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Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 252-256, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287277


Abstract The clinical management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection presents several challenges today. WHO's goal is to eliminate it by 2030. It is an ambitious goal and difficult to meet given the barriers to care that arise. This is possible today thanks to the discovery of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). This treatment achieves a high cure rate and is virtually free of adverse effects. To try to comply with this, in addition to the use of DAAs, it is necessary to reduce the rate of undiagnosed patients and facilitate the access of those diagnosed to care and treatment. For that, it is proposed to carry out a simplified treatment of HCV. This involves reducing controls during and after treatment. This simplification varies according to whether patients have cirrhosis or not. In this way, it seeks to increase significantly the number of patients treated and cured to reduce the burden on public health of this disease.

Resumen El manejo clínico de la infección por el virus la hepatitis C (HCV) presenta varios desafíos en la actualidad. El objetivo de la OMS es eliminarlo para el 2030. Es un objetivo ambicioso y muy difícil de cumplir dadas las barreras al cuidado que se presentan. Sin embargo, esto es posible hoy gracias al descubrimiento de los antivirales de acción directa (AAD). Este tratamiento logra una alta tasa de curación y prácticamente está libre de efectos adversos. Para tratar de cumplirlo, además del uso de los AAD, es nece sario reducir la tasa de pacientes no diagnosticados y facilitar el acceso de los diagnosticados al cuidado y el tratamiento. Para eso se propone llevar adelante el tratamiento simplificado del HCV. Esto implica reducir los controles durante y después del tratamiento. Esta simplificación varía según los pacientes tengan o no cirrosis. De esta manera se busca aumentar significativamente el número de pacientes tratados y curados para así poder reducir el impacto en la salud pública de esta enfermedad.

Humans , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus , Liver Cirrhosis
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 1-5, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287233


Resumen La principal infección viral transmisible por sangre es actualmente la debida al virus de hepatitis C (VHC). Uno de los mayores obstáculos para el logro de su control en la Argentina se relaciona con las dificultades de acceso al diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno de las personas infectadas. Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de caracterizar a los pacientes infectados con VHC que iniciaron tratamiento con antivirales de acción directa (AAD) y describir la experiencia vinculada al tratamiento. Se seleccionaron las historias clínicas de 82 pacientes, 44 (53.7%) de sexo masculino, 37 (45.1%) de sexo femenino, y uno (1.2%) transgénero. La media de edad fue de 49 años. Se halló una frecuencia de cirrosis de 39%, 32 pacientes, coinfección con HIV en 48 (58.5%) y con VHB en 27 (32.9%). En 52 (63.4%) no se observó ningún factor de riesgo claramente asociado a infección. Todos completaron la terapia, de ellos 72 (87.8%) efectuaron el control para confirmar respuesta viral sostenida (RVS), que fue de 98.6%. Concluimos que el testeo universal debe implementarse por sobre el testeo con enfoque de riesgo, y que debe promoverse un criterio de atención simplificado y descentralizado, reservando la atención especializada para pacientes con cirrosis descompensada y cáncer de hígado.

Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is currently the main blood-borne viral infection. One of the main obstacles to achieving its control in Argentina is related to difficulties in accessing the diagnosis and timely treatment of infected people. We carried out this study with the aim of characterizing the HCV-infected patients who started treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and to describe the experience related to treatment. The medical records of 82 patients, 44 (53.7%) male, 37 (45.1%) female, and one (1.2%) transgender, were selected. The mean age was 49 years. We report a frequency of cirrhosis, 39%, in 32 patients, coinfection with HIV in 48 (58.5%) and with HBV in 27 (32.9%). In 52 patients (63.4%), no risk factor clearly associated with infection was observed. All completed the therapy, of them 72 (87.8%) carried out the control to confirm sustained viral response (SVR), that attained 98.6%. We conclude that universal testing should be implemented over testing based on a risk approach, and that a simplified and decentralized care criterion should be promoted, reserving specialized care for patients with decompensated cirrhosis and liver cancer.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Hepacivirus , Liver Cirrhosis
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1987-1990, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922237


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease. HCV is not only related to hepatic malignancies but may also promote lymphoid neoplasms. Currently, research has confirmed HCV-related lymphoma, including marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL), follicular lymphoma (FL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and Burkitt lymphoma (BL). Many types of research have shown that antiviral therapy can improve or even remission several HCV-related lymphomas. The direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) (such as NS5A protease inhibitors, NS4/4A protease inhibitors and viral polymerase inhibitors) have shown clinical advantages of high efficacy and low side effects for both virus elimination and tumor regression in several HCV-related lymphomas, which may make the selected HCV-related lymphoma patients treated without chemotherapy. In this review the research progress and development direction of antiviral therapy in treating HCV-related lymphoma has summarized briefly.

Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone/drug therapy , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/drug therapy
Rev. medica electron ; 42(3): 1882-1888, mayo.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127048


RESUMEN Se supone que aproximadamente 80 millones de personas a nivel mundial están infectadas con el virus de la hepatitis C. Un aproximado del 60 % de dichos pacientes aqueja síndrome de fatiga crónica. Se presentó un paciente portador de hepatitis crónica de tipo C, con manifestaciones clínicas de síndrome de fatiga crónica por más de dos años. Se han reportado estudios internacionales que han demostrado la relación existente entre el desarrollo de la respuesta inmune y el daño que ocasiona en el tejido cerebral la infección por virus de hepatitis C. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación del primer caso que se tiene referencia (AU).

ABSTRACT It is believed that almost 80 million persons are infected with the Hepatitis C virus around the world, and 60 % of them suffer the chronic fatigue syndrome. For that reason we present the case of a patient who is a carrier of the chronic fatigue syndrome for more than two years. Reports of international research have showed the relation between the immune answer and the damage caused by the infection of the hepatitis C virus in the brain tissues. The aim of this work is presenting the first case reported in Cuba (AU).

Humans , Male , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/etiology , Hepatitis C/complications , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/drug therapy , Interferons/adverse effects , Interferons/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Antibody Formation
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 72-76, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055367


Objective: Depression has been associated with hepatitis C, as well as with its treatment with proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., interferon). The new direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have minimal adverse effects and high potency, with a direct inhibitory effect on non-structural viral proteins. We studied the incidence and associated factors of depression in a real-life prospective cohort of chronic hepatitis C patients treated with the new DAAs. Methods: The sample was recruited from a cohort of 91 patients with hepatitis C, of both sexes, with advanced level of fibrosis and no HIV coinfection, consecutively enrolled during a 6-month period for DAA treatment; those euthymic at baseline (n=54) were selected. All were evaluated through the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9-DSM-IV), at three time points: baseline, 4 weeks, and end-of-treatment. Results: The cumulative incidence (95%CI) of major depression and any depressive disorder during DAA treatment was 13% (6.4-24.4) and 46.3% (33.7-59.4), respectively. No differences were observed between those patients with and without cirrhosis or ribavirin treatment (p > 0.05). Risk factors for incident major depression during DAA treatment included family depression (relative risk 9.1 [1.62-51.1]), substance use disorder (11.0 [1.7-73.5]), and baseline PHQ-9 score (2.1 [1.1-3.1]). Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight the importance of screening for new depression among patients receiving new DAAs, and identify potential associated risk factors.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/psychology , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors , Logistic Models , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Middle Aged
Clin. biomed. res ; 40(1): 7-13, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115980


Introduction: Despite the emergence of new treatments for HCV genotype 3 (HCV G3), there is still a lack of data about this particular subgroup in Brazil. Our objective was to describe clinical and sociodemographic variables and treatment profile of HCV G3 Brazilian patients. Methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective study, performed in a specialized center for HCV treatment in the South Region of Brazil. Medical records of patients diagnosed with HCV G3 were reviewed to collect clinical, sociodemographic, and treatment information. Results: Participants included total of 564 patients, with a mean age of 59.3 years (SD = 10.5). Cirrhosis was present in 54.4% of patients. The most common coexisting conditions were systemic arterial hypertension (36.6%) and diabetes mellitus (30%). Regarding treatment, 25.2% of the patients were treatment-naïve and 74.8% were currently under treatment (11.6%) or had received a previous treatment (87%). The most frequent ongoing treatment was sofosbuvir + daclatasvir (± ribavirin) (87.8%). Of the 388 patients who had at least one previous treatment, 67% achieved sustained virologic response in the last treatment. Caucasian / white, non-obese, transplanted patients, those with longer time since diagnosis and with cirrhosis were more likely to receive treatment, according to multivariate analysis. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were 64.1% less likely to be on treatment during the study period than those without this condition; patients with chronic kidney disease were 2.91-fold more likely to have an interruption of treatment than those without this condition. Conclusion: This study describes a large sample of Brazilian patients with HCV G3. Treatment patterns were mainly influenced by the presence of HCV complications and comorbidities.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis C/virology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Genotype , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Interferons/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Withholding Treatment , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 539-549, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056608


Abstract According to data from the last census of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology (SBN), the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Brazilian hemodialysis units (HU) is 3.3%, about three times higher than what is reported for the Brazilian general population. Often, professionals working in HU are faced with clinical situations that require rapid HCV diagnosis in order to avoid horizontal transmission within the units. On the other hand, thanks to the development of new antiviral drugs, the cure of patients with HCV, both in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease and the disease eradication, appear to be very feasible objectives to be achieved in the near future . In this scenario, SBN and the Brazilian Society of Hepatology present in this review article a proposal to approach HCV within HUs.

