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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238431, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249246

ABSTRACT

Abstract Viral hepatitis are widely spread infectious diseases caused by a variety of etiological agents that displays liver tropism as a common characteristic. A descriptive, cross-sectional, observational and retrospective study was conducted through the analysis of viral hepatitis medical records treated and diagnosed from 2010 to 2015. The relationship between the variables were made through the chi-square test. 632 viral hepatitis medical records were analyzed. The highest number of cases happened in 2011. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection was predominant. The most affected age group was < 20 years and the highest number of cases observed in this age group was related to HAV (p<0.001). The acute clinical form was predominant, with 70.2% of the cases. 92.3% of which corresponded to HAV infection (p<0.001). Most of the cases occurred in the brown race and male gender. Moreover, regarding the probable source/mechanism of infection, the contact with suspicious water/food for hepatitis A cases was highlighted. The sexual form predominated in HBV infection and previous history of blood transfusion in cases of hepatitis C. Most cases were spotted in the mesoregion of Eastern Alagoas, especially in the capital Maceió. It must be observed the importance of knowing the profile of this disease in order to understand its dissemination and thus have subsidies for the creation of actions and strategies to combat the infection.


Resumo A hepatite viral é uma doença infecciosa amplamente difundida causada por uma variedade de agentes etiológicos que exibem o tropismo hepático como uma característica comum. Um estudo descritivo, transversal, observacional e retrospectivo foi realizado por meio da análise de prontuários de hepatites virais tratados e diagnosticados de 2010 a 2015. A relação entre as variáveis foi feita através do teste qui-quadrado. Foram analisados 632 prontuários de hepatite sustero. O maior número de casos aconteceu em 2011. A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite A (HAV) foi predominante. A faixa etária mais atingida foi < 20 anos e o maior número de casos observados nessa faixa etária foi relacionado ao HAV (p<0,001). A forma clínica aguda foi predominante, com 70,2% dos casos. 92,3% dos quais corresponderam à infecção por HAV (p<0,001). A maioria dos casos ocorreu na raça parda e no sexo masculino. Além disso, quanto à provável fonte/mecanismo de infecção, foi destacado o contato com água/alimento suspeitos para os casos de hepatite A. A forma sexual predominou na infecção pelo HbV e histórico anterior de transfusão de sangue em casos de hepatite C. A maioria dos casos foi avistada na mesorregião do Leste de Alagoas, especialmente na capital Maceió. Deve-se observar a importância de conhecer o perfil dessa doença para entender sua disseminação e, assim, contar com subsídios para a criação de ações e estratégias de combate à infecção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(4): 745-755, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355747

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Enteric viruses have been associated with the production of a variety of diseases transmitted by the fecal-oral route and carried through contaminated food and water. Given their structure and composition, they are highly resistant to environmental conditions and most of the chemical agents used in the purification processes. Therefore, the systematic monitoring of raw water is necessary to ensure its quality especially when it is used for producing drinking water for human consumption. Objective: We identified the presence of rotavirus and hepatitis A virus by means of the fluoro-immuno-magnetic separation technique (FIMS) in raw water taken from four purification plants and their water supplies in the department of Norte de Santander. Materials and methods: The viruses were captured and separated from the water samples using magnetic microparticles functionalized with monoclonal anti-Hepatitis A and anti-Rotavirus antibodies. Confocal microscopy was used to monitor the viral concentration process and transmission electron microscopy for the morphological visualization of the separated viruses. The reverse transcriptase-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to confirm the presence of pathogens. Results: The two enteric viruses were identified in the majority of the analyzed water samples including water supply sources. Conclusion: We determined that the FIMS technique together with RT-PCR is highly effective for the detection of viral pathogens in complex matrices such as raw water.


