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1.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(1): 108-111, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420638

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dural puncture is either diagnosed by unexpectedly profound response to medication test dose or development of a postpartum postural headache. Epidural blood patch is the gold standard for treatment of PDPH when conservative management fails. However, postpartum headaches can be resistant to multiple epidural blood patches. In such cases, preexisting intracranial processes should be considered and ruled out. We report here the unique case of a pregnant patient who developed a resistant headache in the postpartum period related to an incidental intracranial aneurysm. Subsequent treatment with endovascular embolization adequately relieved her symptoms. Early surgical consultation and a multidisciplinary team approach involving neurology and neuroimaging is required for successful management of patients such as the one described here.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Post-Dural Puncture Headache/therapy , Spinal Puncture/adverse effects , Blood Patch, Epidural/methods , Postpartum Period , Anesthesiologists , Headache/etiology
2.
3.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 129-136, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364370

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Headache is one of the most frequent symptoms that occur during hemodialysis sessions. Despite the high prevalence of dialysis headache, it has been little studied. Objective: To evaluate the characteristics, impact and factors associated with dialysis headache. The behavior of the cerebral vasculature was also compared between patients with and without dialysis headache. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Consecutive patients who underwent hemodialysis were assessed through a semi-structured questionnaire, the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was performed in the first and fourth hours of hemodialysis. Results: A total of 100 patients were included; 49 of them had dialysis headache. Women (OR=5.04; 95%CI 1.95-13.04), younger individuals (OR=1.05; 95%CI 1.01-1.08), individuals with higher schooling levels (OR=3.86; 95%CI 1.4-10.7) and individuals who had spent longer times on dialysis programs (OR=0.99; 95%CI 0.98-1) had more dialysis headache (logistic regression). Individuals with dialysis headache had worse quality of life in the domains of pain and general state of health (56.9 versus 76.4, p=0.01; 49.7 versus 60.2, p=0.03, respectively). Dialysis headache was associated with significantly greater impact on life (OR=24.4; 95%CI 2.6-226.6; logistic regression). The pulsatility index (transcranial Doppler ultrasonography) was lower among patients with dialysis headache than among those without them. Conclusions: Dialysis headaches occur frequently and are associated with worse quality of life and patterns of cerebral vasodilatation.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A cefaleia é um dos sintomas mais frequentes que ocorrem durante as sessões de hemodiálise. Apesar da alta prevalência, essa cefaleia é pouco estudada. Objetivo: Avaliar as características, impacto e fatores associados à cefaleia da diálise. O comportamento da vasculatura cerebral também foi comparado entre pacientes com e sem cefaleia da diálise. Métodos: Este foi um estudo transversal. Pacientes consecutivos submetidos à hemodiálise foram avaliados por meio de questionário semiestruturado, do Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale e Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). Foi realizada ultrassonografia Doppler transcraniana na primeira e na quarta horas de hemodiálise. Resultados: Foram incluídos 100 pacientes, 49 deles tinham cefaleia da diálise. Mulheres (OR=5,04; IC95% 1,95-13,04), indivíduos mais jovens (OR=1,05; IC95% 1,01-1,08), com maior escolaridade (OR=3,86; IC95% 1,4-10,7) e que passaram mais tempo em programas de diálise (OR=0,99, IC95% 0,98-1) tiveram mais cefaleia da diálise (regressão logística). Indivíduos com cefaleia dialítica tiveram pior qualidade de vida nos domínios dor e estado geral de saúde (56,9 versus 76,4, p=0,01; 49,7 versus 60,2, p=0,03, respectivamente). A cefaleia da diálise foi associada a um impacto significativamente maior na vida (OR=24,4; IC95% 2,6-226,6; regressão logística). O índice de pulsatilidade (ultrassonografia Doppler transcraniana) foi menor entre os pacientes com cefaleia da diálise do que entre aqueles sem. Conclusões: A cefaleia da diálise ocorre com frequência e está associada a pior qualidade de vida e a padrões de vasodilatação cerebral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Quality of Life , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Headache/etiology , Headache/diagnostic imaging
4.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(4): 201-205, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1367059

ABSTRACT

La COVID-19 puede producir síntomas persistentes luego de la infección inicial. En cuadros más graves, pueden corresponder a la evolución propia de una patología crítica o a secuelas inflamatorias/fibróticas pulmonares, entre otras. Esto puede confirmarse por estudios respiratorios e imagenológicos. En el caso de la COVID-19 no grave, el denominado síndrome pos-COVID-19, se trata de síntomas persistentes luego de al menos 28 días sin una secuela orgánica clara. Los síntomas más comunes en este caso son fatiga, cefalea y disnea, que pueden persistir meses luego de la infección inicial. Su curso puede ser oscilante e incluso aumentar progresivamente. El espectro de síntomas es muy amplio y requiere una adecuada evaluación del paciente. Se cree que tiene su origen en la desregulación inmunológica luego de la infección inicial. Su evaluación y seguimiento requieren un adecuado manejo sintomático y acompañamiento por el profesional a cargo. (AU)


Patients who underwent COVID-19 can develop persisting symptoms and sequelae. Severe cases may exhibit systemic complications of critical care and/or inflammatory/fibrotic lung injury. Imaging and respiratory function tests can assist in the evaluation of both. Nonsevere cases can also develop persisting symptoms for more than 28 days, which has been defined as the post COVID-19 syndrome. The most common symptoms in said syndrome are fatigue, headache and dyspnea, which can last for months. Its course can be oscillating or even increase progressively within the first months. The considerable range of symptoms requires proper patient assessment. Post-infectious immune disregulation is believed to be the source of this syndrome. Proper assessment and followup warrant measured symptom management and emphatic care by the attending physician. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Headache/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology
5.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(3): e1480, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347533

