulated and two down-regulated DEcRs were selected for validation in plasma exosomes from 20 GD and 20 healthy control participants using reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The circRNA/microRNA/mRNA interaction network was then assembled and the analysis of the Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways was utilized to predict the potential functions of the DEcR associated genes. RESULTS: There were 15 DEcRs revealed in primary GD cases. The intronic circRNA hsa_circRNA_000102 was confirmed as an up-regulated component in plasma exosomes from patients with GD. The circRNA/microRNA/mRNA interaction network unveiled the most potential targeting microRNAs of hsa_circRNA_000102 and its associated genes. The functional analyses predicted involvement of hsa_circRNA_000102 associated genes in pathways of immune system activation, such as viral infection and interferon-beta signaling. CONCLUSIONS: hsa_circRNA_000102 is a differentially up-regulated plasma exosomal circRNA in patients with GD. Our study highlights multiple pathways, particularly virus infection and interferon-beta signaling, for mediating immune activation in Graves' disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Graves Disease/genetics , Graves Disease/blood , Microarray Analysis , RNA, Circular/blood , RNA, Messenger , MicroRNAs , Exosomes
11.
Clinics ; 75: e2140, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a frequent comorbid condition associated with distinct unrelated diseases. While the incidence of RLS has not been definitively confirmed, RLS-like symptoms have been reported in a section of Asian population who also had hyperthyroidism. The prevalence of RLS is generally low in Asian populations. Under these circumstances, we hypothesized that in a population where RLS is common, such as in Brazil, RLS could manifest as a comorbid ailment alongside Graves' disease, a common hyperthyroid condition. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey, 108 patients who presented with Graves' disease were analyzed for restless legs or associated symptoms. RESULTS: Twelve patients (11.1%) displayed symptoms of RLS prior to the incidence of Graves' disease. These patients experienced worsening of the symptoms during their hyperthyroid state. Six patients (5.6%) developed RLS, consequent upon the incidence of Graves' disease as per the consensus of the panel of the experts. Fifteen patients (13.9%) also presented with RLS-like symptoms without any discernible circadian feature of the syndrome. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that Graves' disease might trigger restless legs-like symptoms, while the condition of hyperthyroidism could also be complicated by definite RLS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Restless Legs Syndrome/etiology , Restless Legs Syndrome/epidemiology , Graves Disease/complications , Graves Disease/epidemiology , Anxiety , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876113

ABSTRACT

@#We characterize the clinical and laboratory characteristics of 5 patients with Graves’ thyrotoxicosis whose serum free thyroxine (fT4) concentration decreased unexpectedly to low levels on conventional doses of carbimazole (CMZ) therapy. The initial fT4 mean was 40.0 pM, range 25-69 pM. Thyroid volume by ultrasound measured as mean 11 ml, range 9.0-15.6 ml. Initial TSI levels measured 1487% to >4444%. Serum fT4 fell to low-normal or hypothyroid levels within 3.6 to 9.3 weeks of initiating CMZ 5 to 15 mg daily, and subsequently modulated by fine dosage adjustments. In one patient, serum fT4 fluctuated in a “yo-yo” pattern. There also emerged a pattern of low normal/low serum fT4 levels associated with discordant low/mid normal serum TSH levels respectively, at normal serum fT3 levels. The long-term daily-averaged CMZ maintenance dose ranged from 0.7 mg to 3.2 mg. Patients with newly diagnosed Graves' hyperthyroidism who have small thyroid glands and markedly elevated TSI titres appear to be “ATD dose sensitive.” Their TFT on ATD therapy may display a “central hypothyroid” pattern. We suggest finer CMZ dose titration at closer follow-up intervals to achieve biochemical euthyroidism.


