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1.
Homeopatia Méx ; 93(736): 30-33, mar. 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, HomeoIndex, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1555432

ABSTRACT

En el panorama de la salud, el cuerpo humano, en su estado natural, se revela como una intrincada unidad que opera en armonía para mantener el equilibrio dinámico. Sin embargo, esta homeostasis puede verse afectada, dando lugar a la dualidad y a trastornos que comprometen la estabilidad vital. Este artículo propone una reflexión sobre la perspectiva homeopática, destacando su enfoque único en comparación con la medicina convencional. Diferenciándose al tratar al individuo como un todo integrado, la Homeopatía reconoce la transitoriedad de la dualidad representada por las enfermedades y enfatiza la importancia de la armonía entre el cuerpo y la mente en la búsqueda de la homeostasis. Inspirada en las ideas de Hahnemann, la Homeopatía se destaca por su visión holística, rechazando el dualismo estricto y proponiendo intervenciones que van más allá de la supresión de los síntomas. Anclada en la ley de los similares, busca sustancias que reproduzcan los síntomas del paciente en un estado saludable, buscando una cura profunda y la restauración de la unidad dinámica del organismo. A pesar de los desafíos, como la resistencia y la falta de métodos de investigación universalmente aceptados, la Homeopatía persiste a nivel mundial, sugiriendo un valor único. Este artículo promueve una reflexión sobre el enfoque homeopático, enfatizando su contribución a la comprensión de la salud y su papel en el panorama terapéutico.


n the landscape of health, the human body, in its natural state, reveals itself as an intricate unity, operating harmoniously to maintain dynamic balance. However, this homeostasis can be disrupted, leading to duality and disturbances that compromise vital stability. This article reflects on the homeopathic perspective, highlighting its unique approach compared to conventional medicine. Distinguishing itself by treating the individual as an integrated whole, homeopathy recognizes the transience of duality represented by diseases and emphasizes the importance of harmony between body and mind in the pursuit of homeostasis.Inspired by Hahnemann's ideas, homeopathy stands out for its holistic view, rejecting strict dualism and proposing interventions that go beyond symptom suppression. Anchored in the Law of Similars, it seeks substances that would reproduce the patient's symptoms in a healthy state, aiming for a profound cure and the restoration of the dynamic unity of the organism. Despite challenges, such as resistance and a lack of universally accepted research methods, homeopathy persists globally, suggesting unique value. This article encourages reflection on the homeopathic approach, emphasizing


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeopathic Therapeutics , Mind-Body Therapies , Holistic Health , Homeostasis
2.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 2-2, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010715

ABSTRACT

The human oral microbiome harbors one of the most diverse microbial communities in the human body, playing critical roles in oral and systemic health. Recent technological innovations are propelling the characterization and manipulation of oral microbiota. High-throughput sequencing enables comprehensive taxonomic and functional profiling of oral microbiomes. New long-read platforms improve genome assembly from complex samples. Single-cell genomics provides insights into uncultured taxa. Advanced imaging modalities including fluorescence, mass spectrometry, and Raman spectroscopy have enabled the visualization of the spatial organization and interactions of oral microbes with increasing resolution. Fluorescence techniques link phylogenetic identity with localization. Mass spectrometry imaging reveals metabolic niches and activities while Raman spectroscopy generates rapid biomolecular fingerprints for classification. Culturomics facilitates the isolation and cultivation of novel fastidious oral taxa using high-throughput approaches. Ongoing integration of these technologies holds the promise of transforming our understanding of oral microbiome assembly, gene expression, metabolites, microenvironments, virulence mechanisms, and microbe-host interfaces in the context of health and disease. However, significant knowledge gaps persist regarding community origins, developmental trajectories, homeostasis versus dysbiosis triggers, functional biomarkers, and strategies to deliberately reshape the oral microbiome for therapeutic benefit. The convergence of sequencing, imaging, cultureomics, synthetic systems, and biomimetic models will provide unprecedented insights into the oral microbiome and offer opportunities to predict, prevent, diagnose, and treat associated oral diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phylogeny , Biomimetics , Dysbiosis , Homeostasis , Mass Spectrometry
3.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(2)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533492