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La población infantil presenta una escasa morbilidad y mortalidad por COVID-19; sin embargo, los niños infectados por el SARS-CoV-2 están en aumento y cabe la necesidad de caracterizarlos según sus diversas variables de presentación. Objetivo: Examinar las características sociales, clínicas, condiciones epidemiológicas y cuadro clínico de los niños diagnosticados con COVID-19. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, con muestra de 88 niños menores de 12 años. Se revisó la base de datos de la oficina de epidemiología del hospital autorizado para el registro de casos confirmados de COVID-19 en la provincia de Chota, Perú. Se obtuvo la autorización de la dirección de la institución para utilizar la data exclusivamente con fines investigativos. El periodo de análisis: 14 de abril (caso cero en la provincia) de 2020-28 de enero de 2021. Resultados: En la muestra 51,1 por ciento fueron mujeres, el promedio de edad 5,6 años; 10,2 por ciento estuvo hospitalizado, 83 por ciento fue puesto en aislamiento, y 98,9 por ciento presentó una recuperación satisfactoria. Las manifestaciones fundamentales en los niños fueron: tos 26,1 por ciento; fiebre 23,9 por ciento y cefalea 19,3 por ciento. Las condiciones epidemiológicas detectadas fueron: 1,4 por ciento viajó en las últimas dos semanas; 47,7 por ciento tuvo contagio intradomiciliario y 67 por ciento asintomático. No se informaron niños fallecidos, intubados, ventilados o con neumonía. Conclusiones: Los niños son igual de susceptibles a la COVID-19 que otras personas; presentan cuadros clínicos menos graves que cursan principalmente con tos, fiebre, cefalea y malestar general; muestran una evolución más favorable y altas prevalencias de asintomáticos y contagios intradomiciliarios(AU)


Introduction: Children population has low morbidity and mortality by COVID-19; however, children infected with SARS-CoV-2 are on the rise and may need to be characterized according to their various presentation variables. Objective: Examine the social, clinical characteristics, epidemiological conditions and clinical picture of children diagnosed with COVID-19. Methods: Retrospective descriptive study, with a sample of 88 children under 12 years old. The database of the hospital´s epidemiology office authorized for the registration of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Chota province, Peru, was reviewed. Authorization was obtained from the institution's management to use the data exclusively for research purposes. The analysis period was from April 14, 2020 (zero case in the province) to January 28, 2021. Results: In the sample 51.1 percent were women, the average age was 5.6 years; 10.2 percent were hospitalized, 83 percent were put in isolation, and 98.9 percent had a satisfactory recovery. The main manifestations in children were: cough, 26.1 percent; fever, 23.9 percent and headache, 19.3 percent. Epidemiological conditions detected were: 1.4 percent traveled in the last two weeks; 47.7 percent had intradomyciliary contagion, and 67 percent were asymptomatic. No children were reported deceased, intubated, ventilated or with pneumonia. Conclusions: Children are just as susceptible to COVID-19 as other people; they have less severe clinical pictures that occur mainly with cough, fever, headache and general discomfort; they show a more favorable evolution and high prevalence of asymptomatic and intradomyciliary contagions(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Fever/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Peru , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
6.
São Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 190-195, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1181008

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Although it is known that the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which was first seen in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has affected the whole world, mainly targets the respiratory tract, cases of this disease with a wide clinical spectrum are emerging as information is shared. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a pregnant woman who was diagnosed with venous sinus thrombosis after she developed headache and hemiparesis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity lasted for two weeks after COVID-19 had been diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with suspected COVID-19, especially in the presence of causes of hypercoagu- lability and presence of atypical features, venous sinus thrombosis needs to be kept in mind in making the differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Headache/etiology , Paresis/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , China , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Thrombophilia , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis
7.
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20210059, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340113

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To assess the effects of three 8-week exercise programs on the frequency, intensity, and impact of headaches in patients with headache attributed to temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Methodology Thirty-six patients diagnosed with headache attributed to TMD participated in the study and were divided into three groups of 12 patients: a therapeutic exercise program (G1, mean age: 26.3±5.6 years), a therapeutic and aerobic exercise program (G2, mean age: 26.0±4.6 years), and an aerobic exercise program (G3, 25.8±2.94 years). Headache frequency and intensity were evaluated using a headache diary, and the adverse headache impact was evaluated using the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6). The intensity was reported using the numerical pain rating scale. These parameters were evaluated twice at baseline (A01/A02), at the end of the 8-week intervention period (A1), and 8-12 weeks after the end of the intervention (A2). Results At A1, none of the G2 patients reported having headaches, in G1, only two patients reported headaches, and in G3, ten patients reported headache. The headache intensity scores (0.3 [95% CI: -0.401, 1.068]), (0.0 [95% CI: -0.734, 0.734]) and HIT-6 (50.7 [95% CI: 38.008, 63.459]), (49.5 [95% CI: 36.808, 62.259]), significantly decreased in G1 and G2 at A1. At A2 headache intensity scores (0.5 [95% CI: -0.256, 1.256]), (0.0 [95% CI: -0.756, 0.756]) and HIT-6 (55.1 [95% CI: 42.998, 67.268]), (51.7 [95% CI: 39.532, 63.802]) in G1 and G2 haven't change significantly. The effects obtained immediately after the completion of the intervention programs were maintained until the final follow-up in all groups. Conclusion The programs conducted by G1 (therapeutic exercises) and G2 (therapeutic and aerobic exercise) had significant results at A1 and A2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders , Headache/etiology , Headache/therapy , Exercise
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(11): 695-699, Nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142361

