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Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1250-1257, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134433


SUMMARY: Residential heating with wood is an important source of ambient air pollution. Evidence links air pollution to serious health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to wood smoke pollution causes morphological changes in the development of the rat lung, leading to altered lung structure and function during later life. We presumed that analysis of the fetal lung stereology provides novel insights into the underlying processes mediating particulate matter associated developmental changes and damage. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of exposure during gestational period to wood smoke pollution on lung fetal morphology. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution. Complete lungs samples were obtained from 24 fetus from healthy female G3 rats subjected to cesarean at 19 days post-fecundation. The lungs were prepared for histological and stereological analysis. The volume fraction of terminal bronchioles VV [tb, lung] and volume fraction of parenchyma VV [par, lung], surface density of terminal bronchioles SV [tb, lung] as well as numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung] were calculated by light microscopy. Statistical analysis detected significant differences between groups in volume density VV [tb, lung; %] (p=0.0012) and surface density SV [tb, lung; mm2/mm3] (p<0.0001) of the terminal bronchioles. However, it did not show differences between groups in the stereological parameter volume density VV [par, lung; %] (p=0.0838) and numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung; nº/mm2] (p=0.0705). The analysis of the evidence obtained indicates that exposure to environmental pollution was affects lung maturation, and particularly the proportion and area of terminal bronchioles in the fetal lung. In conclusion, maternal exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in the lower conducting airways of lungs, which, according to urban pollution studies, could be related to early childhood lower respiratory illness. The public health implications of this study are that reducing or avoiding exposure to wood smoke is important before and during pregnancy.

RESUMEN: La calefacción residencial con leña es una fuente importante de contaminación ambiental. La evidencia vincula la contaminación del aire con graves efectos sobre la salud, como la mortalidad y la morbilidad respiratoria y cardiovascular. Hipotetizamos que la exposición prenatal a la contaminación por humo de leña causa cambios en el desarrollo del pulmón de rata, lo que conduce a una morfo-función pulmonar alteradas durante la vida posterior, creemos que el análisis de la estereología pulmonar fetal proporcionará nuevos conocimientos sobre los procesos subyacentes que median esos cambios. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos de la exposición prenatal a la contaminación ambiental por humo de leña sobre la morfología pulmonar fetal. Ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña. En fetos de 19 días post-fecundación fue obtenido el pulmón para análisis histológico y estereológico. Fue determinado la fracción de volumen de bronquiolos terminales VV [tb, pulmón], fracción de volumen del parénquima VV [par, pulmón], densidad superficial de los bronquiolos terminales SV [tb, pulmón] así como la densidad numérica de exocrinocitos NA [ec, pulmón]. El análisis estadístico detectó diferencias significativas entre grupos en la densidad de volumen V [tb, pulmón; %] (p=0,0012) y densidad superficial SV [tb, pulmón; mm2/mm3] (p<0,0001) de los bronquiolos terminales. Sin embargo, no demostró diferencias entre grupos en la densidad de volumen VV [par, pulmón; %] (p=0,0838) y numérica de exocrinocitos bronquiolares NA [ec, pulmón; nº / mm ] (p=0,0705). El análisis de la evidencia obtenida indica que la exposición a la contaminación ambiental afectó la maduración pulmonar, y particularmente la proporción y área de bronquiolos terminales en el pulmón fetal. En conclusión, la exposición materna a la contaminación por humo de leña durante la gestación se asoció a una disminución de las vías respiratorias conductoras de aire en pulmón, lo que, según estudios de contaminación urbana, podría estar relacionado con enfermedades de las vías respiratorias inferiores en la primera infancia. Las implicaciones para la salud pública de este estudio son que reducir o evitar la exposición al humo de leña es importante previo y durante la gestación. Por otro lado, la contaminación por humo de leña tiene un gran impacto en la salud pública que, en teoría, es posible prevenir.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Lung/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Wood , Analysis of Variance , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Environmental Exposure , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Heating , Lung/pathology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828266