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El sistema glinfático comprende el conjunto de rutas perivasculares tanto arteriales como venosas que se encuentran en estrecha asociación con células astrogliales y que permiten la interacción entre el líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) y el líquido intersticial cerebral (LIC), para llevar a cabo procesos como la depuración de los metabolitos de desecho celular, o la distribución de nutrientes, así como contribuir al metabolismo cerebral local, la transmisión de volumen y la señalización paracrina cerebral. Contenidos: Este artículo busca profundizar en los conceptos anatómicos y fisiológicos, hasta el momento descritos, sobre este sistema macroscópico de transporte. Se realiza una búsqueda bibliográfica de revisiones y estudios experimentales sobre la anatomía, la fisiología y las implicaciones fisiopatológicas del sistema glinfático. Conclusiones: La identificación anatómica y funcional del sistema glinfático ha ampliado el conocimiento sobre la regulación del metabolismo cerebral en cuanto a distribución de nutrientes y cascadas de señalización celular. Al establecer una interacción entre el espacio subaracnoideo subyacente y el espacio intersticial cerebral, el sistema glinfático surge como uno de los mecanismos protagonistas de la homeostasis cerebral. La disfunción de esta vía hace parte de los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de múltiples trastornos neurológicos, ya sea por la acumulación de macromoléculas, como ocurre en la enfermedad de Alzheimer, o por la reducción del drenaje de sustancias químicas y citocinas proinflamatorias en patologías como la migraña o el trauma craneoencefálico.


Introduction: The glympathic system comprises the set of perivascular routes, arterials or venous, that are found in close relationship with astroglial cells and allow interaction between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the interstitial brain fluid (ISF), to carry processes like cell-wasting metabolites depuration, nutrients distribution, as well as make a contribution in the local brain metabolism, volumen transmition and brain paracrine signaling. Contents: This article seeks to deepen in the anatomical and physiological concepts, so far described, about this macroscopic transport system. A bibliographic search of reviews and experimental studies on the anatomy, physiology and pathophysiological implications of the glymphatic system is carried out. Conclusions: Anatomical and functional identification of glympathic system has broaden the knowledge about regulation of brain metabolism on the nutrients distribution and cell signaling cascades. When setting an interaction between the subarachnoid space and the brain interstitial space, the glymphatic system arise as one of the leading mechanisms of brain homeostasis. Disfunction of this pathway makes part of the patophysiological mechanisms of multiple neurological disease, either be by collection of macromolecules as in Alzheimer's disease, or by the reduction of inflammatory cytokines and chemical substances drainage as in migraine or traumatic brain injury (TBI).


Subject(s)
Cerebrospinal Fluid , Aquaporin 4 , Glymphatic System , Astrocytes , Homeostasis
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 539-547, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440313

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: A great deal of attention of air pollution on respiratory health is increasing, particularly in relation to haze days. It is that exposure to cigarette smoke augments the toxicity of common air contaminants, thereby increasing the complexity of respiratory diseases. Although there are various mechanisms involved to respiratory diseases caused or worsen by cigarette smoking, in which the role of AQPs in the lung with regard to fluid homeostasis still remains elusive. In this paper, we copied the rat models based on smoke generator, and investigated the morphological changes of mucosa and related functions depending on the balance of lining liquid of alveoli via AQPs expression. Compared with normal group, weak labelling of AQP1 and AQP5 protein abundance were clearly detected in the corresponding part of smoke exposure groups compared with normal group. Hence, it is suggested that the contribution of AQPs in the lung is diminished, thereby causing perturbed balancing between resorptive and secretory fluid homeostasis under cigarette smoking.