Subject(s)
Carbimazole , Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating , Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating , Immunologic Tests , Graves Disease
13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(12): 1434-1437, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057089

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 (APS 2) is defined by the presence of Addison's disease (AD) associated with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). It is a rare disease, affecting about 1.4-2 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Its less frequent clinical presentation is the combination of AD, Graves' disease, and T1DM. We present the case of a 42-year-old woman with a history of total thyroidectomy due to Graves' disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, who sought the ED due to asthenia, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. She reported having stopped antihypertensive therapy due to hypotension and presented a glycemic record with frequent hypoglycemia. On physical examination, she had cutaneous hyperpigmentation. She had no leukocytosis, anemia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia or hyperkalemia, and a negative PCR. Serum cortisol <0.5 ug/dl (4,3-22,4), urine free cortisol 9 ug/24h (28-214), ACTH 1384 pg/mL (4,7-48,8), aldosterone and renin in erect position of 0 pg/ml (41-323) and 430.7 uUI/ml (4.4-46.1) respectively. Quantiferon TB was negative; computerized axial tomography of the adrenals showed no infiltrations, hemorrhage, or masses. The 21-hydroxylase antibody assay was positive. B12 vitamin was normal, anti-GAD antibodies were positive, anti-insulin, anti-IA2, and anti-transglutaminase antibodies were all negative. The patient started insulin therapy and treatment for AD with prednisolone and fludrocortisone with good clinical response. This case aims to alert to the need for high clinical suspicion in the diagnosis of AD. Since this is a rare autoimmune disease, it is important to screen for other autoimmune diseases in order to exclude APS.


RESUMO A síndrome poliglandular autoimune tipo 2 (SPGA2) é definida pela presença de doença de Addison (DA) associada à doença tiroideia autoimune e/ou diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DMT1). Trata-se de uma doença rara, afetando cerca de 1,4-2 casos/100.000 habitantes. A apresentação clínica menos frequente é a combinação de DA, doença de Graves e DMT1. Apresenta-se mulher de 42 anos, com antecedentes de tiroidectomia total por doença de Graves, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e hipertensão, que recorre ao SU por quadro arrastado de astenia, emagrecimento, tonturas, náuseas e vômitos. Referia ter suspendido terapêutica anti-hipertensora por hipotensão e apresentava registro glicêmico com hipoglicemias frequentes. Ao exame físico, salientava hiperpigmentação cutânea. Analiticamente sem leucocitose, anemia, hipoglicemia, hiponatremia ou hipercaliemia, PCR negativa. Cortisol sérico matinal <0,5 ug/dl (4,3-22,4), cortisol livre na urina 9 ug/24h (28-214), ACTH 1.384 pg/mL (4,7-48,8), aldosterona e renina em posição ereta de 0 pg/mL (41-323) e 430,7 uUI/mL (4,4-46,1), respectivamente. Realizado estudo complementar para averiguar causa de insuficiência suprarrenal primária. Quantiferon TB negativo, tomografia axial computadorizada das suprarrenais sem infiltrações, hemorragia ou massas. Anticorpos anti-21-hidroxilase positivos. Foi aprofundada a investigação com vitamina B12 normal, anti-GAD positivo, anti-insulina, anti-IA2, antitransglutaminase, negativos. Nesse contexto, a doente iniciou insulinoterapia e tratamento dirigido para a DA com prednisolona e fludrocortisona, com boa resposta clínica. Este caso tem como objetivo alertar para a necessidade de elevada suspeição clínica no diagnóstico de DA. Sendo esta uma doença autoimune rara, é importante rastrear outras doenças autoimunes no sentido de excluir SPGA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Addison Disease/diagnosis , Graves Disease/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Rare Diseases , Early Diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(5): 495-500, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038504

