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1.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 593-596, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980764

ABSTRACT

In view of the limitations of the high operational difficulty, safety hazards and adverse reactions of traditional fire needle, and unclear treatment parameters of existing electric fire needles, a new digital electric fire needle instrument was designed and developed in this study. This instrument is a gun type structure, consisting of a gun body, a power supply interface on the gun body, a display unit and a drive unit, a heating unit, a cooling unit, a positioning unit, and a needle inserting unit in the gun body. This instrument can digitally realize the regulation of parameters such as fire needle inserting temperature, depth and speed, and it has the advantageous features of intelligent needle burning, precise positioning, and safe and easy operation. This instrument meets the needs of more patients, medical professionals and scientific researchers, and is conducive to promoting the development of fire needle acupuncture therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Needles , Heating , Research Personnel , Temperature
2.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 109-113, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969956

ABSTRACT

To make up for the shortcomings of traditional mild moxibustion, according to the principle and technical operation characteristics of traditional mild moxibustion, combined with temperature control technology, a novel infrared mild moxibustion device is developed, which is capable of real-time accurate temperature control. This novel infrares mild moxibustion device is composed of a host computer and an infrared radiation head. The host computer includes four modules: power supply, human-computer interaction interface, micro control unit (MCU) and drive circuit. The infrared radiation head mainly includes an infrared heater and a temperature sensor. This novel infrared mild moxibustion device is easy to operate. The electrothermal heating tablet can generate infrared radiation of 3 000-13 000 nm. After the temperature of the infrared heater is stabilized, the range of temperature change is ±0.50 ℃, realizing the goal of precise temperature control. In addition, it can operate moxibustion treatment at multiple acupoints at the same time, which is conducive to the dose-effect evaluation of mild moxibustion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Moxibustion , Acupuncture Points , Temperature , Heating
3.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 56(2): 195-199, abr. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1402957

ABSTRACT

Resumen El monóxido de carbono (CO) es un gas producido principalmente por combustión incompleta de hidrocarburos. La intoxicación por exposición ambiental puede presentarse con síntomas inespecíficos y constituye la causa más importante de aumento de carboxihemoglobina (COHb). Su nivel en sangre depende de la duración de la exposición, la ventilación minuto y las concentraciones de CO y oxígeno en el ambiente. La elevada toxicidad radica en la hipoxia tisular que se genera. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, 73 años, en seguimiento en el hospital por neumonía intersticial no específica como patología de base. En un control de laboratorio se encontró 11,9% de COHb, sin exposición a tabaco. No utilizaba calefacción a gas sino un panel cerámico eléctrico, recientemente pintado con esmalte sintético. La suspensión del uso del panel normalizó la COHb. El CO, producto de descomposición térmica del esmalte sintético, explica la causa de la intoxicación.


Abstract Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gas produced mainly by incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Poisoning from environmental exposure can present with nonspecific symptoms and is the most important cause of increased carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). Its blood level depends on the duration of exposure, minute ventilation, and the concentrations of CO and oxygen in the environment. The high toxicity lies in the tissue hypoxia that is generated. The case of a male patient, 73 years old, under follow-up in the hospital for non-specific interstitial pneumonia as the underlying pathology was presented. In a laboratory control, COHb 11,9% was found. There was no exposure to tobacco and there was no use of gas heating but of an electric ceramic panel, recently painted with synthetic enamel type paint. The suspension of the use of the panel normalised the COHb. The CO product of thermal decomposition of synthetic enamel explains the cause of poisoning.


Resumo O monóxido de carbono (CO) é um gás produzido principalmente pela combustão incompleta de hidrocarbonetos. A intoxicação por exposição ambiental pode se apresentar com sintomas inespecíficos e é a causa mais importante de aumento da carboxihemoglobina (COHb). Seu nível em sangue depende do tempo de exposição, da ventilação minuto e das concentrações de CO e oxigênio no ambiente. A alta toxicidade está na hipóxia tecidual gerada. Apresentamos o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 73 anos, em acompanhamento hospitalar por pneumonia intersticial inespecífica como patologia de bas. Em um controle laboratorial, achou-se 11,9% de COHb, sem exposição ao tabaco. Não utilizava aquecimento a gás e sim um painel elétrico cerâmico, recentemente pintado com esmalte sintético. A suspensão do uso do painel normalizou o COHb. O CO produto da decomposição térmica do esmalte sintético explica a causa da intoxicação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Poisoning , Carboxyhemoglobin , Carbon Monoxide , Toxicity , Outpatients , Oxygen , Signs and Symptoms , Ventilation , Blood , Causality , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Aftercare , Threshold Limit Values , Environment , Environmental Exposure , Fires , Gases , Heating , Hospitals , Hydrocarbons , Laboratories
4.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 516-522, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935895

