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1.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e1018, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341461

ABSTRACT

La catarata comprende la opacidad del cristalino, la cual puede afectar la corteza y el núcleo subcapsular anterior y posterior de manera progresiva, secundario a la acumulación de proteínas dañadas a este nivel, con pérdida del equilibrio entre la producción y la eliminación de las especies reactivas libres de oxígeno. La importancia de retrasar o identificar marcadores específicos, además de promover un nuevo blanco terapéutico, también es motivo de análisis y de estudio en diferentes líneas de investigación. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura del 01 de enero al 20 de julio del año 2020. Se utilizaron metabuscadores en inglés y español de PUBMED, INFOMED, CLINICALKEY, LILACS, EBSCO, SCIELO, PRISMA y UPTODATE, con el objetivo de identificar la nueva evidencia científica relacionada con el estrés oxidativo y su participación en la formación de la catarata. La barrera del cristalino funciona como un medio de intercambio entre diferentes moléculas, lo que impide el paso de antioxidantes al núcleo y provoca su opacificación. Las mitocondrias a nivel de la corteza del cristalino permiten la remoción de oxígeno. Posteriormente la fosforilación oxidativa forma radicales libres de superóxido que, de manera natural, con el paso del tiempo se acumulan a este nivel. Con la edad, la homeostasis adaptativa pierde la capacidad de responder ante los cambios de estrés oxidativo, por lo que el uso de antioxidantes -de manera profiláctica e intencionada- puede cambiar el destino último para esta patología. La falta de equilibrio en los procesos de óxido-reducción es responsable de la formación de la catarata(AU)


Cataract comprises opacification of the crystalline lens, which may progressively affect the cortex and the anterior subcapsular nucleus, secondary to accumulation of damaged proteins on this level, with loss of balance between production and elimination of free reactive oxygen species. The importance of delaying or identifying specific markers, as well as promoting a new therapeutic target, is the object of study and analysis of a variety of research lines. A review was conducted of the literature published from 1 January to 20 July 2020. Use was made of PubMed, Infomed, Clinical Key, Lilacs, EBSCO, SciELO, Prisma and UpToDate metasearch engines in English and Spanish to identify new scientific evidence about oxidative stress and its involvement in cataract formation. The crystalline lens barrier serves as a medium for exchange between various molecules, preventing entrance of antioxidants into the nucleus, which results in opacification. Mitochondria on the crystalline lens cortex allow oxygen removal. Oxidative phosphorylation then forms free superoxide radicals which naturally accumulate on this level with the passing of time. With aging, adaptive homeostasis loses its ability to respond to oxidative stress changes, but the prophylactic, targeted use of antioxidants may change the ultimate fate of this condition. Lack of balance in oxidation-reduction processes is the cause of cataract formation(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxidation-Reduction , Cataract/etiology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Homeostasis , Lens Cortex, Crystalline , Review Literature as Topic
2.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e905, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341457

ABSTRACT

La cirugía de catarata es la intervención oftalmológica que más se realiza a nivel mundial, fundamentalmente en personas de la tercera edad, donde coinciden cambios en la película lagrimal. Muchas veces después de operados, debido a alteraciones en la homeostasia de la superficie ocular, los pacientes mantienen síntomas muy molestos, como lagrimeo y sensación de cuerpo extraño, que les hacen dudar del buen resultado de la cirugía. Se hace una revisión del tema, para entender el porqué de esta sintomatología, sus causas y los exámenes necesarios a realizar previos a la cirugía, con el objetivo de alcanzar una mejor evolución posoperatoria. Se utilizó la plataforma Infomed, específicamente la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud(AU)


Cataract surgery is the most common ophthalmological procedure worldwide. It is particularly frequent in the elderly, due to the changes undergone by the tear film in advanced ages. On many occasions and due to ocular surface homeostatic alterations, patients continue to experience great discomfort after the operation, such as lacrimation or a foreign body sensation, which makes them doubt the satisfactory outcome of the surgery. A review was conducted about the topic to understand the reasons for these symptoms, their causes and the preoperative tests required to achieve a better postoperative evolution. Use was made of the platform Infomed, specifically the Virtual Health Library(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Dry Eye Syndromes/epidemiology , Cataract Extraction/methods , Phacoemulsification/methods , Homeostasis , Review Literature as Topic
3.
Rev. ADM ; 78(1): 48-50, ene.-feb- 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178199