Cada vez se presta más atención a la contaminación del aire en la salud respiratoria, particularmente, en relación con los días de neblina. En consecuencia la exposición al humo del cigarrillo aumenta la toxicidad de los contaminantes comunes del aire, lo que además aumenta la complejidad de las enfermedades respiratorias. Aunque existen varios mecanismos involucrados en las enfermedades respiratorias causadas o empeoradas por el tabaquismo, en las que el papel de las AQP en el pulmón respecto a la homeostasis de líquidos sigue siendo difícil de alcanzar. En este artículo, copiamos los modelos de rata basados en el generador de humo e investigamos los cambios morfológicos de la mucosa y las funciones relacionadas según el equilibrio del líquido de revestimiento de los alvéolos a través de la expresión de AQP. En comparación con el grupo normal, se detectó claramente un etiquetado débil de la abundancia de proteínas AQP1 y AQP5 en la parte correspondiente de los grupos de exposición al humo en comparación con el grupo control. Por lo tanto, se sugiere que la contribución de las AQP en el pulmón está disminuida, provocando así un equilibrio perturbado entre la homeostasis del líquido secretor y de reabsorción bajo el hábito de fumar cigarrillos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Respiratory System/pathology , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Respiratory System/drug effects , Body Fluids/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Aquaporins/metabolism , Homeostasis , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology
5.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(1): 359-369, Jan-Abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414884

ABSTRACT

Psoríase é uma dermatose de caráter inflamatório ligado a diversas composições do ser, sendo estas a genética, o sistema imune, o ambiente e o estado mental do paciente, apresentando evidências de ser um quadro clínico multifacetado. A composição da medicina psicossomática empenha-se na relação mental e emocional e do corpo, sendo importante mostrar a relação desta com a psoríase. Por isso, busca-se avaliar as evidências disponíveis na literatura sobre a relação entre a psoríase e os aspectos psicossomáticos. Foi realizado uma a revisão de literatura, por meio de seleção de artigos das base de dados Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (PubMed/Medline), biblioteca virtual em saúde Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciElo), UpToDate e Google acadêmico. A busca por artigos científicos resultou em 20 artigos selecionados. Foi possível concluir, que há estudos fundamentados correlacionando a medicina psicossomática e a psoríase, além de que diversos fatores que afetam a homeostase corporal, provocam alterações nervosas, e consequentemente afetam as células da pele. Além disso, foi encontrado evidências que a estigmatização que os pacientes sofrem influenciam no aumento da gravidade da doença, sendo necessário a realização de um tratamento psico cognitivo-comportamental juntamente com o tratamento dos sinais e sintomas gerais da doença. Desta forma, o presente trabalho pôde olhar para a patologia com um olhar ampliado relacionado ao aspecto mental e emocional o que promove melhor compreensão e as consequências disto são a maior capacidade de intervenção sobre a psoríase.


Psoriasis is an inflammatory dermatosis linked to several compositions of the being, which are genetics, the immune system, the environment and the patient's mental state, that is, it shows evidence of being a multifaceted clinical picture. Since the composition of psychosomatic medicine is committed to the relationship between the mental, emotional, and body, it is important to show its relationship with psoriasis. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the available evidence in the literature on the relationship between psoriasis and psychosomatic aspects. A literature review was conducted by selecting articles from the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (PubMed/Medline), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciElo), UpToDate and Google Scholar databases. The search for scientific articles resulted in 20 selected articles. It was possible to conclude that there are well-founded studies correlating psychosomatic medicine and psoriasis, and that several factors that affect the body's homeostasis cause nervous alterations, and consequently affect the skin cells. Moreover, it was found evidence that the stigmatization that patients suffer influences the increase of the severity of the disease, being necessary the realization of a psycho cognitive-behavioral treatment along with the treatment of the general signs and symptoms of the disease. Thus, the present work could look at the pathology with a broader view related to the mental and emotional aspect, which promotes better understanding and the consequences of this are a greater ability to intervene on psoriasis.


