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1.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 607-610, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985534

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the genetic characteristics of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in people aged 20 years and under in Yichang City of Hubei Province from 2019 to 2020. Methods: Based on the Yichang Health Big Data Platform, we investigated cases 20 and under clinically diagnosed as herpes zoster in three hospitals from March 2019 to September 2020. Collecting vesicle fluid and throat swab samples of the cases and completing questionnaires to obtain basic information. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used for positive identification of the virus. PCR amplification of VZV's open reading frame (ORF) and sequencing of the products to determine the VZV genotype. Analyze mutations at some specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. Results: Among 46 cases of herpes zoster, the male to female ratio was 1.3∶1 (26∶20) and the age ranged from 7 to 20 years old. Fifteen cases had been vaccinated against varicella, including 13 and 2 cases of 1 and 2 doses, respectively. VZV strains were detected in 34 samples (73.91%), all belonging to Clade 2. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the nucleotide of ORF22 showed, compared with Clade 2 referenced strains, the sequence matching degree of nucleotide for all 34 samples was 99.0% to 100.0%. Conclusion: The main VZV strain causing herpes zoster in people aged 20 years and under in Yichang from 2019 to 2020 was Clade 2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Herpesvirus 3, Human/genetics , Phylogeny , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nucleotides
2.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1059-1062, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985516

ABSTRACT

To discuss the effect of varicella vaccination on the clinical characteristics of herpes zoster (shingles) cases aged 20 years and under, and analyze its clinical features. Based on the Yichang Health Big Data Platform, a descriptive study was conducted to collect the information of cases aged 20 years and under in three medical institutions of Yichang Central People's Hospital, Yichang First People's Hospital and Yichang Second People's Hospital from March 2019 to September 2020. According to the history of varicella vaccine, cases were divided into vaccination group and non-vaccination group, and their clinical features and outcomes were compared. The results showed that 46 shingles cases, aged from 7 to 20 years old, were included in this study. 26 males (56.5%), 20 females (43.5%), 15 cases in vaccination group (32.6%) and 31 cases in non-vaccination group (67.4%). 28 cases had thoracic involvement, followed by lumbar (n=8), cranial (n=7) involvements and extremities (n=7). The spread of herpes skin area: 2 cases involved too large area, 21 cases of 10 cm×10 cm, 14 cases of 5 cm×5 cm, 9 cases of 1 cm×1 cm. Herpes number: 26 cases had 10-49 herpes, followed by <10 herpes (n=9), uncountable herpes (n=7) and 50-99 herpes (n=4). The clinical course[M(Q1,Q3)] lasted 20.5 (13.5,24.8) d averagely, 5 cases had postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and 1 case had respiratory complications. Shingles decrustation time was significantly shorter in vaccination group (Z=-2.01, P<0.05), and there was no significant difference in other characteristics by vaccination. In conclusion, the number and spread of shingles in most children and adolescents are less, and the complications such as PHN are less. Varicella vaccination can reduce the decrustation time and relieve shingles cases with some clinical symptoms.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Herpes Zoster Vaccine/therapeutic use , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Neuralgia, Postherpetic/prevention & control
3.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 286-292, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969880

ABSTRACT

With the determination of the whole genome sequence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) virus, the successful breakthrough of infectious cloning technology of VZV, and the emergence of effective preventive vaccines, which have been proven to be effective and safe, varicella has become a disease preventable by specific immunity. This article will review the genomic structure, epidemiological characteristics, and research application progress of varicella vaccine and herpes zoster vaccine of varicella zoster virus to provide reference for primary prevention of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Herpesvirus 3, Human/genetics , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Herpes Zoster Vaccine , Chickenpox Vaccine , Genomics
4.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 259-267, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969876

ABSTRACT

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox when it first infects humans, and the virus may reactivate in adulthood and cause herpes zoster (HZ). Broad-spectrum antiviral drugs are one of the treatments for varicella and herpes zoster, but the emergence of drug resistance poses many challenges to this treatment and increases the burden of disease on patients. This paper discusses the resistance mechanisms, resistance sites and resistance detection methods of anti-VZV drugs in order to help further research on new anti-VZV targets, new drugs and monitoring of resistance to existing drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Herpes Zoster , Chickenpox , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance
5.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 26(2): e007077, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1509502