ABSTRACT

La homeostasis oral está regida por varias condiciones en la cavidad bucal, como la saliva, que está compuesta por diversas sustancias benéficas, y por la microbiota, que es un reservorio de microorganismos, y cuando estos se modifican se altera la homeostasis oral y se genera una disbiosis que puede conducir a enfermedades bucales como gingivitis, periodontitis y/o caries; también puede favorecer el desarrollo de enfermedades sistémicas ocasionadas por hongos, bacterias y virus como el SARS-CoV-2 (AU)


Oral homeostasis is governed by various conditions in the oral cavity such as saliva, which is composed of various beneficial substances, and by the microbiota, which is a reservoir of microorganisms, and when these are modified, homeostasis of the oral cavity is altered and dysbiosis is generated that They can lead to oral diseases such as gingivitis, periodontitis and/or caries and can also favor the development of systematic diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses, like SARS-CoV-2 (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeostasis , Mouth Diseases/microbiology , Saliva , Oral Health , Chronic Disease , Dysbiosis , Betacoronavirus
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878922

ABSTRACT

Polygonum multiflorum is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine and has many biological activities such as hair-blacking, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging. However, the liver injury induced by P. multiflorum has aroused wide attention in recent years. 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystibane-2-O-β-D-glucoside(TSG) is a main component of P. multiflorum, but the role of TSG in inducing liver injury is unclear. The aim of present study was to evaluate TSG's potential liver injury and effects on bile acid homeostasis and phospholipids efflux. C57 BL/6 J mice received intraperitoneal administration of 400 mg·kg~(-1) of TSG daily for 15 days, and then biochemical indexes of liver injury and changes of phospholipid content were detected. The changes of bile acid compositions were detected by LC-MS/MS. The results showed TSG 400 mg·kg~(-1) significantly increased the content of serum total bile acid(TBA) and alkaline phosphatase(ALP). Elevated free bile acid levels were observed in TSG-treated groups, including β-muricholic acid(β-MCA), ursodeoxycholic acid(UDCA), hyodeoxycholic acid(HDCA), chenodeoxycholic acid(CDCA), deoxcholic acid(DCA) in serum and β-MCA, CDCA in liver. TSG inhibited the protein expression of farnesoid X receptor(FXR) and down stream bile salt export pump(BSEP), which may result in the accumulation of bile acid. TSG also inhibited the expression of 25-hydroxycholesterol-7 alpha-hydroxylase(CYP7 B1), which may disturb the alternative pathway for bile acid synthesis. In addition, intraperitoneal injection of TSG 400 mg·kg~(-1) significantly decreased the content of phospholipids in bile. The research showed that TSG significantly inhibited the expression of multidrug resistance protein 2(MDR2) and destroyed the regular distribution of MDR2 on the bile duct membrane of liver. In vitro results showed that the IC_(50) of TSG on HepG2 cells was about 1 500 μmol·L~(-1) and TSG at 500 μmol·L~(-1)(for 24 h) could destroy the distribution of MDR2 on the bile duct membrane of liver. In conclusion, TSG induced liver injury by disrupting bile acid homeostasis and phospholipids efflux.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Acids and Salts , Chromatography, Liquid , Glucosides , Homeostasis , Liver , Mice , Phospholipids , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 500-512, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878578

ABSTRACT

Metabolic syndrome is a global chronic epidemic. Its pathogenesis is determined by genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetic modification is reported to regulate gene expression without altering its nucleotide sequences. In recent years, epigenetic modification is sensitively responded to environmental signals, further affecting the gene expression and signaling transduction. Among these regulators, chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF (SWItch/Sucrose non fermentable, SWI/SNF) complex subunit Baf60a plays an important role in maintaining energy homeostasis in mammals. In this paper, we described the pathophysiological roles of Baf60a in maintaining the balance of energy metabolism, including lipid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism, urea metabolism, as well as their rhythmicity. Therefore, in-depth understanding of Baf60a-orchestrated transcriptional network of energy metabolism will provide potential therapeutic targets and reliable theoretical supports for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Energy Metabolism/genetics , Homeostasis , Lipid Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors/metabolism
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 418-428, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878572