La psoriasis es una dermatosis inflamatoria vinculada a varias composiciones del ser, que son la genética, el sistema inmunitario, el medio ambiente y el estado mental del paciente, es decir, muestra evidencias de ser un cuadro clínico multifacético. Dado que la composición de la medicina psicosomática está comprometida con la relación entre lo mental, lo emocional y el cuerpo, es importante mostrar su relación con la psoriasis. Por lo tanto, se buscó evaluar la evidencia disponible en la literatura sobre la relación entre la psoriasis y los aspectos psicosomáticos. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica seleccionando artículos de las bases de datos Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (PubMed/Medline), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciElo), UpToDate y Google Scholar. La búsqueda de artículos científicos dio como resultado 20 artículos seleccionados. Se pudo concluir que existen estudios bien fundamentados que correlacionan la medicina psicosomática y la psoriasis, y que diversos factores que afectan a la homeostasis del organismo provocan alteraciones nerviosas y, en consecuencia, afectan a las células de la piel. Además, se encontraron evidencias de que la estigmatización que sufren los pacientes influye en el aumento de la gravedad de la enfermedad, siendo necesaria la realización de un tratamiento psico cognitivo- conductual junto con el tratamiento de los signos y síntomas generales de la enfermedad. Así, el presente trabajo pudo contemplar la patología con una visión más amplia relacionada con el aspecto mental y emocional, lo que favorece una mejor comprensión y las consecuencias de ello son una mayor capacidad de intervención sobre la psoriasis.


Subject(s)
Psoriasis/diagnosis , Psoriasis/pathology , Psoriasis/therapy , Psychosomatic Medicine , Psychological Distress , Skin/pathology , Skin Diseases/pathology , Review , Database , Homeostasis
6.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 1219-1235, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010811

ABSTRACT

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) displays normal or near-normal left ventricular ejection fraction, diastolic dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy, and poor exercise capacity. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, possesses cardiovascular benefits. Adult male mice were assigned to chow or high-fat diet with L-NAME ("two-hit" model) for 15 weeks. Diastolic function was assessed using echocardiography and noninvasive Doppler technique. Myocardial morphology, mitochondrial ultrastructure, and cardiomyocyte mechanical properties were evaluated. Proteomics analysis, autophagic flux, and intracellular Ca2+ were also assessed in chow and HFpEF mice. The results show exercise intolerance and cardiac diastolic dysfunction in "two-hit"-induced HFpEF model, in which unfavorable geometric changes such as increased cell size, interstitial fibrosis, and mitochondrial swelling occurred in the myocardium. Diastolic dysfunction was indicated by the elevated E value, mitral E/A ratio, and E/e' ratio, decreased e' value and maximal velocity of re-lengthening (-dL/dt), and prolonged re-lengthening in HFpEF mice. The effects of these processes were alleviated by berberine. Moreover, berberine ameliorated autophagic flux, alleviated Drp1 mitochondrial localization, mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and fragmentation, and promoted intracellular Ca2+ reuptake into sarcoplasmic reticulum by regulating phospholamban and SERCA2a. Finally, berberine alleviated diastolic dysfunction in "two-hit" diet-induced HFpEF model possibly because of the promotion of autophagic flux, inhibition of mitochondrial fragmentation, and cytosolic Ca2+ overload.


Subject(s)
Male , Mice , Animals , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Berberine/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Myocardium , Homeostasis
7.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 653-667, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010791

ABSTRACT

Lipophagy, the selective engulfment of lipid droplets (LDs) by autophagosomes for lysosomal degradation, is critical to lipid and energy homeostasis. Here we show that the lipid transfer protein ORP8 is located on LDs and mediates the encapsulation of LDs by autophagosomal membranes. This function of ORP8 is independent of its lipid transporter activity and is achieved through direct interaction with phagophore-anchored LC3/GABARAPs. Upon lipophagy induction, ORP8 has increased localization on LDs and is phosphorylated by AMPK, thereby enhancing its affinity for LC3/GABARAPs. Deletion of ORP8 or interruption of ORP8-LC3/GABARAP interaction results in accumulation of LDs and increased intracellular triglyceride. Overexpression of ORP8 alleviates LD and triglyceride deposition in the liver of ob/ob mice, and Osbpl8-/- mice exhibit liver lipid clearance defects. Our results suggest that ORP8 is a lipophagy receptor that plays a key role in cellular lipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Lipid Droplets , Autophagy , Autophagosomes , Homeostasis , Triglycerides
8.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 560-578, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010790