Resumo De acordo com os dados do último censo da Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia (SBN), a prevalência de portadores do vírus da hepatite C (HCV) nas unidades de hemodiálise (UH) no Brasil é de 3,3%, cerca de três vezes maior do que é observado na população geral brasileira. Muitas vezes, os profissionais que trabalham nas UH deparam-se com situações clínicas que demandam rápido diagnóstico do HCV, a fim de evitar uma transmissão horizontal dentro das unidades. Por outro lado, a cura dos pacientes portadores do HCV, tanto na população geral como na portadora de doença renal crônica e a erradicação da doença, em virtude do desenvolvimento de novas drogas antivirais, parecem ser objetivos bastante factíveis, a ser alcançados em futuro próximo. Nesse cenário, a SBN e a Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia apresentam neste artigo de revisão uma proposta de abordagem do HCV dentro das UH.

Humans , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , RNA Viruses/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Prevalence , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/genetics , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Nephrology/organization & administration , Nephrology/statistics & numerical data
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(3): 182-190, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019554


ABSTRACT Introduction and aim: Hepatitis C is a key challenge to public health in Brazil. The objective of this paper was to describe the Brazilian strategy for hepatitis C to meet the 2030 elimination goal proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). Methods: A mathematical modeling approach was used to estimate the current HCV-infected Brazilian population, and to evaluate the relative costs of two different scenarios to address HCV disease burden in Brazil: (1) if no further changes are made to the HCV treatment program in Brazil; (2) where the WHO targets for 2030 elimination are met through diagnosis and treatment efforts peaking before 2024. Results: An anti-HCV prevalence of 0.53% was calculated for the total population. It was estimated that the number of HCV-RNA+ individuals in Brazil in 2017 was 632,000 (0.31% of the population). Scale-up of treatment and diagnosis over time will be necessary in order to achieve WHO targets beginning in 2018. Direct costs (diagnostic, treatment and healthcare costs) are projected to increase significantly during the scale-up of treatment and diagnosis in the initial years of the intervention scenario, but then fall below the base case on an annual basis by 2025-2036, once HCV is eliminated, due to health sectors savings from the prevention of HCV liver-related morbidity and mortality. Conclusion: Achieving the WHO targets is technically feasible in Brazil with a scale-up of treatment and diagnosis over time, beginning in 2018. However, elimination of hepatitis C requires policy changes to substantially scale-up prevention, screening and treatment of HCV, together with public health advocacy to raise awareness among affected populations and healthcare providers.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepacivirus/genetics , Disease Eradication/economics , World Health Organization , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Hepatitis C/economics , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Disease Eradication/methods , Genotype , Models, Theoretical
Salud pública Méx ; 61(2): 212-216, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058974


Resumen: En el escenario de la salud mexicana, la epidemia por virus de la hepatitis C se encuentra presente junto con sus comorbilidades y mortalidad prematura. Actuar de manera inmediata permitirá una contención de la misma en el corto plazo dada la existencia de herramientas de prevención, diagnóstico y terapias farmacológicas altamente eficaces. La Coalición para el estudio de la hepatitis C en México ha desarrollado una postura donde aprovecha esas medidas de contención y presenta el desarrollo de un programa nacional para la detección, tratamiento oportuno y seguimiento de pacientes con hepatitis C.

Abstract: In the Mexican health scenario, the hepatitis C virus epidemic is present, along with its comorbidities and premature mortality. Acting immediately will allow its containment in short term with the proper implementation of the current available tools for prevention, diagnosis and highly effective pharmacological therapies. The Coalition for the study of hepatitis C in Mexico has developed a position paper that takes advantage of these containment measures and presents the development of a National program for the detection, timely treatment and follow-up of patients with hepatitis C.

