Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 550
Filter
1.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 30(108): 17-27, 20220000. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363213

ABSTRACT

Objetivo principal: Determinar la adherencia al lavado de manos en el personal de salud en los periodos pre-pandemia y pandemia SARS-CoV-2. Objetivos secundarios: Determinar la adherencia según categoría profesional, sectores de internación y momentos del lavado de manos. Determinar el grado de cumplimiento según una escala de referencia. Metodología: Estudio cuasi experimental que evaluó la adherencia al lavado de manos antes y después de intensificar medidas de prevención. Se comparó la adherencia de dos períodos, diciembre 2019 y agosto 2020. Resultados: Se observó que la adherencia en 2019 fue 67% (IC95%: 63%-71%) y en 2020 de 89% (IC95%: 86%-92%), lo que implica un aumento de 22% (IC95%: 0.17-0.27; p:0.000). En el análisis de subgrupos de momentos de la OMS se observó un aumento en los momentos agrupados como antes (65,7 a 81,2; p:0.001) y como después (67,7 a 94,3; p:0.000). En el análisis por sectores de internación se observó un aumento en los sectores de guardia (50,5 a 100; p:0.000) e internación (63,3 a 78,0; p:0.006) y en pediatría (94,2 a 96,5; p:0.336) y UTI/UCO (63,7 a 70,5; p:0.405), en estos dos últimos no significativo. En el análisis por categoría profesional se observó un aumento en las categorías enfermero (81,4 a 92,9; p:0.001), médicos (66,7 a 83,8; p:0.003), técnicos (57,8 a 93,2; p:0.000) y apoyo (49,4 a 83,9; p:0.000). Discusión: En nuestro estudio, la intensificación de las medidas de lavado de manos y la pandemia motivaron un incremento significativo en la adherencia a la higiene de manos


Main objective. To determine the adherence to hand washing in health care staff in pre-pandemic and SARS-CoV-2 pandemic periods, after intensifying the measures of a program. Secondary objectives. Determine adherence according to professional category, hospitalization sectors and moments of hand washing. Methodology. Quasi-experimental study that evaluated adherence to hand washing before and after intensifying measures. The adherence of 2 periods was compared, December 2019 and August 2020. Outcomes. It was observed that adherence in 2019 was 67% (95% IC: 63% -71%) and in 2020 it was 89% (95% IC: 86% -92%), which implies an increase of 22% (95% IC: 0.17-0.27; p: 0.000). In the subgroup analysis of WHO moments, an increase was observed in the moments grouped as before (65.7 to 81.2; p: 0.001) and as after (67.7 to 94.3; p: 0.000). In the analysis by hospitalization sectors, an increase was observed in emergency sectors (50.5 to 100; p: 0.000) and hospitalization (63.3 to 78.0; p: 0.006) and not significant in pediatrics (94.2 to 96.5; p : 0.336) and UTI / UCO (63.7 to 70.5; p: 0.405). In the analysis by professional category, a significant increase was observed in the categories nurse (81.4 to 92.9; p: 0.001), doctors (66.7 to 83.8; p: 0.003), technicians (57.8 to 93.2; p: 0.000) and support (49.4 to 83.9; p: 0.000). Conclusion. In our study, the intensification of hand washing measures and the pandemic led to a significant increase in adherence to hand hygien


Subject(s)
Humans , Hand Disinfection/standards , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control
2.
Medicina UPB ; 40(2): 41-49, 13 oct. 2021. tab, Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342180

ABSTRACT

La infección respiratoria causada por el SARS-CoV-2 fue declarada pandemia por la OMS en marzo 11 de 2020. Este nuevo beta-coronavirus, producto probablemente de la mutación aleatoria de un coronavirus infectante de animales, ha impactado la humanidad, creado una gran mortalidad entre la población, y también ha desestabilizado la interacción entre los seres humanos y su calidad de vida. El trabajo conjunto de investigadores que han analizado los casos de COVID-19, los mecanismos biológicos, los efectos en el ser humano y las posibles vías de intervención conducen a exitosos avances científicos en el entendimiento de la infección, la creación de inmunidad y el uso de ciertos medicamentos, además de una novedosa e histórica forma de creación de nuevas vacunas eficientes y seguras. No se puede olvidar el esfuerzo en medidas de protección personal como el lavado de manos, higiene de superficies, distanciamiento social y equipos de protección, entre otras. En esta revisión narrativa analizamos algunos puntos importantes en el proceso infeccioso, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico, manejo y prevención de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019, COVID-19.


The respiratory infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 was declared a pandemic by the WHO on March 11, 2020. This new beta-coronavirus, probably the product of the random mutation of a coronavirus infecting animals, has affected humanity, created great mor-tality among the population, and it has also destabilized the interaction between human beings and their quality of life. The joint work of researchers who have analyzed the COVID-19 cases, the biological mechanisms, their effects on human beings, and possible intervention pathways have led to successful scientific advances in the understanding of the infection, the creation of immunity, the use of specific medications, in addition to an innovative and historical way of creating new vaccines that are both efficient and safe. It is also crucial to note that the effort to produce positive results involves the continued used of safety precautions such as handwashing, surface disinfection, social distancing and protective equipment, among others. This narrative review will analyze relevant aspects regarding the process of infection, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management, and prevention of the disease caused by the 2019 coronavirus, COVID-19.