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effects of pre-sintering heating rate and powder size on dental recycled zirconia. Methods: Recycled zirconia powders were sieved to obtain the large (50 μm<particle diameter≤125 μm) and small (particle diameter≤50 μm) particles, these powders were then formed into green bodies. According to the pre-sintering heating rates, the recycled-zirconia green bodies were divided into 3 groups: group A, pre-sintering heating rate of 2 ℃/min; group B, pre-sintering heating rate of 5 ℃/min; group C, pre-sintering heating rate of 8 ℃/min. The relative density open porosity and machinability of the recycled zirconia pre-sintered bodies were evaluated and compared with the commercial zirconia pre-sintered bodies. Zirconia pre-sintered bodies were then fully sintered according to the manufacturer's instructions. The relative density, open porosity, linear shrinkage and flexural strength of fully sintered zirconia were further compared. The microstructure of fracture surfaces and the crystalline structure were analyzed by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer, respectively. Results: With the same particle size, the recycled zirconia pre-sintered at different heating rates showed no significant differences in the relative densities, and the open porosities (P>0.05). When the pre-sintering heating rates were 2 ℃/min, 5 ℃/min, and 8 ℃/min, the flexural strengths of the large-particle recycled zirconia were (421.2±54.7), (444.2±70.1) and (427.5±68.4) MPa, the flexural strengths of the small-particle recycled zirconia were (750.1±74.1), (777.2±95.5) and (746.7±73.0) MPa, respectively. The flexural strength of commercial zirconia was (988.4±129.8) MPa. The flexural strengths of the recycled zirconia were significantly lower than that of the commercial zirconia (P<0.05). At the same pre-sintering heating rate, the flexural strengths of the small-particle recycled zirconia were significantly higher than that of the large-particle recycled zirconia (P<0.05). Conclusions: Compared with the large particles, small-particle recycled zirconia powders can effectively improve the properties of recycled zirconia, while the pre-sintering heating rate has no effect on the properties of the recycled zirconia.


Subject(s)
Ceramics , Dental Materials/chemistry , Heating , Materials Testing , Powders , Surface Properties , Yttrium , Zirconium
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19373, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384009

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main purposes of the current study were to formulate o/w nanoemulsions as a carrier for Tamarindus indica (tamarind) fruit pulp extract and to study the antioxidant and antibacterial potentials of nanoemulsions containing tamarind extract, focusing on cosmetic/hygiene applications. The o/w nanoemulsions using a mixture of Tween 80 and Span 80 as an emulsifier (5%w/w) were prepared by a high pressure homogenization process. Two concentrations of sweet tamarind extract, 3.3 and 6.6%w/w, based on the bioactivity study, were incorporated into the blank nanoemulsions to produce loaded nanoemulsions, F1-3.3TE (3.3%) and F1- 6.6TE (6.6%). As compared with the unloaded nanoemulsion, both tamarind extract loaded nanoemulsions showed reduced pH and significantly increased viscosity. Overall, the loaded nanoemulsions had droplet sizes of approximately 130 nm, zeta potential around -38 mV and polydispersity index (PDI) values less than 0.2. The nanoemulsion F1-3.3TE had better stability (e.g. significantly greater % tartaric acid content and lesser PDI value) than the nanoemulsion F1-6.6TE did. The antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay revealed that the nanoemulsions F1-3.3TE and F1-6.6TE had scavenging activities of 81.66 ± 0.77% and 63.80 ± 0.79%, respectively. However, antioxidant activity of these two formulations decreased under stress conditions (heating-cooling cycles). Such incidence did not occur for their antibacterial properties investigated by agar well diffusion technique. The two formulations exhibited inhibition zones of approximately 24.0-27.7 mm against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, responsible for malodor of underarms. The results suggest the potential of using sweet tamarind pulp extract loaded nanoemulsions as hygiene products.