Humans , Program Development , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , National Health Programs/organization & administration , Population Surveillance , Health Care Costs , Hepatitis C/economics , Hepatitis C/mortality , Health Promotion , Mexico/epidemiology
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(2): 161-167, Mar.-Apr. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989396


ABSTRACT This review aims to caution ophthalmologists about the ocular consequences leading to the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection. In addition, in this context, the effects of old and new drugs are discussed in the ophthalmological setting. The importance of early diagnosis and the curative treatment of the disease has been reported in the national and international literature, demonstrating that its progression has important implications for daily clinical and surgical ophthalmological practice. Despite the scarcity of studies on new direct-acting antiviral drugs, fewer side effects of these drugs have been shown when compared with conventional interferon treatment with or without ribavirin. The ophthalmologist's risk of becoming infected, as demonstrated by the presence of the virus in ocular structures, and the possibility of contamination, is also discussed.

RESUMO Esta revisão objetiva alertar os oftalmologistas sobre as consequências oculares que levam ao diagnóstico da infecção pelo vírus da Hepatite C. Além disso, neste contexto, os efeitos de drogas antigas e novas são discutidos no cenário oftalmológico. A importância do diagnóstico precoce e do tratamento curativo da doença tem sido relatada na literatura nacional e internacional, demonstrando que sua progressão tem implicações importantes para a prática oftalmológica diária. Apesar da escassez de estudos sobre novos medicamentos antivirais de ação direta, foram demonstrados menos efeitos colaterais desses medicamentos quando comparados ao tratamento convencional com interferon, com ou sem ribavirina associado ou não à rivabirina. O risco do oftalmologista de se infectar, como demonstrado pela presença do vírus nas estruturas oculares, e a possibilidade de contaminação, também é discutido.

Humans , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Hepatitis C/complications , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Eye Infections, Viral/pathology , Risk Factors , Interferons/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/pathology , Hepatitis C/drug therapy
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1): 29-36, feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002584


There are few published real-world studies on hepatitis C in Latin America. This paper describes a cohort of Colombian subjects treated with direct-acting antiviral agents. A total of 195 patients from 5 hepatology centers in 4 Colombian cities were retrospectively studied. For each patient, serum biomarkers were obtained, and Child-Pugh, MELD, cirrhosis and fibrosis stage were calculated. Additionally, viral load was quantified at initiation, end of treatment and at 12 weeks of completion. Adverse effects were recorded. Patients with liver transplant were compared with non-transplanted patients in terms of serum biomarkers. The patients had received 9 different regimes. The most prevalent viral genotype was 1b (81.5%). Overall, 186 patients (95.4%) attained sustained virologic response. When comparing transplanted vs. non-transplanted patients, those in the non-transplanted group were more likely to have cirrhosis (52.6% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.0004). Pre-treatment viral load was higher in the transplant group (1 743 575 IQR = 1 038 062-4 252 719 vs. 345 769 IQR = 125 806-842 239; p < 0.0001) as well as ALT and AST levels (82.5 IQR 43.5-115.5 vs. 37.0 IQR = 24.7-73.3; p = 0.0009 and 70 IQR = 41-140 vs. 37 IQR = 24-68; p = 0.004 respectively). Adverse events were reported by 28.7% of the patients; asthenia (5.6%) was the most prevalent. Our results are comparable with those from other countries in terms of therapy and biomarkers. However, our cohort reported less adverse events. Further research is needed in the region.

Existen pocas publicaciones de evidencias del mundo real sobre hepatitis C en América Latina. En este estudio presentamos una cohorte colombiana de pacientes tratados con agentes antivirales de acción directa. Fueron analizados retrospectivamente 195 pacientes seleccionados en 5 centros de hepatología en 4 ciudades de Colombia. Dos tercios fueron mujeres y la mitad tenía ≥ 62 años. De cada uno se cuantificaron biomarcadores séricos, escala de Child-Pugh, MELD y grado de cirrosis y fibrosis. Se cuantificó carga viral al inicio, al final y a las 12 semanas después de completado el tratamiento. Se comparó la frecuencia de efectos adversos de medicamentos en trasplantados vs. no trasplantados. Los pacientes recibieron 9 esquemas de tratamiento diferentes. El genotipo más prevalente fue 1b (81.5%). La respuesta viral sostenida fue alcanzada por 186 pacientes (95.4%). El grupo no trasplantado tenía mayor frecuencia de cirrosis (52.6% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.0004). En los trasplantados, la carga viral pre-tratamiento era mayor (1 743 575 IQR = 1 038 062-4 252 719 vs. 345 769 IQR = 125 806-842 239; p = < 0.0001) igual que la ALT y la AST (82.5 IQR 43.5-115.5 vs. 37.0 IQR = 24.7-73.3; p = 0.0009 and 70 IQR = 41-140 vs. 37 IQR = 24-68; p = 0.004 respectivamente). El 28.7% refirió efectos adversos, siendo el más prevalente la astenia (5.6%). Nuestros resultados fueron comparables a los de estudios publicados en términos de terapia y biomarcadores pero nuestra cohorte presentó menos efectos adversos. Se requiere más investigación en la región.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Liver Transplantation , Colombia , Hepacivirus/genetics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Viral Load , Drug Therapy, Combination , Sustained Virologic Response , Genotype
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(8): e8519, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011607


