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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(9): 662-668, Sept. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143421

ABSTRACT

Glässer's disease is an important infectious disorder of swine caused by Haemophilus parasuis. Although well recognized in most regions of Brazil, outbreaks of Glässer's disease have not been described in Northeastern region. For this reason, three municipalities of the Pernambuco State were visited in order to identify histories of high mortality in growing and finishing pigs. The main clinical signs consisted of dry cough, apathy, fever, anorexia, paresis, muscle tremors, motor incoordination, seizures leading to high mortality rates. Nine pigs were necropsied, and fragments of the nervous system, organs of the abdominal and thoracic cavities were collected for histological analysis. In addition, lung and brain fragments were used for DNA extraction and molecular testing by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Grossly, the main lesions consisted of petechial hemorrhages or ecchymosis on the skin of the face, abdomen, forelimbs, and hind limbs. The main severe lesions consisted of hydropericardium, hemopericardium, fibrinous pericarditis and pleuropneumonia. Microscopically, pericarditis, epicarditis and subepicardial myocarditis, followed by a moderate to severe multifocal pleuropneumonia, fibrinosuppurative and necrotizing were the most frequent lesions observed. Real-time PCR amplified H. parasuis infB gene in all samples analyzed, confirming the presence of this etiologic agent.(AU)


A doença de Glässer é uma importante enfermidade infecciosa de suínos causada pela bactéria Haemophilus parasuis. Embora bem reconhecida na maioria das regiões do Brasil, surtos de doença de Glässer não têm sido descritos na região Nordeste. Por este motivo, três regiões do Estado de Pernambuco foram visitadas com o objetivo de se identificar históricos de alta mortalidade em leitões e suínos em fase de terminação. Nove suínos foram necropsiados e fragmentos do sistema nervoso, órgãos das cavidades abdominal e torácica foram coletados para análise histopatológica. Além disso, fragmentos de pulmão e cérebro foram utilizados para extração de DNA e realização de teste molecular por meio da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) em tempo real. Os principais sinais clínicos consistiram em tosse seca, apatia, febre, anorexia, paresia, tremores musculares, incoordenação motora e convulsões levando a altas taxas de mortalidade. As lesões macroscópicas mais severas consistiam em petéquias e equimoses na pele da face, abdome, membros anteriores e posteriores, além de hidropericárdio, hemopericárdio, pericardite fibrinosa e pleuropneumonia. Microscopicamente, pericardite, epicardite e miocardite subepicárdica, seguidas de pleuropneumonia multifocal moderada a grave, fibrino-supurativa e necrosante foram as lesões mais frequentes observadas. A PCR em tempo real amplificou o gene infB de H. parasuis em todas as amostras analisadas, confirmando a presença deste agente etiológico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pneumonia/veterinary , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Sus scrofa/microbiology , Haemophilus parasuis , Haemophilus Infections/veterinary , Meningitis/veterinary
2.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(1): e160956, 2020. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1122160

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance is a current and important issue to public health, and it is usually associated with the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile in bacterial isolates from pigs with clinical respiratory signs in Brazil. One hundred sixty bacterial strains isolated from pigs from 51 pig farms in Brazil were studied. In vitro disk-diffusion method was employed using 14 antimicrobial agents: amoxicillin, penicillin, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, erythromycin, tilmicosin, florfenicol, lincomycin, and sulfadiazine/trimethoprim. The majority of isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent (98.75%; 158/160), while 31.25% (50/160) of the strains were multidrug resistant. Streptococcus suis and Bordetella bronchiseptica were the pathogens that showed higher resistance levels. Haemophilus parasuis showed high resistance levels to sulfadiazine/trimethoprim (9/18=50%). We observed that isolates from the midwestern and southern regions exhibited four times greater chance of being multidrug resistant than the isolates from the southeastern region studied. Overall, the results of the present study showed a great level of resistance to lincomycin, erythromycin, sulfadiazine/trimethoprim, and tetracycline among bacterial respiratory pathogens isolated from pigs in Brazil. The high levels of antimicrobial resistance in swine respiratory bacterial pathogens highlight the need for the proper use of antimicrobials in Brazilian pig farms.(AU)