OBJECTIVE@#By observing the effect of inner-heating acupuncture on the expression of Wnt1, Axin and β-catenin in the intervertebral disc of rats with lumbar degenerative disease and to explore the regulatory mechanism of inner-heating acupuncture on the apoptosis of annulus fibrosus cells in rats with lumbar degenerative disease.@*METHODS@#Forty SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, inner heating acupuncture group and acupuncture group with 10 rats in each group. Except for normal group, all rats were modeled. Bilateral were selected for inner-heating acupuncture and acupuncture treatment. Western-bolt assay was used to detect the expression of Wnt1, Axin and β-catenin in rat intervertebral discs.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model group, Wnt1 and β-catenin expression in annulus fibrosus cells of rats in the inner heating acupuncture group and the acupuncture group were significantly decreased(0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Inner heating acupuncture can down regulate the expression of Wnt1 and β-catenin and up regulate the expression of Axin in annulus fibrosus of rats with lumbar degenerative desease. It is suggested that the mechanism may be to regulate the expression of related factors in the β-catenin signaling pathway, so as to achieve the goal of treating lumbar degenerative diseases.

Acupuncture Therapy , Animals , Heating , Intervertebral Disc , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , beta Catenin
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827266


BACKGROUND@#The health hazards of indoor air pollution are well-established but studies of the health effects due to pollution from heating are rare. This study investigated the association of heating and disability for activities of daily living among Chinese middle-aged and elderly.@*METHODS@#We used two consecutive surveys in a cohort of over 17,000 adults aged 45 or older, who were interviewed first in 2011-2012 and then in 2013. In these surveys, taking advantage of random survey time, we applied a random effects logit regression model that included an interaction between pollution-producing heating fuel and a dummy variable, which measured interview time based on whether or not it was heating season.@*RESULTS@#Exposure to pollution-producing heating fuel was associated with a 39.9% (OR 1.399; 95%CI 1.227-1.594) and 71.0% (OR 1.710; 95%CI 1.523-1.920) increase in the likelihood of disability in activities of daily living (DADL) and disability in instrumental activities of daily living (DIADL), respectively. In heating season between year 2011 and 2013, moving from clean heating energy for heating to pollution-producing fuel was linked with an increase in the likelihoods having DADL and DIADL, with the OR of 2.014 (95%CI 1.126-3.600) and 1.956 (95%CI 1.186-3.226), respectively. However, disability increases due to change from clean energy to pollution-producing heating energy did not appear in advantaged education respondents.@*CONCLUSIONS@#We found that exposure to heating by burning of coal, wood, or crop residue was associated with disability in performing daily living activities. Health policymakers should take indoor pollution due to heating into consideration as it is a major determinant of activities of daily living in elderly people; especially, such policy should focus on elderly people who have disadvantaged education.

Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Air Pollution, Indoor , China , Disabled Persons , Female , Heating , Housing , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(6): e00246118, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124289


Resumen: Coyhaique, en el sur de Chile, es una de las ciudades más contaminadas de América, debido a la quema de leña. En 2016, se lanzó una sustitución masiva de la tecnología de calefacción residencial para disminuir las concentraciones de partículas de aire en el invierno. Basado en análisis de series de tiempo, el artículo analiza el efecto de esta medida en los niveles de MP2,5 y en las hospitalizaciones por afecciones respiratorias agudas en personas menores de 15 años.

Abstract: Coyhaique (Southern Chile) is one of the most polluted cities in the Americas due to the burning of firewood. In 2016, a mass substitution of residential heating technology was launched to decrease the air concentrations of particulate matter in the winter. Based on time series analyses, the article discusses the effect of this measure on PM2.5 levels and hospitalizations for acute respiratory conditions in individuals under 15 years of age.

Resumo: Coyhaique, no sul de Chile, é uma das cidades mais poluídas devido a queima de lenha nas Américas. Em 2016 se deu início a uma massiva substituição da tecnologia de aquecimento do interior das vivendas para diminuir as concentrações atmosféricas de material particulado no inverno. Através de análises de séries temporais, o artigo discute o efeito desta medida nos níveis de MP2,5 e nas internações por urgências respiratórias em menores de 15 anos.