Recurrent hepatitis C (HCV) after liver transplantation (LT) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Antiviral treatment is recommended to avoid unfavorable outcomes. Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) have transformed HCV treatment, with higher efficacy and fewer side-effects than interferon-based therapies traditionally used. To evaluate DAA treatment outcomes at a Brazilian transplant unit, data of patients who finished HCV treatment at the Liver Transplant Unit of the University of Campinas were analyzed. Treatment consisted of sofosbuvir, daclatasvir, and ribavirin, for 12 or 24 weeks, according to the national guidelines. Fifty-five patients completed antiviral treatment and 54 had HCV-viral load results available. The majority of patients were male (78%), 58 years old on average, 65% had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) before LT, and 67% were interferon treatment-experienced. Most patients had HCV genotype 1 (65%), 35% had genotype 3, and started treatment on an average of 38 months after LT (range: 2-228). Fifty-eight percent were treated for 12 weeks and 42% for 24 weeks, using a mean dose of ribavirin of 10.1 mg/kg (4.2-16.1). There were no treatment interruptions due to serious side effects. The sustained virological response rate was 98%. Only one patient relapsed, a genotype 3 cirrhotic treated for 12 weeks. The average follow-up after starting antivirals was 20 months. There were no recurrences of HCC, but there was one rejection episode and one cirrhosis decompensation episode, both 12 weeks after treatment. DAA treatment is safe and effective in the post-LT setting and was not associated to HCC recurrence in the cohort studied.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Sofosbuvir/administration & dosage , Imidazoles/administration & dosage , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Drug Therapy, Combination , Sustained Virologic Response , Genotype
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(5): 418-423, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974233


ABSTRACT The Brazilian Public Health Service provides freely αPEG-IFN to treat patients infected with HCV. The primary goal of HCV therapy is the long-term elimination of HCV from the blood to reduce the risk of HCV associated complications and death. Patient viremia affects the treatment duration and response, thus influencing clinical decisions. We developed a high-throughput method to perform the quantification of RNA hepatitis C virus (HCV) virus load in plasma samples to monitor patients under treatment. The method is based on a duplex detection, in a one-step real-time RT-PCR assay and it has been validated according to the rules established by the official Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA). This new method was compared to a commercial kit (Cobas/Taqman HCV Test v2.0 - Roche), showing virus load results with significant correlation between them (p= 0,012) using commercial and clinical panels. In addition, 611 samples from patients treated with peguilated alfa-interferon (αPEG-IFN) from different regions of Brazil were analyzed. Our one-step real-time RT-PCR assay demonstrated good performance in viral load measurement and in treatment course monitoring, with acceptable sensitivity and specificity values.

Humans , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C/virology , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Viral Load/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Viremia , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Brazil , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/blood , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/blood , Hepacivirus/genetics , Genotyping Techniques , Genotype
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 81(3): 149-167, July­Sept. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIGG | ID: biblio-987533


El objetivo del Consenso Mexicano para el Tratamiento de la Hepatitis C fue el de desarrollar un documento como guía en la práctica clínica con aplicabilidad en México. Se tomó en cuenta la opinión de expertos en el tema con especialidad en: gastroenterología, infectología y hepatología. Se realizó una revisión de la bibliografía en MEDLINE, EMBASE y CENTRAL mediante palabras claves referentes al tratamiento de la hepatitis C. Posteriormente se evaluó la calidad de la evidencia mediante el sistema GRADE y se redactaron enunciados, los cuales fueron sometidos a voto mediante un sistema modificado Delphi, y posteriormente se realizó revisión y corrección de los enunciados por un panel de 34 votantes. Finalmente se clasificó el nivel de acuerdo para cada oración. Esta guía busca dar recomendaciones con énfasis en los nuevos antivirales de acción directa y de esta manera facilitar su uso en la práctica clínica. Cada caso debe ser individualizado según sus comorbilidades y el manejo de estos pacientes siempre debe ser multidisciplinario.