ABSTRACT

Durante los últimos meses, quienes trabajamos en Argentina en el ámbito de la atención primaria como médicos de cabecera hemos recibido muchas consultas de pacientes solicitando nuestra opinión sobre una vacuna que no está actualmente incluida en el Calendario Nacional de Vacunación y que además estaba fuera de nuestra agenda: la vacuna contra el herpes zóster. Este artículo editorial pretende ayudar a los equipos de salud a realizar con sus pacientes un proceso de toma de decisiones compartidas en las consultas acerca de esta nueva vacuna. (AU)


During the last few months, those of us who work in Argentina in the field of primary care as general practitioners have received many inquiries from patients requesting our opinion about a vaccine that is not currently included in the National Vaccination Schedule and that, in addition, was off our scope: the herpes zoster vaccine. This editorial article aims to help our health teams carry out a shared decision-making process with their patients regarding this new vaccine. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Neuralgia, Postherpetic/prevention & control , Herpes Zoster Vaccine/therapeutic use , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Argentina/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Decision Making, Shared , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology
6.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-9, 01/jan./2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378522

ABSTRACT

Objective: the aim of this study was to relate sociodemographic, epidemiological and clinical conditions to the occurrence of severe cases of HZ in reference hospital of Fortaleza. Methods: this is a cross-sectional analytical study, based on medical records of patients admitted from 2009 to 2018. Pearson's x2 test or Fisher's exact test were used when appropriate. Results: we analyzed 196 medical records. The presence of complications occurred in 69.9%, the most affected region was the cranial (68.9%), and 1.5% died. The presence of vesicles (PR=1.37; 95%CI: 1.03-1.82; p=0.01) and the choice of antibiotic associated antiviral therapy (PR=0.58; 95%CI: 0.46-0.73; p=0.00) were significantly associated with the severity. Conclusions: the disease may be more severe at ages over 50. The presence of lesions in vesicles was associated with a higher prevalence of complications and the use of antibiotics and antivirals as a protective factor.


Objetivo: relacionar condições sociodemográficas, epidemiológicas e clínicas à ocorrência de casos graves de HZ em hospital de referência de Fortaleza. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo analítico transversal, baseado em prontuários de pacientes internados de 2009 a 2018. Foram utilizados o teste x2 de Pearson ou o teste exato de Fisher, quando apropriado. Resultados: foram analisados 196 prontuários. A presença de complicações ocorreu em 69,9%, a região mais acometida foi a craniana (68,9%), e 1,5% foi a óbito. A presença de vesículas (RP=1,37; IC95%: 1,03-1,82; p=0,01) e a escolha da terapia antiviral associada a antibióticos (RP=0,58; IC95%: 0,46-0,73; p=0,00) foram significativamente associadas com a gravidade. Conclusões: a doença pode ser mais grave a partir dos 50 anos. A presença de lesões em vesículas foi associada à maior prevalência de complicações e o uso de antibióticos e antivirais como fator de proteção.


Subject(s)
Herpes Zoster , Medical Records , Disease , Epidemiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Hospitalization , Inpatients , Methods
7.
J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 13(2): 1-4, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1395797

ABSTRACT

Although varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is preventable and curable, the disease remains a public health problem in Namibia. Access to vaccination in the country remains a challenge for many citizens including students. No previous study has been conducted to assess awareness on the prevention and control of VZV in Namibia. The overall purpose of the study was to investigate the awareness of hostel students on prevention and control measures for VZV in Namibia. The objective of the study was to assess and describe the awareness of hostel students on the prevention and control measures for VZV in Namibia. A quantitative descriptive study using an online questionnaire was used. Simple random sampling was used to select 165 respondents. Descriptive statistics and a non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test were performed to test the mean differences between variables and the significance of the data. A great proportion of the respondents, 70.7% (n=118), were aware that VZV is caused by a virus (0.71±0.45) while 76% (n=127) (0.76±0.42) were aware that VZV can be vaccinated against. The study found a strong association between aetiology (p=0.03), available information (p=0.00), mode of transmission (p=0.23), and knowledge on contagious diseases (p=0.03).The results were inconclusive as to whether the level of awareness is high or low, owing to the differences in scores for each variable. The study recommends that a mobile clinic be established on campus to offer health education information.