A resistência antimicrobiana é uma questão atual e muito importante para a saúde pública, geralmente associada ao uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos na produção animal. Diante disso, foi investigado o perfil de sensibilidade-antimicrobiana em isolados bacterianos de suínos com sinais clínicos respiratórios no Brasil. Foram estudadas 96 isolados provenientes de 51 granjas de suínos do Brasil. O método de disco-difusão foi empregado usando 14 antimicrobianos: amoxicilina, penicilina, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacina, enrofloxacina, clortetraciclina, doxiciclina, oxitetraciclina, tetraciclina, eritromicina, tilmicosina, florfenicol, lincomicina e sulfadiazina/trimetoprim. Streptococcus suis e Bordetella bronchiseptica foram os patógenos que apresentaram maiores níveis de resistência. Haemophilus parasuis apresentou altos níveis de resistência à sulfadiazina/trimetoprim (9/18=50%). Observou-se que isolados das regiões Centro-Oeste e Sul apresentaram quatro vezes mais chance de serem multirresistentes do que os isolados da região Sudeste. A maioria foi resistente a pelo menos um agente antimicrobiano (98,75%; 158/160) e 31,25% (50/160) das estirpes isoladas eram multirresistentes. No geral, os resultados do presente estudo mostraram grande nível de resistência à lincomicina, eritromicina, sulfadiazina/trimetoprim e tetraciclina entre patógenos respiratórios bacterianos isolados de suínos no Brasil. Os altos níveis de resistência antimicrobiana em patógenos bacterianos respiratórios em suínos reforçam a necessidade do uso criterioso de antimicrobianos na suinocultura brasileira.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Bordetella bronchiseptica , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Streptococcus , Brazil/epidemiology , Pasteurella multocida , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , Haemophilus parasuis , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests/veterinary
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(11): 1187-1192, Nov. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895366

ABSTRACT

Haemophilus parasuis is the etiological agent of Glässer's disease (GD), an ubiquitous infection of swine characterized by systemic fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis. Intensive use of antimicrobial agents in swine husbandries during the last years triggered the development of antibiotic resistances in bacterial pathogens. Thus, regular susceptibility testing is crucial to ensure efficacy of different antimicrobial agents to this porcine pathogen. In this study, 50 clinical isolates from South Brazilian pig herds were characterized and analyzed for their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotic. The identification and typing of clinical isolates was carried out by a modified indirect hemagglutination assay combined with a multiplex PCR. The susceptibility of each isolate was analyzed by broth microdilution method against a panel of 21 antimicrobial compounds. We found that field isolates are highly resistance to gentamycin, bacitracin, lincomycin and tiamulin, but sensitive to ampicillin, clindamycin, neomycin, penicillin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin. Furthermore, an individual susceptibility analysis indicated that enrofloxacin is effective to treat clinical isolates with the exception of those classified as serovar 1. The results presented here firstly demonstrate the susceptibility of Brazilian clinical isolates of H. parasuis to antimicrobials widely used by swine veterinary practitioners and strengthen the need to perform susceptibility test prior to antibiotic therapy during GD outbreaks. In addition, because only six antimicrobial drugs (28.6%) were found effective against field isolates, a continuous surveillance of the susceptibility profile should be of major concern to the swine industry.(AU)


Haemophilus parasuis é o agente etiológico da doença de Glässer (GD), um processo infeccioso que acomete suínos e que se caracteriza por poliserosites fibrinosas sistêmicas, poliartrites e meningites. O uso intensivo de agentes antimicrobianos na produção de suínos, durante os últimos anos, tem disparado a seleção de cepas bacterianas resistentes a antibióticos. Desta maneira, a avaliação rotineira de susceptibilidade torna-se crucial para assegurar a correta seleção de um antimicrobiano eficaz contra este patógeno. Neste estudo, analisou-se a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de 50 isolados clínicos de H. parasuis procedentes de granjas localizadas na região sul do Brasil. A identificação e tipificação dos isolados clínicos foi realizada através de uma PCR multiplex combinada com o teste de hemaglutinação indireta modificada. A susceptibilidade de cada isolado foi analisada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo utilizando-se um painel composto por 21 agentes antimicrobianos. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que as cepas clínicas de H. parasuis apresentam alta resistência à gentamicina, bacitracina, lincomicina e tiamulina, no entanto, são susceptíveis a ampicilina, clindamicina, neomicina, penicilina, enrofloxacina e danofloxacina. A análise de susceptibilidade realizada dentro de cada grupo de cepas de um mesmo sorovar indicou que a enrofloxacina é o antibiótico mais efetivo para tratar todos isolados clínicos com exceção daqueles pertencentes ao sorovar 1. Em termos gerais, neste trabalho, demonstra-se o perfil de susceptibilidade de isolados clínicos de H. parasuis aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados pelos médicos veterinários especialistas em suínos, e reforça-se a necessidade da realização de testes de susceptibilidade antes do início da terapia com antibióticos durante surtos de DG. Além disso, como somente seis antimicrobianos (28.6%) foram efetivos contra os isolados clínicos, uma vigilância contínua do perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos deve ser de grande preocupação para a indústria de suínos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine Diseases/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Haemophilus parasuis/drug effects , Haemophilus Infections/veterinary , Sus scrofa
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 69(1): 15-21, jan.-fev. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-834063