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Primary headaches, and particularly migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) as well as hypothyroidism are common medical conditions. To date, numerous studies have suggested a possible bidirectional relationship between migraine and hypothyroidism, although certain studies had contradictory results. Objective: To investigate whether there is any association between primary headache subtypes and thyroid disorders. Methods: A retrospective study of consecutive patients aged ≥18 years referred to the Headache Outpatient Clinic of Aeginition Hospital and diagnosed with primary headache and any thyroid disorder. Results: Out of 427 patients (males/females=76/351), 253 (59.3%) were diagnosed with migraine without aura, 53 (12.4%) with TTH, 49 (11.5%) with migraine with aura, 29 (6.8%) with medication-overuse headache, 23 (5.4%) with mixed-type headache (migraine with/without aura and TTH), nine (2.1%) with cluster headache, and 11 (2.6%) with other types of primary headaches. The prevalence of any type of thyroid disorder was 20.8% (89/427 patients). In the total sample, 27 patients (6.3%) reported hypothyroidism, 18 (4.2%) unspecified thyroidopathy, 14 (3.3%) thyroid nodules, 12 (2.8%) Hashimoto thyroiditis, 12 (2.8%) thyroidectomy, three (0.7%) thyroid goiter, and three (0.7%) hyperthyroidism. Further statistical analysis between categorical variables did not reveal any significant association between headache subtypes and thyroid dysfunction. Conclusions: No specific association was found between primary headache subtypes and specific thyroid disorder. However, a high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in general and specifically hypothyroidism was demonstrated among patients with primary headaches, which lays the foundation for further clarification in prospective longitudinal studies.


RESUMO Introdução: Cefaleias primárias e, particularmente, enxaqueca e cefaleia do tipo tensional (CTT), bem como hipotiroidismo, constituem condições médicas comuns. Até o momento, vários estudos sugeriram uma possível relação bidirecional entre enxaqueca e hipotireoidismo, embora alguns estudos tenham resultados contraditórios. Objetivo: Investigar se existe associação entre subtipos de cefaleia primária e distúrbios da tireoide. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de pacientes consecutivos com idade ≥18 anos encaminhados ao Ambulatório de Cefaleia do Hospital Aeginition, com diagnóstico de cefaleia primária e qualquer distúrbio da tireoide. Resultados: De 427 pacientes (homens/mulheres=76/351), 253 pacientes (59,3%) foram diagnosticados com enxaqueca sem aura, 53 (12,4%) com CTT, 49 (11,5%) com enxaqueca com aura, 29 (6,8 %) com cefaleia por uso excessivo de medicamentos, 23 (5,4%) com cefaleia mista (enxaqueca com/sem aura e CTT), nove (2,1%) com cefaleia em salvas e 11 (2,6%) com outros tipos de cefaleias primárias. A prevalência de qualquer tipo de distúrbio tireoidiano foi de 20,8% (89/427 pacientes). Na amostra total, 27 pacientes (6,3%) relataram hipotireoidismo, 18 (4,2%) tireoidopatia não especificada, 14 (3,3%) nódulos de tireoide, 12 (2,8%) tireoidite de Hashimoto, 12 (2,8%) tireoidectomia, três (0,7%) bócio da tireoide e três (0,7%) hipertireoidismo. Uma análise estatística posterior entre as variáveis categóricas não revelou qualquer associação significativa entre os subtipos de cefaleia e disfunção tireoidiana. Conclusões: Não encontramos associação entre subtipos de cefaleia primária e distúrbio específico da tireoide. No entanto, foi observada prevalência elevada de disfunção tireoidiana em geral e especificamente hipotireoidismo entre pacientes com cefaleia primária, o que estabelece base para maiores esclarecimentos em estudos longitudinais prospectivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Tension-Type Headache/epidemiology , Headache Disorders, Primary/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Headache/etiology , Headache/epidemiology
10.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 591-596, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138676

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El síndrome de Marfán es un trastorno multisistémico del tejido conectivo de herencia autosómica dominante, de expresión variable. La ectasia dural es un compromiso frecuente, pero poco conocido, que puede asociarse a síndrome de hipotensión endocraneana (SHE). OBJETIVO: Pre sentar un caso de cefalea invalidante secundario a SHE, para advertir de esta rara complicación, que debe tenerse presente en niños portadores de conectivopatías, en especial síndrome de Marfán. CASO CLÍNICO: Adolescente femenina de 13 años, portadora de sindrome de Marfán, de diagnóstico clínico según criterios de Ghent 2010, que consultó por cefalea ortostatica invalidante de 6 meses de evolución. La Resonancia Magnetica (RM) de cerebro mostró múltiples signos de hipotensión endocraneana, mientras que la RM de columna total mostró una ectasia dural que determinó la dilatación del saco tecal y remodelación posterior de los cuerpos vertebrales, especialmente a nivel del sacro. Se realizó tratamiento con parche sanguíneo autólogo epidural con buena respuesta clínica. CONCLUSIONES: La ectasia dural, frecuente en el sindrome de Marfán, es una causa predisponente a fuga de líquido cefaloraquideo (LCR), que podría causar cefalea ortostática segundaria al SHE.