A infecção respiratória causada pelo SARS-CoV-2 foi declarada pandemia pela OMS em 11 de março de 2020. Este novo beta-coronavírus, provavelmente produto da mutação aleatória de um coronavírus que infecta animais, impactou a humanidade, criou uma grande mortalidade entre a população, e também desestabilizou a interação entre o ser humano e sua qualidade de vida. O trabalho conjunto de investigadores que anali-saram os casos de COVID-19, os mecanismos biológicos, os efeitos no ser humano e as possíveis vias de intervenção conduzem a avanços científicos exitosos na compreensão da infecção, na criação de imunidade e na utilização de certos medicamentos, além de uma forma nova e histórica de criar novas vacinas eficientes e seguras. Não se pode esquecer o esforço em medidas de proteção individual como lavagem das mãos, higiene das superfícies, distanciamento social e equipamentos de proteção, entre outros. Nesta revisão narrativa analisamos alguns pontos importantes no processo infeccioso, manifes-tações clínicas, diagnóstico, manejo e prevenção da doença coronavírus 2019, COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Protective Devices , Signs and Symptoms , World Health Organization , Vaccines , Hand Disinfection , Mortality , Coronavirus , Physical Distancing , Immunity
3.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e700, July-Sept. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280186

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus affects all age groups. According to the Colombian National Institute of Health, by November 5, 2020, nearly 83,698 children under 18 years of age had been infected by the virus in Colombia. The probability of viral transmission in this age group is similar to that found in adults, even in asymptomatic individuals 1,2. The World Health Organization has advocated social distancing, hand washing and the use of face masks as effective measures to mitigate contagion, and healthcare institutions have implemented measures for the protection of patients and healthcare workers in order to cope with this "new normal" at work 3-5. In accordance with national and international recommendations, our institution has implemented a new preoperative care protocol during the COVID-19 pandemic.


El virus SARS-CoV-2 afecta a todos los grupos de edad. Según el Instituto Nacional de Salud de Colombia, al 5 de noviembre de 2020, cerca de 83.698 niños menores de 18 años habían sido infectados por el virus en Colombia. La probabilidad de transmisión viral en este grupo de edad es similar a la encontrada en adultos, incluso en individuos asintomáticos 1 , 2 . La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha abogado por el distanciamiento social, el lavado de manos y el uso de mascarillas como medidas efectivas para mitigar el contagio, y las instituciones de salud han implementado medidas para la protección de pacientes y trabajadores de la salud para hacer frente a esta "nueva normalidad" en el trabajo. 3 - 5. De acuerdo con las recomendaciones nacionales e internacionales, nuestra institución ha implementado un nuevo protocolo de atención preoperatoria durante la pandemia de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Viruses , Risk , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Preoperative Care , Hand Disinfection , Health Personnel , Delivery of Health Care , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 , Health Facilities
4.
Más Vita ; 3(3): 22-32, sept. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1343296

ABSTRACT

Establecer el cumplimiento de las normas de bioseguridad por parte de los profesionales que laboran en los laboratorios de la Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y de la Salud de la Universidad Técnica de Machala. Materiales y Métodos: La presente investigación es de tipo descriptiva, con enfoque cuantitativo. La modalidad de la investigación es de campo. La población estuvo constituida por 100 estudiantes que usan los diferentes laboratorios de la Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y de la Salud de la Universidad Técnica de Machala. Resultados: El 59% de la población contestó que sí, ha recibido capacitación acerca de las normas de bioseguridad en la institución y el 41% respondieron que no. El 73% de los estudiantes cumplen con las medidas de bioseguridad en el laboratorio. Se realiza el lavado de manos, con un equivalente a un 39% para Después de tener contacto con cualquier tipo de materiales, muestras biológicas, productos sólidos, sustancias o reactivos. Sobre si se cuentan con recipientes de descarte para elementos contaminados, y están debidamente identificados el cual corresponde a un 46,9%. A la pregunta sobre qué materiales se deposita en los guardianes dando un equivalente de 43% para las Jeringuillas, bisturí, sin embargo, las Lancetas, agujas. Conclusiones: Se pudo determinar que la gran parte de la población estudiada si cumplen con las normas de bioseguridad(AU)


To establish compliance with Biosafety standards by professionals working in the laboratories of the Faculty of Chemistry and Health Sciences of the Technical University of Machala. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive research with a quantitative approach. The modality of the research is field research. The population consisted of 100 students who use the different laboratories of the Faculty of Chemistry and Health Sciences of the Technical University of Machala. Results: 59% of the population answered that they had received training on Biosafety norms in the institution and 41% answered that they had not. Seventy-three percent of the students comply with Biosafety measures in the laboratory. Hand washing is performed, with an equivalent of 39% for after having contact with any type of materials, biological samples, solid products, substances or reagents. Regarding whether there are disposal containers for contaminated items, and whether they are properly identified, this corresponds to 46.9%. To the question about what materials are deposited in the guards giving an equivalent of 43% for syringes, scapel powever, Lancets, needles. Conclusions: It could be determined that the great part of the population studied if they comply with Biosafety standards