Humans , Adolescent , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Seasons , Technology , Brazil , Chile , Environmental Monitoring , Cities , Particulate Matter/analysis , Heating , Hospitalization
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811435


PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different numbers of heat treatments applied to superstructure porcelain on optical, thermal, and phase formation properties of zirconia.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty zirconia specimens were prepared in the form of rectangular prism. Specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10) according to the number of firing at heating values of porcelain. Color differences and translucency parameter were measured, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA).RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in ΔE, TP, L, a, and b value changes of the zirconia specimens as a result of repetitive firing processes (P>.05).CONCLUSION: Although additional firing processes up to 4 increase peak density in thermal analysis, additional firing processes up to 4 times can be applied safely as they do not result in a change in color and phase character of zircon frameworks.

Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Dental Porcelain , Fires , Heating , Hot Temperature , X-Ray Diffraction
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(5): 407-413, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059102


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vegetables have some beneficial effects on human health due to their antioxidant compounds, like polyphenols. Cooking leads to many physical and chemical changes to plant structure that can alter the phytochemical compounds of vegetables. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of heat treatment and freezing on the antioxidant properties of garlic, onion, broccoli and cauliflower. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental in vitro study in a university laboratory. METHODS: Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) were obtained from a local store. These vegetables were divided into three treatment groups: raw, heated and frozen. The heat treatment consisted of heating them in a drying oven at 150 °C for 20 minutes. The freezing treatment consisted of keeping them frozen at -20 °C until analysis. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde levels of the vegetables were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, respectively. RESULTS: Heat treatment had deleterious effects on the antioxidant properties of onion and garlic; and it decreased the antioxidant activity of broccoli. Freezing improved the antioxidant activity of broccoli and garlic, but had detrimental effects for cauliflower and onion. CONCLUSIONS: Heat treatment and freezing exhibit different effects on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, cauliflower, garlic and onion. Convenient cooking and storage patterns should be identified for each vegetable, to obtain the best nutritional benefit from the antioxidant compounds of vegetables.

Vegetables/chemistry , Allium/chemistry , Food Handling/methods , Food Preservation/methods , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Brassica/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Onions/chemistry , Freezing , Garlic/chemistry , Heating , Nutritive Value
Braz. dent. j ; 30(5): 459-466, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039139


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate of pre-heating, filler contents and ceramic thickness on film thickness, microshear bond strength, degree of conversion and color change on ceramic veneers. Two experimental composites were prepared (Bis-GMA/UDMA/BisEMA/ TEGDMA), with different amounts of filler (65% or 50%wt) simulating a conventional and a flowable composite. The flowable (F) was used at room temperature and, the conventional either at room temperature (C) or pre-heated (CPH). Disk-shaped ceramics with different thickness (0.4 mm, 0.8 mm, 1.5 mm) were prepared. The film thickness was evaluated according to the ISO 4049 (n=10). The microshear bond strength (n=10) was evaluated in enamel using tubing specimens light-cured through the ceramic veneer. The degree of conversion was evaluated using Raman spectroscopy. The color change of the ceramic restorations (n=10) was evaluated by spectrophotometry. The results were submitted to 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (a=5%). For the film thickness 1-way ANOVA was used (a=5%). The C presented the thicker film thickness; the CPH produced a similar film thickness in comparison to the F. All composites showed similar microshear bond strength. The degree of conversion of the F was higher than the C and CPH. The degree of conversion of the composites photo-activated through a 0.4 mm was higher than the composites photo-activated through thicker ceramics. The C showed the highest color change, while the CPH showed similar color change to the F. In conclusion, pre-heated conventional composites seem to be a potential alternative to lute ceramic veneers such as the flowable composites.

