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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 655-662, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878590

ABSTRACT

The transposon vector containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was injected into early housefly (Musca domestica L.) eggs by microinjection method to realize stable gene expression in vivo for verification, and to study housefly gene function. A borosilicate glass micro injection needle suitable for microinjection of housefly eggs was made, the softening treatment conditions of housefly egg shells were explored, and a microinjection technology platform suitable for housefly was constructed with a high-precision microsyringe Nanoject Ⅲ as the main body. The recombinant plasmid PiggyBac-[3×P3]-EGFP containing the eye-specific 3×P3 promoter and EGFP and the stable genetic expression helper plasmid pHA3pig helper were microinjected into the treated housefly eggs. After emergence, the eye luminescence was observed, and the expression and transcription level of EGFP were detected. The results showed that the normal hatching rate of housefly eggs was 55% when rinsed in bleaching water for 35 s. The hardness of the egg shell treated for 35 s was suitable for injection and the injection needle was not easy to break. About 3% of the emerged housefly eyes had green fluorescence. Through further molecular detection, EGFP specific fragments with a size of 750 bp were amplified from DNA and RNA of housefly. Through the technical platform, the stable expression of reporter genes in housefly can be conveniently and effectively realized, and a bioreactor with housefly as the main body can be established, which provides certain reference value for subsequent research on housefly gene function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified , Gene Expression , Genes, Reporter , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Houseflies/genetics , Microinjections
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 1-9, May 15, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maize is one of the most important crops worldwide and has been a target of nuclear-based transformation biotechnology to improve it and satisfy the food demand of the ever-growing global population. However, the maize plastid transformation has not been accomplished due to the recalcitrant condition of the crop. RESULTS: In this study, we constructed two different vectors with homologous recombination sequences from maize (Zea mays var. LPC13) and grass (Bouteloua gracilis var. ex Steud) (pZmcpGFP and pBgcpGFP, respectively). Both vectors were designed to integrate into rrn23S/rrn16S from an inverted repeat region in the chloroplast genome. Moreover, the vector had the mgfp5 gene driven by Prrn, a leader sequence of the atpB gene and a terminator sequence from the rbcL gene. Also, constructs have an hph gene as a selection marker gene driven by Prrn, a leader sequence from rbcL gene and a terminator sequence from the rbcL gene. Explants of maize, tobacco and Escherichia coli cells were transformed with both vectors to evaluate the transitory expression­an exhibition of green and red fluorescent light under epifluorescence microscopy. These results showed that both vectors were expressed; the reporter gene in all three organisms confirmed the capacity of the vectors to express genes in the cell compartments. CONCLUSIONS: This paper is the first report of transient expression of GFP in maize embryos and offers new information for genetically improving recalcitrant crops; it also opens new possibilities for the improvement in maize chloroplast transformation with these vectors.


Subject(s)
Nicotiana/metabolism , Chloroplasts/genetics , Chloroplasts/metabolism , Zea mays/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Transformation, Genetic , Biotechnology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Plants, Genetically Modified , Plastids/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli , Genome, Chloroplast
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 151-158, Jan.-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839342

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although infections with NonTuberculous Mycobacteria have become less common in AIDS patients, they are important opportunistic infections after surgical procedures, likely because they are ubiquitous and not efficiently killed by many commonly used disinfectants. In Venezuela there have recently been many non-tuberculous mycobacteria soft tissue infections after minor surgical procedures, some apparently related to the use of a commercial disinfectant based on a Quaternary Ammonium Compound. We studied the activity of this and other quaternary ammonium compounds on different non-tuberculous mycobacteria by transforming the mycobacteria with a dnaA-gfp fusion and then monitoring fluorescence to gauge the capacity of different quaternary ammonium compounds to inhibit bacterial growth. The minimum inhibitory concentration varied for the different quaternary ammonium compounds, but M. chelonae and M. abscessus were consistently more resistant than M. smegmatis, and M. terrae more resistant than M. bovis BCG.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression , Green Fluorescent Proteins , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/drug effects , Plasmids/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/classification , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/genetics
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 849-854, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755818

ABSTRACT

The experiment aimed to specifically monitor the passage of lactobacilli in vivo after oral administration. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was cloned downstream from the constitutive p32 promoter from L. lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2. The recombinant expression vector, pLEM415-gfp-p32, was electroporated into Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) isolated from goat. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was successfully expressed in L. plantarum. After 2 h post-administration, transformed Lactobacillus could be detectable in all luminal contents. In the rumen, bacteria concentration initially decreased, reached the minimum at 42 h post-oral administration and then increased. However, this concentration decreased constantly in the duodenum. This result indicated that L. plantarum could colonize in the rumen but not in the duodenum.