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biological Products , Occupational Risks , Containment of Biohazards , Laboratory Personnel , Universities , Hand Disinfection , Equipment and Supplies
6.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(1): 67-71, ene, 22, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1146488

ABSTRACT

En el neonato las infecciones asociadas a la atención sanitaria son causas de aumento de morbilidad, mortalidad y una estancia hospitalaria prolongada. El Hospital Nacional San Juan de Dios de San Miguel, reportó una tasa de estas infecciones de 3,1 %, entre el 2008 al 2013. Objetivo. Describir la disminución de la tasa de infecciones asociadas a la atención sanitaria en la unidad de cuidado intensivos neonatal y servicio de neonatología en el hospital nacional San Juan de Dios de San Miguel con las medidas preventivas mejoradas. Metodología. Se realizó un estudio transversal descriptivo en las unidades de cuidados intensivos y neonatología entre 2014 y 2019. Se valoró la tasa anual, que identifica los casos de la vigilancia de infecciones asociadas a atención sanitaria en neonatos ingresados posterior a la intervención, que consistió en mejorar las medidas preventivas dirigidas al usuario, personal de salud y al entorno. Resultados. La tasa promedio de infecciones en ambos servicios presentó una variación, de 3,1 % de 2008-2013 a 1,6 % de 2014-2019 (p<0,3). Conclusiones. Las acciones de mejora en la prevención de infecciones asociadas a atención sanitaria, planificadas sobre sus causas y en coordinación con los tomadores de decisiones, influyen efectivamente en la incidencia de casos


In the neonate, infections associated with health care are causes of increased morbidity, mortality, and prolonged hospital stay. The San Juan de Dios National Hospital in San Miguel, reported a rate of these infections of 3.1%, between 2008 and 2013. Objective. Describe the decrease in the rate of infections associated with health care in the neonatal intensive care unit and neonatology service at the San Juan de Dios national hospital in San Miguel with improved preventive measures. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the intensive care and neonatology units between 2014 and 2019. The annual rate was assessed, which identifies the cases of surveillance of infections associated with health care in neonates admitted after the intervention, which consisted of improving preventive measures aimed at the user, health personnel and the environment. Results. The average rate of infections in both services varied, from 3.1% from 2008-2013 to 1.6% from 2014-2019 (p <0.3). Conclusions. Actions to improve the prevention of healthcare-associated infections, planned on their causes and in coordination with decision makers, effectively influence the incidence of cases


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Sterilization , Hand Disinfection , Infections
7.
S. Afr. j. child health (Online) ; 15(4): 218-223, 2021.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1354344

ABSTRACT

Background. Proper handwashing can reduce the burden of diseases related to hand hygiene (HH) and so contribute reducing under-5 mortality. Preschoolers can benefit from HH interventions by the burden of disease and absenteeism being reduced. Objective. To perform a scoping review of literature to assess the types and effectiveness of HH interventions at preschools, with a view to providing a guideline for appropriate interventions for South African facilities. Methods. A literature search was conducted through the PubMed database to identify relevant studies. An iterative screening process to focus the review allowed for information on the type and effectiveness of interventions to be collated. An updated PubMed search was conducted to determine whether any interventions related to COVID-19 at preschools could be included. Results. No additional studies relating to COVID-19 were found. Of the 305 studies identified during the initial search, only 12 fitted the specific search criteria. Of these, 10 studies showed improvements in HH-related indicators following the interventions. Only two studies used health education as an intervention, whereas the others included the supply of HH products (to varying extents) as part of the intervention. Conclusion. HH interventions appear successful in reducing diseases spread by poor HH, improving general HH practices and reducing absenteeism among preschoolers. Studies using innovative, entertaining methods of educating children have shown to be successful in improving handwashing techniques and decreasing microbial growth on children's hands. HH interventions are suggested as an effective measure to improve HH during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Hand Disinfection , Communicable Diseases , Hand Hygiene , COVID-19
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Public perceptions and personal characteristics are heterogeneous between countries and subgroups, which may have different impacts on health-protective behaviors during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To assess whether self-reported perceptions of COVID-19 and personal characteristics are associated with protective behaviors among general adults and to compare patterns in six different countries.@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study uses the secondary data collected through an online survey between 15 and 23 April 2020 across six countries (China, Italy, Japan, Korea, the UK, and the USA). A total of 5945 adults aged 18 years or older were eligible for our analysis. A logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of three recommended behaviors (wearing a mask, handwashing, and avoiding social gatherings).@*RESULTS@#In most countries except for China, the participants who perceived wearing a mask as being extremely effective to curtail the pandemic were more likely to wear a mask (OR, 95%CI: Italy: 4.14, 2.08-8.02; Japan: 3.59, 1.75-7.30; Korea: 7.89, 1.91-31.63: UK: 9.23, 5.14-17.31; USA: 4.81, 2.61-8.92). Those who perceived that handwashing was extremely effective had higher ORs of this preventive behavior (OR, 95%CI: Italy: 16.39, 3.56-70.18; Japan: 12.24, 4.03-37.35; Korea: 12.41, 2.02-76.39; UK: 18.04, 2.60-152.78; USA: 10.56, 2.21-44.32). The participants who perceived avoiding social gathering as being extremely effective to curtail the pandemic were more likely to take this type of preventive behavior (OR, 95%CI: China: 3.79, 1.28-10.23; Korea: 6.18, 1.77-20.60; UK: 4.45, 1.63-11.63; USA: 4.34, 1.84-9.95). The associations between personal characteristics, living environment, psychological status, and preventive behaviors varied across different countries. Individuals who changed their behavior because of recommendations from doctors/public health officials were more likely to take preventive behaviors in many countries.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that higher perceived effectiveness may be a common factor to encourage preventive behaviors in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These results may provide a better understanding of the homogeneity and heterogeneity of factors related to preventive behaviors and improve public health policies in various countries and groups.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Disinfection , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Social Conformity , Young Adult
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877763