Subject(s)
Humans , Awareness , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Students , Disease Prevention
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 72-76, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928672

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate herpes zoster reactivation induced by arsenic in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 212 patients with APL treated in the Department of Hematology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from 2008 to 2019 were retrospectively analyzed to observe the activation of varicella zoster virus induced by arsenic. Kaplan-Meier analysis, chi-square test, and boxplot were used to analyze and describe the cumulative dose of arsenic and the time from the beginning of arsenic treatment to the occurrence of herpes zoster.@*RESULTS@#Excluding early death cases and early automatic discharge cases, 17 cases developed herpes zoster reactivation in 175 patients with APL treated with arsenic, and the cumulative median dose of arsenic was 6.2(2-12) mg/kg. Precise risk of reactivation of herpes zoster with 10 months in APL patients treated by arsenic was 9.7%.@*CONCLUSION@#Arsenic treatment can induce high reactivation rate of herpes zoster virus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arsenic , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
9.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 386-390, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935297

ABSTRACT

With the increase of age or the impairment of immune function, the specific cellular immune level against varicella zoster virus (VZV) in the body decreases, and the latent VZV in the ganglion can be reactivated to cause herpes zoster (HZ). HZ and its main complication postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) can seriously affect the quality of life of patients. The immunocompromised (IC) population is more prone to HZ than the immunocompetent population due to diseases and therapeutic drugs. This paper reviews the incidence, risk factor and economic burden of HZ in IC population with special health status, to provide ideas for research and adjustment of immunization strategies in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Financial Stress , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Incidence , Neuralgia, Postherpetic/prevention & control , Quality of Life
10.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 114-118, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935257

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the breakthrough rate and antibody level of children vaccinated two doses varicella vaccine in Tianjin city, and to compare them with those vaccinated one dose. Methods: A total of 1 112 children who were vaccinated two doses varicella vaccine were selected as the experimental group. According to the same street and township, children who had received only one dose within one year of age difference, and whose first injection time was less than one month from the first dose of varicella vaccine in the experimental group were selected as the control group. A three-year prospective observation was conducted on the incidence of varicella in the two groups. 108 pairs of children in the two groups were selected to collect antivaricella serum in the first to third year. The rate of breakthrough cases, antibody level and antibody positive rate were compared by χ2 test, t-test and variance analysis between and within the two groups in three years. Results: The cumulative breakthrough rate of the experimental group was 0.54%(6/1 112), which was lower than that of the control group 3.96% (44/1 112, χ²=29.544, P<0.001). The GMC level of antibody in the experimental group decreased year by year (F=18.291, P<0.001), and the GMC level in the control group also decreased year by year (F=91.383, P<0.001). There was significant difference in GMC level between the two groups (P<0.001). The difference of antibody positive rate in the experimental group was statistically significant in three years (χ²=11.107, P<0.01), there was significant difference in the positive rate between the first year and third year (P<0.01), there was no significant difference in the positive rate of the control group in three years (χ²=3.351, P>0.05). The positive rate of the experimental group was higher than that of the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Two doses varicella vaccine can significantly improve the antibody level and positive rate, but it still shows a downward trend with the extension of time. It is necessary to consider strengthening immunization according to the actual situation.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Antibodies, Viral , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Chickenpox Vaccine , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Prospective Studies , Vaccination
11.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 108-113, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935256