Resumen | Introducción. Los virus entéricos se asocian con una serie de enfermedades transmitidas por vía fecal-oral en alimentos o agua contaminada. Dada su estructura y composición, son muy resistentes a las condiciones ambientales y a la mayoría de los agentes químicos empleados en los procesos de potabilización, por lo cual es necesario un monitoreo sistemático del agua cruda para asegurar su calidad, máxime cuando se emplea como materia prima en la producción de agua potable para consumo humano. Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de rotavirus y del virus de la hepatitis A mediante la técnica de separación fluoro-inmuno-magnética en agua cruda procedente de cuatro plantas de potabilización y sus fuentes hídricas en el departamento de Norte de Santander. Materiales y métodos. Los virus fueron capturados y separados a partir de las muestras de agua, empleando micropartículas magnéticas funcionalizadas con anticuerpos monoclonales anti-hepatitis A y anti-rotavirus. Se empleó microscopía confocal para hacer el seguimiento del proceso de concentración viral y, microscopía electrónica de transmisión, para la visualización morfológica de los virus separados. La reacción en cadena de la polimerasa acoplada a transcriptasa inversa (RT-PCR) se utilizó para confirmar la presencia de los patógenos. Resultados. Los dos virus entéricos se detectaron en la mayoría de las muestras de agua analizadas, incluidas las de sus fuentes hídricas. Conclusión. La técnica de separación fluoro-inmuno-magnética acoplada a RT-PCR fue altamente efectiva en la detección de patógenos virales en matrices complejas como el agua cruda.


Subject(s)
Rotavirus Infections , Raw Water , Magnetic Segregation , Water Purification , Hepatitis A , Antibodies
3.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 04/04/2021. 9 p. tab, graf. (ISSN 2525-3409).
Thesis in English, Spanish, Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-RJ | ID: biblio-1343548

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Este estudo busca caracterizar o perfil dos indivíduos com hepatite A, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, no período de 2010 a 2018. Metodologia: Trata-se de uma pesquisa transversal desenvolvida na abordagem quantitativa. Foram utilizados dados secundários provenientes da Ficha de Notificação das Hepatites Virais do banco do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, cedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Saúde do Rio de Janeiro. Resultados: Foram analisados 48672 notificações, sendo que 3734 foram notificações confirmadas de portadores exclusivo da hepatite A, 28719 referentes a outras hepatites, 614 de co-infecção por mais de uma hepatite viral e 15605 ignoradas. A maior prevalência da hepatite A foi encontrada nos indivíduos com 4 a 8 anos de estudo, da raça negra, faixa ≤ 24 anos e sendo água e alimentos contaminados a principal fonte de contágio. Conclusão: A notificação dos casos e o preenchimento adequado é importante para definições de ações sanitárias capazes de mitigar os danos à saúde pública. Palavras-chave: Hepatite A; Notificação; Prevalência.


Objective: To characterize the profile of individuals with hepatitis A in the State of Rio de Janeiro, from 2010 to 2018. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional research developed in the quantitative approach. Secondary data from the Viral Hepatitis Notification Form of the Bank of the Notifiable Diseases Information System, provided by the State Health Secretariat of Rio de Janeiro, were used. Results: 48672 notifications were analyzed, of which 3734 were confirmed notifications of hepatitis A carriers only, 28719 were related to other hepatitis, 614 were co-infected with more than one viral hepatitis and 15605 were ignored. The highest prevalence of hepatitis A was found in individuals with 4 to 8 years of study, black, aged ≤ 24 years and with contaminated water and food being the main source of contagion. Conclusion: Notification of cases and proper completion is important for the definition of health actions capable of mitigating damage to public health. Keywords: Hepatitis A; Notification; Prevalence.


Objetivo: Este estudio busca caracterizar el perfil de individuos con hepatitis A, en el estado de Río de Janeiro, de 2010 a 2018. Metodología: Se trata de una investigación transversal desarrollada en el enfoque cuantitativo. Se utilizaron datos secundarios del Formulario de Notificación de Hepatitis Virales del Banco del Sistema de Información de Enfermedades Notificables, proporcionado por la Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Río de Janeiro. Resultados: Se analizaron 48672 notificaciones, de las cuales 3734 fueron notificaciones confirmadas de solo portadores de hepatitis A, 28719 estaban relacionadas con otras hepatitis, 614 estaban coinfectadas con más de una hepatitis viral y 15605 fueron ignoradas. La mayor prevalencia de hepatitis A se encontró en individuos de 4 a 8 años de estudio, negros, ≤ 24 años y con agua y alimentos contaminados como la principal fuente de contagio. Conclusión: La notificación de casos y su debida cumplimentación es importante para la definición de acciones de salud capaces de mitigar los daños a la salud pública. Palabra clave: Hepatitis A; Notificación; Prevalencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Picornaviridae , Disease Notification
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 169-178, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153044