Resumo O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar a influência do pré-aquecimento, conteúdo de carga e espessura da cerâmica na espessura da película, resistência de união ao microcisalhamento, grau de conversão e alteração de cor na cimentação de cerâmicas. Dois compósitos experimentais foram preparados (Bis-GMA / UDMA / BisEMA / TEGDMA), com diferentes quantidades de carga (65% ou 50% em peso), simulando um compósito convencional e um fluido. O fluido (F) foi usado à temperatura ambiente e o convencional, à temperatura ambiente (C) ou pré-aquecido (CPH). Foram preparados discos de cerâmica com diferentes espessuras (0,4mm, 0,8mm, 1,5mm). A espessura da película foi avaliada de acordo com a ISO 4049 (n=10). A resistência de união ao microcisalhamento (n=10) foi avaliada em esmalte utilizando espécimes ​​fotopolimerizados através da cerâmica. O grau de conversão foi avaliado usando espectroscopia Raman. A alteração de cor das restaurações cerâmicas (n=10) foi avaliada por espectrofotometria. Os resultados foram submetidos à ANOVA 2- fatores e ao teste post hoc de Tukey (a=5%). Para espessura de película foi utilizada a ANOVA 1-fator (a=5%). O grupo C apresentou maior espessura de película; o CPH produziu uma espessura semelhante ao F. Todos os compósitos mostraram resistência de união ao microcisalhamento similares. O grau de conversão do F foi maior que C e CPH. O grau de conversão dos compósitos fotoativados através 0,4 mm foi maior que dos compósitos fotoativados através de cerâmicas mais espessas. O grupo C apresentou a maior mudança de cor, enquanto o CPH apresentou mudança de cor semelhante ao F. Em conclusão, compósitos convencionais pré-aquecidos assim como compósitos fluídos, parecem ser uma alternativa em potencial para cimentar laminados cerâmicos.

Resin Cements , Dental Veneers , Materials Testing , Ceramics , Composite Resins , Dental Porcelain , Heating
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 253-254, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001136
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758960


Thermal conditions are an important environmental factor in maintaining healthy pigs because they affect feed intake, growth efficiency, reproduction and immune responses in pigs. RAVI, a regenerative far-infrared heating system, can effect pig production by emitting an optimal far-infrared wavelength. Far-infrared radiation has been reported to increase microvascular dilation and vascular flow volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunobiological differences between pigs raised with the RAVI system and the gasoline heater system. Twenty-six-week-old weaned pigs were raised in two rooms that were equipped with a RAVI system or a gasoline heater for 8 weeks. A porcine atrophic rhinitis vaccine was administered after two weeks and transcriptome analysis in whole blood were analyzed at 2-week intervals. Signaling pathway analyses of the RAVI group at 8 weeks showed the activation of pathways related to nitric oxide (NO) production. This suggests that the application of RAVI might induce the production of NO and iNOS, which are important for increasing the immune activity. Similar to the result of microarray, phenotypic changes were also observed at a later period of the experiment. The increase in body weight in the RAVI group was significantly higher than the gasoline heater group at 8 weeks. The antibody titer against the vaccine in the RAVI group was also higher than that the gasoline heater group at 4 weeks and 8 weeks. This evaluation of the use of a far-infrared heating system with pigs will be helpful for applications in the pig farm industry and pig welfare.

Agriculture , Body Weight , Gasoline , Gene Expression Profiling , Heating , Hot Temperature , Nitric Oxide , Reproduction , Rhinitis, Atrophic , Swine
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761415


PURPOSE: Fabrication of zirconia restorations with ideal mechanical properties in a short period is a great challenge for clinicians. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of heating rate on the mechanical and microstructural properties of monolithic zirconia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty monolithic zirconia specimens were prepared from presintered monolithic zirconia blanks. All specimens were then assigned to 4 groups according to heating rate as Control, Group 15℃, Group 20℃, and Group 40℃. All groups were sintered according to heating rates with the sintering temperature of 1500℃, a holding time of 90 minutes and natural cooling. The phase composition was examined by XRD analysis, three-point bending test was conducted to examine the flexural strength, and Weibull analysis was conducted to determine weibull modulus and characteristic strength. Average grain sizes were determined by SEM analysis. One-way ANOVA test was performed at a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: Only tetragonal phase characteristic peaks were determined on the surface of analyzed specimens. Differences among the average grain sizes of the groups were not statistically significant. The results of the three-point bending test revealed no significant differences among the flexural strength of the groups (P>.05). Weibull modulus of groups was ranging from 3.50 to 4.74. The highest and the lowest characteristic strength values were obtained in Group 20℃ and Control Group, respectively. CONCLUSION: Heating rate has no significant effect on the flexural strength of monolithic zirconia. Monolithic zirconia restorations can be produced in shorter sintering periods without affecting the flexural strength by modifying the heating rate.