The aim of the Mexican Consensus on the Treatment of Hepatitis C was to develop clinical practice guidelines applicable to Mexico. The expert opinion of specialists in the following areas was taken into account: gastroenterology, infectious diseases, and hepatology. A search of the medical literature was carried out on the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases through keywords related to hepatitis C treatment. The quality of evidence was subsequently evaluated using the GRADE system and the consensus statements were formulated. The statements were then voted upon, using the modified Delphi system, and reviewed and corrected by a panel of 34 voting participants. Finally, the level of agreement was classified for each statement. The present guidelines provide recommendations with an emphasis on the new direct-acting antivirals, to facilitate their use in clinical practice. Each case must be individualized according to the comorbidities involved and patient management must always be multidisciplinary.

Humans , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C/therapy , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Antimetabolites/therapeutic use
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(2): 184-187, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950515


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The interaction between serum lipids and C virus infection is well known, as are serum lipid levels in the Peg-IFN / RBV-based treatment. However, with direct action antivirals (DAAs) this behavior is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To compare serum lipids levels between patients treated with Peg-IFN/RBV and DAAs and to evaluate lipids in sustained virological response (SVR) with DAAs. METHODS: Retro prospective study comparing the behavior of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) serum levels during treatment with DAAs (G-DAAs) and a control historic group Peg-IFN/RBV (G-PR). Coorte, prospective study, to study the behavior of lipids in the SVR with DAAs. Data were collected at the beginning of treatment (baseline: t-base) and at week 12 of treatment (t-12) for G-DAAs and at week 24 (t-24) for G-PR, groups. In the cohort evaluation, the samples at t-base and at week 12 after the end of treatment (t-SVR). Delta lipids: difference between lipids in t-12 / t-24 minus t-base for comparison between G-PR and G-AADs groups and t-SVR minus t-base for lipid analysis in SVR. Analysis with Kruskal Wallis and Wilcoxon tests to compare the delta lipids of the groups. The P value was 0.05. RESULTS: In the assessment between G-PR and G-DAAs groups, we included 63 and 121 patients, respectively. The groups did not differ one from the other (BMI, sex, genotype, fibrosis, total cholesterol, LDL, and TG) except by age (50.38±10.44 vs 56±9.69, P=0.0006). We observed a decrease in levels of TC and LDL and an increase in TG, in G-PR, and in G-DAAs the opposite (Δ TC -13.9±34.5 vs 4.12±34.3 P=0.0005, Δ LDL -7.16±32 vs 10.13±29.92, P=0.003, Δ TG 4.51±53.7 vs -8.24±49.93, P=0.0025). In the coorte analysis, we included 102 patients, 70% men and 56% F4, 95 of them reached SVR. We observed an increase of TC and LDL and a decrease of TG in both groups (SVR and non SVR), with no statistical difference (Δ TC P=0.68; Δ LDL P=0.69; Δ TG P=0.43). We did not find significant difference in delta evaluation by genotype 1 and 3 (Δ TC +29.7±40.2 vs +13.4±30.3, P=0.06; Δ LDL +21.4±28.6 vs +16.6±31.3, P=0.41; Δ TG -3.6±60.6 vs -0.7±40, P=0.91). CONCLUSION: Serum lipids level differed during treatment with Peg-IFN and DAAs. Treatment with DAAs was associated with an increase of TC and LDL and a decrease of TG, independently of SVR.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A interação entre lípides séricos e infecção pelo vírus C já é bem conhecida, assim como o comportamento dos níveis séricos daqueles durante o tratamento com Peg-IFN/RBV. No entanto, com antivirais de ação direta (AADs) este comportamento ainda não está claro. OBJETIVO: Comparar os níveis séricos de lípides entre pacientes tratados com Peg-IFN/RBV e AADs e avaliar os lípides na resposta virológica sustentada (RVS) com AADs. MÉTODOS: Estudo retro prospectivo comparando o comportamento dos níveis séricos de colesterol total (CT), lipoproteínas de baixa densidade (LDL) e triglicérides (TG) durante o tratamento com AADs (G-AADs) e um grupo histórico de controle Peg-IFN/RBV (G-PR). Coorte, estudo prospectivo, para estudar o comportamento dos lípides na RVS com AADs. Os dados foram coletados no início do tratamento (baseline: t-base) e na décima segunda semana de tratamento (t-12) para G-AADs e na vigésima quarta semana de tratamento (t-24) para G-PR para a análise comparativa entre os dois grupos. Na avaliação de coorte, as amostras foram coletadas no t-base e na décima segunda semana após o término do tratamento (t-RVS). Delta lípides: diferença entre lípides em t-12/t-24 menos t-base para comparação entre os grupos G-PR e G-AADs e t-RVS menos t-base para análise de lípides na RVS. A análise estatística descritiva, os testes não paramétricos de Kruskal Wallis e Wilcoxon foram utilizados para comparar o delta lípides dos grupos. O valor de P considerado foi de 0,05. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação entre os grupos G-PR e G-AADs, incluímos 63 e 121 pacientes, respectivamente. Os grupos não diferiram um do outro (IMC, sexo, genótipo, fibrose, colesterol total, LDL e TG), exceto por idade (50,38±10,44 vs 56±9,69, P=0,0006). Observamos uma diminuição nos níveis de CT e LDL e um aumento de TG no G-PR, no G-AADs ocorreu o oposto (Δ CT -13,9±34,5 vs 4,12±34,3 P=0,0005, Δ LDL -7,16±32 vs 10,13±29,92, P=0,003, Δ TG 4,51±53,7 vs -8,24±49,93, P=0,0025). Na análise de coorte, foram incluídos 102 pacientes, 70% homens e 56% F4. Noventa e cinco deles atingiram a RVS. Observamos um aumento de CT e LDL e uma diminuição de TG em ambos os grupos (RVS e não RVS), sem diferença estatística (Δ CT P=0,68; Δ LDL P=0,69; Δ TG P=0,43). Não encontramos diferença significativa na avaliação dos deltas pelos genótipos 1 e 3 (Δ CT +29,7±40,2 vs +13,4±30,3, P=0,06; Δ LDL + 21,4±28,6 vs +16,6±31,3, P=0,41; Δ TG -3,6±60,6 vs -0,7±40, P=0,91). CONCLUSÃO: O nível de lípides séricos diferiu durante o tratamento com Peg-IFN/RBV e AADs. O tratamento com AADs foi associado a um aumento de CT e LDL e uma diminuição de TG, independentemente da RVS.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepacivirus/genetics , Sustained Virologic Response , Lipids/blood , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Triglycerides/blood , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/virology , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Genotype , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Middle Aged
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(5): 415-419, May 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-956465