ABSTRACT

Foodborne viruses including hepatitis A virus (HAV), norovirus (NoV), rotavirus (RoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are easily transmitted through contaminated seafoods. The current research was done to assess the incidence of RoV, NoV GI and GII,hAV and hEV in fish and shrimp samples caught from the Persian Gulf, Iran. Three-hundred and twenty fish and shrimp samples were collected. The presence of foodborne viruses were assessed by the real-time PCR. Forty-nine out of 320 (15.31%) fish and shrimp samples were positive for foodborne viruses. Distribution of hAV, NoV GI and NoV GII amongst all studied samples were 0.93%, 5.93% and 8.43%, respectively. hEV and RoV viruses were not found in studied samples. Parastromateus niger and Scomberomorus commerson fish and Penaeus monodon shrimp were the most frequently contaminated samples. Simultaneous incidence of hAV and NoV GI and hAV and NoV GII were 0.31% and 0.93%, respectively. Distribution of foodborne viruses in samples collected through spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons were 14.28%, 9.33%, 11.76% and 24.44%, respectively. Findings revealed that the incidence of foodborne viruses was significantly associated with seafood species and also season of sampling.(AU)


Vírus transmitidos por alimentos, incluindo hepatite A (HAV), norovírus (NoV), rotavírus (RoV) e hepatite E (HEV) são facilmente transmitidos através de frutos do mar contaminados. Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar a incidência de RoV, NoV GI e GII, hAV e hEV em amostras de peixes e camarões capturadas no Golfo Pérsico, Irã. Foram coletadas 300 amostras de peixes e camarões. A presença de vírus transmitidos por alimentos foi avaliada por PCR em tempo real. Quarenta e nove das 320 amostras de peixes e camarões (15,31%) foram positivas para vírus transmitidos por alimentos. A distribuição de hAV, NoV GI e NoV GII entre as amostras estudadas foi 0,93%, 5,93% e 8,43%, respectivamente. Os vírus hEV e RoV não foram encontrados nas amostras estudadas. Os peixes Parastromateus niger e Scomberomorus commerson e o camarão Penaeus monodon foram as amostras mais frequentemente contaminadas. A incidência simultânea de hAV e NoV GI, e hAV e NoV GII foi de 0,31% e 0,93%, respectivamente. A distribuição dos vírus transmitidos por alimentos nas amostras coletadas na primavera, verão, outono e inverno foi de 14,28%, 9,33%, 11,76% e 24,44%, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram que a incidência de vírus transmitidos por alimentos foi significativamente associada às espécies de frutos do mar e também à época da amostragem.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Decapoda/virology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Fishes/virology , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Shellfish/virology , Hepatitis E virus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Indian Ocean/epidemiology , Hepatitis A virus/isolation & purification , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Iran/epidemiology
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(2): 721-728, fev. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153792

ABSTRACT

Resumo A relação entre os desastres de origem hidrometeorológicos e a saúde das populações atingidas ainda é pouco abordada no Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brasil. A Hepatite A é uma doença que envolve questões sanitárias e do meio urbano, sendo uma doença do tipo evitável. Esse estudo tem como objetivo analisar a relação entre áreas de inundação e a ocorrência de doenças de veiculação hídrica, neste caso, a Hepatite A. Foi estruturado um banco de dados dos casos confirmados de Hepatite A e de eventos de inundações no município de Encantado-RS entre os anos de 2012 e 2014. Esses dados foram analisados espacialmente a partir do estimador Kernel dos pontos de ocorrência de casos de Hepatite A e correlacionados para o perímetro urbano. Verificou-se que nos três meses posteriores à ocorrência de inundação, foram registrados 44 casos, um aumento de quase 300%, no registro de casos de Hepatite A. Os resultados identificaram que todos os casos confirmados estão na área urbana localizada na planície de inundação. O que reafirma a importância de incentivo a formulação e implementação de políticas de prevenção a surtos de doenças pós-desastres hidrometeorológicos.