Heating , Hot Temperature
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775893


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of inner-heating acupuncture on apoptosis of chondrocytes and expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in rats with knee osteoarthritis (KOA).@*METHODS@#A total of 32 rats were divided into a normal group, a model group, a control treatment group and a treatment group by random number grouping method, 8 rats in each one. The rats in the normal group received no intervention. The rats in the remaining three groups adopted modified Videman method to develop KOA model, the ankle joint of left posterior leg was fully extended and fixed with a resin bandage for 6 weeks. After successful modeling, the rats in the model group received no intervention. The rats in the control treatment group were treated with medium-frequency pulse electrotherapy. The rats in the treatment group were treated with inner- heating acupuncture, 30 min each treatment, once a day, five days per week, and totally 3-week treatment was given. After 3 weeks, the damaged cartilage tissue was collected, and HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of the cartilage tissue of the knee joint. ELISA was used to detect the content of cytochrome-C in the tissue homogenate supernatant. The chondrocytes in damaged cartilage tissue were isolated, flow cytometer was used to detect the changes of apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential. The mRNA and protein expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in chondrocytes were detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot (WB), respectively.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal group, the damage of cartilage tissue in the model group was significant, and the expression level of Cyt-C in the homogenate supernatant of damaged cartilage tissue was increased (<0.01); the chondrocyte apoptosis was increased significantly (<0.01); the chondrocyte mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased significantly (<0.01); the mRNA and protein expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 was increased significantly (all <0.01). Compared with the model group, the cartilage injury in the control treatment group and the treatment group was significantly relieved; the expression level of Cyt-C in the supernatant of damaged cartilage tissue homogenate was decreased (both <0.01); the chondrocyte apoptosis was significantly reduced (both <0.01); the chondrocyte mitochondrial membrane potential was increased significantly (both <0.01). Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 was significantly reduced (all <0.01). Compared with the control treatment group, the treatment group was more effective in the treatment of KOA.@*CONCLUSION@#The inner-heating acupuncture could significantly improve the pathological changes of KOA rats, inhibit the apoptosis of chondrocytes, which may be closely related to the suppression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression.

Animals , Apoptosis , Cartilage, Articular , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Chondrocytes , Heating , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Rats
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180295, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019537


Abstract Clean, fresh air is the most important requirement for good indoor air quality (IAQ) in all buildings, but it is especially important with regard to the environments within hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The literature indicates that buildings with heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems may have an increased risk of sick building syndrome (SBS) and building-related illness (BRI) if they are not well maintained. Microorganisms are brought into hospitals by people, air currents, water, construction materials and equipment. The main objective of this study was to assess the degree of fungal and bacterial contamination in the University Clinical Centre in Banja Luka, which is directly connected to the HVAC system. Airborne bacteria and fungi in the indoor hospital environment were assessed experimentally. Air samples were collected during the winter season. This paper presents the results related to the concentration of microorganisms expressed in colony forming units per cubic metre of air sampled (in CFU/m3) together with the microclimatic parameters temperature and relative humidity. The results of monitoring indicate the effectiveness of HVAC systems in reducing microbiological contamination.