.


Subject(s)
Animals , Duodenum/microbiology , Goats/microbiology , Lactobacillus plantarum/physiology , Rumen/microbiology , Administration, Oral , Electroporation , Fluorescence , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Lactobacillus plantarum/genetics , Plasmids/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics
5.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 385-394, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50466

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis is a worldwide uncontrolled parasitic disease due to the lack of effective drug and vaccine. To speed up effective drug development, we need powerful methods to rapidly assess drug effectiveness against the intracellular form of Leishmania in high throughput assays. Reporter gene technology has proven to be an excellent tool for drug screening in vitro. The effects of reporter proteins on parasite infectivity should be identified both in vitro and in vivo. In this research, we initially compared the infectivity rate of recombinant Leishmania major expressing stably enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) alone or EGFP-luciferase (EGFP-LUC) with the wild-type strain. Next, we evaluated the sensitivity of these parasites to amphotericin B (AmB) as a standard drug in 2 parasitic phases, promastigote and amastigote. This comparison was made by MTT and nitric oxide (NO) assay and by quantifying the specific signals derived from reporter genes like EGFP intensity and luciferase activity. To study the amastigote form, both B10R and THP-1 macrophage cell lines were infected in the stationary phase and were exposed to AmB at different time points. Our results clearly revealed that the 3 parasite lines had similar in vitro infectivity rates with comparable parasite-induced levels of NO following interferon-gamma/lipopolysaccharide induction. Based on our results we proposed the more reporter gene, the faster and more sensitive evaluation of the drug efficiency.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/instrumentation , Gene Expression , Genes, Reporter , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Leishmania major/drug effects , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Luciferases/genetics
6.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 111-115, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56427

ABSTRACT

Molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of Fyn on cell morphology, pseudopodium movement, and cell migration were investigated. The Fyn gene was subcloned into pEGFP-N1 to produce pEGFP-N1-Fyn. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were transfected with pEGFP-N1-Fyn. The expression of Fyn mRNA and proteins was monitored by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting. Additionally, transfected cells were stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and a series of time-lapse images was taken. Sequences of the recombinant plasmids pMD18-T-Fyn and pEGFP-N1-Fyn were confirmed by sequence identification using National Center for Biotechnology Information in USA, and Fyn expression was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The morphology of CHO cells transfected with the recombinant vector was significantly altered. Fyn expression induced filopodia and lamellipodia formation. Based on these results, we concluded that overexpression of mouse Fyn induces the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia in CHO cells, and promotes cell movement.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Mice , Blotting, Western , CHO Cells , Cricetulus , Genetic Vectors , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn/genetics , Pseudopodia/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Time-Lapse Imaging , Transfection
7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 343-350, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124858

ABSTRACT

We established an orthotopic non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) mouse model expressing the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. After intravesical instillation of KU-7-lucs (day 0), animals were subsequently monitored by bioluminescence imaging (BLI) on days 4, 7, 14, and 21, and performed histopathological examination. We also validated the orthotopic mouse model expressing the mTOR signaling pathway immunohistochemically. In vitro BLI photon density was correlated with KU-7-luc cell number (r2 = 0.97, P < 0.01) and in vivo BLI photon densities increased steadily with time after intravesical instillation. The tumor take rate was 84.2%, formed initially on day 4 and remained NMIBC up to day 21. T1 photon densities were significantly higher than Ta (P < 0.01), and histological tumor volume was positively correlated with BLI photon density (r2 = 0.87, P < 0.01). The mTOR signaling pathway-related proteins were expressed in the bladder, and were correlated with the western blot results. Our results suggest successful establishment of an orthotopic mouse NMIBC model expressing the mTOR signaling pathway using KU-7-luc cells. This model is expected to be helpful to evaluate preclinical testing of intravesical therapy based on the mTOR signaling pathway against NMIBC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Blotting, Western , Cell Line, Tumor , Disease Models, Animal , Genes, Reporter , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Luciferases, Firefly/genetics , Luminescent Measurements , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Staging , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Transplantation, Heterologous , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/metabolism
8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Jul; 51(7): 502-509
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147620