Abstract The relationship between hydrometeorological disasters and the health of affected populations is still hardly discussed in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. Hepatitis A is a disease that involves health and urban environment issue and is an avoidable disease. This study aims to analyze the relationship between flood areas and waterborne diseases, in this case, Hepatitis A. A database of confirmed cases of Hepatitis A and flood events in the municipality of Encantado-RS, Brazil between 2012 and 2014 was structured. These data were analyzed spatially from the kernel estimator of the occurrence points of Hepatitis A cases and correlated to the urban perimeter. It was verified that 44 cases were registered in the three months following the occurrence of flood, an increase of almost 300% in the records of Hepatitis A. The results identified that all the confirmed cases are in the urban area located in the floodplain. This reaffirms the importance of encouraging the formulation and implementation of policies to prevent outbreaks of waterborne diseases post hydrometeorological disaster.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disasters , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Floods
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828989

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Long-term seroprotection the hepatitis A vaccine is essential for the prevention of disease from the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Due to documented difficulties during decade-long follow-ups after receiving vaccines, statistical-modeling approaches have been applied to predict the duration of immune protection.@*Methods@#Based on five-year follow-up data from a randomized positive-controlled trial among Chinese children (1-8 years old) following a 0, 6 months vaccination schedule, a power-law model accounting for the kinetics of B-cell turnover, as well as a modified power-law model considering a memory-B-cell subpopulation, were fitted to predict the long-term immune responses induced by HAV vaccination (Healive or Havrix). Anti-HAV levels of each individual and seroconversion rates up to 30 years after vaccination were predicted.@*Results@#A total of 375 participants who completed the two-dose vaccination were included in the analysis. Both models predicted that, over a life-long period, participants vaccinated with Healive would have close but slightly higher antibody titers than those of participants vaccinated with Havrix. Additionally, consistent with previous studies, more than 90% of participants were predicted to maintain seroconversion for at least 30 years. Moreover, the modified power-law model predicted that the antibody titers would reach a plateau level after nearly 15 years post-vaccination.@*Conclusions@#Based on the results of our modeling, Healive may adequately induce long-term immune responses following a 0, 6 months vaccination schedule in children induction of memory B cells to provide stable and durable immune protection.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Hepatitis A , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis A Antibodies , Blood , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Active , Infant , Male , Models, Statistical , Vaccination
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816640

ABSTRACT

Canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) causes infectious hepatitis in members of the family Canidae, including dogs. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) that detects CAV-1 antibodies is required for large-throughput tests of dog sera. We collected 165 serum samples from dogs of Chungbuk and Gyeongbuk provinces between February 2016 and October 2018. The Korean CAV-1 vaccine strain CAV1V was propagated in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and purified via Nuvia cPrime anion-exchange chromatography; the virus served as an I-ELISA antigen. Virus-neutralizing anti-CAV-1 titers in dog sera were measured using the virus neutralization (VN) method. The I-ELISA was optimized using purified CAV-1 antigen and serum samples. This kit was used to evaluate dog sera. The VN and I-ELISA data were compared. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the I-ELISA were 97.0%, 74.2%, and 92.7% compared to the VN assay, respectively. The I-ELISA data significantly correlated with those of VN (r = 0.88). These results suggest that the I-ELISA is useful for serosurveillance of CAV-1 in dog sera.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Canine , Animals , Antibodies , Canidae , Chromatography , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hepatitis A , Humans , Kidney , Methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2020. xx, 12 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128790