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the level and trend of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antibody among healthy population in Beijing in 2017, after the five-year implementation of the two doses varicella vaccination strategy in 2012, and to provide evidence for scientific evaluation of immunization strategy. Methods: A total of 2 144 subjects in ten age groups from 8 districts of Beijing city were recruited in this study using cross-sectional survey based on multi-stage cluster random sampling method. Serum samples were collected and VZV antibody was detected by ELISA. The influencing factors of antibody concentration and positive rate were analyzed and compared with the study in 2012. The antibody concentration and antibody positive rate were analyzed by nonparametric test and χ² test respectively. Results: The ratio of subjects with registered residence in Beijing city to other provinces was 1∶1. The ratio of male to female was 1∶1.08. The median concentration of VZV antibody was 341.4 (78.6, 1 497.8) mIU/ml, and the total antibody positive rate was 71.1% (1 524/2 144). There were significant differences in antibody positive rate (χ²=736.39, P<0.01) and antibody concentration (χ²=740.34, P<0.01) among different age groups. The antibody positive rate generally increased with age (χ²trend=7.32, Ptrend<0.01). Among 862 children under 14 years old, the antibody positive rate of two doses vaccination 72.8% (182/250) was significantly higher than that of one dose vaccination 51.9% (154/297) (χ²=25.14, P<0.01). There was significant difference between 1-4 years old group (χ²=11.71, P<0.01) and 10-14 years old group (χ²=5.95, P=0.02), but not in 5-9 years old group (χ²=3.00, P=0.07). Compared with the study in 2012, the antibody positive rate increased in 5-9 years old group (χ²=14.35, P<0.01) and decreased in 1-4 years old group (χ²=11.51, P=0.01) in 2017. Conclusion: The recommended varicella booster vaccination has significantly improved the VZV antibody level of children in Beijing city. In the future, it is necessary to explore a more optimized two doses varicella vaccination schedule for children in combination with epidemiological evidence.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Antibodies, Viral , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Chickenpox Vaccine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Vaccination
12.
Rev. fac. cienc. méd. (Impr.) ; 18(1): 36-41, ene.-jun. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1395494

ABSTRACT

El virus varicela zoster produce cuadros clínicos por reactivación del mismo en años posteriores a la primoinfección, en sujetos con condiciones particulares, como situaciones de estrés, inmunodepresión, radioterapia, estados infecciosos que cursen con fiebre, entre otros. El síndrome de Ramsay Hunt es uno de ellos. Se caracteriza por una tríada de parálisis facial periférica, vesículas herpéticas en oído externo y otalgia. Objetivo: pr esentar un caso típico del síndr ome de Ramsay Hunt, métodos diagnósticos y tratamiento realizado. Presentación de caso clínico: paciente femenina, de 21 años, originaria de Tegucigalpa, Honduras, se presentó al Hospital Escuela Universitario por cuadro de seis días de evolución, de cambios inflamatorios en el oído externo izquierdo, en la región del pabellón auricular y el conducto auditivo externo, con presencia de vesículas herpéticas eritematosas con costras y restos hemáticos, otorrea, hiperemia, prurito y otalgia intermitente. También refirió parálisis de hemicara izquierda de cuatro días de evolución. Examen físico: conducto auditivo externo izquierdo presentaba vesículas con costras. Hubo ptosis palpebral izquierda e incapacidad para realizar las mímicas faciales. Tratamiento intrahospitalario: aciclovir 800 mg vía oral cada 6 horas, dexametasona 8 mg IV cada 8 horas, diclofenaco 75 mg IV cada 12 horas; citidina-5- monofosfato disódico, más uridin-5-trifosfato trisódico, 1 comprimido cada 12 horas; mupirocina ungüento al 1Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. ORCID 0000-0002-2346-4209 2Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas. Departamento de Cirugía. Tegucigalpa, Honduras. 3Hospital Escuela Universitario, Departamento de Cirugía, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Autor de correspondencia: Paola Andrea Hincapié Gaviria, paolahincapie23@gmail.com Recibido: 10/07/2020 Aceptado: 03/03/2021 al 2%, aplicado en oído externo cada 8 horas y ejercicios de fisioterapia. Conclusión: el síndrome de Ramsay Hunt se diagnóstica, fundamentalmente, mediante hallazgos clínicos. El tratamiento empírico y adecuado, acompañado de una buena terapia posterior, anticipa un pronóstico favorable sin secuelas neurológicas...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Herpes Zoster Oticus/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Facial Paralysis/complications , Geniculate Ganglion
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(3): 446-451, jun. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388251

ABSTRACT

Resumen Presentamos el caso de un varón de 63 años, inmunocompetente, con una necrosis retinal aguda (NRA) unilateral. Consultó por visión borrosa, dolor ocular, fotofobia y cefalea. Se confirmó una papilitis y coriorretinitis periférica asociada a vasculitis e isquemia retinal periférica. El estudio molecular por RPC de humor acuoso detectó la presencia de virus varicela zoster. El paciente fue tratado con terapia combinada con corticoesteroides orales, aciclovir oral/intravenoso, ganciclovir intravítreo semanal y luego valaciclovir oral por tres meses. Se demostró una disminución progresiva de la carga viral en el humor acuoso durante el tratamiento. El seguimiento mostró una mejoría del cuadro inflamatorio y una leve recuperación de la agudeza visual, sin embargo, finalmente presentó un desprendimiento de retina con pérdida casi total de la visión unilateral. La NRA es una complicación infrecuente provocada por algunos virus herpes con mal pronóstico visual, desenlace que puede ser mejorado con un diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz con antivirales. El tratamiento prolongado permite evitar la recaída y el compromiso contralateral.