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#As part of infection control measures for COVID-19, individuals have been encouraged to adopt both preventive (such as handwashing) and avoidant behavioural changes (e.g. avoiding crowds). In this study, we examined whether demographics predicted the likelihood that a person would adopt these behaviours in Singapore.@*METHODS@#A total of 1,145 participants responded to an online survey conducted between 7 March and 21 April 2020. We collected demographic information and asked participants to report which of 17 behaviour changes they had undertaken because of the COVID-19 outbreak. Regression analyses were performed to predict the number of behavioural changes (preventive, avoidant, and total) as a function of demographics. Finally, we sought to identify predictors of persons who declared that they had not undertaken any of these measures following the outbreak.@*RESULTS@#Most participants (97%) reported at least one behavioural change on account of the pandemic, with changes increasing with the number of local COVID-19 cases (@*CONCLUSION@#Our characterisation of behavioural changes provides a baseline for public health advisories. Moving forward, health authorities can focus their efforts on encouraging segments of the population who do not readily adopt infection control measures against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hand Disinfection/trends , Health Behavior , Health Policy , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Risk-Taking , Self Report , Sex Factors , Singapore/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors
10.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1287489

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To make the readers cognizant about the use of Personnel Protective Equipment (PPEs) and infection control practices which should always form a part of basic patient management and not arise with every emerging disease. Material and Methods: Authors personal clinical experiences and existing literature were summed up to infer relevant information related specifically to dentistry. A comprehensive review was done for the last 15 years in an attempt to explain the current state of understanding on the topic. Results: The authors have tried to compile the most probable reasons as to why PPEs have been a forgotten protocol, which can be enumerated as follows: decreased awareness, financial issues, boredom and lethargy, time constraints, unavailability, carelessness, and burnout due to long procedure and patient feeling discomfort/offended. Conclusion: COVID-19 being highly infectious, a dental clinic is a potential and genuine point of source for many new infections, and no confabulation is less to underline the importance of using PPEs during this pandemic or even otherwise.


Subject(s)
Patient Care Management , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards , Facial Masks , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Hand Disinfection , Health Personnel , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Physical Distancing
11.
Rev. cienc. cuidad ; 18(3): 54-63, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342071

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La higiene de manos es toda técnica destinada a remover, destruir o reducir la flora transitoria de la piel. Diversas organizaciones concuerdan en que es el procedimiento más costo-efectivo que puede disminuir las infecciones en pacientes hospitalizados, así como proteger al personal que se encuentra en contacto con ellos. Actualmente, ante los retos provocados por la pandemia de la COVID-19, las técnicas de enseñanza-aprendizaje optan por modalidades tecnológicas a distancia con enfoques basados en la autogestión del conocimiento y el desarrollo de habilidades propias, que puedan incidir en este hábito. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de una intervención digital con enfoque constructivista para aumentar el conocimiento del lavado de manos. Metodología: Estudio cuasi experimental, longitudinal y prospectivo. Se seleccionaron a 26 estudiantes de enfermería del último año de un programa educativo a través de un muestreo no probabilístico a conveniencia, con quienes se llevó a cabo una intervención virtual con enfoque constructivista. A tal efecto se utilizó el instrumento "Conocimiento sobre higiene de manos en profesionales sanitarios" (alfa de Cronbach=0.784) para la prueba de diferencia de conocimiento pre y post intervención. Resultados: Posterior a la intervención, el 100% de los sujetos reconocen las manos como prin-cipal vía de transmisión y el 73.10% identifica correctamente el tiempo necesario para llevarlo a cabo; sin embargo, no existe diferencia estadísticamente significativa del conocimiento previo. Conclusión: A través de las intervenciones constructivistas los estudiantes tienen la oportunidad de ser gestores de su propio conocimiento y adquirir conductas, hábitos y experiencias superiores a los objetivos planteados; no obstante, se debe tomar en cuenta los factores de contextualización y operatividad de las intervenciones para lograr su mayor efectividad.