Subject(s)
Tamarindus/adverse effects , Fruit/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Staphylococcus epidermidis/classification , zeta Potential , Heating/instrumentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Methods
6.
Rio de Janeiro; rBLH; 2 rev; set. 2021. [9] p. ilus.(Normas técnicas BLH-IFF/NT, 1, 35). (BLH-IFF/NT 35.21).
Monography in Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, BVSAM | ID: biblio-1436520

ABSTRACT

Esta Norma Técnica tem por objetivo estabelecer a determinação do tempo de pré-aquecimento do leite humano ordenhado no processo de pasteurização, visando a garantia da qualidade em Bancos de Leite Humano e sua certificação.


Esta Norma Técnica tiene como objetivo establecer la determinación del tiempo de precalentamiento de la leche humana extraída en el proceso de pasteurización, con el fin de asegurar la calidad en los Bancos de Leche Humana y su certificación.


Subject(s)
Milk Banks/standards , Pasteurization/standards , Heating , Milk, Human
7.
Rev. chil. anest ; 50(1): 56-78, 2021. graf, tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512393

ABSTRACT

Perioperative hypothermia is a common complication of general anesthesia, but it can also occur in patients undergoing regional anesthesia. It signifiicantly increases perioperative morbidity and mortality. Complications such as increased incidence of surgical site infection, delayed healing, coagulation abnormalities, increased surgical bleeding, perioperative cardiac events, decreased metabolism of drugs involved in anesthesia and a great discomfort in the immediate postoperative period (due to shivering), have been identified. The decrease in the patient's core temperature is due to a combination of physiological events related to the surgical anesthetic act. These include deterioration of the effector responses of the hypothalamus (tending to conserve heat), heat distribution between the central compartment and the periphery, and net heat loss to a generally colder environment, such as the surgical ward. Hypothermia is often an undetected complication of the anesthetic act due to the lack of regular temperature monitoring. It is not considered a basic standard of care, despite the fact that in recent years new guidelines and recommendations have emerged, which suggest its implementation in all patients in whom the duration of their surgery is expected to last longer than 1 hour. The measures aimed at keeping the patient normothermic can be classified as passive, within which the simplest is to cover the patient for as long as possible during their presence in the ward, and active, which are those that transfer heat to the body, within the which the most effective is the use of convective heat blankets. It has recently been suggested that prewarming the patient before inducing anesthesia is an efficient strategy to avoid hypothermia, decreasing temperature differences between core and peripheral tissues. However, the effectiveness of this measure remain to be evaluated with prospective, randomized trials. In the context of the emergency patient, although hypothermia shows the same characteristics as in the elective patient, it becomes more relevant in three clinical settings: patient with major burns, patient in hemorrhagic shock and the polytraumatized patient. In these scenarios, keeping the patient normothermic will prevent a series of serious complications, which can strongly affect mortality.