Abstract We present the case of a 63-year-old immunocompetent man with unilateral acute retinal necrosis (ARN). He consulted for blurred vision, eye pain, photophobia, and headache. Papillitis and peripheal chorioretinitis associated with vasculitis and peripheral retinal ischemia was confirmed. PCR from aqueous humor sample detected varicella zoster virus. The patient was treated with a combined therapy of oral corticosteroids, oral / intravenous acyclovir along with weekly intravitreous ganciclovir doses followed by oral valaciclovir for three months. A progressive decrease in viral load in aqueous humor was demonstrated during treatment. Follow-up showed improvement in the inflammatory condition and a slight recovery of visual acuity, however, finally he presented a retinal detachment with total loss of one-sided vision. ARN is an uncommon complication caused by some herpesviruses with a poor visual prognosis, an outcome that can be improved with early diagnosis and treatment using appropriate antivirals. Prolonged treatment reduces relapse frequency and fellow eye compromise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retinal Necrosis Syndrome, Acute/diagnosis , Retinal Necrosis Syndrome, Acute/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 3, Human/genetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Follow-Up Studies
14.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(2): e904, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280360

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los profesionales de la salud están constantemente expuestos a situaciones estresantes. Particularmente, las enfermeras dedicadas al cuidado del paciente crítico resultan más afectadas por el estrés laboral lo que impacta negativamente en su salud mental y predispone a infecciones. Ello evidencia la estrecha interrelación psiconeuroinmunendocrina. Objetivo: Describir las consecuencias clínicas e inmunológicas del estrés laboral crónico en una enfermera intensivista. Presentación del caso: La paciente de 39 años presentó infecciones recurrentes por varicela zoster, así como forunculosis cutánea, infecciones urinarias, neumonía y candidiasis vaginal en un año. Se constató neutropenia marcada, monocitopenia e hipogammaglobulinemia. La citometría de flujo evidenció disminución de los linfocitos T cooperadores CD4+ y los B CD19+. Se diagnosticó inmunodeficiencia secundaria al estrés laboral crónico y depresión severa. La terapia inmunomoduladora con factor de transferencia (Hebertrans) subcutáneo y vitaminoterapia mejoró su inmunidad. Conclusiones: En trabajadores de la salud inmunocompetentes expuestos a altos niveles de estrés, la presencia de infecciones recurrentes o múltiples de etiología variada en breve tiempo puede estar asociado a inmunodeficiencia potencialmente reversible de controlarse o eliminar la causa(AU)


Introduction: Health professionals are constantly exposed to stressful situations. In particular, nurses, dedicated to the care of critical patients, are more affected by work stress, which negatively impacts their mental health and predisposes them to infections. This shows the close psychoneuroimmunendocrine interrelation. Objective: To describe the clinical and immunological consequences of chronic work stress in a intensivist nurse. Case report: The 39-year-old patient had recurrent varicella zoster infections as well as skin furunculosis, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and vaginal candidiasis in one year. Marked neutropenia, monocytopenia, and hypogammaglobulinemia were noted. Flow cytometry showed a decrease in CD4 + T helper lymphocytes and CD19 + B lymphocytes. Immunodeficiency secondary to chronic work stress and severe depression was diagnosed. Immunomodulatory therapy with subcutaneous transfer factor (Hebertrans) and vitamin therapy improved her immunity. Conclusions: Immunocompetent health workers exposed to high levels of stress, the presence of recurrent or multiple infections of varied etiology in a short time may be associated with potentially reversible immunodeficiency if the cause is controlled or eliminated(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Occupational Stress/etiology
15.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cuello (En línea) ; 49(1): 62-71, 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1152175