ABSTRACT

Ao longo dos anos vem se observando um declínio do número de casos de infecção pelo vírus da hepatite A (HAV) em crianças, relacionado ao investimento nos programas de vacinação e a melhorias sanitárias. Porém, nota se a mudança desse perfil de infecção, onde indivíduos jovens/adultos vêm sendo mais acometidos. Apesar do vírus ser transmitido principalmente pelo consumo de água e alimentos contaminados, diversos surtos têm ocorrido ao redor do mundo em adultos e sendo relacionados a práticas sexuais. Em nosso país, um aumento no número de casos nos últimos três anos foi observado após um período de declínio de notificações. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os comportamentos de risco e os aspectos moleculares associados à transmissão do HAV em indivíduos atendidos no Ambulatório de Hepatites Virais do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, entre os anos de 2017 e 2019. Para tal, foram coletadas amostras de soro e informações socioepidemiológicas de 52 pacientes com anti-HAV IgM reagente, que chegaram ao ambulatório. Posteriormente, essas amostras tiveram o genoma viral extraído e analisado através da técnica de RTPCR. Após detecção, o RNA foi sequenciado e analisado filogeneticamente. Em seguida, foram realizadas análises filogeográficas para obter a rota de dispersão e período de introdução das estirpes virais no país. (AU)


Com a análise dos dados dos prontuários, observou-se que 78,9% (41/52) pacientes eram do sexo masculino, nas faixas etárias 20 a 29 anos (n=24/52) e de 30 a 39 anos (n=20/52) com media 32,1 anos, sendo 63,5% (n=33) dele(a)s homens/mulheres que fazem sexo com homens/mulheres (HSH/MSM), e 89,9% eram residentes na região norte da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Observou-se uma baixa frequência de exposição a fatores hídricos, alimentares e parenterais na população estudada, sendo 42,3%, 42,3%, 34,7%, respectivamente. Já algumas práticas sexuais apresentaram elevada frequência, destacando o sexo oral (75%) e sexo anal (65,3%). Através das análises filogenéticas, foi identificado um único subgenótipo IA da população estudada. Quatro clados deste subgenótipo foram formados, dos quais, três agruparamse as sequências dos estirpes virais provenientes de surtos Europeus/Asiáticos, e um clado, formado por estirpes virais previamente circulantes no Brasil. Através da filogeografia, foi possível inferir o ano e país de introdução, além da data de origem das estirpes virais no Brasil. A estirpe VRD_521_2016 foi possivelmente introduzida entre 2016-2017 pela Espanha com provável origem em 2013, a RIVM-HAV16-090 europeia/asiática e V16-25801, possivelmente introduzida pela Alemanha, entre 20142015 e 2015-2016 respectivamente, com provável origem em 2000 e 2011. Nossos achados reforçam a necessidade de ampliação do acesso à vacina contra o HAV a grupos adultos de risco e do monitoramento da entrada de novos patógenos no Brasil. Além disso, medidas educativas são úteis para impedir a disseminação do HAV em populações-chave como os HSH. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeography , Hepatitis A
10.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 36(2): 101-107, sep.-dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040450

ABSTRACT

Resumen El virus de la hepatitis A ha estado clásicamente relacionado con el mecanismo de transmisión fecal-oral, característica de países endémicos. El aumento de las condiciones higiénicas en nuestro entorno había supuesto una importante disminución de los casos de infección por estos patógenos. Sin embargo, en la actualidad, su epidemiología esta cambiando debido a nuevas vías de contagio en Europa. En el caso de la hepatitis A, están aumentando los casos debidos a la transmisión por vía sexual, especialmente en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los cambios descritos deberían promover la implantación de nuevas estrategias de diagnóstico, manejo y prevención. La hepatitis aguda por virus de hepatitis A usualmente sigue un curso corto, benigno y autolimitado sin ocasionar una hepatitis crónica, sin embargo en algunos casos puede manifestarse mediante formas atípicas.