La hipotermia perioperatoria es una complicación frecuente de la anestesia general, pero que también se puede presentar en pacientes sometidos a anestesia regional. Se relaciona con un aumento significativo de la morbilidad y mortalidad perioperatorias, donde se han identificado complicaciones como aumento de la incidencia de infección del sitio quirúrgico, retardo de la cicatrización, alteraciones de la coagulación, aumento del sangrado quirúrgico, de los eventos cardiacos perioperatorios, disminución del metabolismo de drogas implicadas en la anestesia y sensación de gran incomodidad del paciente en el posoperatorio inmediato, por la presencia de calosfríos. La disminución de la temperatura central del paciente se debe a un combinación de eventos fisiológicos relacionados con el acto anestésico quirúrgico, con deterioro de las respuestas efectoras del hipotálamo tendientes a conservar calor, fenómenos distributivos de calor entre el compartimiento central y la periferia del propio paciente y pérdida de calor neta hacia un medio ambiente en general más frío, como lo es el pabellón quirúrgico. El hecho de que la hipotermia sea muchas veces considerada una complicación no detectada del acto anestésico, se debe a que aún la monitorización regular de la temperatura no se considera un estándar básico de cuidado, pese a que en los últimos años han surgido nuevas guías y recomendaciones, que sugieren que ésta sea implementada en todo paciente en que se proyecte una duración de la cirugía mayor a 1 hora. Las medidas tendientes a mantener al paciente normotérmico, pueden ser clasificadas en pasivas, dentro de las cuales la más simple es cubrir al paciente el mayor tiempo posible durante su presencia en pabellón y activas, que son aquellas que transfieren calor al cuerpo, dentro de las cuales la más efectiva es el uso de mantas de calor convectivo. Recientemente, se ha sugerido que una de las estrategias eficientes para evitar la HPO es el precalentamiento del paciente, que permite que sus tejidos periféricos estén a mayor temperatura al momento de inducir la anestesia, sin embargo, la efectividad de esta medida debe ser evaluada con estudios prospectivos y aleatorizados más concluyentes. La hipotermia en el contexto del paciente de urgencia, si bien presenta las mismas características que en el paciente electivo, cobra mayor relevancia en tres escenarios clínicos: el gran quemado, el paciente en hemorrágico y el paciente politraumatizado, escenarios en que mantener al paciente normotérmico, implicará evitar una serie de complicaciones graves, que pueden incidir fuertemente en la mortalidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications , Hypothermia/etiology , Intraoperative Complications , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Body Temperature , Body Temperature Regulation/drug effects , Body Temperature Regulation/physiology , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Emergencies , Heating , Hypothermia/complications , Hypothermia/therapy
8.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 76-76, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Tuberculosis (TB) and indoor air pollution (IAP) are equally critical public health issues in the developing world. Mongolia is experiencing the double burden of TB and IAP due to solid fuel combustion. However, no study has assessed the relationship between household solid fuel use and TB in Mongolia. The present study aimed to assess the association between household solid fuel use and TB based on data from the Mongolian National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey (MNTP Survey).@*METHOD@#The MNTP Survey was a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey targeting households in Mongolia from 2014 to 2015, with the aim of evaluating the prevalence of TB. The survey adopted a multistage cluster sampling design in accordance with the World Health Organization prevalence survey guidelines. Clusters with at least 500 residents were selected by random sampling. A sample size of 98 clusters with 54,100 participants was estimated to be required for the survey, and 41,450 participants were included in the final analysis of the present study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on environmental and individual factors related to TB. Physical examination, chest X-ray, and sputum examinations were also performed to diagnose TB.@*RESULTS@#The use of solid fuels for heating (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-2.1), male gender (aOR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.6-3.2), divorced or widowed (aOR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.7-3.8), daily smoker (aOR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3-2.5), contact with an active TB case (aOR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.3), being underweight (aOR: 3.7; 95% CI: 2.4-5.7), and previous history of TB (aOR: 4.3; 95% CI: 3.0-6.1) were significantly associated with bacteriologically confirmed TB after adjusting for confounding variables.@*CONCLUSION@#The use of solid fuels for heating was significantly associated with active TB in Mongolian adults. Increased public awareness is needed on the use of household solid fuels, a source of IAP.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Cooking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heating/adverse effects , Mongolia/epidemiology , Prevalence , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1250-1257, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134433

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Residential heating with wood is an important source of ambient air pollution. Evidence links air pollution to serious health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to wood smoke pollution causes morphological changes in the development of the rat lung, leading to altered lung structure and function during later life. We presumed that analysis of the fetal lung stereology provides novel insights into the underlying processes mediating particulate matter associated developmental changes and damage. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of exposure during gestational period to wood smoke pollution on lung fetal morphology. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution. Complete lungs samples were obtained from 24 fetus from healthy female G3 rats subjected to cesarean at 19 days post-fecundation. The lungs were prepared for histological and stereological analysis. The volume fraction of terminal bronchioles VV [tb, lung] and volume fraction of parenchyma VV [par, lung], surface density of terminal bronchioles SV [tb, lung] as well as numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung] were calculated by light microscopy. Statistical analysis detected significant differences between groups in volume density VV [tb, lung; %] (p=0.0012) and surface density SV [tb, lung; mm2/mm3] (p<0.0001) of the terminal bronchioles. However, it did not show differences between groups in the stereological parameter volume density VV [par, lung; %] (p=0.0838) and numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung; nº/mm2] (p=0.0705). The analysis of the evidence obtained indicates that exposure to environmental pollution was affects lung maturation, and particularly the proportion and area of terminal bronchioles in the fetal lung. In conclusion, maternal exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in the lower conducting airways of lungs, which, according to urban pollution studies, could be related to early childhood lower respiratory illness. The public health implications of this study are that reducing or avoiding exposure to wood smoke is important before and during pregnancy.