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Ramsay Hunt (SRH) corresponde a la asociación de la parálisis facial periférica con una erupción vesicular localizada en el pabellón auricular, causada por el compromiso del ganglio geniculado secundario a una infección por el virus de la varicela-zóster (VVZ). Este síndrome es la segunda causa más común de parálisis facial atraumática y representa aproximadamente el 10 %-12 % de las parálisis faciales agudas, con una incidencia anual de 5 por cada 100 000 habitantes en Estados Unidos. El diagnóstico es principalmente clínico y entre las manifestaciones más destacadas se encuentran síntomas neurológicos como otalgia, tinnitus, hipoacusia asociada con parálisis facial junto a lesiones herpéticas características. Dentro de las complicaciones que se pueden presentar en esta entidad se encuentra, principalmente, la neuralgia posherpética, seguida de otras menos frecuentes como la encefalitis, el herpes zóster oftálmico y la mielitis. El manejo actual del SRH se basa en la aplicación de terapias duales con corticosteroides asociados a terapia antiviral, lo cual ha demostrado que el inicio temprano del tratamiento mejora el pronóstico y disminuye la aparición de complicaciones. El pronóstico de esta patología es inferior en comparación a patologías menos severas que comprometen el nervio facial (como la parálisis de Bell) y se ve impactado por varios factores como el inicio oportuno de tratamiento, el grupo etario y la presencia de comorbilidades.


Ramsay Hunt syndrome corresponds to the association of peripheral facial paralysis with a vesicular eruption located in the pinna, caused by the involvement of the geniculate ganglion secondary to infection by the varicella zoster virus. This syndrome is the second causes of atraumatic facial paralysis, representing approximately 10 %-12 % of acute facial paralysis, with an annual incidence of 5 per 100,000 inhabitants. The diagnosis is mainly clinical and among the most prominent manifestations are neurological symptoms such as otalgia, tinnitus, hypoacusis associated with facial paralysis together with characteristic herpetic lesions. Among the complications that may occur in this entity is mainly postherpetic neuralgia, followed by less frequent ones such as encephalitis, ophthalmic herpes zoster and myelitis. Current management of Ramsay Hunt syndrome is based on the application of dual therapies consisting of corticosteroids associated with antiviral therapy, showing that early initiation of treatment improves prognosis and reduces the appearance of complications. The prognosis of this pathology is inferior compared to less severe pathologies that compromise the facial nerve (Bell's palsy) and is impacted by several factors such as the timely initiation of treatment, the age group, and the presence of comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Herpes Zoster Oticus/diagnosis , Prognosis , Herpes Zoster Oticus/complications , Herpes Zoster Oticus/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 3, Human/isolation & purification , Facial Paralysis/virology
16.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Online) ; 15: 1-11, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344711

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features of herpes zoster in adult patients treated at a large tertiary care hospital in Brazil over a 5-year period. METHODS: The medical records of suspected herpes zoster cases (based on ICD-10 codes) were identified for full review. Convenience sampling was used to select the medical records from a tertiary hospital in São Paulo. We collected data about co-existing medical conditions, medication use, herpes zoster-related clinical features and outcomes, and healthcare resource utilization. RESULTS: A total of 249 individuals whose first episode of herpes zoster occurred between 2010 and 2014 were included. The mean patient age was 55 years (range 18­96), and the majority were women (63.05%) and aged ≥ 50 years (63.86%). Medical comorbidities were reported in 92.77%, including diabetes (19.68%) and HIV infection (7.63%). Current/recent use of immunosuppressive agents was reported in 31.73%. A total of 65.86% of the patients were hospitalized: 102 patients (40.96%) were admitted for herpes zoster management, while 62 (24.90%) were already receiving inpatient care. The mean hospital length of stay was 16.60 days. One-third (34.14%) were managed as outpatients. Postherpetic neuralgia was reported as a complication in 18.07%. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective descriptive study found a high frequency of herpes zoster episodes in older adults with comorbidities who sought medical care at a tertiary hospital. These results also underscore the importance of understanding the epidemiology of this disease and developing control strategies for these at-risk populations in Brazil.