Abstract Hepatitis A virus has been classically linked to the fecal-oral transmission mechanism, characteristic of endemic countries. The increase in hygiene conditions in our environment had led to a significant decrease in cases of infection by these pathogens. However, the epidemiology of these infections is currently changing due to new routes of transmission in Europe. In the case of hepatitis A, cases due to sexual transmission are increasing, especially among men who have sex with men. The changes described should promote the implementation of new strategies for the diagnosis, management and prevention of these diseases. Acute hepatitis due to the hepatitis A virus usually has a short, benign and self-limited course, without causing chronic hepatitis. However, some cases have an atypical presentation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis A Virus, Human , Hepatitis A virus , Hepatitis A/diagnosis , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human
11.
Rev. salud pública ; 21(3): e174932, mayo-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094404

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar el comportamiento epidemiológico de la hepatitis A en el Distrito de Barranquilla (Colombia), durante los años 2013 a 2017. Metodología Estudio descriptivo, en el que se revisó de forma retrospectiva la base de datos de todos los casos de hepatitis A notificados en el Distrito de Barranquilla durante el periodo de observación. Resultados Se notificaron 293 casos nuevos de hepatitis A en el Distrito de Barran-quilla, de los cuales el 62,4% eran hombres y el 37,6% restantes mujeres. Los grupos etarios más afectados fueron los adultos con el 39,6% de los casos, seguido de jóvenes y niños en etapa escolar con el 15% respectivamente. En cuanto a la incidencia de hepatitis A en el Distrito de Barranquilla se observó un descenso entre los años 2013 a 2016 al pasar de 10,9 a 1,5 casos por 100 000 habitantes; sin embargo, en el 2017 se observó un leve aumento en la incidencia a 2,5 por 100 000 habitantes. Conclusiones La Hepatitis A es un evento de interés en salud pública para el Distrito de Barranquilla, que ha mantenido un comportamiento a la baja de su incidencia en los últimos años.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the epidemiological behavior of hepatitis A in the district of Barranquilla (Colombia), in the period 2013-2017. Materials and Methods Descriptive study, in which the database of all hepatitis A cases reported in the district of Barranquilla during the observation period were retrospectively reviewed. Results There were 293 new cases of hepatitis A reported in the district of Barranquilla, of which 62.4% occurred in men and 37.6% in women. The age groups most affected by the disease were adults (39.6%), followed by young people and schoolchildren (15%, respectively). The incidence of hepatitis A in the district of Barranquilla decreased between 2013 and 2016 from 10.9 to 1.5 cases per 100 000 inhabitants; however, in 2017 there was a slight increase to 2.5 cases per 100 000 inhabitants. Conclusions Hepatitis A is an event of interest for public health in the district of Barranquilla, and the behavior of its incidence has had a downward trend in recent years.(AU)


RESUMO: Objetivo Analisar o comportamento epidemiológico da hepatite A no distrito de Barranquilla (Colômbia), durante os anos de 2013 a 2017. Metodologia Estudo descritivo, que revisou retrospectivamente o banco de dados de todos os casos de hepatite A notificados no distrito de Barranquilla durante o período de observação. Resultados Foram notificados 293 novos casos de hepatite A no distrito de Barran-quilla, dos quais 62,4% eram homens e os restantes 37,6% mulheres. As faixas etárias mais afetadas foram adultos com 39,6% dos casos, seguidos por jovens e crianças em idade escolar com 15%, respectivamente. Em relação à incidência de hepatite A no distrito de Barranquilla, observou-se uma diminuição entre 2013 e 2016, passando de 10,9 para 1,5 casos por 100.000 habitantes; No entanto, em 2017, foi observado um ligeiro aumento na incidência, para 2,5 por 100.000 habitantes. Conclusões A hepatite A é um evento de interesse em saúde pública no distrito de Barranquilla, que manteve uma tendência de queda em sua incidência nos últimos anos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Profile , Health Behavior , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719341