Introduction: Hand hygiene is any technique designed to remove, destroy, or reduce the tran-sient flora of the skin. Many organizations agree that this is the most cost-effective procedure that can prevent hospital-acquired infections in hospitalized patients, as well as protecting the personnel that is in contact with them. Currently, facing the challenges caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the teaching-learning techniques opt for distance technological mo-dalities with approaches based on self-management of knowledge and the development of self- skills, which can have an impact on this habit. Objective: Evaluate the effectivity of a digital intervention with a constructivist approach to increase the knowledge of handwashing. Methodology: Quasi-experimental, longitudinal, and prospective study. Twenty-six nursing students in the last year of an educational program were selected through a non-probability convenience sample, which had a virtual intervention with a constructivist approach. To that effect the instrument used was "Knowledge about hand hygiene in healthcare profession-als" (Cronbach's alpha=0.784) to test the difference of knowledge pre and post intervention. Results: After the intervention, 100% of the subjects recognize that hands are the main way of transmission and 73.10% correctly identify the time needed to wash their hands; howev-er, there is no significant statistical difference of previous knowledge. Conclusion: Through constructivist interventions the students have the chance of managing their own knowledge and acquire behaviors, habits and experiences beyond the objectives set; nevertheless, factors of contextualization and operativity should be considered for the interventions to achieve greater effectivity


Introdução: A higiene das mãos é toda técnica destinada à remoção, destruição ou redução da flora transitória da pele. Diversas organizações concordam que é o procedimento mais custo-benefício que pode reduzir as infeções no paciente internado, assim como proteger o pessoal que está em contato com eles. Atualmente, os desafios provocados pela pandemia da COVID-19, as técnicas de ensino têm acolhido ferramentas tecnológicas a distância com fundamentação na autogestão do conhecimento e o desenvolvimento de habilidades próprias, que possam incidir nesse habito. Objetivo: Avaliar a efetividade de uma intervenção digital com fundamentação construtivista para incrementar o conhecimento do lavado das mãos. Métodos: Estudo quase-experimental, longitudinal, prospetivo. Foram escolhidos 26 alunos de enfermagem de último ano através de uma amostragem não probabilística por conven-iência. Foi feita uma intervenção virtual empregando-se o instrumento "Conhecimento so-bre higiene das mãos em profissionais sanitários" (alfa de Cronbach= 0,78) para a prova de conhecimento pre e pós intervenção. Resultados: Posterior à intervenção, 100% dos partici-pantes reconhecem as mãos como a principal fonte de transmissão e 73,10% identifica corre-tamente o tempo necessário para lavar as mãos; entretanto, não existe diferença significativa do conhecimento prévio. Conclusão: Através das intervenções construtivistas os alunos têm a oportunidade de ser gestores do seu próprio conhecimento e adquirir condutas, hábitos e experiências superiores aos objetivos formulados; entretanto, deve-se considerar os fatores como contexto e operabilidade das intervenções para conseguir a maior efetividade


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection , Students, Nursing
12.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 50: e20210023, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1289854

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Personal protective equipment is mandatory to protect patients and professionals from diseases, especially in the dental environment. The risk of gloves micro-perforations is imminent when using sharp instruments or cleaning them up during lengthy clinical procedures. Objective This study evaluated the integrity of sterile and non-sterile gloves before clinical use and clarified whether friction with disinfectant solution modifies surface morphology and integrity. Material and method Samples of gloves from four different brands were divided into two groups: (1) Sterile surgical gloves (n=260) and (2) Non-sterile gloves (n=260). They were scissored and placed in Ostby's arch so that three solutions - distilled water, ethanol 70°, ethanol 96° - were rubbed with a cotton swab. After 30s, 5, 10, and 15 minutes of solution rubbing, samples were verified by a Scanning Electron Microscope. The pore sizes were measured by Image J software. Result Regardless of the brands, all gloves have been significantly affected by solutions and assessment periods. In general, remarkable changes were evident with ethanol 70° and 96°, and higher pore diameters were observed compared to distilled water. Conclusion Rubbing disinfectant solutions increases gloves' pores sizes, and time negatively influenced its quality.


Resumo Introdução Para proteger pacientes e profissionais de doenças, o uso de equipamentos de proteção individual é obrigatório, principalmente no ambiente odontológico. O risco de microperfurações das luvas é iminente ao usar instrumentos cortantes ou na tentativa de limpar as luvas durante longos procedimentos clínicos. Objetivo Este estudo avaliou a integridade das luvas cirúrgicas e de procedimento antes do uso clínico e esclareceu se o atrito com a solução desinfetante modifica a morfologia e integridade da superfície. Material e método Amostras de luvas de quatro marcas diferentes foram divididas em dois grupos: (1) Luvas cirúrgicas (n = 260) e (2) Luvas descartáveis não estéreis (n = 260). As luvas foram cortadas e colocadas em arco de Ostby, de modo que três soluções - água destilada, etanol 70 °, etanol 96 ° foram esfregadas com um cotonete. Após 30s, 5, 10 e 15 minutos de fricção das soluções, as amostras foram verificadas utilizando um microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Os tamanhos dos poros foram medidos pelo software Image J. Resultado Independentemente das marcas, todas as luvas foram significativamente afetadas por soluções e períodos de avaliação. Em geral, maiores alterações foram evidenciadas com o uso do etanol 70° e 96°, e maiores diâmetros dos poros foram observados quando comparados à água destilada. Conclusão Esfregar soluções desinfetantes aumenta o tamanho dos poros das luvas e o tempo influenciou negativamente sua qualidade.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection , Gloves, Protective , Containment of Biohazards , Gloves, Surgical , Latex , Porosity , Dentists
13.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 22: e70938, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1340610