INTRODUCTION: Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant, multi-systemic connective tissue di sorder of different presentations. Dural ectasia is a common, but little known complication that can be associated with intracranial hypotension syndrome (IHS). OBJECTIVE: To present a case of severe headache secondary to IHS in order to warn about this rare complication, which must be considered in children carriers of connective tissue diseases, especially Marfan syndrome. CLINICAL CASE: 13-year- old female carrier of Marfan syndrome, clinically diagnosed according to the 2010 Ghent criteria, who consulted due to a 6-months history of severe orthostatic headache. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple signs of intracranial hypotension, while whole-spine MRI showed dural ectasia that caused the thecal sac dilation and subsequent remodeling of vertebral bodies, es pecially the sacral ones. Treatment with an autologous epidural blood patch was administered with good clinical response. CONCLUSIONS: Dural ectasia, frequent in Marfan syndrome, is a predisposing cause of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, which could cause orthostatic headache secondary to IHS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Intracranial Hypotension/etiology , Dura Mater/pathology , Headache/etiology , Marfan Syndrome/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Intracranial Hypotension/pathology , Intracranial Hypotension/diagnostic imaging , Dilatation, Pathologic/etiology , Dilatation, Pathologic/diagnostic imaging , Dura Mater/diagnostic imaging , Headache/pathology , Headache/diagnostic imaging
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(2): 112-115, abril/jun 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361466

ABSTRACT

Esta revisão narrativa da literatura tratou da cefaleia sentinela. A cefaleia é um acometimento de alta prevalência mundial, sobretudo em mulheres. São várias as condições que podem levar à sua ocorrência, destacando-se, entre elas, a hemorragia subaracnóidea, que é sabidamente a terceira maior causa de acidente vascular encefálico. No âmbito da hemorragia subaracnóidea, existe um sintoma que, por vezes, é ignorado na investigação clÍnica do acidente vascular encefálico: é a cefaleia sentinela. Ela é conceituada como sendo cefaleia súbita, não usual, do tipo explosiva, persistente e de menor intensidade que a dor de cabeça da hemorragia subaracnóidea. Geralmente precede a hemorragia subaracnóidea por dias ou semanas. Este manuscrito traz uma revisão narrativa da literatura sobre cefaleia sentinela, usando as bases de dados PubMed® e Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde. A prevalência dessa condição é de 10% a 43% na hemorragia subaracnóidea, podendo ser fator preditor na identificação precoce do paciente com risco para sangramento aneurismático. Torna-se, então, necessária tanto a educação médica como a atuação precisa acerca do tema, a fim de mudar os desfechos da hemorragia subaracnóidea.


This narrative review of the literature addressed the sentinel headache. headaches are of high prevalence worldwide, especially in women. Several conditions can lead to its occurrence, such as the subarachnoid hemorrhage (known to be the third main cause of stroke). In the context of subarachnoid hemorrhage, there is a symptom that is sometimes overlooked in the clinical investigation of stroke: the sentinel headache. It is conceptualized as sudden, unusual, of explosive nature, persistent and of lesser intensity than the subarachnoid hemorrhage headache. It usually precedes the subarachnoid hemorrhage by days or weeks. This study provides a narrative review of the literature on sentinel headache, using the PubMed® and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature databases. The prevalence of this condition in subarachnoid hemorrhage is 10 - 43%, and may be a predictive factor in the early identification of the patient with risk for aneurysmal bleeding. Both medical education and accurate action on this issue are necessary to change the outcomes of subarachnoid hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Headache/etiology , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Vomiting/etiology , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnosis , Papilledema/etiology , Headache/diagnosis , Nausea/etiology
13.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 28-33, Jan. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088982

ABSTRACT

Abstract Prolactin (PRL) secreting adenomas are associated with high incidence of headache. The role of hyperprolactinemia in the headache context is not clear, nor is the effect of its treatment on headache. Methods: The present longitudinal study evaluated hyperprolactinemic patients (69), in terms of presence and characteristics of headache before and after hyperprolactinemia treatment. Results: Headache was reported by 45 (65.2%) patients, independent of the etiology of hyperprolactinemia. The migraine phenotype was the most prevalent (66.6%). Medications used in the treatment of headache not changed during the study. The first line of treatment of hyperprolactinemia was dopaminergic agonists. In the last reevaluation, PRL level under treatment was within the reference range in 54.7% of the cases, and it was observed complete or partial resolution of the headache in 75% of the cases. The median PRL at this time in patients with complete headache resolution was 17 ng/mL, in those who reported partial recovery was 21 ng/mL, and in those in whom the headache did not change was 66 ng/mL, with a significant difference between the group with complete headache resolution vs. the group with unchanged headache (p=0.022). In the cases with complete headache resolution, the median fall on PRL levels was 89% and in those cases with partial headache resolution 86%, both significantly different (p<0.001) from the fall in the cases with an unchanged headache. Conclusion: Data allow us to conclude that, in this series, in the majority of cases the reduction in the level of PRL was followe3d by cessation or relief of the pain.