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted using the theory of planned behavior to analyze factors influencing mothers' intention to vaccinate their children against hepatitis A (HA). METHODS: This descriptive study used a questionnaire. The participants were 100 mothers with children under 19 years. The collected data were analyzed by the t-test, analysis of variance, and the Mann-Whitney U test. The Pearson's correlation was used to test the correlations among variables. Stepwise multiple regression was used to identify factors related to HA vaccination intention. RESULTS: The attitude of mothers with children under 19 to HA vaccination were quite positive (6.2 of 7), and their perceived behavioral control (5.73 of 7), subjective norm (5.54 of 7), and vaccination intention (5.96 of 7) were relatively high. Attitude toward HA vaccination was the strongest influencing factor, followed by subjective norm. The explanatory power of attitude and subjective norm for HA vaccination was 84%. CONCLUSION: HA vaccination is very important for preventing HA. Mothers' positive attitudes toward HA vaccination were an important factor influencing their children's HA vaccination. Providing education on the benefits of HA vaccination and the vaccination schedule may foster positive attitude toward vaccination.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Child , Education , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis , Humans , Intention , Mothers , Vaccination
14.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2019038-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785749

ABSTRACT

The 2019 hepatitis A outbreak has become increasingly prevalent among adults in Korea and is the largest outbreak since that in 2009–2010. The incidence in the current outbreak is highest among adults aged 35–44 years, corresponding to the peak incidence among those aged 25–34 years 10 years ago. This may indicate a cohort effect in the corresponding age group. Causes of these repeated outbreaks of hepatitis A in Korea are low level of immunity among adults, Korean food culture that consumes raw seafood such as salted clam and inadequate public health system. Among countermeasures, along with general infectious disease control measures including control of the infectious agent, infection spread, and host, urgent actions are needed to review the vaccination policy and establish an adequate public health system.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bivalvia , Cohort Effect , Communicable Diseases , Disease Outbreaks , Epidemiology , Hepatitis A virus , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis , Humans , Immunization , Incidence , Korea , Public Health , Seafood , Vaccination
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765073

ABSTRACT

Until 1995, the incidence of symptomatic acute hepatitis A was minimal and there were no cases of national outbreak in Korea. However, there was a nationwide outbreak of hepatitis A that peaked in 2009. In 2019, a total of 10,083 cases of acute hepatitis A were reported for seven months of the year according to the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention. This may be attributed to the proportion of susceptible subjects in the Korean population, as about 10 years have passed since herd immunity was induced by the epidemic occurring during the late 2000s. Recent studies have shown that the rate of seropositivity for anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies (anti-HAV) is the lowest in adults in their 20s and has not changed much over the past 10 years, and seropositivity of anti-HAV in adults in their 30s has continued to decline from 69.6% in 2005 to 32.4% in 2014. Most young adults who have not yet experienced hepatitis A and are not vaccinated are vulnerable to hepatitis A infection. This year's epidemic of hepatitis A is a predictable outcome for vulnerable populations. Therefore, effective acute hepatitis A control and prevention strategies are needed, particularly for those in their 20s and 30s.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies , Hepatitis A Antibodies , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Incidence , Korea , Prevalence , Vulnerable Populations , Young Adult
17.
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1263857

ABSTRACT

Introduction : l'hépatite aiguë est fréquente et représente un problème de santé publique dans les pays en développement. Les étiologies sont dominées par l'hépatite A en Afrique subsaharienne et en Asie du Sud-Est. Cependant, très peu d'études locales ont porté sur cette pathologie. Objectif : Étudier les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutifs des hépatites aiguës chez les enfants hospitalisés au CHNEAR. Matériel et Méthodes : il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective réalisée au CHNEAR de Dakar du 1er janvier 2007 au 31 décembre 2017. Étaient inclus les enfants hospitalisés pour une hépatite aiguë. Les données socio démographiques, cliniques, paracliniques et évolutives ont été recueillies. L'analyse des données uni et bivariée était faite grâce au logiciel R studio version 3.5.0. Résultats : au total, 35 000 enfants étaient hospitalisés durant la période d'étude parmi lesquels 71 patients avaient une hépatite aiguë déterminant une prévalence hospitalière de 0,2%. L'âge moyen à l'admission était de 65 mois avec un sex-ratio de 1,5. L'ictère cutanéo-muqueux était le principal signe physique (81,7%). La cytolyse était constante avec une moyenne des ALAT de 549UI/L. Une insuffisance hépatocellulaire était notée chez 24% des patients. L'étiologie était dans la grande majorité des cas indéterminée (66,2%). L'hépatite A représentait 15,5% et la phytothérapie (18,3%). L'évolution était favorable dans l'ensemble sans aucun cas de rechute. La létalité était de 16,9%. Conclusion : l'étiologie des hépatites demeurent encore indéterminées dans une large proportion au CHNEAR de Dakar. Le pronostic reste réservé pour les formes graves avec insuffisance hépatocellulaire