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo analisar o crescimento bacteriano em amostras coletadas das mãos de profissionais de saúde após higiene com água e sabão. Métodos estudo transversal analítico, realizado com profissionais de saúde por meio da coleta de amostras (print) das polpas digitais da mão dominante, em placas contendo meio de cultura cromogênico, para análise microbiológica em relação à presença das colônias. Utilizaram-se o Teste de Fisher e Qui-quadrado. Resultados foram coletadas 73 amostras e 67 (91,8%) apresentaram crescimento bacteriano. O Staphylococcus aureus metilcilina resistente foi detectado em 19 (26,0%). Destaca-se associação significativa entre colônias com perfil de multirresistência e o tempo de atuação (p=0,030) e profissão (p=0,041). Conclusão houve crescimento bacteriano nas amostras após higiene das mãos, com maior crescimento de bactérias multirresistentes entre profissionais de enfermagem e àqueles com maior tempo de atuação. Estes resultados podem contribuir para detectar as lacunas acerca das medidas adotadas para a prevenção de infeções.


ABSTRACT Objective to analyze bacterial growth in samples collected from the hands of health professionals after hygiene with soap and water. Methods cross-sectional analytical study, carried out with healthcare professionals by collecting samples (print) from the digital pulp of the dominant hand on plates containing chromogenic culture medium for microbiological analysis regarding the presence of colonies. Fisher's and Chi-square tests were used. Results 73 samples were collected and 67 (91.8%) showed bacterial growth. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 19 (26.0%). A significant association between colonies with multidrug-resistance profile and the time of performance (p=0.030) and profession (p=0.041) was highlighted. Conclusion there was bacterial growth in samples after hand hygiene, with higher growth of multidrug-resistant bacteria among nursing professionals and those with longer time of work. These results may contribute to detect the gaps about the measures adopted for infection prevention.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Growth , Hand Disinfection , Cross Infection , Health Personnel
15.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(spe): e20210176, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1284230

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar as mudanças na rotina das pessoas vivendo com HIV decorrentes da pandemia da COVID-19. Método: pesquisa qualitativa, desenvolvida por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, junto à 46 pessoas vivendo com HIV atendidas em um serviço especializado em doenças infectocontagiosas do interior de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os dados foram submetidos à análise lexicográfica, com auxílio do software IRaMuTeQ, pelos métodos de Estatística Textual Clássica, Nuvem de Palavras e Classificação Hierárquica Descendente. Resultados: foram identificadas distintas mudanças na rotina diária de pessoas vivendo com HIV decorrentes da pandemia da COVID-19, dentre elas, o uso de medidas preventivas, como a utilização de máscara e isolamento social, além de mudanças no ambiente de trabalho e de lazer, no convívio familiar, aspectos emocionais individuais e de tratamento. Conclusão e implicações para a prática: muitas mudanças e desafios de ordem física, biológica e psicossocial demonstraram serem vivenciados pelos participantes diante do cenário mundial pandêmico, decorrentes, principalmente, do isolamento social. Para tal, estratégias de enfrentamento tornam-se fundamentais no dia-a-dia das pessoas vivendo com HIV visando garantir a continuidade e tratamento ininterrupto, e a prevenção de uma sindêmia, mitigando, assim, as repercussões da COVID-19 na saúde destes indivíduos que pertencem ao grupo de risco


Objective: to identify the changes in the routine of people living with HIV resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: a qualitative research study, developed through a semi-structured interview, with 46 people living with HIV treated at a service specialized in infectious diseases in the inland of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data were submitted to lexicographic analysis, with the aid of the IRaMuTeQ software, using the methods of Classical Textual Statistics, Word Cloud and Descending Hierarchical Classification. Results: distinct changes were identified in the daily routine of people living with HIV due to the COVID-19 pandemic, including the use of preventive measures, such as wearing a mask and social isolation, in addition to changes in the work and leisure environment, in family life, individual emotional aspects and treatment. Conclusion and implications for the practice: many changes, challenges of a physical, biological and psychosocial nature have been shown by the participants in the face of the global pandemic scenario, mainly resulting from social isolation. To this end, coping strategies become essential in the everyday lives of people living with HIV in order to guarantee continuity and uninterrupted treatment, and the prevention of a syndemic, thus mitigating the repercussions of COVID-19 on the health of the individuals who belong to the risk group