Air Pollution , Hospitals/standards , Bacteria , Ventilation/standards , Air Conditioning/standards , Fungi , Heating/standards
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742305


Contaminated liver fluke egg in the environment has led to the high prevalence of human opisthorchiasis associated with cholangiocarcinoma in Southeast Asia. To find the effective lessening methods of Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in the contaminated environment, we investigated the temperature conditions for killing of these trematode eggs in vitro. Numerous O. viverrini eggs were obtained in the proximal part of uteri of adult worms from experimental hamsters. Mature eggs with miracidium were allocated by experimental groups (2 control: positive and negative and 4 treatment: 50, 60, 70, and 80°C) with 0.85% saline, and treated by the experimental plan. Eggs in each experimental groups were observed under the confocal microscope after stain with Propidium Iodide (PI) to evaluate the effect of temperatures. Eggs in 70 and 80°C groups were all killed after over 10 min heated. Majority of eggs in 60°C (10, 15, and 30 min heated), 70 and 80°C (5 min heated) groups were inactivated. However in 50°C group, below half of eggs were to be killed in all time lapse (10, 15 and 30 min). In order to prevent O. viverrini infection and cholangiocarcinoma, direct treatment of sewage by heating at 70 or 80°C at least 10 min is essential. Therefore, treatment of O. viverrini eggs at a high temperature is a potential method for controlling egg contamination in sewage.

Adult , Animals , Asia, Southeastern , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cricetinae , Eggs , Fasciola hepatica , Heating , Homicide , Hot Temperature , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Methods , Opisthorchiasis , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Prevalence , Propidium , Sewage , Uterus
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 623-628, jun. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954163


Previous studies have shown that air pollution affects cardio-respiratory function, but its role regarding reproductive processes is unknown. There are few experimental background studies on its effects on the morpho-function in the reproductive system. The use of wood combustion for residential heating (WCRH) in the cities of south-central Chile has increased significantly. As a result, it has become a source of significant emissions of particulate matter suspended (PM) in the air. The possible association between exposure to PM and reproductive problems has been suggested only on the basis of epidemiological studies, most of them carried out in environments where the main source of PM emission is the combustion of oil by motorized vehicles and industries, ignoring the effects produced by the smoke of WCRH. For example, in the city of Temuco-Padre Las Casas, Chile, 93 % of PM emissions correspond to WCRH smoke, thus being considered an urban area with a single PM emission source and the factors that contribute to this type of contamination are reasonably representative of most of the cities in south-central Chile. We therefore suggest this as an adequate setting to evaluate the real effect of the environmental contamination produced by the smoke of WCRH in the reproductive system. The limited number of studies reported on the effects of this type of emission on the female reproductive system, present a challenge for the morphological sciences and also for those who make decisions that affect public health.

Estudios previos han demostrado que la polución del aire afecta la función cardio-respiratoria, pero el rol que tiene ésta respecto a los procesos reproductivos es desconocida. Existen escasos antecedentes experimentales sobre sus efectos sobre la morfo-función en el sistema reproductivo. El uso de la combustión de madera para calefacción residencial (WCRH) en las ciudades del centro-sur de Chile ha aumentado significativamente. Como resultado, se ha convertido en una fuente de emisión importante de material particulado en suspensión (PM) en el aire ambiental. La posible asociación entre exposición a PM y problemas reproductivos ha sido sugerida solo en base a estudios epidemiológicos, la mayoría de ellos realizados en ambientes donde la principal fuente de emisión de PM es la combustión del petróleo por vehículos motorizados e industrias, ignorando los efectos producidos por el humo de WCRH. Por ejemplo, en la ciudad de Temuco-Padre Las Casas, Chile, el 93 % de las emisiones de PM corresponden al humo de WCRH, por lo tanto, es considerada como un área urbana con una fuente de emisión de PM única y los factores que contribuyen a este tipo de contaminación son razonablemente representativos a la mayoría de las ciudades en el centro-sur de Chile, lo que permite sugerirla como un ambiente adecuado para evaluar el efecto de la contaminación ambiental producida por el humo de la WCRH en el sistema reproductivo. Los escasos estudios reportados sobre los efectos de este tipo de emisión sobre el sistema reproductivo femenino constituyen un desafío no tan solo para las ciencias morfológicas, sino que además, para quienes toman decisiones que afectan la salud pública.