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Direct-acting antivirals are new drugs for chronic hepatitis C treatment. They are usually safe and well tolerated, but can sometimes cause serious adverse effects and there is no consensus on how to treat or prevent them. We described a case of hand-foot syndrome due to hepatitis C virus interferon-free therapy. METHODS We report the case of a 49-year-old man with compensated liver cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis C genotype 1, treatment-naïve, who started viral treatment with sofosbuvir, simeprevir and ribavirin for 12 weeks. RESULTS At the sixth week of treatment he had anemia, requiring a lower dose of ribavirin. At the tenth week, he had erythematous, pruritic, scaly and flaky lesions on hands and feet, which showed a partial response to oral antihistamines and topical corticosteroids. It was not necessary to discontinue antiviral treatment, but in the first week after the end of treatment, there was worsening of injuries, including signs of secondary infection, that required hospitalization, antibiotics and oral corticosteroid, with progressive improvement. Biopsy of the lesions was consistent with pharmacodermia. The patient had sustained a virological response, despite the side effect. He had a history of pharmacodermia one year ago attributed to the use of topiramate, responsive to oral corticosteroid. CONCLUSION Interferon-free therapies can rarely lead to severe adverse reactions, such as skin lesions. Patients receiving ribavirin combinations and those who had a history of pharmacodermia or skin disease may be more susceptible. There is no consensus on how to prevent skin reactions in these patients.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO Antivirais de ação direta são as novas drogas utilizadas no tratamento da hepatite C crônica. São geralmente seguros, com boa tolerância, mas eventualmente podem causar efeitos adversos graves, e não há consenso sobre como tratá-los ou preveni-los. Descrevemos um caso de síndrome mão-pé secundária à terapia livre de interferon para hepatite C crônica. Materiais e métodos Relatamos o caso de um paciente de 49 anos com cirrose hepática compensada secundária à hepatite C crônica, genótipo 1, virgem de tratamento, que iniciou terapia com sofosbuvir, simeprevir e ribavirina por 12 semanas. Resultados Na sexta semana de tratamento, apresentou anemia, sendo necessária redução de dose da ribavirina. Na 20a semana, apresentou lesões eritematosas e descamativas, com prurido em mãos e pés, que teve resposta parcial ao uso de anti-histamínico oral e corticoide tópico. Não foi necessário descontinuar os antivirais, mas na primeira semana após o término do tratamento, houve piora das lesões, com sinais de infecção secundária, sendo necessárias hospitalização e terapia com antibiótico e corticoide oral, com melhora progressiva. Biópsias das lesões foram compatíveis com farmacodermia. O paciente teve resposta virológica sustentada, apesar dos efeitos adversos. Tinha história de farmacodermia há um ano, atribuída ao uso de topiramato, responsiva a corticoterapia oral. Conclusão Os tratamentos livres de interferon raramente causam eventos adversos graves, como lesões cutâneas. Pacientes em uso de ribavirina e com história de farmacodermia ou doença cutânea prévia podem ser mais susceptíveis. Não existe consenso sobre como prevenir reações cutâneas nesses pacientes.