Resumo Os adenomas secretores de prolactina (PRL) estão associados à alta incidência de cefaleia. O papel da hiperprolactinemia no contexto da dor de cabeça não está claro, nem o efeito da redução dos níveis da PRL na cefaleia. Métodos: O presente estudo longitudinal avaliou pacientes hiperprolactinêmicos (69), quanto à presença e às características da cefaleia antes e após o tratamento da hiperprolactinemia. Resultados: Cefaleia foi relatada por 45 (65,2%) pacientes, independente da etiologia da hiperprolactinemia. O fenótipo de enxaqueca foi mais prevalente (66,6%). Os medicamentos usados ​​no tratamento da cefaleia não foram alterados durante o estudo. A primeira linha de tratamento da hiperprolactinemia foram os agonistas dopaminérgicos. Na última reavaliação, o nível de PRL sob tratamento estava dentro da faixa de referência em 54,7% dos casos, observando-se resolução completa ou parcial da cefaleia em 75% dos casos. A mediana de PRL neste momento em pacientes com resolução completa da cefaleia foi de 17 ng/mL, nos que relataram recuperação parcial foi de 21 ng/mL, e naqueles em que a cefaleia não se alterou foi de 66 ng/mL, com uma diferença significativa entre o grupo com resolução completa da cefaleia versus o grupo com cefaleia inalterada (p=0,022). Nos casos com resolução completa da cefaleia, a queda mediana nos níveis de PRL foi de 89% e nos casos com resolução parcial de cefaleia de 86%, ambos significativamente diferentes (p<0,001) da queda nos casos com cefaleia inalterada. Conclusão: Os dados permitem concluir que, nesta série, na maioria dos casos, a redução do nível de PRL foi seguida pela cessação ou alívio da dor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Prolactin/blood , Hyperprolactinemia/therapy , Headache/prevention & control , Headache/blood , Pituitary Neoplasms/complications , Pituitary Neoplasms/therapy , Reference Values , Hyperprolactinemia/complications , Adenoma/complications , Adenoma/therapy , Analysis of Variance , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dopamine Agonists/therapeutic use , Headache/etiology
14.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057214

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe a case of a male adolescent with symptomatic idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) associated with obesity treated with bariatric surgery. Case description: A 16-year-and-6-month-old severely obese boy [weight: 133.6 kg; height: 1.74 m (Z score: +0.14); BMI: 44.1 kg/m2 (Z score: +4.4)], Tanner pubertal stage 5, presented biparietal, high-intensity, and pulsatile headaches, about five times per week, associated with nocturnal awakenings, and partial improvement with common analgesics, for three months. Ophthalmologic evaluation evidenced bilateral papilledema. Cranial computed tomography revealed no mass or anatomic abnormalities. Lumbar puncture showed increased intracranial pressure of 40 cmH2O (reference value: <28 cmH2O) with a normal content. After being diagnosed with IIH, the patient was started on acetazolamide. However, after three months, he was still symptomatic. He was diagnosed with obesity due to excess energy intake and, as he had failed to lose weight after a conventional clinical treatment, bariatric surgery was indicated. The patient (at 16 years and nine months) underwent an uncomplicated laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Ophthalmologic evaluation, performed five months after surgery, revealed normal visual acuity in both eyes and improvement of bilateral papilledema. Follow-up at 18 months showed a 67.5% loss of excess weight (weight: 94.5 kg and BMI: 31.2 kg/m2) and complete resolution of IIH symptoms. Comments: IIH is characterized by increased intracranial pressure with no evidence of deformity or obstruction of the ventricular system on neuroimaging. It has been associated with obesity. Bariatric surgery may be a valid alternative approach for morbidly obese adolescent patients with refractory symptoms.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever um caso de cirurgia bariátrica como tratamento de pseudotumor cerebral primário (PTCP) em adolescente do sexo masculino com obesidade. Descrição do caso: Adolescente, sexo masculino, 16 anos e 6 meses, com obesidade exógena [peso:133,6 kg; estatura:1,74 m (escore z: +0,14); IMC: 44,1 kg/m2 (escore z: +4,4)], estadiamento puberal de Tanner 5, apresentando cefaleia bi-parietal, pulsátil e de alta-intensidade, cerca de cinco vezes por semana, associada a despertares noturnos, e com melhora parcial com analgésicos comuns, há três meses. A avaliação oftalmológica evidenciou papiledema bilateral e a tomografia computadorizada de crânio não revelou massas ou alterações anatômicas. A punção lombar mostrou pressão intracraniana elevada de 40 cmH2O (Referência: <28 cmH2O) com conteúdo normal. Feito o diagnóstico, o paciente foi iniciou uso de acetazolamida. No entanto, após 3 meses, o paciente mantinha-se sintomático. Ele foi diagnosticado com obesidade devido ao consumo calórico excessivo e, como não havia obtido sucesso na perda de peso com tratamento clínico convencional, a cirurgia bariátrica foi indicada. Aos 16 anos e 9 meses, o paciente foi submetido a gastrectomia vertical laparoscópica sem complicações. A avaliação oftalmológica, cinco meses após a cirurgia, revelou melhora do papiledema bilateral com acuidade visual normal em ambos os olhos. Apresentou perda de excesso de peso de 67,5% (peso: 94,5 kg e IMC:31,2 kg/m2) e resolução completa dos sintomas de PPTC 18 meses após a cirurgia. Comentários: O PTCP é caracterizado pelo aumento da pressão intracraniana, sem evidência de deformidade ou obstrução do sistema ventricular na neuroimagem. Está associado à obesidade. A cirurgia bariátrica pode ser uma alternativa terapêutica válida para pacientes adolescentes obesos graves com sintomas refratários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Acetazolamide/therapeutic use , Spinal Puncture/methods , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pseudotumor Cerebri/diagnosis , Pseudotumor Cerebri/physiopathology , Pseudotumor Cerebri/drug therapy , Weight Loss/physiology , Papilledema/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Aftercare , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Fundus Oculi , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/etiology
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(2): 354-369, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011446