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives The differentiation between the various etiologies of thyrotoxicosis, including those with hyperthyroidism (especially Graves' disease [GD], the most common cause of hyperthyroidism) and without hyperthyroidism (like thyroiditis), is an important step in planning specific therapy. Technetium-99m (99mTc) pertechnetate thyroid scanning is the gold standard in differentiating GD from thyroiditis. However, this technique has limited availability, is contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation, and is not helpful in cases with history of recent exposure to excess iodine. The aim of this study was to identify the diagnostic value of the peak systolic velocity of the inferior thyroid artery (PSV-ITA) assessed by color-flow Doppler ultrasound (CFDU) and compare the sensitivity and specificity of this method versus 99mTc pertechnetate thyroid uptake. Subjects and methods We prospectively analyzed 65 patients (46 with GD and 19 with thyroiditis). All patients were evaluated with clinical history and physical examination and underwent 99mTc pertechnetate scanning and measurement of TRAb levels and PSV-ITA values by CFDU. The diagnosis was based on findings from signs and symptoms, physical examination, and 99mTc pertechnetate uptake. Results Patients with GD had significantly higher mean PSV-ITA values than those with thyroiditis. At a mean PSV-ITA cutoff value of 30 cm/sec, PSV-ITA discriminated GD from thyroiditis with a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 89%. Conclusion Measurement of PSV-ITA by CFDU is a good diagnostic approach to discriminate between GD and thyroiditis, with sensitivity and specificity values comparable to those of 99mTc pertechnetate thyroid uptake.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroid Gland/diagnostic imaging , Thyroiditis/diagnostic imaging , Graves Disease/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Gland/blood supply , Blood Flow Velocity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m , Diagnosis, Differential
15.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(5): 636-641, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039280

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The side effects of antithyroid drugs are well known. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis is a severe adverse reaction. Most studies evaluating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies related to antithyroid drugs have been carried out with patients treated with propylthiouracil, but less information is available for methimazole. Furthermore, most studies that investigated antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies related to antithyroid drugs were conducted on Asian populations. Objective: To evaluate the frequency of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-positive vasculitis in an adult population of Brazilian patients treated with methimazole. Methods: This was a prospective study. We evaluated patients ≥18 years with Graves' disease who have been using methimazole for at least 6 months (Group A, n = 36); with Grave's disease who had been previously treated with methimazole but no longer used this medication for at least 6 months (Group B, n = 33), and with nodular disease who have been using methimazole for at least 6 months (Group C, n = 13). Results: ANCA were detected in 17 patients (20.7%). Four patients (4.9%) had a strong antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-positive test. The frequency of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies was similar in the groups. When Groups A and B were pooled and compared to Group C to evaluate the influence of Grave's disease, and when Groups A and C were pooled and compared to Group B to evaluate the influence of methimazole discontinuation, no difference was found in the frequency of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. No difference was observed in sex, age, etiology of hyperthyroidism, anti-TSH receptor antibodies, dose or time of methimazole use between patients with versus without antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. The titers of these antibodies were not correlated with the dose or time of methimazole use. None of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-positive patient had clinical event that could potentially result from vasculitis. Conclusion: This clinical study of a Brazilian population shows a considerable frequency of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in patients treated with methimazole but the clinical repercussion of these findings remains undefined.