Combustion Products , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Genitalia, Female/drug effects , Heating , Uterus/drug effects , Wood , Chile , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Genitalia, Female/pathology
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(1): 86-97, jan.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899560


RESUMEN La instrumentación de la vía aérea del paciente crítico (tubo endotraqueal o cánula de traqueostomía) impide que ésta pueda cumplir con su función de calentar y humidificar el gas inhalado. Sumado a ello la administración de gases medicinales fríos y secos, y los altos flujos a los que se someten los pacientes en ventilación mecánica invasiva o no invasiva, generan una condición aún más desfavorable. Debido a esto es imperativo utilizar algún dispositivo para acondicionar los gases entregados incluso en tratamientos de corta duración con el fin de evitar los daños potenciales sobre la estructura y función del epitelio respiratorio. En el ámbito de terapia intensiva es habitual para esto el uso de intercambiadores de calor y humedad, como así también el uso de sistemas de humidificación activa. Para su correcta utilización es necesario poseer el conocimiento necesario sobre las especificaciones técnicas, ventajas y desventajas de cada uno de estos dispositivos ya que el acondicionamiento de los gases inspirados representa una intervención clave en pacientes con vía aérea artificial y se ha transformado en un cuidado estándar. La selección incorrecta del dispositivo o la configuración inapropiada pueden impactar negativamente en los resultados clínicos. Los integrantes del Capítulo de Kinesiología Intensivista de la Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva realizaron una revisión narrativa con el objetivo de exponer la evidencia disponible en relación al acondicionamiento del gas inhalado en pacientes con vía aérea artificial, profundizando sobre los conceptos relacionados a los principios de funcionamiento de cada uno.

ABSTRACT Instrumentation of the airways in critical patients (endotracheal tube or tracheostomy cannula) prevents them from performing their function of humidify and heating the inhaled gas. In addition, the administration of cold and dry medical gases and the high flows that patients experience during invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation generate an even worse condition. For this reason, a device for gas conditioning is needed, even in short-term treatments, to avoid potential damage to the structure and function of the respiratory epithelium. In the field of intensive therapy, the use of heat and moisture exchangers is common for this purpose, as is the use of active humidification systems. Acquiring knowledge about technical specifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each device is needed for proper use since the conditioning of inspired gases is a key intervention in patients with artificial airway and has become routine care. Incorrect selection or inappropriate configuration of a device can have a negative impact on clinical outcomes. The members of the Capítulo de Kinesiología Intensivista of the Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva conducted a narrative review aiming to show the available evidence regarding conditioning of inhaled gas in patients with artificial airways, going into detail on concepts related to the working principles of each one.

Humans , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Humidifiers , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Administration, Inhalation , Tracheostomy/methods , Critical Illness , Equipment Design , Heating , Humidity
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740155


PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to determine the effect of physical changes on MR temperature imaging at 7.0T and to examine proton-resonance-frequency related changes of MR phase images and T1 related changes of MR magnitude images, which are obtained for MR thermometry at various magnetic field strengths. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An MR-compatible capacitive-coupled radio-frequency hyperthermia system was implemented for heating a phantom and swine muscle tissue, which can be used for both 7.0T and 3.0T MRI. To determine the effect of flip angle correction on T1-based MR thermometry, proton resonance frequency, apparent T1, actual flip angle, and T1 images were obtained. For this purpose, three types of imaging sequences are used, namely, T1-weighted fast field echo with variable flip angle method, dual repetition time method, and variable flip angle method with radio-frequency field nonuniformity correction. RESULTS: Signal-to-noise ratio of the proton resonance frequency shift-based temperature images obtained at 7.0T was five-fold higher than that at 3.0T. The T1 value increases with increasing temperature at both 3.0T and 7.0T. However, temperature measurement using apparent T1-based MR thermometry results in bias and error because B1 varies with temperature. After correcting for the effect of B1 changes, our experimental results confirmed that the calculated T1 increases with increasing temperature both at 3.0T and 7.0T. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the temperature-induced flip angle variations need to be considered for accurate temperature measurements in T1-based MR thermometry.