RESUMEN: La calefacción residencial con leña es una fuente importante de contaminación ambiental. La evidencia vincula la contaminación del aire con graves efectos sobre la salud, como la mortalidad y la morbilidad respiratoria y cardiovascular. Hipotetizamos que la exposición prenatal a la contaminación por humo de leña causa cambios en el desarrollo del pulmón de rata, lo que conduce a una morfo-función pulmonar alteradas durante la vida posterior, creemos que el análisis de la estereología pulmonar fetal proporcionará nuevos conocimientos sobre los procesos subyacentes que median esos cambios. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos de la exposición prenatal a la contaminación ambiental por humo de leña sobre la morfología pulmonar fetal. Ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña. En fetos de 19 días post-fecundación fue obtenido el pulmón para análisis histológico y estereológico. Fue determinado la fracción de volumen de bronquiolos terminales VV [tb, pulmón], fracción de volumen del parénquima VV [par, pulmón], densidad superficial de los bronquiolos terminales SV [tb, pulmón] así como la densidad numérica de exocrinocitos NA [ec, pulmón]. El análisis estadístico detectó diferencias significativas entre grupos en la densidad de volumen V [tb, pulmón; %] (p=0,0012) y densidad superficial SV [tb, pulmón; mm2/mm3] (p<0,0001) de los bronquiolos terminales. Sin embargo, no demostró diferencias entre grupos en la densidad de volumen VV [par, pulmón; %] (p=0,0838) y numérica de exocrinocitos bronquiolares NA [ec, pulmón; nº / mm ] (p=0,0705). El análisis de la evidencia obtenida indica que la exposición a la contaminación ambiental afectó la maduración pulmonar, y particularmente la proporción y área de bronquiolos terminales en el pulmón fetal. En conclusión, la exposición materna a la contaminación por humo de leña durante la gestación se asoció a una disminución de las vías respiratorias conductoras de aire en pulmón, lo que, según estudios de contaminación urbana, podría estar relacionado con enfermedades de las vías respiratorias inferiores en la primera infancia. Las implicaciones para la salud pública de este estudio son que reducir o evitar la exposición al humo de leña es importante previo y durante la gestación. Por otro lado, la contaminación por humo de leña tiene un gran impacto en la salud pública que, en teoría, es posible prevenir.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Lung/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Wood , Analysis of Variance , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Environmental Exposure , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Heating , Lung/pathology
10.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 484-488, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828266

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#By observing the effect of inner-heating acupuncture on the expression of Wnt1, Axin and β-catenin in the intervertebral disc of rats with lumbar degenerative disease and to explore the regulatory mechanism of inner-heating acupuncture on the apoptosis of annulus fibrosus cells in rats with lumbar degenerative disease.@*METHODS@#Forty SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, inner heating acupuncture group and acupuncture group with 10 rats in each group. Except for normal group, all rats were modeled. Bilateral were selected for inner-heating acupuncture and acupuncture treatment. Western-bolt assay was used to detect the expression of Wnt1, Axin and β-catenin in rat intervertebral discs.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model group, Wnt1 and β-catenin expression in annulus fibrosus cells of rats in the inner heating acupuncture group and the acupuncture group were significantly decreased(0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Inner heating acupuncture can down regulate the expression of Wnt1 and β-catenin and up regulate the expression of Axin in annulus fibrosus of rats with lumbar degenerative desease. It is suggested that the mechanism may be to regulate the expression of related factors in the β-catenin signaling pathway, so as to achieve the goal of treating lumbar degenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Acupuncture Therapy , Heating , Intervertebral Disc , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , beta Catenin
11.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 49-49, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The health hazards of indoor air pollution are well-established but studies of the health effects due to pollution from heating are rare. This study investigated the association of heating and disability for activities of daily living among Chinese middle-aged and elderly.@*METHODS@#We used two consecutive surveys in a cohort of over 17,000 adults aged 45 or older, who were interviewed first in 2011-2012 and then in 2013. In these surveys, taking advantage of random survey time, we applied a random effects logit regression model that included an interaction between pollution-producing heating fuel and a dummy variable, which measured interview time based on whether or not it was heating season.@*RESULTS@#Exposure to pollution-producing heating fuel was associated with a 39.9% (OR 1.399; 95%CI 1.227-1.594) and 71.0% (OR 1.710; 95%CI 1.523-1.920) increase in the likelihood of disability in activities of daily living (DADL) and disability in instrumental activities of daily living (DIADL), respectively. In heating season between year 2011 and 2013, moving from clean heating energy for heating to pollution-producing fuel was linked with an increase in the likelihoods having DADL and DIADL, with the OR of 2.014 (95%CI 1.126-3.600) and 1.956 (95%CI 1.186-3.226), respectively. However, disability increases due to change from clean energy to pollution-producing heating energy did not appear in advantaged education respondents.@*CONCLUSIONS@#We found that exposure to heating by burning of coal, wood, or crop residue was associated with disability in performing daily living activities. Health policymakers should take indoor pollution due to heating into consideration as it is a major determinant of activities of daily living in elderly people; especially, such policy should focus on elderly people who have disadvantaged education.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Activities of Daily Living , Air Pollution, Indoor , China , Disabled Persons , Heating , Housing , Longitudinal Studies
12.
The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics ; : 9-14, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811435