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent cells that can be derived from many different organs and tissues. While there are many ways to label and track cells each with strengths and weakness, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a reporter gene commonly employed. In the present study, caprine MSC were collected from bone marrow and cells were characterised with MSC specific markers. Passage 10 (P10) MSC cells were transfected using plasmid vector containing GFP as reporter gene with different concentrations of DNA and lipofectamine. Six different concentrations of DNA and lipofectamine as 1 µg DNA: 2 µL lipofectamine, 1 µg DNA: 2.5 µL lipofectamine, 1.2 µg DNA: 2.2 µL lipofectamine, 1.2 µg DNA: 2.5 µL lipofectamine, 1.5 µg DNA: 2.5 µL lipofectamine, 1.5 µg DNA: 3 µL lipofectamine were used. After 24 h and 48 h of transfection, caprine MSC were observed under florescent microscope. Highest transfection rate indicating green flourecscent MSC were found when the cells were transfected with 1.2 µg DNA: 2.2 µL lipofectamine and 1.5 µg DNA: 2.5 µL lipofectamine than other combinations. These cells have been propagated beyond 4th passage maintaining GFP expression. The results indicated that stable GFP positive MSC cells can be generated using the above protocol. These cells are being used for transplantation studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers/analysis , Cells, Cultured , Genetic Vectors , Goats , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Karyotyping , Lipids , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transfection
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(2): 121-127, 01/fev. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-668771

ABSTRACT

The type I herpes simplex virus VP22 tegument protein is abundant and well known for its ability to translocate proteins from one cell to the other. In spite of some reports questioning its ability to translocate proteins by attributing the results observed to fixation artifacts or simple attachment to the cell membrane, VP22 has been used to deliver several proteins into different cell types, triggering the expected cell response. However, the question of the ability of VP22 to enter stem cells has not been addressed. We investigated whether VP22 could be used as a tool to be applied in stem cell research and differentiation due to its capacity to internalize other proteins without altering the cell genome. We generated a VP22.eGFP construct to evaluate whether VP22 could be internalized and carry another protein with it into two different types of stem cells, namely adult human dental pulp stem cells and mouse embryonic stem cells. We generated a VP22.eGFP fusion protein and demonstrated that, in fact, it enters stem cells. Therefore, this system may be used as a tool to deliver various proteins into stem cells, allowing stem cell research, differentiation and the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells in the absence of genome alterations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Carrier Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism , Green Fluorescent Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Viral Structural Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Blotting, Western , Dental Pulp/cytology , Flow Cytometry , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Microscopy, Confocal , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Viral Structural Proteins/genetics
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 27(3): 201-209, Mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-617958

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from eight mice C57BL/6 gfp+ bone marrows expanded in cultures associated with platelets rich plasma (PRP) deriving from another eight mice, in the repair of critical defects in calvarial bone produced in twenty-four adult isogenic mice C57BL/6. METHODS: The animals were submitted to a cranial defect of 6.0mm in diameter and divided into two equal experimental groups. Control group did not receive treatment and the treated group received a MSC pellet containing 1.0 x 10(7) cells/mL associated with 50.0µL of plasma gel containing 1.0 x 10(9) autologous platelets within the defect. RESULTS: In the treated group was observed process of angiogenesis and bone repair better than control group. CONCLUSION: Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow of C57BL/6 gfp+ mice associated with PRP gel applied in bone critical defects produced in calvarial contributes positively to the process of bone repair.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da associação das células-tronco mesenquimais (MSC) oriundas da medula óssea de oito camundongos jovens C57BL/6 gfp+ e expandidas em culturas, com Plasma Rico em Plaquetas (PRP) provenientes de outros oito camundongos, na reparação de defeitos críticos confeccionados em calvária de 24 camundongos adultos C57BL/6. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram submetidos a um defeito craniano de 6,0mm de diâmetro e separados em dois grupos experimentais iguais. O grupo controle não recebeu tratamento e no grupo tratado foi administrado, no interior do defeito, pellet de MSC contendo 1,0 x 10(7) células/mL associado com 50,0µL de plasma em gel autólogo contendo 1,0 x 10(9) plaquetas. RESULTADOS: No grupo tratado verificou-se processo de angiogênese e reparação óssea superior ao grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A associação das células-tronco mesenquimais (MSC) derivadas da medula óssea de camundongos C57BL/6 gfp+ com gel de PRP aplicadas em defeitos ósseos críticos confeccionadas em calvária de camundongos C57BL/6 jovens, contribuiu positivamente para o processo de reparação óssea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Adult Stem Cells/transplantation , Bone Marrow Cells/physiology , Bone Regeneration/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Platelet-Rich Plasma/physiology , Skull/surgery , Adult Stem Cells/ultrastructure , Bone Marrow Cells/ultrastructure , Cells, Cultured , Disease Models, Animal , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mice, Transgenic , Osteogenesis/physiology , Random Allocation , Skull/injuries , Skull/ultrastructure , Transplantation, Homologous , Tissue Engineering/methods
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(2): 262-272, Mar. 2012. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-617074