Objetivo: identificar los cambios en la rutina de las personas que viven con VIH como resultado de la pandemia de COVID-19. Método: investigación cualitativa, desarrollada a través de una entrevista semiestructurada, con 46 personas que viven con VIH atendidas en un servicio especializado en enfermedades infecciosas en el interior de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Los datos fueron sometidos a análisis lexicográfico, con la ayuda del software IRaMuTeQ, y utilización de los métodos de Estadística Textual Clásica, Nube de Palabras y Clasificación Jerárquica Descendente. Resultados: se identificaron distintos cambios en la rutina diaria de las personas que viven con VIH debido a la pandemia de COVID-19, incluido el uso de medidas preventivas, como la utilización de barbijo y aislamiento social, además de cambios en el entorno laboral y de ocio, en la vida familiar, en aspectos emocionales individuales y en el tratamiento. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica: muchos cambios y desafíos de naturaleza física, biológica y psicosocial han atravesado a los participantes ante el escenario de la pandemia global, principalmente debido al aislamiento social. Para ello, las estrategias de afrontamiento se vuelven imprescindibles en el día a día de las personas que viven con VIH a fin de garantizar la continuidad y el tratamiento ininterrumpido, y la prevención de una sindemia, con el objetivo de mitigar las repercusiones del COVID-19 en la salud de estos sujetos que pertenecen al grupo de riesgo


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , HIV Infections , HIV , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hand Disinfection , Qualitative Research , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Family Relations , Feeding Behavior , Coinfection/prevention & control , Teleworking , Physical Distancing , Masks
16.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 36(3): e1192, jul.-set. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138976

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En la superficie cutánea residen microorganismos responsables del balance bioquímico, algunas son patógenas y persisten a pesar del lavado de manos. Objetivo: Identificar la flora bacteriana resistente al lavado de manos en estudiantes universitarios. Métodos: Se realizó el estudio observacional analítico de tipo longitudinal, para esto se enrolaron a estudiantes universitarios que recibieron previamente charlas educativas sobre higiene de manos, posteriormente se tomaron muestras antes y después del lavado de las manos. Resultados: De 80 muestras analizadas se identificó a Staphylococcus epidermidis como el más frecuente en 95 por ciento de los estudiantes y con el lavado de manos se redujo a 60 por ciento; el segundo agente fue Staphylococcus saprophyticcus, que estuvo presente en 75 por ciento de los casos y después del lavado, en 35 por ciento; E. coli ocupó el tercer lugar, se encontró en 42,5 por ciento de las muestras y tras la higiene de manos se redujo a 17,5 por ciento. Para los agentes transitorios como Klebsiella (p < 0,05) y Pseudomonas, el lavado de manos fue más efectivo; sin embargo, E. coli fue la enterobacteria que permaneció elevada a pesar de la higiene de manos (p = 0,01). Conclusión: Algunas colonias de E. coli son resistentes al lavado de manos, similar a los agentes residentes como Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticcus y Staphylococcus aureus(AU)


Introduction: The skin surface is inhabited by microorganisms responsible for the biochemical balance; some are pathogenic and persist despite hand washing. Objective: To identify, in university students, the bacterial flora resistant to hand washing. Methods: A longitudinal, analytical and observational study was carried out, for which university students were included who previously received educational talks on hand hygiene. Samples were taken before and after hand washing. Results: Of 80 samples analyzed, Staphylococcus epidermidis was identified as the most frequent in 95 percent of the students and, with hand washing, it was reduced to 60 percent the second agent was Staphylococcus saprophyticcus, present in 75 percent of the cases and, after hand washing, in 35 percent. E. coli occupied the third position, as it was found in 42.5 percent of the samples and, after hand hygiene, it was reduced to 17.5 percent. For transient agents like Klebsiella (P<0.05) and Pseudomonas, handwashing was more effective; however, E. coli was the enterobacterium that remained elevated despite hand hygiene (P=0.01). Conclusion: Some E. coli colonies are resistant to hand washing, similar to resident agents such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticcus and Staphylococcus aureus(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Hand Disinfection , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Observational Study
17.
Caracas; Observatorio Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación; ago. 2020. 57-78 p. ilus.(Observador del Conocimiento. Revista Especializada de Gestión Social del Conocimiento, 5, 3).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1120131

ABSTRACT

El objetivo principal de este trabajo es describir los principales aspectos biológicos, epidemiológicos y clínicos,con especial énfasis en la fisiopatología, ocasionado por el SARS-CoV-2.El Coronavirus 2 del Síndrome Agudo Respiratorio Severo,es un orthocoronavirinae, del grupoI V, pertenecientes al género betacoronavirus,que causa la actual enfermedad pandémica definida por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS)(2020), como COVID-19.Esta es considerada por los expertos mundiales como una infección viral emergente. Su origenes veterinario y su transmisión zoonótica, a partir de virus que tienen como reservorios a murciélagos y como hospedador intermediario al pangolín, desde el cual se infiere que pudo adaptarse al ser humano, para transmitirse de persona a persona,mediante gotitas respiratorias y secreciones nasales contaminadas con partículas altamente infecciosas. No se descarta la transmisión fecal-oral. La enfermedad posee un periodo de incubación de 2 a 14 días (promedio:5,2 días) y hasta ahora las medidas de prevención y control más eficientes son la cuarentena social obligatoria, el uso de tapabocas, lavado de manos con agua y jabón por al menos 20 segundos,o con productos en gel con alcohol al 70%, mantener una distancia mínima entre las personas de 2 metros. Lo aprendido de los otros dos betacoronavirus humanos relacionados, causantes de las epidemias previas: SARS-CoVen 2002-2003 y el MERSen 2012 ,permiten encarar de mejor forma la actual pandemia(AU)