Resumo Introdução: Os efeitos adversos de drogas antitireoidianas são conhecidos. Vasculite associada a anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos é uma reação adversa grave. A maioria dos estudos que avaliam anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos relacionado a drogas antitireoidianas envolveu pacientes tratados com propiltiouracil, entretanto menos informação se encontra disponível para o metimazol. Além disso, a maioria dos estudos que investigaram anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos relacionado a drogas antitireoidianas foi conduzida em populações asiáticas. Objetivo: Avaliar a frequência de anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos e vasculite anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos-positivo em uma população adulta de pacientes brasileiros tratados com metimazol. Método: Este foi um estudo prospectivo. Avaliamos pacientes ≥ 18 anos com doença de Graves com o uso de metimazol há pelo menos seis meses (Grupo A, n = 36); com doença de Graves previamente tratados com metimazol, mas que não usaram esse medicamento por pelo menos seis meses (Grupo B, n = 33) e com doença nodular em uso de metimazol há pelo menos seis meses (Grupo C, n = 13). Resultado: Anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos foram detectados em 17 pacientes (20,7%). Quatro pacientes (4,9%) tinham anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos fortemente positivos. A frequência de anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos foi semelhante nos grupos. Quando os Grupos A e B foram somados e comparados ao Grupo C para avaliar a influência da doença de Graves, e quando os Grupos A e C foram somados e comparados ao Grupo B para avaliar a influência da interrupção do metimazol, não foi encontrada diferença na frequência de anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos. Não houve diferença em relação a sexo, idade, etiologia do hipertireoidismo, anticorpos antirreceptor de TSH, dose ou tempo de uso de metimazol entre pacientes com e sem anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos. Os títulos desses anticorpos não se correlacionaram com dose ou tempo de uso de metimazol. Nenhum paciente anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos-positivo apresentou evento clínico resultante de vasculite. Conclusão: Este estudo clínico de uma população brasileira apresenta frequência considerável de anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos em pacientes tratados com metimazol, mas a repercussão clínica desse achado permanece indefinida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Antithyroid Agents/adverse effects , Graves Disease/drug therapy , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/immunology , Brazil , Graves Disease/immunology , Prospective Studies , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/diagnosis , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/chemically induced , Methimazole/adverse effects
16.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(6): 755-760, June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013003

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by hyperthyroidism. Antithyroid drugs (ATDs) are available as therapy. Agranulocytosis is a rare but potentially fatal complication of this therapy. In this study, we report agranulocytosis induced by propylthiouracil (PTU) in a patient with GD and the difficulties of clinical management. CASE: RNBA, male, 30 years old, with GD, treated with propylthiouracil (PTU). He progressed with pharyngotonsillitis. Then, PTU was suspended and antibiotic, filgrastim, propranolol, and prednisone were initiated. Due to the decompensation of hyperthyroidism, lithium carbonate, dexamethasone, and Lugol's solution were introduced. Total thyroidectomy (TT) was performed with satisfactory postoperative progression. DISCUSSION: We describe here the case of a young male patient with GD. For the treatment of hyperthyroidism, thioamides are effective options. Agranulocytosis induced by ATDs is a rare complication defined as the occurrence of a granulocyte count <500/mm3 after the use of ATDs. PTU was suspended, and filgrastim and antibiotics were prescribed. Radioiodine (RAI) or surgery are therapeutic alternatives. Due to problems with ATD use, a total thyroidectomy was proposed. The preoperative preparation was performed with beta-blocker, glucocorticoid, lithium carbonate, and Lugol solution. Cholestyramine is also an option for controlling hyperthyroidism. TT was performed without postoperative complications. CONCLUSION: Thionamide-induced agranulocytosis is a rare complication. With a contraindication to ATDs, RAI and surgery are definitive therapeutic options in GD. Beta-blockers, glucocorticoids, lithium carbonate, iodine, and cholestyramine may be an adjunctive therapy for hyperthyroidism.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: A doença de Graves (DG) é uma doença autoimune caracterizada por hipertireoidismo. As drogas antitireoidianas (DAT) são opções terapêuticas disponíveis. A agranulocitose é uma complicação rara, potencialmente fatal desta terapia. Neste estudo, relatamos um caso de agranulocitose induzida por propiltiouracil (PTU) em paciente com DG e as dificuldades do manejo clínico. RELATO DE CASO: RNBA, sexo masculino, 30 anos, com DG, tratado com PTU. Evoluiu com faringoamigdalite, sendo o PTU suspenso e antibióticos, filgrastim, propranolol e prednisona, iniciados. Devido à descompensação do hipertireoidismo, iniciou carbonato de lítio (CL), dexametasona e a solução de Lugol. A tireoidectomia total (TT) foi realizada com boa evolução pós-operatória. DISCUSSÃO: Descrevemos caso de paciente jovem, sexo masculino, com DG. Para o tratamento do hipertireoidismo, as tionamidas são opções efetivas. A agranulocitose induzida por DATs é uma complicação rara, definida como a ocorrência de contagem de granulócitos <500/mm3 após uso de dats. PTU foi suspenso e foram prescritos filgrastim e antibiótico. O radioiodo (RAI) ou a cirurgia são alternativas terapêuticas. Devido a problemas com o uso de DAT, a TT foi proposta. A preparação pré-operatória foi realizada com betabloqueador, glicocorticoide, CL e solução de Lugol. A colestiramina também é uma opção para controlar o hipertireoidismo. A TT foi realizada sem complicações pós-operatórias. CONCLUSÃO: A agranulocitose induzida por drogas antitireoidianas é uma complicação rara. Com a contraindicação às DATs, RAI e cirurgia são opções terapêuticas definitivas para DG. Os betabloqueadores, glicocorticoides, CL, iodo e a colestiramina podem ser uma terapia adjuvante para o hipertireoidismo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Propylthiouracil/adverse effects , Antithyroid Agents/adverse effects , Graves Disease/drug therapy , Agranulocytosis/chemically induced , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroidectomy , Rare Diseases
17.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(1): 110-116, mar. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004391