Humans , Male , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hand-Foot Syndrome/etiology , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Interferons/adverse effects , Hand-Foot Syndrome/pathology , Simeprevir/adverse effects , Sofosbuvir/adverse effects , Middle Aged
Rev. nefrol. diál. traspl ; 38(1): 43-48, mar. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006694


Con el advenimiento de los nuevos antivirales de acción directa (DAA) para el tratamiento de la Hepatitis C, y su posible utilización en enfermos con insuficiencia renal terminal y trasplantados renales se abre la posibilidad de la erradicación de dicha infección en ésta población. De lograrse la misma tendría enorme impacto clínico dada la mayor tasa de morbimortalidad que dicha infección genera en ésta población ya sea por sus complicaciones hepáticas como extrahepáticas, donde las glomerulopatías juegan un rol preponderante. En éste artículo nos enfocamos en revisar los adelantos publicados con respecto al posible rol patogénico del virus C en el daño endotelial de los pacientes renales, su incidencia e impacto clínico. Asimismo revisamos las guías recientes de KDIGO en lo referente a los criterios de tratamiento y el tipo de régimen recomendado en cada escenario

With the advent of new direct-acting antivirals (DAA) for the treatment of Hepatitis C and their possible use in patients with endstage renal disease and kidney transplantation, the possibility of eradicating this infection in this population opens up. If achieved, it would have an enormous clinical effect given the higher rate of morbidity and mortality that this infection causes in such population, either due to its hepatic or extrahepatic complications, where glomerulopathies play a preponderant role. In this article we have focused on reviewing the pu-blished advances regarding the possible pathogenic role of C virus in the endothelial injury of renal patients, its incidence and clinical effect. We have also reviewed the recent KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline regarding the treatment criteria and the type of regimen recommended in each scenario

Humans , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/therapy , Drug Therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Guidelines as Topic
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 42: 1-6, Dec. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-880872


BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C causes chronic hepatic inflammation, which can lead to cirrhosis, terminal liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The treatment aims to achieve viral clearance, but the usage of pegylated interferon and ribavirin is linked to side effects such as severe weight loss, which can lead to complications and treatment discontinuation. The aim of this study was to investigate which anthropometric measures were more affected in patients with chronic hepatitis C during 24 weeks of treatment with pegy lated interferon and ribavirin. Then, the influence of age, sex, hepatic fibrosis stage, and ribavirin doses on each measure was also evaluated. METHODS: Seventy-six patients were included and their weight, triceps skin fold thickness, arm circumference, middle-arm muscle circumference, and corrected arm muscle area were measured before and after 24 weeks of treatment. Epidemiological data and liver biopsy findings were obtained from patients' records. The sample was divided into two groups: one with advanced hepatic fibrosis and another group with mild to moderate fibrosis. Comparisons into each group were made using Wilcoxon or paired tests. After that, a linear regression model was applied to estimate the anthropometric changes during the treatment according to age, sex, hepatic fibrosis stage, and ribavirin doses. RESULTS: The subjects suffered reductions of important anthropometric measures, mainly related to fat mass (p<0.001).Some decrease of fat-free mass was also observed in subjects with advanced fibrosis. The statistic model showed that age and sex were more associated with the anthropometric changes observed. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the antiviral treatment caused loss of relevant anthropometric measures, and the model proposed was able to estimate some of them

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Interferons/adverse effects , Interferons/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Weight Loss/drug effects , Anthropometry