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different numbers of heat treatments applied to superstructure porcelain on optical, thermal, and phase formation properties of zirconia.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty zirconia specimens were prepared in the form of rectangular prism. Specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10) according to the number of firing at heating values of porcelain. Color differences and translucency parameter were measured, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA).RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in ΔE, TP, L, a, and b value changes of the zirconia specimens as a result of repetitive firing processes (P>.05).CONCLUSION: Although additional firing processes up to 4 increase peak density in thermal analysis, additional firing processes up to 4 times can be applied safely as they do not result in a change in color and phase character of zircon frameworks.


Subject(s)
Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Dental Porcelain , Fires , Heating , Hot Temperature , X-Ray Diffraction
13.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(6): e00246118, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124289

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Coyhaique, en el sur de Chile, es una de las ciudades más contaminadas de América, debido a la quema de leña. En 2016, se lanzó una sustitución masiva de la tecnología de calefacción residencial para disminuir las concentraciones de partículas de aire en el invierno. Basado en análisis de series de tiempo, el artículo analiza el efecto de esta medida en los niveles de MP2,5 y en las hospitalizaciones por afecciones respiratorias agudas en personas menores de 15 años.


Abstract: Coyhaique (Southern Chile) is one of the most polluted cities in the Americas due to the burning of firewood. In 2016, a mass substitution of residential heating technology was launched to decrease the air concentrations of particulate matter in the winter. Based on time series analyses, the article discusses the effect of this measure on PM2.5 levels and hospitalizations for acute respiratory conditions in individuals under 15 years of age.


Resumo: Coyhaique, no sul de Chile, é uma das cidades mais poluídas devido a queima de lenha nas Américas. Em 2016 se deu início a uma massiva substituição da tecnologia de aquecimento do interior das vivendas para diminuir as concentrações atmosféricas de material particulado no inverno. Através de análises de séries temporais, o artigo discute o efeito desta medida nos níveis de MP2,5 e nas internações por urgências respiratórias em menores de 15 anos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Seasons , Technology , Brazil , Chile , Environmental Monitoring , Cities , Particulate Matter/analysis , Heating , Hospitalization
14.
São Paulo med. j ; 137(5): 407-413, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059102

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vegetables have some beneficial effects on human health due to their antioxidant compounds, like polyphenols. Cooking leads to many physical and chemical changes to plant structure that can alter the phytochemical compounds of vegetables. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of heat treatment and freezing on the antioxidant properties of garlic, onion, broccoli and cauliflower. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental in vitro study in a university laboratory. METHODS: Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) were obtained from a local store. These vegetables were divided into three treatment groups: raw, heated and frozen. The heat treatment consisted of heating them in a drying oven at 150 °C for 20 minutes. The freezing treatment consisted of keeping them frozen at -20 °C until analysis. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde levels of the vegetables were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, respectively. RESULTS: Heat treatment had deleterious effects on the antioxidant properties of onion and garlic; and it decreased the antioxidant activity of broccoli. Freezing improved the antioxidant activity of broccoli and garlic, but had detrimental effects for cauliflower and onion. CONCLUSIONS: Heat treatment and freezing exhibit different effects on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, cauliflower, garlic and onion. Convenient cooking and storage patterns should be identified for each vegetable, to obtain the best nutritional benefit from the antioxidant compounds of vegetables.