ABSTRACT

Polyploid cells, which contain more than one set of chromosome pairs, are very common in nature. Polyploidy can provide cells with several potential benefits over their diploid counterparts, including an increase in cell size, contributing to organ growth and tissue homeostasis, and improving cellular robustness via increased tolerance to genomic stress and apoptotic signals. Here, we focus on why polyploidy in the cell occurs and which stress responses and molecular signals trigger cells to become polyploid. Moreover, we discuss its crucial roles in cell growth and tissue regeneration in the heart, liver, and other tissues.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver , Hepatocytes , Cell Cycle , Polyploidy , Homeostasis
9.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 52-52, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010707

ABSTRACT

Many tissues and organ systems have intrinsic regeneration capabilities that are largely driven and maintained by tissue-resident stem cell populations. In recent years, growing evidence has demonstrated that cellular metabolic homeostasis plays a central role in mediating stem cell fate, tissue regeneration, and homeostasis. Thus, a thorough understanding of the mechanisms that regulate metabolic homeostasis in stem cells may contribute to our knowledge on how tissue homeostasis is maintained and provide novel insights for disease management. In this review, we summarize the known relationship between the regulation of metabolic homeostasis and molecular pathways in stem cells. We also discuss potential targets of metabolic homeostasis in disease therapy and describe the current limitations and future directions in the development of these novel therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Stem Cells/metabolism , Homeostasis/physiology , Cell Differentiation/physiology
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1653-1662, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980964

ABSTRACT

Copper plays an important role in many metabolic activities in the human body. Copper level in the human body is in a state of dynamic equilibrium. Recent research on copper metabolism has revealed that copper dyshomeostasis can cause cell damage and induce or aggravate some diseases by affecting oxidative stress, proteasome, cuprotosis, and angiogenesis. The liver plays a central role in copper metabolism in the human body. Research conducted in recent years has unraveled the relationship between copper homeostasis and liver diseases. In this paper, we review the available evidence of the mechanism by which copper dyshomeostasis promotes cell damage and the development of liver diseases, and identify the future research priorities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Copper/metabolism , Homeostasis , Oxidative Stress , Liver Diseases
11.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 1146-1150, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009467

ABSTRACT

Bone homeostasis is based on the dynamic balance of bone formation and bone resorption. An imbalance in bone homeostasis is a major contributor to many skeletal diseases, including osteoporosis. Changes in the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota (GM) are supposed to have a significant impact on bone homeostasis and are closely correlated with changes in bone mass and bone microarchitecture. The "gut-immune" axis, which is formed by the interaction between the host intestinal immune system and GM, is essential for maintaining bone homeostasis, as well as regulating the body's immunological response and maintaining immune homeostasis throughout the intestine and body. The article reviews recent advances in the study of GM, the immune system, and their synergistic impact on bone homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Tract , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Immune System , Bone Density , Homeostasis
12.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 491-502, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971583

ABSTRACT

As prominent immune cells in the central nervous system, microglia constantly monitor the environment and provide neuronal protection, which are important functions for maintaining brain homeostasis. In the diseased brain, microglia are crucial mediators of neuroinflammation that regulates a broad spectrum of cellular responses. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the multifunctional contributions of microglia to homeostasis and their involvement in neurodegeneration. We further provide a comprehensive overview of therapeutic interventions targeting microglia in neurodegenerative diseases. Notably, we propose microglial depletion and subsequent repopulation as promising replacement therapy. Although microglial replacement therapy is still in its infancy, it will likely be a trend in the development of treatments for neurodegenerative diseases due to its versatility and selectivity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Microglia/physiology , Central Nervous System , Neurodegenerative Diseases/therapy , Brain/physiology , Homeostasis
13.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 1-14, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971465