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. La malaria (o paludismo) durante la gestación impacta negativamente la salud de la madre y del neonato, con alto riesgo de complicaciones clínicas y mortalidad. En las regiones de alta endemia se han caracterizado, especialmente, la anemia materna y el bajo peso al nacer, pero es poco conocido el espectro clínico en las zonas de baja endemia. Objetivo. Caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente los episodios de malaria en mujeres gestantes hospitalizadas en el departamento de Antioquia entre el 2010 y el 2014. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo, con historias clínicas de mujeres gestantes con malaria por Plasmodium falciparum y P. vivax. Se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos de malaria complicada de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y de la Guía para la atención clínica integral del paciente con malaria vigente en Colombia. Resultados. Se analizaron 111 casos; el 13,5 % se clasificó como complicación grave según los criterios de la OMS, porcentaje que ascendió a 23,4 % según los criterios de la guía colombiana. Las complicaciones detectadas fueron disfunción hepática, anemia, acidosis y trombocitopenia grave. No se observó diferencia en la frecuencia de las complicaciones según la especie de plasmodio. El 39,4 % de los casos presentó signos generales de peligro; la palidez y la ictericia fueron los más frecuentes. El 40,5 % presentó signos de peligro para la gestación como la cefalea persistente, el dolor abdominal y el sangrado vaginal. Conclusiones. La malaria grave se presenta con gran frecuencia en las mujeres gestantes, sin diferencia según la especie de plasmodio, y se manifiesta con signos de peligro precozmente reconocibles. Se encontró un subregistro hospitalario del 88 % de los casos graves y falta de exámenes de laboratorio para un diagnóstico más completo. Se requiere un protocolo para el diagnóstico clínico de las mujeres gestantes con malaria.


Abstract Introduction: Malaria during pregnancy has a negative impact on maternal-neonatal health, with a high risk of clinic complications and mortality. High endemic areas are specially characterized by maternal anaemia and low birth weight. The clinical spectrum is little known in low endemic areas. Objective: To clinically and epidemiologically characterize malaria episodes in hospitalized pregnant women in the Department of Antioquia (Colombia) in the period 2010-2014. Materials and methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study with medical records of pregnant women with P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria. The WHO severe malaria diagnostic criteria and the Colombian Guía para la atención clínica integral del paciente con malaria (guidelines for comprehensive malaria treatment) were used. Results: We analyzed 111 cases, out of which 13.5% were classified as severe malaria according to the WHO criteria. Following the Colombian Guidelines, the proportion increased to 23.4%. Identified complications included hepatic dysfunction, anaemia, acidosis, and severe thrombocytopenia. No difference in the frequency of complications by Plasmodium species was observed; 39.4% of the cases presented general danger signs, pallor and jaundice being the most frequent; 40.5% showed danger signs for pregnancy, such as persistent headache, abdominal pain, and vaginal bleeding. Conclusions: Severe malaria is a highly frequent event in pregnant women, without differences by Plasmodium species. It shows early recognizable dangers signs. Hospital under-reporting was identified in 88% of severe cases as well as a lack of laboratory tests for a more comprehensive diagnosis. A protocol for the clinical diagnosis of pregnant women with malaria is required.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Prenatal Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Gestational Age , Malaria, Vivax/complications , Malaria, Falciparum/complications , Colombia/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Secondary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Headache/etiology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Anemia/etiology , Jaundice/etiology
16.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 311-314, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013425

ABSTRACT

Abstract Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is a cerebrovascular disorder leading to multifocal arterial constriction and dilation. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is possibly caused by transient deregulation of cerebral vascular tone. We report a rare case of a patient with chief complain of postpartum headache, was later diagnosed as a case of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. A young full term primigravida with good uterine contraction admitted to labour room. Later she complained of leaking per vagina and on examination meconium stained liquor was noted. Caesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia was done and intra-operative period was uneventful. Both mother and baby were normal and shifted to postoperative ward and nursery respectively. In postoperative ward, mother complained of severe headache after 1 h and later developed seizure. Midazolam was given intravenously and was intubated and transferred to critical care unit for further investigation and management. Non contrast computerised tomography scan of brain showed right occipital intracerebral as well as subarachnoid bleed. CT angiography showed right vertebral artery narrowing without any other vascular malformation. Patient was managed in critical care unit for 2 days and then extubated and shifted to high dependency ward after a day observation and discharged 3 days later after a full uneventful recovery.