ABSTRACT

The flaviviral envelope proteins, E protein and precursor membrane protein, are mainly associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through two transmembrane (TM) domains that are exposed to the luminal face of this compartment. Their retention is associated with the viral assembly process. ER-retrieval motifs were mapped at the carboxy terminus of these envelope proteins. A recombinant yellow fever (YF) 17D virus expressing the reporter green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the stem-anchor (SA) region of E protein fused to its carboxy terminus was subjected to distinct genetic mutations in the SA sequence to investigate their effect on ER retention. Initially, we introduced progressive deletions of the stem elements (H1, CS and H2). In a second set of mutants, the effect of a length increase for the first TM anchor region was evaluated either by replacing it with the longer TM of human LAMP-1 or by the insertion of the VALLLVA sequence into its carboxy terminus. We did not detect any effect on the GFP localisation in the cell, which remained associated with the ER. Further studies should be undertaken to elucidate the causes of the ER retention of recombinant proteins expressed at the intergenic E/NS1 region of the YF 17D virus polyprotein.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Intergenic/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Mutagenesis, Insertional/genetics , Yellow fever virus/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Membrane Proteins , Vero Cells
12.
Biol. Res ; 44(3): 229-234, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-608618

ABSTRACT

Testis-mediated gene transfer (TMGT) has been used as in vivo gene transfer technology to introduce foreign DNA directly into testes, allowing mass gene transfer to offspring via mating. In this study, we used plasmid DNA (pEGFP-N1) mixed with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) or liposome (Lipofectin) in an attempt to improve TMGT. Males receiving consecutive DNA complex injections were mated to normal females to obtain F0 progeny. In vivo evaluation of EGFP expression, RT-PCR and PCR were used to detect the expression and the presence of exogenous DNA in the progeny. We also evaluated possible testicular damage by histological procedures. PC R and RT-PCR analyses revealed that liposome and DMSO increased the rate of TMGT. Histological analyses demonstrated that repeated (4 times) injections of DNA complexes can affect spermatogenesis. DMSO was the most deleterious among the reagents tested. In this study, we detected the presence of transgene in the progeny, and its expression in blood cells. Consecutive injections of DNA complexes were associated with impaired spermatogenesis, suggesting requirement of optimal conditions for DNA delivery through TMGT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/pharmacology , Gene Transfer Techniques , Green Fluorescent Proteins/administration & dosage , Mice, Transgenic/genetics , Testis , Transgenes , Animals, Genetically Modified , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/analysis , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Liposomes/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Testis/drug effects , Testis/pathology , Transfection/methods
13.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 73(5): 447-453, Sept.-Oct. 2010. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-570508