Subject(s)
Vegetables/chemistry , Allium/chemistry , Food Handling/methods , Food Preservation/methods , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Brassica/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Onions/chemistry , Freezing , Garlic/chemistry , Heating , Nutritive Value
15.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(5): 459-466, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039139

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate of pre-heating, filler contents and ceramic thickness on film thickness, microshear bond strength, degree of conversion and color change on ceramic veneers. Two experimental composites were prepared (Bis-GMA/UDMA/BisEMA/ TEGDMA), with different amounts of filler (65% or 50%wt) simulating a conventional and a flowable composite. The flowable (F) was used at room temperature and, the conventional either at room temperature (C) or pre-heated (CPH). Disk-shaped ceramics with different thickness (0.4 mm, 0.8 mm, 1.5 mm) were prepared. The film thickness was evaluated according to the ISO 4049 (n=10). The microshear bond strength (n=10) was evaluated in enamel using tubing specimens light-cured through the ceramic veneer. The degree of conversion was evaluated using Raman spectroscopy. The color change of the ceramic restorations (n=10) was evaluated by spectrophotometry. The results were submitted to 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (a=5%). For the film thickness 1-way ANOVA was used (a=5%). The C presented the thicker film thickness; the CPH produced a similar film thickness in comparison to the F. All composites showed similar microshear bond strength. The degree of conversion of the F was higher than the C and CPH. The degree of conversion of the composites photo-activated through a 0.4 mm was higher than the composites photo-activated through thicker ceramics. The C showed the highest color change, while the CPH showed similar color change to the F. In conclusion, pre-heated conventional composites seem to be a potential alternative to lute ceramic veneers such as the flowable composites.


Resumo O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar a influência do pré-aquecimento, conteúdo de carga e espessura da cerâmica na espessura da película, resistência de união ao microcisalhamento, grau de conversão e alteração de cor na cimentação de cerâmicas. Dois compósitos experimentais foram preparados (Bis-GMA / UDMA / BisEMA / TEGDMA), com diferentes quantidades de carga (65% ou 50% em peso), simulando um compósito convencional e um fluido. O fluido (F) foi usado à temperatura ambiente e o convencional, à temperatura ambiente (C) ou pré-aquecido (CPH). Foram preparados discos de cerâmica com diferentes espessuras (0,4mm, 0,8mm, 1,5mm). A espessura da película foi avaliada de acordo com a ISO 4049 (n=10). A resistência de união ao microcisalhamento (n=10) foi avaliada em esmalte utilizando espécimes ​​fotopolimerizados através da cerâmica. O grau de conversão foi avaliado usando espectroscopia Raman. A alteração de cor das restaurações cerâmicas (n=10) foi avaliada por espectrofotometria. Os resultados foram submetidos à ANOVA 2- fatores e ao teste post hoc de Tukey (a=5%). Para espessura de película foi utilizada a ANOVA 1-fator (a=5%). O grupo C apresentou maior espessura de película; o CPH produziu uma espessura semelhante ao F. Todos os compósitos mostraram resistência de união ao microcisalhamento similares. O grau de conversão do F foi maior que C e CPH. O grau de conversão dos compósitos fotoativados através 0,4 mm foi maior que dos compósitos fotoativados através de cerâmicas mais espessas. O grupo C apresentou a maior mudança de cor, enquanto o CPH apresentou mudança de cor semelhante ao F. Em conclusão, compósitos convencionais pré-aquecidos assim como compósitos fluídos, parecem ser uma alternativa em potencial para cimentar laminados cerâmicos.


Subject(s)
Resin Cements , Dental Veneers , Materials Testing , Ceramics , Composite Resins , Dental Porcelain , Heating
16.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1410-1414, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482172

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar parâmetros de identidade e qualidade de óleo de abacate produzido nacionalmente, comparativamente a azeite de oliva e óleo de arroz, após aquecimento em bloco digestor ou micro-ondas. Avaliaram-se amostras sem aquecimento (controle) e aquecidas por 1:30 h em bloco digestor ou 3 min em micro-ondas. Determinaram-se a acidez e os índices iodo e refração. Os resultados indicaram que houve aumento de acidez, redução no índice de iodo e índice de refração após o aquecimento. Apesar do maior valor de acidez após o aquecimento, o óleo de abacate sofreu menor elevação em relação ao controle (cerca de 4 vezes) do que as demais amostras. O impacto do aquecimento foi maior no óleo de arroz, seguido do azeite de oliva. O aquecimento por micro-ondas afetou mais a qualidade das amostras que o aquecimento em bloco digestor.