Resumo A síndrome de vasoconstrição cerebral reversível é uma doença cerebrovascular que leva à constrição e dilatação arterial multifocal. A síndrome de vasoconstrição cerebral reversível é possivelmente causada pela desregulação transitória do tônus vascular cerebral. Relatamos um caso raro de uma paciente com queixa principal de cefaleia pós-parto, posteriormente diagnosticada como um caso de síndrome de vasoconstrição cerebral reversível. A jovem primigesta a termo apresentando boa contração uterina foi internada em sala de parto. Mais tarde, a parturiente queixou-se de perda de líquido pela vagina e, ao exame, líquido amniótico manchado foi observado. O parto cesariano sob raquianestesia foi realizado, e não houve intercorrência no período intraoperatório. Tanto a mãe quanto o bebê estavam normais e foram transferidos para a sala de recuperação pós-operatória e berçário, respectivamente. Na sala de recuperação, a mãe queixou-se de forte dor de cabeça após uma hora e depois desenvolveu convulsão. Midazolam foi administrado por via intravenosa, e a paciente foi intubada e transferida para uma unidade de terapia intensiva para posterior investigação e tratamento. A tomografia computadorizada sem contraste do cérebro mostrou hemorragia intracerebral occipital direita e subaracnoide. A angiotomografia mostrou estreitamento da artéria vertebral direita, sem qualquer outra malformação vascular. A paciente foi tratada em unidade de terapia intensiva por dois dias e, em seguida, foi extubada e transferida para a ala de alta dependência onde permaneceu um dia em observação, recebendo alta hospitalar três dias depois, após uma recuperação completa e sem intercorrências.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Vasoconstriction , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Postpartum Period , Headache/etiology , Syndrome , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Headache/diagnostic imaging , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods
17.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4685, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019811

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess patients with hypertensive crisis, classified as urgency, emergency or pseudocrisis, and identify the associated variables. Methods: We evaluated a total of 508 patients (57% women; 56.3±13.8 years old) with hypertensive crisis (diastolic blood pressure of 120mmHg), aged 18 years or over, seen at the emergency department of a public general hospital. Results: The prevalence of hypertensive crises was 6/1,000; in that, 71.7% presented hypertensive urgency, 19.1% hypertensive emergency, and 9.2% hypertensive pseudocrisis. In the multinominal logistic regression, pseudocrisis and urgency conditions were compared to hypertensive emergency. Therefore, the presence of pain (OR: 55.58; 95%CI: 10.55-292.74) except chest pain and headache, and emotional problems (OR: 17.13; 95%CI: 2.80-104.87) increased the likelihood of hypertensive pseudocrisis. Age >60 years (OR: 0,32; 95%CI: 0.10-0.96) and neurologic problems (OR: 1.5.10-8; 95%CI: 1.5.10-8-1.5.10-8) protected against hypertensive pseudocrisis. The comparison of hypertensive urgency with hypertensive emergency showed that age >60 years (OR: 0.50; 95%CI: 0.27-0.92), neurologic (OR: 0.09; 95%CI: 0.04-0.18) and emotional problems (OR: 0.06; 95%CI: 4.7.10-3-0.79) protected against hypertensive urgency. Moreover, only headache (OR: 14.28; 95%CI: 3.32-61.47) increased the likelihood of hypertensive urgency. Conclusion: Advanced age and neurological problems were associated to hypertensive emergency. Headache was associated with hypertensive urgency. Pain and emotional problems were associated with hypertensive pseudocrisis. Our results can contribute to identifying patients with hypertensive crisis who seek emergency services.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar pacientes com crise hipertensiva, classificada em urgência, emergência ou pseudocrise, e identificar variáveis associadas. Métodos: Foram avaliados 508 pacientes (57% mulheres; 56,3±13,8 anos) com crise hipertensiva (pressão diastólica de 120mmHg), idade maior ou igual a 18 anos, atendidos em um serviço de emergência de um hospital geral público. A crise hipertensiva foi classificada em urgência, emergência ou pseudocrise. Resultados: A prevalência da crise hipertensiva foi 6/1.000, com 71,7% com urgência hipertensiva, 19,1% com emergência hipertensiva e 9,2% com pseudocrise hipertensiva. Na análise de regressão logística multinomial, as condições de pseudocrise e urgência foram comparadas com a emergência hipertensiva. Assim, presença de dor (OR: 55,58; IC95%: 10,55-292,74), exceto precordialgia e cefaleia, e problemas emocionais (OR: 17,13; IC95%: 2,80-104,87) elevaram a chance para pseudocrise hipertensiva. Idade acima de 60 anos (OR: 0,32; IC95%: 0,10-0,96) e problemas neurológicos (OR: 1,5.10-8; IC95%: 1,5.10-8-1,5.10-8) foram protetores para pseudocrise hipertensiva. A urgência hipertensiva comparada com emergência hipertensiva mostrou que idade acima de 60 anos (OR: 0,50; IC95%: 0,27-0,92), problemas neurológicos (OR: 0,09; IC95%: 0,04-0,18) e emocionais (OR: 0,06; IC95%: 4,7.10-3-0,79) foram protetores para urgência hipertensiva, e apenas cefaleia (OR: 14,28; IC95%: 3,32-61,47) elevou a chance para urgência hipertensiva. Conclusão: Idade mais elevada e problemas neurológicos se associaram à emergência hipertensiva. Cefaleia associou-se à urgência hipertensiva. Dor e problemas emocionais se associaram à pseudocrise hipertensiva. Nossos resultados podem contribuir para aprimorar a identificação de pacientes com crise hipertensiva que procuram serviços de emergência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Triage/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Emergencies , Headache/etiology , Hospitals, Public , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/diagnosis , Middle Aged
18.
Med. infant ; 25(4): 303-310, diciembre 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-970470