ABSTRACT

Skeletal muscle plays a paramount role in physical activity, metabolism, and energy balance, while its homeostasis is being challenged by multiple unfavorable factors such as injury, aging, or obesity. Exosomes, a subset of extracellular vesicles, are now recognized as essential mediators of intercellular communication, holding great clinical potential in the treatment of skeletal muscle diseases. Herein, we outline the recent research progress in exosomal isolation, characterization, and mechanism of action, and emphatically discuss current advances in exosomes derived from multiple organs and tissues, and engineered exosomes regarding the regulation of physiological and pathological development of skeletal muscle. These remarkable advances expand our understanding of myogenesis and muscle diseases. Meanwhile, the engineered exosome, as an endogenous nanocarrier combined with advanced design methodologies of biomolecules, will help to open up innovative therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of muscle diseases.


Subject(s)
Exosomes/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Cell Communication , Homeostasis
14.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 109-117, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970763

ABSTRACT

Homeostasis is a dynamic balance process of self-regulating. Biological systems remain stable through adapting to changing external conditions to maintain normal life activities. Homeostatic medicine is the science of studying homeostasis of human molecules, cells, organs and the whole body. It is a comprehensive discipline based on maintaining homeostasis to keep human health and assist for diseases prevention and diagnoses. Homeostatic medicine focuses on the whole body and on the role of homeostasis in health and disease, which is expected to provide new ideas and strategies for maintaining health as well as diagnosing and treating diseases. Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the control of multisystem homeostasis. Nitrate is an important substance in regulating NO homeostasis through the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. Sialin, nitrate transporter which is located in the cell membrane and cytoplasm, mediates multiple cellular biological functions. The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway and sialin-mediated biological functions play an important role in the regulation of body homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nitrates/metabolism , Nitrites/metabolism , Homeostasis , Nitric Oxide
15.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 202-216, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982531

ABSTRACT

Although the mTOR-4E-BP1 signaling pathway is implicated in aging and aging-related disorders, the role of 4E-BP1 in regulating human stem cell homeostasis remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the expression of 4E-BP1 decreases along with the senescence of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Genetic inactivation of 4E-BP1 in hMSCs compromises mitochondrial respiration, increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and accelerates cellular senescence. Mechanistically, the absence of 4E-BP1 destabilizes proteins in mitochondrial respiration complexes, especially several key subunits of complex III including UQCRC2. Ectopic expression of 4E-BP1 attenuates mitochondrial abnormalities and alleviates cellular senescence in 4E-BP1-deficient hMSCs as well as in physiologically aged hMSCs. These f indings together demonstrate that 4E-BP1 functions as a geroprotector to mitigate human stem cell senescence and maintain mitochondrial homeostasis, particularly for the mitochondrial respiration complex III, thus providing a new potential target to counteract human stem cell senescence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Cellular Senescence , Homeostasis , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Electron Transport Complex III/metabolism , Cells, Cultured
16.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 656-662, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981913

ABSTRACT

Remodeling of the mitochondrial network is an important process in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and is closely related to mitochondrial function. Interactions between the biogenesis of new mitochondria and the clearance of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy) is an important manifestation of mitochondrial network remodeling. Mitochondrial fission and fusion act as a bridge between biogenesis and mitophagy. In recent years, the importance of these processes has been described in a variety of tissues and cell types and under a variety of conditions. For example, robust remodeling of the mitochondrial network has been reported during the polarization and effector function of macrophages. Previous studies have also revealed the important role of mitochondrial morphological structure and metabolic changes in regulating the function of macrophages. Therefore, the processes that regulate remodeling of the mitochondrial network also play a crucial role in the immune response of macrophages. In this paper, we focus on the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial regeneration, fission, fusion, and mitophagy in the process of mitochondrial network remodeling, and integrate these mechanisms to investigate their biological roles in macrophage polarization, inflammasome activation, and efferocytosis.