Subject(s)
Olive Oil , Heating/adverse effects , Heating/methods , Oryza , Persea , Plant Oils/analysis , Acidity/analysis , Iodine/analysis , Microwaves/adverse effects , Refractometry
17.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1445-1448, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482179

ABSTRACT

Sabe-se que o aquecimento do óleo pode alterar sua composição, degradando ácidos graxos e compostos minoritários. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a estabilidade térmica dos pigmentos carotenoides e clorofilas no óleo de abacate produzido nacionalmente, em comparação com óleo de arroz e azeite de oliva após aquecimento a 180 ºC em micro-ondas, por 3, 6, 9 e 12 minutos. Observaram-se diferenças significativas entre as amostras em todos os tempos de análise, tanto para clorofilas quanto para carotenoides. Na avaliação ao longo do tempo de aquecimento somente foi verificada alteração significativa no teor de clorofilas do azeite de oliva, ainda que no óleo de abacate os percentuais de perda tenham sido maiores. Verificou-se que os teores dos pigmentos avaliados foram significativamente maiores no óleo de abacate em relação ao azeite de oliva e o óleo de arroz, mesmo após o aquecimento por 12 minutos. Destaca-se a importância destas informações para estimular o consumo do óleo de abacate.


Subject(s)
Heating/adverse effects , Carotenoids/analysis , Chlorophyll/analysis , Persea , Plant Oils/analysis , Olive Oil , Microwaves , Oryza
18.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 253-254, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001136
19.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180295, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019537

ABSTRACT

Abstract Clean, fresh air is the most important requirement for good indoor air quality (IAQ) in all buildings, but it is especially important with regard to the environments within hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The literature indicates that buildings with heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems may have an increased risk of sick building syndrome (SBS) and building-related illness (BRI) if they are not well maintained. Microorganisms are brought into hospitals by people, air currents, water, construction materials and equipment. The main objective of this study was to assess the degree of fungal and bacterial contamination in the University Clinical Centre in Banja Luka, which is directly connected to the HVAC system. Airborne bacteria and fungi in the indoor hospital environment were assessed experimentally. Air samples were collected during the winter season. This paper presents the results related to the concentration of microorganisms expressed in colony forming units per cubic metre of air sampled (in CFU/m3) together with the microclimatic parameters temperature and relative humidity. The results of monitoring indicate the effectiveness of HVAC systems in reducing microbiological contamination.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Hospitals/standards , Bacteria , Ventilation/standards , Air Conditioning/standards , Fungi , Heating/standards
20.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 49-53, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742305

ABSTRACT

Contaminated liver fluke egg in the environment has led to the high prevalence of human opisthorchiasis associated with cholangiocarcinoma in Southeast Asia. To find the effective lessening methods of Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in the contaminated environment, we investigated the temperature conditions for killing of these trematode eggs in vitro. Numerous O. viverrini eggs were obtained in the proximal part of uteri of adult worms from experimental hamsters. Mature eggs with miracidium were allocated by experimental groups (2 control: positive and negative and 4 treatment: 50, 60, 70, and 80°C) with 0.85% saline, and treated by the experimental plan. Eggs in each experimental groups were observed under the confocal microscope after stain with Propidium Iodide (PI) to evaluate the effect of temperatures. Eggs in 70 and 80°C groups were all killed after over 10 min heated. Majority of eggs in 60°C (10, 15, and 30 min heated), 70 and 80°C (5 min heated) groups were inactivated. However in 50°C group, below half of eggs were to be killed in all time lapse (10, 15 and 30 min). In order to prevent O. viverrini infection and cholangiocarcinoma, direct treatment of sewage by heating at 70 or 80°C at least 10 min is essential. Therefore, treatment of O. viverrini eggs at a high temperature is a potential method for controlling egg contamination in sewage.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , Asia, Southeastern , Cholangiocarcinoma , Eggs , Fasciola hepatica , Heating , Homicide , Hot Temperature , In Vitro Techniques , Methods , Opisthorchiasis , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Prevalence , Propidium , Sewage , Uterus
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