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La trombosis de senos venosos cerebrales (TSVC) es infrecuente en pediatría. Está asociada a condiciones como infecciones, deshidratación, fallo renal, traumatismo de cráneo, neoplasias, trastornos hematológicos, etc. Cefalea, vómitos, alteración del sensorio y hemiparesia son los síntomas más frecuentes. El diagnóstico es confirmado por TC con angio y/o RM con angio. La anticoagulación es el tratamiento de elección. Los pacientes suelen evolucionar favorablemente. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo observacional de pacientes con TSVC atendidos en el Hospital Garrahan desde 2010 a 2017. Las variables registradas fueron: edad, sexo; manifestaciones clínicas, factores de riesgo; estudios diagnósticos, tratamiento y evolución. Resultados: Se describen 34 pacientes con TSVC. Los adolescentes fueron el grupo mayor. La cefalea fue el síntoma más frecuente. Angio TC, RM y/o angio RM confirmaron el diagnóstico; los senos transverso, sagital superior y sigmoideo fueron los más comprometidos. 21 pacientes tenían patología oncológica y 14 procesos infecciosos. El tratamiento de elección fue la anticoagulación. Tuvieron buena evolución el 82%. Conclusiones: Debemos sospechar esta entidad en dos grupos: el primero formado por lactantes y pre-escolares con patología infecciosa; y un segundo integrado por escolares y adolescentes con patología oncológica, especialmente aquellos que reciben L-ASA.Es importante resaltar el valor de la TC y angio TC para hacer diagnóstico oportuno, resultando accesible las 24 horas en el hospital


Introduction: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is uncommon in children. CVST is associated with conditions, such as infections, dehydration, renal failure, head trauma, cancer, and hematological disorders. Headache, vomiting, sensory alterations, and hemiparesis are the most common symptoms. Diagnosis is confirmed by angio CT and/or MRA. Anticoagulation is the treatment of choice. Outcome is generally good. Material and Methods: An observational, descriptive study of patients with CVST seen at Garrahan Hospital between 2010 and 2017. The following variables were recorded: age, sex; clinical manifestations, risk factors; diagnostic studies, treatment, and outcome. Results: 34 patients with CVST were studied. Most patients were adolescents. Headache was the most common symptom. Angio CT, MRI, and/or MRA confirmed the diagnosis; the transverse, superior sagittal, and sigmoid sinuses were most frequently affected. Of the patients, 21 had oncological disease and 14 infections. Anticoagulation was the treatment of choice. Outcome was good in 82%. Conclusions: CVST should be suspected in the following two groups: A first group consisting of infants and preschool children with infections and a second group of school-age children and adolescents with cancer, especially those receiving L-ASA. It is important to highlight the role of CT and angio CT for early diagnosis as the study is available day and night at the hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Vomiting/etiology , Cerebral Veins/diagnostic imaging , Headache/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Prospective Studies , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(8): 507-511, Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950575

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a syndrome that was unknown until the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is a cause of orthostatic headache, which remains underdiagnosed and, rarely, can result in several complications including dural venous sinus thrombosis, subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Some of these complications are potentially life-threatening and should be recognized promptly, mainly by imaging studies. We reviewed the MRI of nine patients with SIH and describe the complications observed in three of these patients. Two of them had subdural hematoma and one had a dural venous sinus thrombosis detected by computed tomography and MRI. We concluded that MRI findings are of great importance in the diagnosis of SIH and its complications, which often influence the clinical-surgical treatment of the patient.


RESUMO Hipotensão Intracraniana Espontânea (HIE) é uma síndrome desconhecida até o advento das imagens de Ressonância Magnética (RM). É uma causa de cefaleia ortostática que permanece subdiagnosticada e raramente resulta em complicações, como trombose de seios venosos durais, hematoma subdural e hemorragia subaracnoidea. Algumas dessas complicações são potencialmente ameaçadoras à vida e devem ser prontamente reconhecidas pelos estudos de imagem. Nós revisamos as RM de 9 pacientes com HIE e descrevemos as complicações observadas em 3 casos. Dois deles tiveram hematoma subdural e um teve trombose de seio venoso dural detectados por tomografia computadorizada e RM. Concluímos que achados de RM são de grande importância no diagnóstico de HIE e suas complicações, frequentemente influenciando o tratamento clínico-cirúrgico do paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Intracranial Hypotension/complications , Intracranial Hypotension/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma, Subdural, Intracranial/etiology , Hematoma, Subdural, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/etiology , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Headache/etiology
20.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(3): 315-317, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958286

ABSTRACT

Abstract Headache is a common symptom in the postoperative period and may be attributable to, dehydration, sleep deprivation, intentional or inadvertent dural puncture during a neuraxial anesthesia technique, from an inhaled anesthetic agent, or from specific surgical procedures, among other etiologies. However, more serious, uncommon and life-threatening conditions as carotid artery dissection can be associated with severe neurologic sequelae in otherwise young, healthy patients. For these reasons, clinicians involved with postoperative patients should be familiar with the presentation and management strategies for this complication.


Resumo A cefaleia é um sintoma comum no período pós-operatório e pode ser atribuída à desidratação, privação do sono, punção dural intencional ou acidental durante a administração de anestesia neuraxial, ao anestésico inalatório ou a procedimentos cirúrgicos específicos, entre outras etiologias. Entretanto, condições mais graves, incomuns e potencialmente fatais, como a dissecção da artéria carótida, podem estar associadas a sequelas neurológicas graves em pacientes jovens e, sob outros aspectos, saudáveis. Portanto, os médicos envolvidos com pacientes pós-operados devem estar familiarizados com as estratégias de apresentação e manejo dessa complicação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Laparoscopy/instrumentation , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection , Headache/etiology , Anesthesia/methods
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