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the transfer of heterologous genes carrying a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) reporter cassette to primary corneal epithelial cells ex vivo. METHODS: Freshly enucleated rabbit corneoscleral tissue was used to obtain corneal epithelial cell suspension via enzymatic digestion. Cells were plated at a density of 5×10³ cells/cm² and allowed to grow for 5 days (to 70-80 percent confluency) prior to transduction. Gene transfer was monitored using fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS). We evaluated the transduction efficiency (TE) over time and the dose-response effect of different lentiviral particles. One set of cells were dual sorted by fluorescence activated cell sorter for green fluorescent protein expression as well as Hoechst dye exclusion to evaluate the transduction of potentially corneal epithelial stem cells (side-population phenotypic cells). RESULTS: Green fluorescent protein expressing lentiviral vectors were able to effectively transduce rabbit primary epithelial cells cultured ex vivo. Live cell imaging post-transduction demonstrated GFP-positive cells with normal epithelial cell morphology and growth. The transduction efficiency over time was higher at the 5th post-transduction day (14.1 percent) and tended to stabilize after the 8th day. The number of transduced cells was dose-dependent, and at the highest lentivirus concentrations approached 7 percent. When double sorted by fluorescence activated cell sorter to isolate both green fluorescent protein positive and side population cells, transduced side population cells were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Lentiviral vectors can effectively transfer heterologous genes to primary corneal epithelial cells expanded ex vivo. Genes were stably expressed over time, transferred in a dose-dependence fashion, and could be transferred to mature corneal cells as well as presumable putative stem cells.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a transferência de genes heterólogos expressando a proteí­na "Green Fluorescent Protein" (GFP) para células corneanas epiteliais primárias ex vivo utilizando vetor lentivírus. MÉTODOS: Tecido corneoescleral de coelhos foi usado para obtenção de suspensão de células corneanas epitelias. As células foram semeadas na densidade de 5×10³ células/cm² e expandidas por 5 dias até uma confluência de 70-80 por cento antes de serem transduzidas. A transferência genética foi monitorada por microscopia fluorescente e por um separador de células ativadas por fluorescência. Foram avaliadas a eficiência de transdução ao longo do tempo e o efeito dose-resposta de diferentes quantidades de partículas virais. Um grupo de células foi analisado pelo separador de células ativadas por fluorescência para avaliar a transdução de células com fenótipo de cé­lulas tronco do epitélio corneano (baseado na exclusão do corante "Hoechst dye"). RESULTADOS: Os vetores lentivírus foram efetivos na transdução de cé­lulas corneanas epiteliais primárias de coelhos ex vivo. Fotodocumentação das células vivas demonstrou células epiteliais de morfologia normal e expressando o gene fluorescente (GFP). A eficiência de transdução ao longo do tempo foi maior no quinto dia após a transdução (14,1 por cento) e demonstrou uma tendência à estabilidade a partir do oitavo dia após a transdução. O número de células transduzidas foi dose-dependente e atingiu 7 por cento com as maiores concentrações de partículas virais. Quando analisadas pelo separador de células ativadas por fluorescência para detecção de células transduzidas e também de células que excluíram o corante "Hoechst dye", foi detectado que células com fenótipo de células tronco do epitélio corneano ("side-population") também foram transduzidas. CONCLUSÕES: Os vetores lentivirais podem transferir genes heterolólogos para células corneanas epiteliais primárias expandidas ex vivo de forma eficiente. Os genes foram expressos de forma estável ao longo do tempo e puderam ser transferidos tanto para células epiteliais maduras como para presumíveis células tronco epiteliais. A eficiência de transdução foi obtida de forma dose-dependente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Epithelium, Corneal/metabolism , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Lentivirus/genetics , Transduction, Genetic/methods , Analysis of Variance , Epithelium, Corneal/cytology , Genetic Therapy/methods , Green Fluorescent Proteins/administration & dosage , Models, Animal
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 13(5): 9-10, Sept. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-591891

ABSTRACT

Although Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols for many economically important plant species have been well established, protocol for a number of flowering plants including Anthurium andraeanum remains challenging. In this study, we report success in generating transgenic Anthurium andraeanum cv Arizona using Agrobacterium GV3101 strain harboring a binary vector carrying gfp as a reporter gene. The possibility of facilitating the screening process for transgenic plants expressing functional proteins using gfp marker was explored. In order to realize high transformation efficiency, different explant sources including undifferentiated callus pieces and petioles were compared for their regeneration efficiency and susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We also optimized the concentration of AS added to co-cultivation media. Genomic PCR revealed that 11 of the 22 resistant plantlets regenerated on selective medium were successfully transformed. Green fluorescence was observed using a fluorescence microscope in 7 of the 11 PCR-positive plants, indicating GFP was expressed stably in the transformed Anthurium andraeanum. The highest transformation efficiency obtained in this study was 1.71 percent (percentage of explants with transgenic shoots in total explants) when callus explants were used as starting material and 125 umol l-1 AS was added during the co-cultivation process.