Bias , Fever , Heating , Hot Temperature , Magnetic Fields , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Protons , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Swine , Thermometry
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759668


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the flow ability of the thermoplasticized Gutta Percha in different temperatures. Four Gutta Percha products were classified by its hardness (soft, medium, and hard) and were experimented by the Rheometer (Melt flow indexer MFI-10, DAVENPORT, England) measuring apparatus, in (23 ± 2) ℃, and in a relative humidity of (50 ± 5) %, following the guidelines of ISO 1133-1:2011. The heating temperature ranged from 108℃, 160℃ to 200℃, and the load at 2.16 kg and 3.8 kg. The Gutta Percha was cut in 5 mm to be suitable for the rheometer pressurization process. After the experiment was conducted with a preheating time of 5 minutes, a cutting time of 5–240 seconds, and a sample of 10 grams, the Gutta Percha did not show any changes in fluidity for 108℃, 160℃, but showed a change in its flow ability in 200℃. Also, the Gutta Percha did not show any changes in its fluidity when it was pressurized by 2.16 and 3.8 kilograms. Therefore, this experiment shows that the heating temperature and the cut-off time showed a significance while measuring the melt flow rate.

Gutta-Percha , Hardness , Heating , Hot Temperature , Humidity
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762525


BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by incomplete combustion have negative effects on human health due to their carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Indoor sources of PAHs include tobacco smoke, heating sources, and cooking. This study evaluated the relationship between human PAH exposure and residence characteristics. METHOD: This study was based on the second Korean National Environmental Health Survey (2012–2014). Non-smoking housewives were included in the analyses (n = 1269). The concentrations of urinary PAH metabolites (2-naphthol, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene) were adjusted by urine creatinine level. The geometric mean concentrations of urinary PAH metabolites by residential factors were examined. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between residential variables and PAH exposures. RESULTS: The adjusted geometric mean concentrations of urinary 2-hydroxyfluorene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene were significantly higher in the group residing within 100 m of a major road (p  100 m from a major road. In logistic regression analyses, the odds ratio (OR) for exceeding the third quartile of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration was significantly higher in the group using coal or wood fuel for residential heating than in the group using gas (OR = 2.745, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.295–5.819). The detached house group had a significantly higher OR for 1-hydroxyphenanthrene compared with the apartment group (OR = 1.515, 95% CI = 1.023–2.243). CONCLUSION: Our study shows the evidence of associations between some urinary PAH metabolite levels (1-hydroxyphenanthrene and 1-hydroxypyrene) and residence characteristics. Additional studies are needed to clarify these associations.

Coal , Cooking , Creatinine , Environmental Health , Heating , Hot Temperature , Humans , Logistic Models , Methods , Odds Ratio , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Residence Characteristics , Smoke , Tobacco , Wood
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742226


Molecular techniques have been introduced for malaria diagnosis because they offer greater sensitivity and specificity than microscopic examinations. Therefore, DNA isolation methods have been developed for easy preparation and cost effectiveness. The present study described a simple protocol for Plasmodium DNA isolation from EDTA-whole blood. This study demonstrated that after heating infected blood samples with Tris–EDTA buffer and proteinase K solution, without isolation and purification steps, the supernatant can be used as a DNA template for amplification by PCR. The sensitivity of the extracted DNA of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax was separately analyzed by both PCR and semi-nested PCR (Sn-PCR). The results revealed that for PCR the limit of detection was 40 parasites/μl for P. falciparum and 35.2 parasites/μl for P. vivax, whereas for Sn-PCR the limit of detection was 1.6 parasites/μl for P. falciparum and 1.4 parasites/μl for P. vivax. This new method was then verified by DNA extraction of whole blood from 11 asymptomatic Myanmar migrant workers and analyzed by Sn-PCR. The results revealed that DNA can be extracted from all samples, and there were 2 positive samples for Plasmodium (P. falciparum and P. vivax). Therefore, the protocol can be an alternative method for DNA extraction in laboratories with limited resources and a lack of trained technicians for malaria diagnosis. In addition, this protocol can be applied for subclinical cases, and this will be helpful for epidemiology and control.

Cost-Benefit Analysis , Diagnosis , DNA , Edetic Acid , Endopeptidase K , Epidemiology , Heating , Hot Temperature , Humans , Limit of Detection , Malaria , Methods , Myanmar , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Plasmodium , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Transients and Migrants