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La orbitopatía tiroidea es una enfermedad autoinmune, en la que una reacción inflamatoria genera aumento de la presión orbitaria con protrusión de su contenido. A menudo es autolimitada y sus síntomas más frecuentes son retracción palpebral, exoftalmo y diplopía. Existen casos severos con compromiso de la agudeza visual por compresión del nervio óptico. El diagnóstico es clínico, pero debe complementarse con una tomografía computarizada. Su tratamiento depende de la gravedad y actividad de la enfermedad, siendo los procedimientos quirúrgicos, como la descompresión orbitaria, de elección en exoftalmo y neuropatía óptica compresiva. El pilar de tratamiento en la orbitopatía tiroidea severa es la cirugía descompresiva. Se han descrito múltiples técnicas, pero con limitaciones. La descompresión endoscópica transnasal, es considerada actualmente el procedimiento de elección, ya que permite una buena visualización de la pared medial, con resultados comparables y menores complicaciones, respecto a métodos tradicionales. Describimos un caso de oftalmopatía tiroidea severa, con exoftalmo, diplopía y disminución de la agudeza visual, en la que se realizó una descompresión endoscópica con muy buenos resultados.


ABSTRACT Thyroid orbitopathy is an autoimmune disease in which an inflammatory reaction generates increased orbital pressure with protrusion of its contents. It is often self-limiting and its most frequent symptoms are eyelid retraction, exophthalmos and diplopia. There are severe cases with compromised visual acuity due to compression of the optic nerve. The diagnosis is clinical, but must be complemented with a computed tomography scan. Its treatment depends on the severity and activity of the disease and the surgicals procedures such as orbital decompression is the best choice in exophthalmos and compressive optic neuropathy. The treatment in severe thyroid orbitopathy is decompressive surgery. Multiple techniques have been described, but with limitations. The transnasal endoscopic decompression is currently considered the gold standard, since it allows a good visualization of the medial wall with comparable results and less complications, compared to traditional methods. We present a case of severe thyroid ophthalmopathy, with exophthalmos, diplopia and decreased visual acuity, in which a transnasal endoscopic decompression was performed with very good outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Orbit/surgery , Graves Disease/surgery , Decompression, Surgical/methods , Endoscopy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Optic Nerve Diseases
19.
In. Madrid Karlen, Fausto. Abordaje clínico del paciente con patología quirúrgica. Montevideo, s.n, 2019. p.219-228.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1291021
20.
Clin. biomed. res ; 39(1): 101-103, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026227

ABSTRACT

This paper reports a case of severe cholestasis as an atypical manifestation of Graves' disease. It discusses the pathophysiology, the diagnosis and the investigation of this complication of hyperthyroidism as well as the impact of this finding on the therapeutic options for managing the disease. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Graves Disease/diagnosis , Graves Disease/therapy , Graves Disease/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy/methods , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential
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