The main objective of this work is to describe the main biological, epidemiological and clinical aspects, with special emphasis on pathophysiology, caused by SARS-CoV-2. Coronavirus 2 of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome is a member of group IV orthocoronavirinae, belonging to the betacoronavirus genus, which causes the current pandemic disease defined by the World Health Organization as COVID-19. This is considered by world experts as an emerging viral infection. Its origin is veterinary and its zoonotic transmission, from viruses that have bats as reservoirs to pangolin an as an intermediate host, from which it is inferred that it could have adapted to the human being, transmitted from person to person by means of respiratory droplets, and highly infectious contaminated nasal secretions Fecal-oral transmission is not ruled out. The disease has an incubation period of 2 to 14 days (5.2 days in mean), and until now the most efficient prevention and control measures are the obligatory social quarantine, the use of face masks, hand washing with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, or with products in gel with 70 alcohol, keeping a minimum distance between people of 2 meters. What has been learned from the other two related human betacoronaviruses that caused the previous epidemics: SARS-CoV in 2002-2003 and MERS in 2012, allow us to better face the current pandemic(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Viruses , Hand Disinfection , Causality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Bodily Secretions , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Pandemics
18.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1293240

ABSTRACT

El cumplimiento del protocolo de lavado de manos evita las infecciones nosocomiales, mientras que el incumplimiento ocasiona consecuencias como el aumento de la morbimortalidad, la estancia hospitalaria, así como gastos adicionales al sistema sanitario y al usuario. Esto se puede prevenir con el lavado de manos que surgió como teoría desde la antigüedad. El trabajo de investigación fue de tipo observacional descriptivo con enfoque cuantitativo y fue realizado en 24 enfermeros de un servicio de salud de la ciudad de Encarnación con el objetivo de evaluar el cumplimiento del protocolo del lavado de manos establecido en el Manual de Prevención y Control de Infecciones asociado a la Atención de la Salud del año 2017 del Ministerio de Salud Pública y Bienestar Social. Los resultados evidenciaron un 54% de incumplimiento en la técnica de lavado de manos, un 44% de incumplimiento parcial y solamente un 2% de cumplimiento. En cuanto a los cinco momentos del lavado de manos, el 85% no cumplió con todos los momentos y un 70% no ha recibido capacitación referente al lavado de manos en los últimos 2 años. Se evidenció un alto porcentaje de incumplimiento del protocolo de lavado de manos, lo que representa un riesgo para la salud que podría subsanarse con la realización de cursos de capacitaciones o retroalimentación a los profesionales de enfermería


Compliance of handwashing protocol avoid nosocomial infections, while non-compliance causes consequences such as increased morbidity and mortality, hospital stay, additional cost to the health system and the patient. This can be prevented with handwashing which emerged as a theory in ancient times. This study was descriptive observational with quantitative approach and was carried out in 24 nurses at a health service in the city of Encarnacion in order to evaluate the compliance of handwashing protocol, established in the Infection Prevention and Control Manual associated to Health Care of 2017 of the Ministry of Health Care and Social Welfare. The results showed 54% of non-compliance in the handwashing technique, 44% of partial non-compliance and just 2% of compliance. In relation to the five moments of handwashing technique, 85% did not follow all the steps and 70% did not receive training regarding to the hand washing technique in the last 2 years. A high percentage of non-compliance with the hand washing technique protocol was evidenced, which represents a health risk, which can be corrected with training or feedback workshops for nursing professionals


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Security Measures , Public Health , Cross Infection , Hand Disinfection
19.
Guatemala; MSPAS; 23 jul 2020. 9 p. graf.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1150761

ABSTRACT

Hace una breve descripción de lo que es el COVID-19 y su modo de contagio, donde además desglosa el comportamiento y medidas que deben ser tomadas en: el hogar (al entrar y estar en casa), si se tiene un enfermo o presunto contagiado, en el trabajo y el vehículo. El objetivo del documento es: disponer de lineamientos básicos y claros para la desinfección personal y así evitar el contagio y propagación del mismo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Disinfection/standards , Infection Control/standards , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Hand Disinfection/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Guatemala
20.
Guatemala; MSPAS; 28 jul 2020. 10 p. graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1150792

ABSTRACT

El documento enumera las medidas de seguridad que deberán seguirse para reducir el riesgo de contagio: cómo colocarse la mascarilla, cómo utilizarla mientras se la tiene, cómo lavarse las manos adecuadamente, las medidas de saneamiento que deberán seguirse en casa, trabajo, vehículo y si se tienen contagiados de COVID 19 en casa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/standards , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Betacoronavirus , Disinfection/methods , Personal Protection , Guatemala/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL