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1.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1551896

ABSTRACT

Introduction: since the introduction of the anti-HBV vaccine into the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 2005 in Cameroon, vaccination coverage has reached 99.0%. This coverage would indicate an increase the number of children immune to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and a decrease in susceptibility to HBV-infection. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the HBV vaccine on pediatric HBV-infection in Yaounde, Cameroon. Methods: this school based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2016 among 180 children from Nkomo public school. The study population was stratified into two groups: vaccinated (n=95) versus (vs) unvaccinated (n=85). Screening for HBV biomarkers was done using a rapid panel test for detection (HBsAg, HBeAg and anti-HBc) and anti-HBs titer using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analyses were done using SPSS v. 22 with p ≥0.05 considered significant. Results: the mean age was 9.65 years. HBsAg (p=0.019) and anti-HBc (p=0.001) rates were detected in children aged ≥10 years and children aged < 10 years (95.95% [71/74]) were vaccinated vs 22.64% (24/106) for those aged ≥10 years (OR: 80.86; 95% CI: 23.36%-279.87%, p < 0.0001). According to anti-HBV vaccination status, HBsAg rate varied from [9.41% (8/85) to 1.05% (1/95), p=0.025], HBeAg rate varied from [2.35% (2/85) to 0% (0/95), p= 0.42] and anti-HBc rate ranged from [12.94% (11/85) to 2.10% (2/95), p= 0.011]. Conclusion: despite the variability of the anti-HBs titer, vaccination against HBV has a positive effect on the reduction of HBV infection in children in tropical settings such as Cameroon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B e Antigens
2.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 42-48, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970950

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the demographic characteristics and clinical influencing factors which associates with the occurrence probability of persistent or intermittent hypoviremia (LLV) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs). Methods: A single-center retrospective analysis was performed on patients with CHB who received outpatient NAs therapy for≥48 ± 2 weeks. According to the serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA load at 48±2 weeks treatment, the study groups were divided into LLV (HBV DNA < 20 IU/ml and < 2 000 IU/ml) and MVR group (sustained virological response, HBV DNA < 20 IU/ml). Demographic characteristics and clinical data at the start of NAs treatment (considered as baseline) were retrospectively collected for both patient groups. The differences in the reduction of HBV DNA load during treatment was compared between the two groups. Correlation and multivariate analysis were further conducted to analyze the associated factors influencing the LLV occurrence. Statistical analysis was performed using the independent samples t-test, c2 test, Spearman analysis, multivariate logistic regression analysis, or area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: A total of 509 cases were enrolled, with 189 and 320 in the LLV and MVR groups, respectively. Compared to patients with MVR group at baseline: (1) the demographics characteristics of patients showed that LLV group was younger in age (39.1 years, P = 0.027), had a stronger family history (60.3%, P = 0.001), 61.9% received ETV treatment, and higher proportion of compensated cirrhosis (20.6%, P = 0.025) at baseline; (2) the serum virological characteristics of patients showed that LLV group had higher HBV DNA load, qHBsAg level, qHBeAg level, HBeAg positive rate, and the proportion of genotype C HBV infection but decreased HBV DNA during treatment (P < 0.001) at baseline; (3) the biochemical characteristics of patients showed that LLV group had lower serum ALT levels (P = 0.007) at baseline; (4) the noninvasive fibrosis markers of patients showed that LLV group were characterized by high aspartate aminotransferase platelet ratio index (APRI) (P = 0.02) and FIB-4 (P = 0.027) at baseline. HBV DNA, qHBsAg and qHBeAg were positively correlated with LLV occurrence (r = 0.559, 0.344, 0.435, respectively), while age and HBV DNA reduction were negatively correlated (r = -0.098, -0.876, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that ETV treatment history, high HBV DNA load at baseline, high qHBsAg level, high qHBeAg level, HBeAg positive, low ALT and HBV DNA level were independent risk factors for patients with CHB who developed LLV with NAs treatment. Multivariate prediction model had a good predictive value for LLV occurrence [AUC 0.922 (95%CI: 0.897 ~ 0.946)]. Conclusion: In this study, 37.1% of CHB patients treated with first-line NAs has LLV. The formation of LLV is influenced by various factors. HBeAg positivity, genotype C HBV infection, high baseline HBV DNA load, high qHBsAg level, high qHBeAg level, high APRI or FIB-4 value, low baseline ALT level, reduced HBV DNA during treatment, concomitant family history, metabolic liver disease history, and age < 40 years old are potential risk factors for developing LLV in patients with CHB during the therapeutic process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B e Antigens , DNA, Viral , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Demography
3.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 698-706, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982339

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Long-term hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can cause recurrent inflammation in the liver, and then develop into liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. The hepatic pathological change is one of the important criteria for guiding antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Due to the limitations of liver biopsy, it is necessary to find valuable non-invasive indicators to evaluate the hepatic pathological changes in CHB patients and guide the antiviral therapy. This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics of different pathological changes in CHB patients, and to explore the factors influnencing the degree of liver inflammation and fibrosis in CHB patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT).@*METHODS@#This retrospective study was conducted on 310 CHB patients. Liver biopsy was performed in all these patients. The clinical data of the patients were collected. The liver biopsy pathological results were used as the gold standard to analyze the relationship between clinical indicators and liver pathological changes. Then CHB patients with normal ALT were screened, and the independent factors influencing the degree of liver inflammation and fibrosis were explored.@*RESULTS@#Among the 310 patients with CHB, there were 249 (80.3%) patients with significant liver inflammation [liver inflammation grade (G) ≥2] and 119 (38.4%) patients with significant liver fibrosis [liver fibrosis stage (S) ≥2]. The results of univariate analysis of total samples showed that the ALT, γ-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and HBV DNA were related to the significant liver pathological changes. Among the 132 CHB patients with normal ALT, the patients with liver pathology G/S≥2, G≥2, and S≥2 were 80.3% (106/132), 68.2% (90/132), and 43.2% (57/132), respectively. The results showed that the independent influencing factor of significant liver inflammation was HBV DNA>2 000 U/mL (OR=3.592, 95% CI 1.534 to 8.409), and the independent influencing factors of significant liver fibrosis were elevated alkaline phosphatase level (OR=1.022, 95% CI 1.002 to 1.043), decreased platelet count (OR=0.990, 95% CI 0.982 to 0.998), and positive in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) (OR=14.845, 95% CI 4.898 to 44.995). According to the multivariate analysis, a diagnostic model for significant liver fibrosis in CHB patients with normal ALT was established, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.844 (95% CI 0.779 to 0.910).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The liver pathological changes should be evaluated in combination with different clinical indicators. A considerable number of CHB patients with normal ALT still have significant liver pathological changes, which need to be identified and treated with antiviral therapy in time. Among them, HBV DNA>2 000 U/mL suggests the significant liver inflammation, and the diagnostic model for significant liver fibrosis based on alkaline phosphatase, platelet count, and HBeAg can help to evaluate the degree of liver fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B e Antigens/therapeutic use , Alkaline Phosphatase , DNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Fibrosis , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Alanine Transaminase
4.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 698-704, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986197

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand ten-year changes in clinical characteristics and antiviral treatment patterns of chronic hepatitis B in China. Methods: Patients with chronic HBV infection:demographic, virologic, hematologic, blood biochemistry, and antiviral treatment data were extracted from the China Registry of Hepatitis B (CR-HepB) database between 2012 and 2022 for descriptive statistics and change trend analysis. Multiple group comparisons were conducted using the Kruskal Wallis H test, while counting data was compared between groups using χ (2) test. Results: A total of 180 012 patients with chronic HBV infection were included, with a median age of 40 years old, and a male proportion accounting for 60.2%. The HBeAg positive rate was 43.3%. Over time, the median age of new patients each year increased from 39 to 47 years, while the HBeAg positive rate decreased from 51.3% to 32.8%. The initial diagnosis of patients was mainly CHB (71.4%), followed by hepatitis B cirrhosis (11.8%), inactive HBsAg carrier status (10.6%), and chronic HBV carrier status (6.2%). Among the newly registered patients every year from 2012 to 2022, the proportion of hepatitis B cirrhosis remained stable, but after 2019, the proportion of CHB increased and the proportion of other diagnoses decreased. The proportion of patients with cirrhosis increased with age in different age groups, with 3.5%, 19.3%, and 30.4% in the < 40, 40-69, and≥70 age groups, respectively. The proportion of women in patients with cirrhosis also increased with age, from 16.1% in those < 30 years old to 44.3% in those≥80 years old. From 2012 to 2022, the proportion of patients receiving first-line nucleos(t)ide analog antiviral treatment increased year by year, from 51.0% in 2012-2013 to 99.8% in 2022. Conclusion: The CR-HepB registration data reflect the changes in clinical characteristics and antiviral treatment patterns in patients with chronic HBV infection in China over the past ten years and can thus provide a reference to promote hepatitis B diagnosis and treatment practice, as well as scientific research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis A , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , China/epidemiology , Registries , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , DNA, Viral
5.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 483-488, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986157

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the hepatic pathological characteristics and factors influencing an alanine transaminase value below twice the upper limit of normal in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and further explore the optimal ALT threshold strategy for initiating antiviral therapy. Methods: Clinical data of treatment-naïve CHB patients who underwent liver biopsies from January 2010 to December 2019 were retrospectively collected. Multiple regression models were used to explore the ALT levels and significant risk of hepatic histological changes (≥G2/S2). Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the value of different models in diagnosing liver tissue inflammation≥G2 or fibrosis ≥ S2. Results: A total of 447 eligible CHB patients, with a median age of 38.0 years and 72.9% males, were included. During ALT normalization, there was significant liver inflammation (≥G2) and fibrosis (≥S2) in 66.9% and 53.0% of patients, respectively. With an ALT rise of 1-2×ULN, the proportions of liver inflammation≥G2 and fibrosis≥S2 were 81.2% and 60.0%, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, higher ALT levels (> 29 U/L) were found to be associated with significant liver inflammation (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.11 ~ 4.77) and fibrosis (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.10 ~ 3.09). After the measurement of glutamyltransferase-platelet ratio (GPR), the proportion of CHB patients with≥G2/S2 was significantly reduced under different treatment thresholds of ALT standards, and in particular, the erroneous evaluation of liver fibrosis≥S2 was significantly improved (33.5% to 57.5%). Conclusion: More than half of CHB patients have a normal ALT or one within 2 × ULN, regardless of whether or not there is apparent inflammation and fibrosis. GPR can significantly improve the precise assessment of different conditions of treatment thresholds for the ALT value in CHB patients.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Alanine Transaminase , Retrospective Studies , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Inflammation/pathology , Hepatitis B e Antigens
6.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1242-1248, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008956

ABSTRACT

The infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can result in severe consequences, including chronic hepatitis, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer. Effective antiviral treatment has the potential to slow down the progression of the disease. HBV serum biomarkers play a crucial role in the dynamic management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. However, the conventional hepatitis B virus markers, such as hepatitis B serologic testing and HBV DNA, are insufficient to meet the clinical requirements. This review provided a comprehensive overview of the current research on the quantification of HBsAg and anti-HBc, HBV RNA and HBV core-associated antigen, which summarized the crucial role these markers play in the administration of antiviral medications, predicting the efficacy of treatment and anticipating the likelihood of virologic rebound following drug cessation, as well as assessing disease progression in CHB patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Clinical Relevance , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B e Antigens/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B/drug therapy
7.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 389-394, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935956

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of nucleos(t)ide analogues in the treatment of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B with normal alanine aminotransferase and high level of HBV DNA. Methods: Treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients who were followed up at the Center of Infectious Diseases, West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2019 to January 2020 were selected as subjects. Demographic characteristics, the results of laboratory examination before treatment and one year after treatment were retrospectively collected. Patients were divided into tenofovir dipivoxil (TDF) and propofol fumurate tenofovir (TAF) treatment group according to different types of medication. The changes of serum HBV DNA level, HBeAg serological conversion and HBsAg quantitative level were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 38 cases were enrolled. Among them, there were 16 and 22 cases in the TDF and TAF group, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in demographic characteristics, baseline HBV DNA levels and HBsAg quantitative levels between the two groups. Virological response was achieved in 60.5% (23/38) of patients after one year of antiviral therapy. Serum HBV DNA levels below the lower limit of detection [68.2% (15/22) vs. 50.0% (8/16), P=0.258] and higher HBeAg seroconversion rate [18.2%] (4/22) vs. 6.3% (1/16), P=0.374] was obtained in TAF than TDF group; however, there was no statistically significant differences between the two. Serum HBsAg quantitative level was significantly reduced with TDF and TAF treatment. In addition, alanine aminotransferase elevation was reduced in TAF than TDF treated group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that patient age was an independent predictor of a virological response to antiviral therapy. Conclusion: HBeAg-positive CHB patients with normal alanine aminotransferase, and high HBV DNA level can obtain better curative effect after TDF and TAF treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alanine Transaminase , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Retrospective Studies , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
8.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 316-322, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935944

ABSTRACT

Objective: To dynamically observe the clinical efficacy of entecavir and the changes of PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes and sPD-1 levels in peripheral blood of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B virus carriers treated with entecavir, and further explore its clinical significance. Methods: There were 31 cases of chronic hepatitis B virus carriers in the treatment group (A), 32 cases of chronic hepatitis B virus carriers in the treatment group (B), and 15 cases of chronic hepatitis B virus carriers in the non-treatment group (C).Three groups peripheral blood samples and clinical data at 0, 24 and 48 weeks were collected and compared. PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes were detected by flow cytometry, and the level of sPD-1 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ANOVA and Spearman correlation analysis were performed on the measurement data among the three groups. Results: At week 0, the serum levels of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA were significantly higher in groups A and C than group B. PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes in peripheral blood were significantly higher in group B (4.70%±1.58%) than group A (3.25%±1.01%) and group C (2.77%±0.67%) (F=16.65, P<0.05). There was no significant difference between group A and group C (P>0.05). Peripheral blood sPD-1 in group B [(1 866.62±1 472.70) pg/ml] was significantly higher than group A [(824.86±538.66) pg/ml] and group C [(618.19±602.62) pg/ml] (F=10.95, P<0.05). There was no significant difference between group A and group C (P>0.05). At 48 weeks, the serum HBsAg did not decrease significantly in groups A and C than baseline (P>0.05), but were significantly higher than group B (P<0.05). Serum HBeAg levels were decreased significantly in groups A and B than baseline (P<0.05). <0.05), but group A was significantly higher than group B (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between group A and group C (P>0.05). Serum HBV DNA level was significantly lower in groups A and B than group C (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between group A and group B (P>0.05). Peripheral blood PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes were significantly lower in Group A (1.56%±0.73%) and group B (1.32%±0.43%) than group C (2.64%±0.85%) (P<0.05). Peripheral blood sPD-1 were significantly lower in group A [(289.05±215.86) pg/ml] and group B [(236.01±173.92) pg/ml] than group C [(650.34±598.46) pg/ml] (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between group A and group B. Correlation analysis results: In group A at 48 weeks, the decreased level of PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocyte ratio had no correlation with the decreased level of HBsAg and HBV DNA, but was positively correlated with the decreased level of HBeAg (r=0.376, P<0.05). The decreased level of sPD-1 had no correlation with the changes of HBsAg, but was positively correlated with the decreased levels of HBeAg and HBV DNA (r=0.598 and 0.384, P<0.05). In group B at 48 weeks, the decreased levels of PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes and sPD-1 were positively correlated with the decreased levels of HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV DNA (P<0.05). Conclusion: Hepatitis B virus replication and expressions in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B virus carriers were significantly inhibited after 48 weeks of antiviral treatment, which is related not only to entecavir treatment, but also to the immunological mechanism involved in sPD-1. Moreover, the inhibition of HBeAg expression is associated with a decrease in the number and/or activity of PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Receptors, CXCR5/analysis , T-Lymphocytes
9.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 304-308, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935942

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the efficacy of entecavir antiviral therapy on the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) combined with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in Tibet region. Methods: HBeAg-positive CHB patients who were treated with entecavir in the outpatient and inpatient Department of Infectious Diseases of the Tibet Autonomous Region people's Hospital between January 2018 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Among the 140 subjects with CHB, 95 cases were CHB alone, and the other 45 cases were diagnosed as CHB combined with NAFLD by ultrasound. All patients were given entecavir 0.5 mg orally once daily on an empty stomach for 48 weeks. HBeAg negative conversion rate, blood glucose, blood lipid, liver function and the degree of liver fibrosis were compared between the two groups at the 12th, 24th and 48th weeks of treatment to evaluate the virological response. SPSS 19.0 statistical software was used to process the data. Measurement data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (x¯±s). Descriptive statistical analysis was used for t-test, and the categorical variables were expressed as percentage (%) and χ2 test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: After 48 weeks of treatment, the HBeAg and HBV DNA negative conversion rate were significantly better in patients with CHB alone (group B) than CHB combined with NAFLD (group A), that is to say, HBeAg negative conversion rate in group A and B patients were 28.90% and 40%, respectively, and group B was better than group A. HBV DNA negative conversion rate was significantly elevated in group B (83.2%) than group A (64.4%), with statistical significance (P<0.05), and the difference between the both groups was statistically significant. Alanine aminotransferase level was significantly decreased in patients with CHB alone than patients with CHB combined with NAFLD. Aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index was significantly decreased after treatment than before treatment in both group of patients, and the depletion was more pronounced in CHB alone group. Liver stiffness values were significantly decreased in patients with CHB combined with NAFLD than CHB alone group. Moreover, liver stiffness values was higher in group A than group B before treatment under the influence of fat attenuation factors, and the differences before treatment and after treatment were 3.50±4.66 and 2.05±2.53, respectively; however, group B was not affected by fat attenuation factors, so LSM value reduction in group A was more obvious, and the differences were statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference in blood glucose and blood lipids levels before and after treatment between the two groups. Conclusion: NAFLD has a certain effect on antiviral therapy and liver fibrosis in patients with CHB, i.e., the effect of antiviral therapy in patients with CHB alone is better than patients with CHB combined with NAFLD. Patients with CHB combined with NAFLD when treated with antiviral therapy had a significantly greater degree of liver stiffness reduction than patients with CHB alone. Therefore, it is necessary to actively intervene the risk factors associated with NAFLD according to the actual situation of different individuals to improve clinical efficacy of antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Tibet , Treatment Outcome
10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 85-91, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935354

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the influencing factors of HBV intrauterine transmission and their interaction effects by integrating logistic regression model and Chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) decision tree model. Methods: A total of 689 pairs of HBsAg-positive mothers and their neonates in the obstetrics department of the Third People's Hospital of Taiyuan from 2007 to 2013 were enrolled, and the basic information of mothers and their neonates were obtained by questionnaire survey and medical record review, such as the general demographic characteristics, gestational week and delivery mode. HBV DNA and HBV serological markers of the mothers and newborns were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay respectively. The CHAID decision tree model and unconditional logistic regression analysis were used to explore the factors influencing HBV intrauterine transmission in neonates of HBsAg-positive mothers. Results: Among the 689 neonates, the incidence of HBV intrauterine transmission was 11.47% (79/689). After adjusted for confounding factors, the first and second logistic multivariate analysis showed that cesarean delivery was a protective factor for HBV intrauterine transmission (OR=0.25, 95%CI: 0.14-0.43; OR=0.27, 95%CI: 0.15-0.46); both models indicated that maternal HBeAg positivity and HBV DNA load ≥2×105 IU/ml before delivery were risk factors of HBV intrauterine transmission (OR=3.89, 95%CI: 2.32-6.51; OR=3.48, 95%CI: 2.12-5.71), respectively. The CHAID decision tree model screened three significant factors influencing HBV intrauterine transmission, the most significant one was maternal HBeAg status, followed by delivery mode and maternal HBV DNA load. There were interactions between maternal HBeAg status and delivery modes, as well as delivery mode and maternal HBV DNA load before delivery. The rate of HBV intrauterine transmission in newborns of HBeAg-positive mothers by vaginal delivery increased from 19.08% to 29.37%; among HBeAg-positive mothers with HBV DNA ≥2×105 IU/ml, the rate of HBV intrauterine transmission increased to 33.33% in the newborns by vaginal delivery. Conclusions: Maternal HBeAg positivity,maternal HBV DNA ≥2×105 IU/ml and vaginal delivery could be risk factors for HBV intrauterine transmission in newborns. Interaction effects were found between maternal HBeAg positivity and vaginal delivery, as well as vaginal delivery and high maternal HBV DNA load. Logistic regression model and the CHAID decision tree model can be used in conjunction to identify the high-risk populations and develop preventive strategies accurately.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , DNA, Viral/genetics , Decision Trees , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Logistic Models , Mothers , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
11.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 312-321, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927667

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate whether cytokine profiles and virological markers might add value in monitoring the effects of peginterferon (PEG-IFN) therapy for hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB).@*Methods@#HBeAg positive patients with CHB were treated with PEG-IFN for 48 weeks. Clinical biochemical, and HBV serological indexes, as well as cytokines, were detected at baseline and every 12 weeks.@*Results@#A total of 116 patients with CHB were enrolled in this study; 100 patients completed the 48-week treatment and follow-up, of whom 38 achieved serum HBeAg disappearance, 25 achieved HBeAg seroconversion, 37 showed HBsAg decreases ≥ 1 log 10 IU/mL, 9 showed HBsAg disappearance, and 8 became HBsAb positive. The cytokine levels at baseline and during treatment were similar between the HBeAg disappearance group and non-disappearance group. The disappearance of HBeAg was independently associated with HBeAg levels at weeks 12 and 24, and with the HBeAg decline at week 24 ( P < 0.05). The HBsAg response was independently associated with HBsAg, the HBsAg decline, HBeAg, the HBeAg decline at week 12, and HBsAg at week 24 ( P< 0.05).@*Conclusion@#There was no significant correlation between the response to interferon (IFN) and cytokines during PEG-IFN treatment. The changes in virological markers predicted the response to IFN after 48 weeks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Cytokines , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use
12.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 139-147, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929244

ABSTRACT

Fourteen new geranyl phenyl ethers (1-14) along with three known compounds (15-17) were isolated from Illicium micranthum, and their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic methods. Illimicranins A-H (1-8) were characterized as geranyl vanillin ethers, while 9 and 10 were dimethyl acetal derivatives. Illimicranins I and J (11 and 12) were rare geranyl isoeugenol ethers. Illimicranins K and L (13 and 14) represented the first example of geranyl guaiacylacetone ether and geranyl zingerone ether, respectively. Compounds 1, 2 and 15 exhibited anti-HBV (hepatitis B virus) activity against HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen) and HBeAg (hepatitis B e antigen) secretion, and HBV DNA replication.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Illicium/chemistry , Phenyl Ethers
13.
Washington; OPS; jul. 2020. 64 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BIGG, LILACS | ID: biblio-1393166

ABSTRACT

Según estimaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), en el 2015 257 millones de personas en el mundo tenían la infección crónica por el virus de la hepatitis B (VHB) y 900 000 fallecieron a causa de ella, en la mayor parte de los casos de cirrosis o carcinoma hepatocelular. La mayoría de las defunciones asociadas con el VHB en personas adultas obedecen a infecciones contraídas al nacer o en los cinco primeros años de vida. En mayo del 2016, la Asamblea Mundial de la Salud aprobó la Estrategia mundial del sector de la salud contra las hepatitis víricas 2016-2021, en la que se hace un llamado a eliminar las hepatitis virales como amenaza de salud pública ­definida como una reducción de 90% de la incidencia de infecciones y una reducción de 65% de la mortalidad­ para el 2030. La eliminación de la infección por el VHB como amenaza de salud pública conlleva la necesidad de reducir la prevalencia del antígeno de superficie del virus de la hepatitis B (HBsAg) a menos de 0,1% en los niños de 5 años de edad. Esta meta se puede lograr mediante la vacunación de todos los recién nacidos contra la hepatitis B y otras intervenciones orientadas a prevenir la transmisión maternoinfantil del VHB


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Pregnancy/drug effects , Tenofovir/pharmacology , Hepatitis B e Antigens/analysis
14.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 313-318, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879637

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) has set the goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a threat to public health by 2030. Blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the key step for eliminating viral hepatitis, at the same time, it is the hotspot in the field of hepatitis B prevention and control as well. The China Foundation of Hepatitis Prevention and Control (CFHPC) organized a team of specialists to develop an algorithm for preventing MTCT of HBV, based on the most recent hepatitis B guidelines and the latest evidence. The algorithm covers 10 continuous steps from pregnant management to follow-up postpartum. Among the 10 steps, screening, antiviral therapy during pregnancy, and infant's immunization are the core components in the algorithm.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Algorithms , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1160-1167, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) is a promising disease-monitoring marker for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We investigated correlations between HBcrAg with antiviral efficacy and virological and histological variables.@*METHODS@#One hundred and forty-five CHB patients from the mainland of China between August 2013 and September 2016 who underwent liver biopsy received entecavir therapy and had paired liver biopsy at 78 weeks. We analyzed correlations between HBcrAg and virological and histological variables in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and HBeAg-negative patients. We also explored the predictors of HBeAg loss after 78 weeks of antiviral therapy. Pearson correlation analysis and logistic forward stepwise regression were the main statistic methods.@*RESULTS@#HBeAg-positive patients (n = 93) had higher baseline HBcrAg (median 7.4 vs. 5.3 log10 U/mL P < 0.001) and greater HBcrAg declines (median 1.6 vs. 0.9 log10 U/mL P = 0.007) than HBeAg-negative patients after 78 weeks of therapy. At baseline, HBcrAg correlated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in both HBeAg-positive (r = 0.641, P < 0.001) and -negative patients (r = 0.616, P < 0.001), with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in HBeAg-positive patients (r = 0.495, P < 0.001), but not with anti-hepatitis B virus core antibody (anti-HBc). Weak correlations existed between HBcrAg, histology activity index (HAI; r = 0.232, P = 0.025), and Ishak fibrosis score (r = -0.292, P = 0.005) in HBeAg-positive patients. At 78 weeks, significant correlations existed only between HBcrAg and anti-HBc in HBeAg-positive (r = -0.263, P = 0.014) and HBeAg-negative patients (r = -0.291, P = 0.045). Decreased HBcrAg significantly correlated with reduced HBV DNA (r = 0.366, P = 0.001; r = 0.626, P < 0.001) and HBsAg (r = 0.526, P = 0.001; r = 0.289, P = 0.044) in HBeAg-positive and -negative patients, respectively, and with reduced HAI in HBeAg-positive patients (r = 0.329, P = 0.001). Patients with HBeAg loss (n = 29) showed a larger reduction in HBcrAg than those without (median 2.3 vs. 1.3 log10 U/mL, P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, decreased HBcrAg was an independent predictor of HBeAg loss (P = 0.005).@*CONCLUSIONS@#HBcrAg reflects viral replication and protein production. Decreased HBcrAg could predict HBeAg loss after antiviral therapy.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01962155; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01962155?term=NCT01962155&draw=2&rank=1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , China , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Virus Replication
16.
Salud pública Méx ; 62(3): 237-245, May.-Jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377309

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Conocer el resultado de la vacunación contra la hepatitis B en las comunidades hiperendémicas Kandozi y Chapra de la Amazonia Peruana a partir de la prevalencia de infecciones por los virus de la hepatitis B (VHB) y Delta (VHD), ocho años después de iniciada la vacunación. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 2 944 pobladores de 67 comunidades indígenas Kandozi y Chapra en abril de 2010. El tamizaje serológico para el antígeno de superficie del VHB (HBsAg), anticuerpos anti-HBc IgM e IgG, anticuerpos anti-HBs y anti-VHD se determinaron mediante pruebas de ELISA. Resultados: Las tasas de prevalencia del HBsAg, anti-HBc IgG, anti-HBs ≥10 mlUI/ml y anti-VHD fueron 2.3, 39.13, 50.95 y 2.11%, respectivamente. La prevalencia del HBsAg en niños <11 años fue cero. Entre los portadores del HBsAg, las tasas de prevalencia de sobreinfeccion por el VHD e infección aguda por el VHB fueron 2.11% (todos fueron >14 años) y 11.94%, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Estos hallazgos muestran la eliminación de portadores de VHB en niños <11 años, ocho años después de iniciada la vacunación contra el VHB.


Abstract: Objective: To determine the outcome of the vaccination against hepatitis, we determined the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections, eight years after introduction of the vaccination. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 2 944 participants of 67 Kandozi and Chapra indigenous peoples in April 2010. Serological screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody anti-HBc IgM and IgG, antibody anti-HBs and anti-HDV were determined by ELISA tests. Results: The prevalence rates of HBsAg, anti-HBc total, anti-HBs ≥10 mlUI/ml and anti-HDV were 2.3, 39.13, 50.95 and 2.11%, respectively. The prevalence rate of HBsAg in children <11 years was 0%. Among carriers of HBsAg, the prevalence rates of HDV and acute HBV infections were 2.11% (all were >14 years) and 11.94%, respectively. HBsAg and anti-HBc total were associated with individuals ≥10 years (p<0.001). Conclusions: These findings show the elimination of HBV carriers in children <11 years, eight years following introduction of the vaccination against HBV.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis D/epidemiology , Indians, South American/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Hepatitis D/immunology , Hepatitis D/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Hepatitis Delta Virus/immunology , Indians, South American/ethnology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B e Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood
17.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 330-338, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827465

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effects of a 48-week course of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) plus Chinese medicine (CM) therapy, namely Tiaogan Jianpi Hexue () and Tiaogan Jiedu Huashi () fomulae, in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive Chinese patients.@*METHODS@#A total of 605 HBeAg-positive Chinese CHB patients were screened and 590 eligible participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups in 1:1 ratio including experimental group (EG, received ADV plus CM) and control group (CG, received ADV plus CM-placebo) for 48 weeks. The major study outcomes were the rates of HBeAg and HBV-DNA loss on week 12, 24, 36, 48, respectively. Secondary endpoints including liver functions (enzymes and bilirubin readings) were evaluated every 4 weeks at the beginning of week 24, 36, and 48. Routine blood, urine, and stool analyses in addition to electrocardiogram and abdominal B scan were monitored as safety evaluations. Adverse events (AEs) were documented.@*RESULTS@#The combination therapy demonstrated superior HBeAg loss at 48 weeks, without additional AEs. The full analysis population was 560 and 280 in each group. In the EG, population achieved HBeAg loss on week 12, 24, 36, and 48 were 25 (8.90%), 34 (12.14%), 52 (18.57%), and 83 (29.64%), respectively; the equivalent numbers in the CG were 20 (7.14%), 41 (14.64%), 54 (19.29%), and 50 (17.86%), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between these group values on week 48 (P<0.01). No additional AEs were found in EG. Subgroup analysis suggested different outcomes among treatment patterns.@*CONCLUSION@#Combination of CM and ADV therapy demonstrated superior HBeAg clearance compared with ADV monotherapy. The finding indicates that this combination therapy may provide an improved therapeutic effect and safety profile (ChiCTR-TRC-11001263).


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adenine , Therapeutic Uses , Antiviral Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Organophosphonates , Therapeutic Uses
18.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 67-75, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined changes in hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) during the four sequential phases of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection: hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic infection (EPCI) and hepatitis (EPCH), followed by HBeAg-negative chronic infection (ENCI) and hepatitis (ENCH). We compared the performance of serum HBcrAg, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and HBV DNA in predicting EPCH and ENCH. METHODS: We enrolled 492 consecutive patients: 49 with EPCI, 243 with EPCH, 101 with ENCI, and 99 with ENCH. HBcrAg was detected by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays. HBsAg and HBeAg were detected by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassays. HBV DNA was detected by real-time PCR. Predictive performance of HBcrAg, HBsAg, and HBV DNA was evaluated using ROC curves. RESULTS: Areas under ROC curves (AUCs) of HBcrAg, HBsAg, and HBV DNA for predicting EPCH were 0.738, 0.812, and 0.717, respectively; optimal cutoffs were ≤1.43×105 kU/mL, ≤1.89×104 IU/mL, and ≤3.97×107 IU/mL, with sensitivities and specificities of 66.3% and 77.6%, 65.0% and 93.9%, and 60.5% and 79.6%, respectively. AUCs of HBcrAg, HBsAg, and HBV DNA for predicting ENCH were 0.887, 0.581, and 0.978, respectively; optimal cutoffs were >26.8 kU/mL, >2.29×102 IU/mL, and >8.75×103 IU/mL, with sensitivities and specificities of 72.7% and 95.1%, 86.9% and 39.6%, and 89.9% and 92.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HBsAg and HBV DNA were the best predictors of EPCH and ENCH, respectively. HBcrAg is an important surrogate marker for predicting EPCH and ENCH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers , DNA , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis , Hepatitis, Chronic , Immunoassay , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , ROC Curve
19.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 633-640, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773555

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the efficacy and safety of different antiviral and antifibrotic regimens in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and hepatic fibrosis and the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with these therapies.@*METHODS@#A total of 840 patients with CHB and concurrent hepatic fibrosis, who received antiviral therapy in Nanfang Hospital between June, 2010 and June, 2018, were enrolled in this follow-up cohort study. The patients were assigned to 3 cohorts matched for gender, age (difference≤5 years), HBeAg status and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) for treatment with one of the 3 antiviral drugs, namely entecavir, tenofovir dipivoxil and adefovir dipivoxil; each cohort was divided into 2 groups, with one of the groups having a combined treatment with Fufang Biejiaruangan tablet. The cumulative negative conversion rate of HBV DNA, normalization rate of ALT, hepatic fibrosis regression and the incidence of HCC were compared among the 3 cohorts and across the 6 groups at 144 weeks.@*RESULTS@#A total of 749 patients were available to follow-up at 144 weeks. Compared with the baseline data, the cumulative negative conversion rate of HBV DNA increased gradually and the abnormal rate of ALT decreased significantly over time during the treatment in all the 6 groups (all < 0.001). Compared with the any of the antiviral drugs used alone, the combined treatments all resulted in significantly better antifibrotic effects (χ=11.345, χ=10.160, χ=6.358; all < 0.05). At 144 weeks, the incidence of HCC were 2.2%, 1.7%, 1.7% and 3.3% in enecavir group, enecavir with Biejiaruangan tablet group, adefovir group, and adefovir with Biejiaruangan tablet group, respectively, showing no significant difference between the two cohorts (4 groups; χ=6.813, =0.138). None of the patients in the 2 groups with tenofovir treatment had HCC by the end of the observation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Antiviral therapy combined with antifibrotic therapy can effectively reverse hepatic fibrosis and reduce the incidence of HCC in patients with CHB; among the 3 antiviral drugs, tenofovir dipivoxil can be a better option for reducing the incidence of HCC in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , DNA, Viral , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Neoplasms , Prospective Studies
20.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1017-1022, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773490

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To generate a new strain of HBeAg transgenic mice using CRISPR/Cas9 technique.@*METHODS@#Hepatitis B virus (HBV) HBeAg gene was cloned and inserted in the pliver-HBeAg expression frame at the site of Rosa26 gene using CRISPR/Cas9 and homologous recombination techniques to construct the pliver-HBeAg expression vector containing HBeAg gene. The linear DNA fragment containing HBeAg gene was obtained by enzyme digestion. Cas9 mRNA, gRNA and the donor vector were microinjected into fertilized eggs of C57BL/6J mice, which were then transplanted into the uterus of C57BL/6J female surrogate mice to obtain F0 generation mice. The F0 generation mice were identified by long fragment PCR to obtain F0 transgenic mice with HBeAg gene. The positive F0 generation mice were bred with wild-type C57BL/6J mice to produce the F1 mice, which were identified by PCR and sequencing. The positive F1 transgenic mice carrying HBeAg gene were backcrossed until the homozygous offspring transgenic mice were obtained. The genotypes of the offspring mice were identified. The expressions of HBeAg and HBeAb in the heterozygous and homozygous HBeAg transgenic mice were detected by automatic chemiluminescence immunoassay, immune colloidal gold technique and immunohistochemistry method.@*RESULTS@#A total of 56 F0 mice were obtained, and 2 of them carried homologous recombined HBeAg gene. Six positive F1 mice were obtained, from which 22 homozygous and 29 heterozygous F2 generation HBeAg transgenic mice were obtained. High concentration of HBeAg protein was detected in the peripheral blood of all the positive HBeAg transgenic mice without HBeAb expression. HBeAg expression was detected in the hepatocytes of HBeAg transgenic mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#We obtained a new strain of HBeAg transgenic mice with stable expression of HBeAg in the hepatocytes and immune tolerance to HBeAg using CRISPR/Cas9 technique, which provide a new animal model for studying HBV.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Genetic Vectors , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Genetics , Hepatitis B virus , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic
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