ABSTRACT

Glässer's disease is an emergent bacterial disease that affects swine husbandries worldwide causing important economic losses. The aetiological agent, Haemophilus parasuis, is currently divided in fifteen serovars but an increasing number of non-typeable serovars have been reported. Indirect hemagglutination (IHA) is indicated as a serotyping method for H. parasuis. In the present study, we describe an additional step that aims to work around a possible obstacle in the original protocol that may compromise the outcome of this assay. We observed that the choice of anticoagulant for blood collection influences and/or impairs spontaneous adsorption of H. parasuis antigens on sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). However, regardless of the anticoagulant used, chemical treatment of SRBCs with tannic acid induces a stable antigen adsorption (sensitization step). The addition of 1% BSA to SRBCs washing buffer and to antisera dilution augments IHA specificity. Tannic acid treated SRBCs combined with thermo-resistant H. parasuis antigens increases the assay resolution. Thus, our results demonstrate an improvement in the technique of H. parasuis serotyping that will prove valuable to understand Glässer's disease epidemiology and to better characterize serovars involved in outbreaks.(AU)


A Doença de Glässer é uma doença bacteriana emergente que afeta a produção de suínos em todo o mundo e causa importantes perdas econômicas. O agente etiológico, Haemophilus parasuis, é atualmente dividido em quinze sorovares; no entanto, um número crescente de cepas não tipificáveis tem sido relatado. O teste de hemaglutinação indireta (IHA) tem sido utilizado para a sorotipificação de H. parasuis. Neste estudo, descrevemos uma alteração no protocolo original de IHA e que supera uma limitação específica que pode comprometer o uso geral deste ensaio. Descobrimos que o tipo de anticoagulante utilizado para coletar os eritrócitos ovinos (SRBCs) pode comprometer a adsorção espontânea dos antígenos do H. parasuis. Por outro lado, o tratamento químico dos SRBCs com ácido tânico promove uma adsorção antigênica estável (passo de sensibilização) e independente do anticoagulante utilizado. O uso de 1% de BSA durante as lavagens dos SRBCs e na diluição dos antissoros incrementa a especificidade da IHA e, a combinação dos SRBCs tratados quimicamente com antígenos de H. parasuis termo-resistentes aumentam a resolução da IHA. Nossos resultados destacam uma melhoria na principal técnica de sorotipificação de H. parasuis, que auxiliará diretamente no entendimento da epidemiologia da Doença de Glässer e na caracterização dos sorovares envolvidos em surtos da doença.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Haemophilus Infections/diagnosis , Haemophilus parasuis/isolation & purification , Hemagglutination Tests/methods , Hemagglutination Tests/veterinary , Swine/virology , Tannins
5.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 283-289, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57419

ABSTRACT

Oral fluid analysis for herd monitoring is of interest to the commercial pig production in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate pathogen-positive rates and correlations among eight pathogens associated with porcine respiratory disease complex by analyzing oral fluid samples from 214 pig groups from 56 commercial farms. Samples collected by a rope-chewing method underwent reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, depending on the microorganism. Pathogens were divided into virus and bacteria groups. The former consisted of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), and the latter Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHP), Mycoplasma hyorhinis, and Streptococcus suis (SS). All pathogens were detected more than once by PCR. Age-based analysis showed the PCR-positive rate increased with increasing age for PCV2 and MHP, whereas SS showed the opposite. Correlations between pathogens were assessed among 36 different pair combinations; only seven pairs showed statistically significant correlations. In conclusion, the oral fluid method could be a feasible way to detect various swine respiratory disease pathogens and, therefore, could complement current monitoring systems for respiratory diseases in the swine industry.


Subject(s)
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , Agriculture , Bacteria , Circovirus , Complement System Proteins , Haemophilus parasuis , Korea , Methods , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Mycoplasma hyorhinis , Pasteurella multocida , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Streptococcus suis , Swine
6.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 431-437, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16842

ABSTRACT

A comparative in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) study of tilmicosin (TIL) was conducted in 6 crossbred healthy pigs and 6 crossbred pigs infected with Haemophilus (H.) parasuis following oral administration of a single 40 mg/kg dose. The infected model was established by intranasal inoculation and confirmed by clinical signs, blood biochemistry, and microscopic examinations. Plasma TIL concentrations were determined by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection at 285 nm. PK parameters were calculated by using WinNonlin software. After TIL administration, the main PK parameters of TIL in healthy and H. parasuis-infected pigs were as follows: Area under the concentration-time curve, maximal drug concentration, half-life of the absorption phase, half-life of the distribution phase, and half-life of the elimination phase were 34.86 ± 9.69 vs. 28.73 ± 6.18 µg · h/mL, 1.77 ± 0.33 vs. 1.67 ± 0.28 µg/mL, 2.27 ± 0.45 vs. 2.24 ± 0.44 h, 5.35 ± 1.40 vs. 4.61 ± 0.35 h, and 43.53 ± 8.17 vs. 42.05 ± 9.36 h, respectively. These results of this exploratory study suggest that there were no significant differences between the PK profiles of TIL in the healthy and H. parasuis-infected pigs.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Administration, Oral , Biochemistry , Chromatography, Liquid , Haemophilus parasuis , Haemophilus , Half-Life , Methods , Pharmacokinetics , Plasma , Swine
7.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 363-369, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296275