Subject(s)
Araceae/genetics , Gene Transfer Techniques , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Rhizobium/genetics , DNA, Plant/isolation & purification , Coculture Techniques , Genes, Reporter , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Regeneration , Transformation, Genetic
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(2): 217-224, Feb. 2010. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-538233

ABSTRACT

Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) is an important pathogen of cattle in South America. We describe here the construction and characterization of deletion mutants defective in the glycoprotein E (gE) or thymidine kinase (TK) gene or both (gE/TK) from a highly neurovirulent and well-characterized Brazilian BoHV-5 strain (SV507/99). A gE-deleted recombinant virus (BoHV-5 gE∆) was first generated in which the entire gE open reading frame was replaced with a chimeric green fluorescent protein gene. A TK-deleted recombinant virus (BoHV-5 TK∆) was then generated in which most of the TK open reading frame sequences were deleted and replaced with a chimeric â-galactosidase gene. Subsequently, using the BoHV-5 gE∆ virus as backbone, a double gene-deleted (TK plus gE) BoHV-5 recombinant (BoHV-5 gE/TK∆) was generated. The deletion of the gE and TK genes was confirmed by immunoblotting and PCR, respectively. In Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, the mutants lacking gE (BoHV-5 gE∆) and TK + gE (BoHV-5 gE/TK∆) produced small plaques while the TK-deleted BoHV-5 produced wild-type-sized plaques. The growth kinetics and virus yields in MDBK cells for all three recombinants (BoHV-5 gE∆, BoHV-5 TK∆ and BoHV-5 gE/TK∆) were similar to those of the parental virus. It is our belief that the dual gene-deleted recombinant (BoHV-5 gE/TK∆) produced on the background of a highly neurovirulent Brazilian BoHV-5 strain may have potential application in a vaccine against BoHV-5.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Gene Deletion , /genetics , Thymidine Kinase/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Defective Viruses/genetics , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , /immunology , /pathogenicity , Immunoblotting , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recombination, Genetic/genetics , Thymidine Kinase/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virulence/genetics
16.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2008 Oct; 75(10): 1009-13
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-83045

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Drug-induced differentiation is commonly used as a therapeutic modality for the treatment of neuroblastoma tumors. Increased level of cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) mediates terminal differentiation in some neuroblastoma cell lines through activation of several signaling networks, including cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Objective was to test whether cAMP-induced differentiation in a murine neuroblastoma cell line (NBP2) is partly mediated by CREB. METHODS: Fluorescent microscopy was used to document neuron-like morphological changes imparted by a constitutively active CREB (VP16CREB). Real time PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to verify changes in the expression of cAMP/CREB responsive genes. RESULTS: It was found that transient expression of VP16CREB into NBP2 cells resulted in morphological changes that were characteristics of terminally differentiated neurons. Furthermore, increased expression of cAMP responsive genes was compromised in cells resisting VP16CREB-mediated differentiation. CONCLUSION: A constitutively active CREB induces terminal differentiation in a subset of NBP2 cell population. Altered expression of cAMP responsive genes may account for differentiation resistant phenotype in NBP2 cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , CREB-Binding Protein/genetics , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Cycle/physiology , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cyclic AMP/genetics , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins , Gene Expression , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Herpes Simplex Virus Protein Vmw65/metabolism , Mice , Neuroblastoma/genetics , Neurons/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Steroid , Signal Transduction/genetics , Tumor Cells, Cultured/metabolism
17.
J Biosci ; 2008 Sep; 33(3): 337-43
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111091

ABSTRACT

The assessment of activity of promoters has been greatly facilitated by the use of reporter genes. However, the activity as assessed by reporter gene is a reflection of not only promoter strength, but also that of the stability of the mRNA and the protein encoded by the reporter gene. While a stable reporter gene product is an advantage in analysing activities of weak promoters, it becomes a major limitation for understanding temporal expression patterns of a promoter, as the reporter product persists even after the activity of the promoter ceases. In the present study we undertook a comparative analysis of two reporter genes, beta-glucuronidase (gus) and green fluorescent protein (sgfp), for studying the temporal expression pattern of tapetum-specific promoters A9 (Arabidopsis thaliana) and TA29 (Nicotiana tabacum). The activity of A9 and TA29 promoters as assessed by transcript profiles of the reporter genes (gus or sgfp ) remained the same irrespective of the reporter gene used. However, while the deduced promoter activity using gus was extended temporally beyond the actual activity of the promoter, sgfp as recorded through its fluorescence correlated better with the transcription profile. Our results thus demonstrate that sgfp is a better reporter gene compared to gus for assessment of temporal activity of promoters. Although several earlier reports have commented on the possible errors in deducing temporal activities of promoters using GUS as a reporter protein, we experimentally demonstrate the advantage of using reporter genes such as gfp for analysis of temporal expression patterns.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/genetics , Gene Expression , Genes, Reporter , Glucuronidase/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Mustard Plant/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Time Factors , Nicotiana/genetics , Transformation, Genetic
18.
J Biosci ; 2008 Sep; 33(3): 345-54
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111027