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Child , Disease Progression , Hepatitis A/diagnosis , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hepatitis A/etiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Senegal
18.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(3): 166-170, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974214

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Vaccination against the hepatitis A virus (HAV) administered in two doses has been used effectively in universal child immunization programs in several countries. A single-dose vaccination was adopted in some low-income countries in an attempt to reduce costs without losing effectiveness. In 2014, single-dose universal vaccination was introduced in Brazil for children aged two years. Since such strategy is still not universally accepted, its efficacy should be compared to the two-dose strategy. To assess the humoral response after the single-dose HAV vaccination schedule, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Primavera do Leste, in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil, including 265 children vaccinated through the National Immunization Program. Blood was collected by using a digital puncture and further applied to filter paper cards. Anti-HAV was detected in 218 out of 265 dried blood spots (DBS). Blood venous samples were collected from 34 out of 47 children who were not anti-HAV positive in DBS samples. Eighteen of them tested positive for anti-HAV, giving a final score of 93.6% (236/252) of seropositivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a high rate of anti-HAV positivity in the short term after single-dose hepatitis A vaccination in the population investigated. Moreover, the DBS was shown to be a reliable tool for detecting anti-HAV antibodies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Mass Vaccination/methods , Hepatitis A Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis A Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Program Evaluation , Logistic Models , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Retrospective Studies , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Immunization Schedule , Hepatitis A Virus, Human/immunology , Hepatitis A Vaccines/immunology , Dried Blood Spot Testing , Hepatitis A/epidemiology
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(1): 66-67, Jan. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040578

ABSTRACT

Using a metagenomic approach, we identified hepatitis A virus among cases of acute febrile illnesses that occurred in 2008-2012 in Brazil suspected as yellow fever. These findings reinforce the challenge facing routine clinical diagnosis in complex epidemiological scenarios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Yellow Fever/diagnosis , Hepatitis A/diagnosis , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Yellow fever virus/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Metagenomics , Genotype , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hepatitis Viruses/genetics
20.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 12 ene. 2018. a) f: 22 l:39 p. mapas, graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 2, 73).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1103492

ABSTRACT

Las hepatitis virales son enfermedades transmisibles, de evolución aguda y/o crónica, que alcanzan importancia mundial constituyendo un importante problema de salud pública por su morbimortalidad y también debido a los recursos de salud y económicos que insume, primordialmente, el tratamiento de las personas con hepatitis crónica. En este informe especial se analiza la distribución mundial de estas infecciones, y el acceso al tratamiento; así como la situación epidemiológica de Argentina y la Ciudad de Buenos Aires .Para el análisis de los casos de hepatitis virales de CABA se tomaron todos los casos confirmados y probables residentes, notificados a través del SNVS, tanto en el módulo C2 como SIVILA, entre los años 2010 a 2017. Se eliminaron los casos duplicados y se consolidó una base depurada. No se consideraron los casos con residencia desconocida. Se compara el nivel nacional y de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires de las tasas de notificación por 100.000 habitantes de Hepatitis virales A, B y C confirmadas, entre los años 2010-2016; y se analiza la distribución de los casos confirmados y probables de hepatitis virales según tipo de virus identificado y comuna de residencia


Subject(s)
Epidemiologic Measurements , Hepacivirus , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis A/ethnology , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/ethnology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/prevention & control , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology
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