OBJETIVO: Descrever as características clínicas do herpes zoster em pacientes adultos atendidos em um grande hospital terciário no Brasil por um período de cinco anos. METODOLOGIA: Os casos suspeitos de herpes zoster (com base nos códigos da CID-10) foram identificados para revisão completa dos prontuários. Foi realizada uma amostragem por conveniência para selecionar os prontuários de interesse em um hospital terciário em São Paulo. Foram coletadas informações de prontuários médicos sobre condições coexistentes, características clínicas e uso de medicamentos relacionados ao herpes zoster (como primeiro episódio ou episódio de herpes zoster recorrente) e uso de recursos de saúde. RESULTADOS: Entre 2010 e 2014, 249 indivíduos com um primeiro episódio de herpes zoster foram incluídos, com uma idade média de 55 anos (variando de 18 a 96 anos). A maioria era do sexo feminino (63,05%) e com idade ≥ 50 anos (63,86%). Comorbidades médicas foram relatadas em 92,77% dos pacientes, incluindo diabetes (19,68%) e infecção por HIV (7,63%); o uso atual / recente de agentes imunossupressores foi relatado em 31,73%. Hospitalização foi relatada em 65,86% dos casos; 102 pacientes (40,96%) foram admitidos para o tratamento do episódio de herpes zoster e 62 pacientes (24,90%) já estavam recebendo atendimento hospitalar. O tempo médio de permanência no hospital foi de 16,60 dias. Um terço (34,14%) de todos os casos foi tratado ambulatorialmente. A neuralgia pós-herpética foi relatada como complicação em 18,07% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados do presente estudo descritivo retrospectivo demonstram alta frequência de episódios de herpes zoster em idosos com comorbidades, buscando atendimento médico em um hospital terciário. Esses resultados também ressaltam a importância de entender a epidemiologia dessa doença e considerar as estratégias de controle nas populações de risco no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Neuralgia, Postherpetic/diagnosis , Herpes Zoster/complications , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Herpesvirus 3, Human/pathogenicity , Hospitalization
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e01272021, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347093

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Herpesviruses, enteroviruses, and arboviruses are important because of their clinical relevance and ability to cause meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, and other diseases. The clinical virology associated with diagnostic technologies can reduce the morbidity and mortality of such neurological manifestations. Here we aimed to identify the genomes of agents that cause neurological syndromes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with suspected nervous system infections admitted to the University Hospital of the University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, in 2017-2018. METHODS: CSF samples collected from adult patients with neurological syndrome symptoms and negative CSF culture results were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcriptase-PCR, and real-time PCR, and their results were compared with their clinical symptoms. One CSF sample was obtained from each patient. RESULTS: Viral genomes were detected in 148/420 (35.2%) CSF samples: one of 148 (0.2%) was positive for herpes simplex virus-1; two (0.5%) for herpes simplex virus-2; eight (1.9%) for varicella-zoster virus; four (1%) for Epstein-Barr virus; one (0.2%) for cytomegalovirus; 32 (7.6%) for human herpesvirus-6; 30 (7.1%) for non-polio enterovirus; 67 (16.0%) for dengue virus, three (0.7%) for yellow fever virus, and 21 (5%) for Zika virus. CONCLUSIONS: The viral genomes were found in 35.2% of all analyzed samples, showing the high prevalence of viruses in the nervous system and the importance of using a nucleic acid amplification test to detect viral agents in CSF samples.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Arboviruses , Enterovirus/genetics , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection , Syndrome , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Viral , Herpesvirus 2, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Herpesvirus 3, Human/genetics , Hospitals, University
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200012, 2021. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136924

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ramsay Hunt Syndrome (RHS), also known as herpes zoster oticus, is caused by the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) in the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. Herein, we report a case of Ramsey Hunt Syndrome in a patient after antimonial treatment for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. The patient presented with microvesicles grouped on an erythematous base, starting in the neck and ascending towards the scalp margin on the right side of the head. The patient also developed grade V peripheral facial palsy the day after initiating the herpes zoster treatment, this outcome corroborated the assumption of Ramsey Hunt Syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Herpes Zoster Oticus/therapy , Herpes Zoster , United States , Herpesvirus 3, Human
19.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(1): e00149119, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055626

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Varicella in adults and immunocompromised patients can be severe. The clinical diagnosis of varicella has high accuracy and the history of disease has a high positive predictive value for protection. A significant portion of adults, however, cannot remember if they have had varicella, especially older individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of varicella protective antibodies titers in adults with no clinical history of disease, attended at a Reference Center for Special Immunobiologicals and Travel Medicine in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Titration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to varicella-zoster was determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Among 140 adults without history of varicella, 92% had protective antibody titers. We concluded that seroprevalence of varicella-zoster protection was very high in adults with negative history of disease and the use of serology before vaccination reduced significantly unnecessary vaccine and immunoglobulin use.