Subject(s)
Mitochondria , Mitophagy , Homeostasis/physiology , Phagocytosis , Macrophages/metabolism
17.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 748-757, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the role of chondrocyte mitochondrial homeostasis imbalance in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) and analyze its application prospects.@*METHODS@#The recent literature at home and abroad was reviewed to summarize the mechanism of mitochondrial homeostasis imbalance, the relationship between mitochondrial homeostasis imbalance and the pathogenesis of OA, and the application prospect in the treatment of OA.@*RESULTS@#Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial homeostasis imbalance, which is caused by abnormal mitochondrial biogenesis, the imbalance of mitochondrial redox, the imbalance of mitochondrial dynamics, and damaged mitochondrial autophagy of chondrocytes, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of OA. Abnormal mitochondrial biogenesis can accelerate the catabolic reaction of OA chondrocytes and aggravate cartilage damage. The imbalance of mitochondrial redox can lead to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibit the synthesis of extracellular matrix, induce ferroptosis and eventually leads to cartilage degradation. The imbalance of mitochondrial dynamics can lead to mitochondrial DNA mutation, decreased adenosine triphosphate production, ROS accumulation, and accelerated apoptosis of chondrocytes. When mitochondrial autophagy is damaged, dysfunctional mitochondria cannot be cleared in time, leading to ROS accumulation, which leads to chondrocyte apoptosis. It has been found that substances such as puerarin, safflower yellow, and astaxanthin can inhibit the development of OA by regulating mitochondrial homeostasis, which proves the potential to be used in the treatment of OA.@*CONCLUSION@#The mitochondrial homeostasis imbalance in chondrocytes is one of the most important pathogeneses of OA, and further exploration of the mechanisms of mitochondrial homeostasis imbalance is of great significance for the prevention and treatment of OA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Homeostasis , Mitochondria/metabolism , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5-12, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970495

ABSTRACT

Multiple sclerosis(MS) shows the pathological characteristics of "inflammatory injury of white matter" and "myelin repair disability" in the central nervous system(CNS). It is very essential for MS treatment and reduction of disease burden to strengthen repair, improve function, and reduce disability. Accordingly, different from the simple immunosuppression, we believe that key to strengthening remyelination and maintaining the "damage-repair" homeostasis of tissue is to change the current one-way immunosuppression strategy and achieve the "moderate pro-inflammation-effective inflammation removal" homeostasis. Traditional Chinese medicine shows huge potential in this strategy. Through literature research, this study summarized the research on remyelination, discussed the "mode-rate pro-inflammation-effective inflammation removal" homeostasis and the "damage-repair" homeostasis based on microglia, and summed up the key links in remyelination in MS. This review is expected to lay a theoretical basis for improving the function of MS patients and guide the application of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Remyelination/physiology , Myelin Sheath/pathology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Homeostasis
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 525-533, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970489