ABSTRACT

Heat-shock protein (Hsp) 70 potentiates specific immune responses to some antigenic peptides fused to it. Here, the prokaryotic plasmids harboring the envelope glycoprotein E0 gene of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and/or the Hsp70 gene of Haemophilus parasuis were constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosseta 2(R2). The fusion proteins were then purified. Groups of Balb/c mice were immunized with these fusion proteins, respectively, and sera collected 7 days after the third immunization. Immune effects were determined via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometric analyses. E0-Hsp70 fusion protein and E0+Hsp70 mixture significantly improved the titer of E-specific antibody, levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and release of interferon-γ. These findings suggested that Hsp70 can significantly enhance the immune effects of the envelope glycoprotein E0 of CSFV, thereby laying the foundation of further application in pigs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Antibodies, Viral , Blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Cell Proliferation , Classical Swine Fever Virus , Genetics , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Haemophilus parasuis , Genetics , Immunization , Interferon-gamma , Metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Plasmids , Genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins , Genetics
8.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 321-329, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200672

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify a new gene of Haemophilus parasuis that could be used to develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for this porcine pathogen. H. parasuis genomic DNA was cloned into a set of expression vectors, and transformants expressing His-tagged polypeptides were identified by colony blotting. An ABC transporter-like gene was isolated. The cloned DNA fragment is 1,105 base pair and shows 78% similarity at the nucleotide level with an ABC transporter gene of H. ducreyi. Based on this sequence, two PCR primers were designed to amplify the entire 1,105-bp fragment in the proposed diagnostic PCR test. PCR amplification was able to detect a minimum of 1 x 10(4) CFU/ml of H. parasuis organisms. Fifteen different H. parasuis serovars were positive using the PCR test. No amplification was observed when the test was done using DNA from 16 other bacterial species commonly isolated from swine.


Subject(s)
Base Pairing , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , DNA , Haemophilus , Haemophilus parasuis , Peptides , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Swine
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 42(4): 1420-1426, Oct.-Dec. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614604

ABSTRACT

Haemophilus parasuis infection, known as Glãsser's disease, is characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, arthritis and meningitis in piglets. Although traditional diagnosis is based on herd history, clinical signs, bacterial isolation and serotyping, the molecular-based methods are alternatives for species-specific tests and epidemiologic study. The aim of this study was to characterize H. parasuis strains isolated from different states of Brazil by serotyping, PCR and ERIC-PCR. Serotyping revealed serovar 4 as the most prevalent (24 percent), followed by serovars 14 (14 percent), 5 (12 percent), 13 (8 percent) and 2 (2 percent), whereas 40 percent of the strains were considered as non-typeable. From 50 strains tested 43 (86 percent) were positive to Group 1 vtaA gene that have been related to virulent strains of H.parasuis. ERIC-PCR was able to type isolates tested among 23 different patterns, including non-typeable strains. ERIC-PCR patterns were very heterogeneous and presented high similarity between strains of the same animal or farm origin. The results indicated ERIC-PCR as a valuable tool for typing H. parasuis isolates collected in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Haemophilus Infections , Haemophilus parasuis/isolation & purification , Haemophilus parasuis/pathogenicity , In Vitro Techniques , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Serologic Tests , Genotype , Methods , Swine , Methods , Virulence
10.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 355-357, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197690

ABSTRACT

Due to the serovar diversity in Haemophilus (H.) parasuis, it is difficult to develop a universal serological method for detection of this pathogen. Here, we report a universal plate-agglutination test for detecting H. parasuis. Diagnostic antisera were prepared by mixing antisera of serovars 4, 5, 12, 13 and 14 in the optimized ratio. The results of the plate-agglutination test showed that the diagnostic antisera could agglutinate with all 15 reference strains of H. parasuis and 74/75 clinical isolates. Further, the specificity of the method was validated with 22 bacterial strains from 12 related species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Agglutination Tests/methods , Cross Reactions , Haemophilus parasuis/isolation & purification , Immune Sera/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
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