Resumo: A varicela é uma doença potencialmente grave em adultos e em pacientes imunocomprometidos. O diagnóstico clínico da varicela apresenta alta acurácia, e o relato da doença na história individual tem alto valor preditivo positivo para a proteção. Entretanto, uma proporção significativa de adultos, principalmente os mais idosos, não se lembra se já teve a doença. Realizamos um estudo transversal para determinar a soroprevalência de títulos protetores de anticorpos contra a varicela em adultos sem história clínica da doença, atendidos em um Centro de Referência para Imunobiológicos Especiais e Medicina de Viagem no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os títulos da imunoglobulina G (IgG) contra varicela-zoster foram determinados por quimiluminescência. Entre 140 adultos sem história de varicela, 92% apresentaram títulos protetores de anticorpos. Concluímos que a soroprevalência de proteção contra varicela-zoster é muito alta em adultos sem história da doença, e que o uso de teste sorológico antes da vacinação reduziria significativamente a vacinação desnecessária e o uso de imunoglobulina.


Resumen: La varicela en adultos y pacientes inmunocomprometidos puede ser grave. El diagnóstico clínico de la varicela tiene una gran precisión y la historia de la enfermedad cuenta con un alto valor predictivo positivo para la protección contra ella. Sin embargo, un porcentaje significativo de adultos, no puede recordar si tuvieron varicela, especialmente las personas más viejas. Realizamos un estudio transversal para determinar la seroprevalencia de las concentraciones de anticuerpos protectores frente a la varicela, en adultos sin historia clínica de la enfermedad, que se llevó a cabo en un Centro de Referencia para Inmunobiología Especial y Medicina del Viajero en Río de Janeiro (Brasil). Se determinó la valoración de los anticuerpos de inmunoglobulina G (IgG) a la varicela-zoster mediante un ensayo inmunológico quimioluminiscente. Entre 140 adultos sin historial de varicela, un 92% tuvieron concentraciones de anticuerpos protectores. Concluimos que la seroprevalencia de la protección a la varicela-zoster fue muy alta en adultos con un historial negativo de la enfermedad y la utilización de la serología antes de la vacunación redujo de manera significativa la vacunación innecesaria y el uso de la inmunoglobulina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Chickenpox/blood , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chickenpox Vaccine , Luminescent Measurements , Antibodies, Viral/blood
20.
Clinics ; 75: e1498, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055886

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of intraocular fluid analysis as a diagnostic aid for uveitis. METHODS: Twenty-eight samples (27 patients including 3 HIV-infected patients) with active (n=24) or non-active (n=4) uveitis were submitted to aqueous (AH; n=12) or vitreous humor (VH) analysis (n=16). All samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR for herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Toxoplasma gondii. RESULTS: The positivity of the PCR in AH was 41.7% (5/12), with 50% (2/4) in immunocompetent and 67% (2/3) in HIV+ patients. The positivity of the PCR in VH was 31.2% (5/16), with 13% (1/8) in immunocompetent and 50% (4/8) in immunosuppressed HIV negative patients. The analysis was a determinant in the diagnostic definition in 58% of HA and 50% of VH. CONCLUSION: Even in posterior uveitis, initial AH analysis may be helpful. A careful formulation of possible clinical diagnosis seems to increase the chance of intraocular sample analysis being meaningful.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aqueous Humor/microbiology , Aqueous Humor/parasitology , Aqueous Humor/virology , Uveitis/diagnosis , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/parasitology , Toxoplasma , Uveitis/microbiology , Uveitis/parasitology , Uveitis/virology , Vitreous Body/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , HIV-1 , Immunocompromised Host , Simplexvirus/genetics , Simplexvirus/immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Herpesvirus 3, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 3, Human/immunology , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Immunocompetence
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