ABSTRACT

Pre-mRNA splicing factors are enriched in nuclear domains termed interchromatin granule clusters or nuclear speckles. During mitosis, nuclear speckles are disassembled by metaphase and reassembled in telophase in structures termed mitotic interchromatin granules (MIGs). We analysed the dynamics of the splicing factor SC35 in interphase and mitotic cells. In HeLa cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-SC35, this was localized in speckles during interphase and dispersed in metaphase. In telophase, GFP-SC35 was highly enriched within telophase nuclei and also detected in MIGs. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments revealed that the mobility of GFP-SC35 was distinct in different mitotic compartments. Interestingly, the mobility of GFP-SC35 was 3-fold higher in the cytoplasm of metaphase cells compared with interphase speckles, the nucleoplasm or MIGs. Treatment of cells with inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) caused changes in the organization of nuclear compartments such as nuclear speckles and nucleoli, with corresponding changes in the mobility of GFP-SC35 and GFP-fibrillarin. Our results suggest that the dynamics of SC35 are significantly influenced by the organization of the compartment in which it is localized during the cell cycle.


Subject(s)
Cell Compartmentation , Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Interphase , Mitosis , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Ribonucleoproteins/genetics
19.
J Biosci ; 2008 Jun; 33(2): 269-77
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111352

ABSTRACT

Most drugs and xenobiotics induce the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, which reduce the bioavailability of the inducer and/or co-administered drugs. Therefore, evaluation of new drug candidates for their effect on CYP expression is an essential step in drug development. The available methods for this purpose are expensive and not amenable to high-throughput screening. We developed a fluorescence-based in vivo assay using transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans worms that express the green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of various CYP promoters. Using this assay, we found striking similarities between the worm CYPs and their human orthologs in their response to treatment with various drugs. For example,the antibiotic rifampicin, one of the strongest inducers of the human gene CYP3A4, was the strongest inducer of the worm ortholog CYP13A7. Since worms can be easily grown in liquid medium in microtitre plates, the assay described in this paper is suitable for the screening of a large number of potential lead compounds in the drug discovery process.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified/genetics , Base Sequence , Caenorhabditis elegans/drug effects , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/chemistry , DNA, Helminth , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genes, Reporter/drug effects , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Humans , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Molecular Sequence Data , Promoter Regions, Genetic/drug effects , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
20.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 427-434, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153294

ABSTRACT

Use of adenoviruses as vehicle for gene therapy requires that target cells express appropriate receptors such as coxsakievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). We show here that CAR-deficiency in cancer cells, that limits adenoviral gene delivery, can be overcome by using adenovirus complexed with the liposome, Ad-PEGPE [1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(poly-ethylene glycol)-2000]. We first confirmed that CT-26 mouse colon cancer cells are deficient in CAR by RT-PCR, and then showed that CT-26 cells infected with Ad-GFP/PEGPE exhibited highly enhanced expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP), compared with those infected with Ad-GFP. GFP expression depends on the dose of liposome and adenovirus. Luciferase expression in livers treated with Ad-luc/PEGPE was about 1,000-fold less than those infected with Ad-luc. In a liver metastasis mouse tumor model developed by intrasplenic injection of CT-26 cells, luciferase expression following i.v. injection of Ad-luc/PEGPE was significantly higher in tumors than in adjacent non-neoplastic liver. Following systemic administration of Ad-GFP/PEGPE, GFP expression increased in tumors more than in adjacent liver while the reverse was true following administration of Ad-GFP. In the latter case, GFP expression was higher in liver than in tumors. This study demonstrates that systemic delivery of PEGPE-adenovirus complex is an effective tool of adenoviral delivery as it overcomes limitation due to CAR deficiency of target cells while reducing hepatic uptake and enhancing adenoviral gene expression in tumors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Adenoviridae/genetics , Colonic Neoplasms/genetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Genetic Therapy , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Vectors , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Liposomes/administration & dosage , Liver/drug effects , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , NIH 3T3 Cells , Phosphatidylethanolamines/administration & dosage , Polyethylene Glycols/administration & dosage , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/deficiency , Receptors, Virus/deficiency , Transcription Factors/deficiency , Tumor Cells, Cultured
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