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the recovery effect of Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescription on intestinal flora homeostasis control and intestinal mucosal barrier in type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) induced by a high-fat diet. NAFLD was established in MKR transgenic mice(T2DM mice) by a high-fat diet(HFD), and subsequently treated for 8 weeks with Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescription(7.5, 15 g·kg~(-1)) and metformin(0.067 g·kg~(-1)). Triglyceride and liver function were assessed using serum. The hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and Masson staining were used to stain the liver tissue, while HE staining and AB-PAS staining were used to stain the intestine tissue. 16S rRNA sequencing was utilized to track the changes in the intestinal flora of the mice in each group. Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and immunofluorescence were used to determine the protein and mRNA expression levels of ZO-1, Occludin, and Claudin-1. The results demonstrated that Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescription increased the body mass of T2DM mice with NAFLD and decreased the hepatic index. It down-regulated the serum biomarkers of liver function and dyslipidemia such as alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate transaminase(AST), and triglycerides(TG), increased insulin sensitivity, and improved glucose tolerance. According to the results of 16S rRNA sequencing, the Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescription altered the composition and abundance of the intestinal flora, increasing the relative abundances of Muribaculaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Lactobacillus, Akkermansia, and Bacteroidota and decreasing the relative abundances of Lachnospiraceae, Firmicutes, Deslfobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Desulfovibrionaceae. According to the pathological examination of the intestinal mucosa, Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescritpion increased the expression levels of the tight junction proteins ZO-1, Occludin, and Claudin-1, promoted intestinal mucosa repair, protected intestinal villi, and increased the height of intestinal mucosa villi and the number of goblet cells. By enhancing intestinal mucosal barrier repair and controlling intestinal microbiota homeostasis, Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescription reduces intestinal mucosal damage induced by T2DM and NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Occludin/pharmacology , Claudin-1/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa , Liver , Triglycerides/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Homeostasis , Mice, Inbred C57BL
20.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 177-185, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of moxibustion on the stem cell factor (SCF)/tyrosine kinase receptor (c-kit) signaling pathway and immune function in rats with diarrhea irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), and to explore the mechanism of moxibustion for IBS-D.@*METHODS@#Among 52 young rats born from 6 healthy pregnant SPF rats, 12 rats were randomly selected into the normal group, and the remaining 40 rats were treated with the three-factor combination method of maternal separation, acetic acid enema and chronic restraint stress to establish the IBS-D rat model. Thirty-six rats with successful IBS-D model were randomly divided into a model group, a moxibustion group, and a medication group, 12 rats in each group. The rats in the moxibustion group were treated with suspension moxibustion at "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37); the rats in the medication group were treated with intragastric administration of rifaximin suspension (150 mg/kg). All the treatments were given once a day for 7 consecutive days. The body mass, loose stool rate (LSR), the minimum volume threshold when abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scored 3 were measured before acetic acid enema (35 days old), after modeling (45 days old), and after intervention (53 days old). After intervention (53 days old), HE staining was used to observe the morphology of colon tissue, and spleen and thymus coefficients were measured; ELISA method was used to detect serum inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor a [TNF-a], interleukin [IL]-10, IL-8), T-lymphocyte subsets (CD+4, CD+8, CD+45), value of CD+4/CD+8 and immune globulin (IgA, IgG, IgM); real-time PCR method and Western blot method was used to detect the expression of SCF, c-kit mRNA and protein in colon tissue; immunofluorescence staining method were used to detect positive expression of SCF and c-kit.@*RESULTS@#After intervention, compared with the normal group, in the model group, the body mass and the minimum volume threshold when AWR scored 3 were decreased (P<0.01), LSR, spleen and thymus coefficients, serum levels of TNF-α, IL-8, CD+4, CD+45, CD+4/CD+8, IgA, IgG, IgM were increased (P<0.01), serum IL-10 level and protein and mRNA expression of SCF and c-kit in colon tissue were decreased (P<0.01), and the positive expression of SCF and c-kit was decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, in the moxibustion group and the medication group, the body mass and the minimum volume threshold when AWR scored 3 were increased (P<0.01, P<0.05), LSR, spleen and thymus coefficients, serum levels of TNF-α, IL-8, CD+4, CD+8, CD+45, CD+4/CD+8, IgA, IgG, IgM were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05), serum IL-10 level and protein and mRNA expression of SCF and c-kit in colon tissue were increased (P<0.01), and the positive expression of SCF and c-kit was increased (P<0.01). Compared with the medication group, in the moxibustion group, the level of serum CD+4 was decreased (P<0.05), the value of CD+4/CD+8 was increased (P<0.01), and there was no significant difference in other indexes (P>0.05). The expression of SCF and c-kit mRNA was positively correlated with the minimum volume threshold when AWR scored 3 and IL-10 (P<0.01), and negatively correlated with remaining indexes (P<0.01, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion could reduce visceral hypersensitivity, improve symptoms of abdominal pain and diarrhea in IBS-D rats, and its mechanism may be related to up-regulation of the expression of SCF/c-kit signaling pathway and improvement of IBS-D immune function.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , Moxibustion/methods , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-8 , Maternal Deprivation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Diarrhea , Signal Transduction , Homeostasis , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Immunity , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin M
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