ABSTRACT

As an extremely important organelle in eukaryotic cells, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a key role in the synthesis and processing of biomacromolecules, material transport, ion homeostasis maintenance, signal transduction, exchange of materials and signals between organelles. Many important human diseases, such as cancers, autoimmune diseases, pathogenic infections, neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes, are closely related to ER dysfunction. With the development of nanotechnology, the exploration and application of ER-targeted nanodrugs gradually become a research hotspot in the field of nanomedicine, bioengineering, material chemistry and other fields. In this paper, the relationship between ER dysfunction and disease occurrence, the principle of designing ER-targeted nanodrugs and their biomedical application are reviewed. ER-targeted nanodrugs are designed based on nanodrug carriers or self-assembly of bioactive molecules. These nanodrugs could target the ER in an active or passive manner and function by disrupting or maintaining the ER functions. The ER-targeting nanodrugs have a wide application prospect in cancer therapy, immune regulation, nervous system repairment, and so on.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Homeostasis , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Signal Transduction
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878415

ABSTRACT

Resolution of inflammation plays an important part in maintaining homeostasis. It is an actively programmed progress involving multiple immune cells and mediators. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) derived from Ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids include resolvins, protectins and maresins, and they exert abilities in the resolution of inflammation, host defense, organ protection, and tissue generation. Periodontitis is an inflammatory and destructive disease in the periodontal tissue initiated by dental plaque. Inadequate proinflammatory or proresolving responses, or the imbalance between the two, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Studies have shown that activating specialized receptors SPMs displayed multiple biological effects towards periodontitis, including resolution of inflammation, alveolar bone protection, periodontal tissue regeneration, and pathogen resistance. Thus, the relationship between SPM and periodontitis and the potentials and challenges in SPM application were reviewed.


Subject(s)
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Homeostasis , Humans , Inflammation , Inflammation Mediators , Periodontitis
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878338

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Exposure to microgravity results in postflight cardiovascular deconditioning in astronauts. Vascular oxidative stress injury and mitochondrial dysfunction have been reported during this process. To elucidate the mechanism for this condition, we investigated whether mitochondrial oxidative stress regulates calcium homeostasis and vasoconstriction in hindlimb unweighted (HU) rat cerebral arteries.@*Methods@#Three-week HU was used to simulate microgravity in rats. The contractile responses to vasoconstrictors, mitochondrial fission/fusion, Ca @*Results@#An increase of cytoplasmic Ca @*Conclusion@#The present results suggest that mitochondrial oxidative stress enhances cerebral vasoconstriction by regulating calcium homeostasis during simulated microgravity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Cerebral Arteries , Homeostasis , Male , Mitochondria/physiology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/physiology , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Weightlessness Simulation
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 82-88, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878238

ABSTRACT

The research on the molecular mechanism of vascular injury has been a hot topic in recent years since the mechanism can be targeted for the treatment of vascular injury diseases. A large number of studies have found that vascular injury, repair and pathological remodeling are closely related to phenotype switching, abnormal proliferation and migration, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Smooth muscle 22α (SM22α) is a shape change and transformation sensitive F-actin-binding protein. SM22α decorates the contractile filament bundles within cultured VSMCs exhibiting differentiated phenotypes. In addition, SM22α is involved in regulation of cell signaling pathways related to vascular homeostasis and vascular remodeling. Here, we reviewed the recent research progress of SM22α in vascular homeostasis and remodeling.


Subject(s)
Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Homeostasis , Humans , Muscle Proteins , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Phenotype , Vascular Remodeling
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1276-1285, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878166

ABSTRACT

Excessive consumption of fructose, the sweetest of all naturally occurring carbohydrates, has been linked to worldwide epidemics of metabolic diseases in humans, and it is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We provide an overview about the features of fructose metabolism, as well as potential mechanisms by which excessive fructose intake is associated with the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases both in humans and rodents. To accomplish this aim, we focus on illuminating the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fructose metabolism as well as its signaling effects on metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis in health and disease, highlighting the role of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein in regulating fructose metabolism.


Subject(s)
Fructose/adverse effects , Homeostasis , Humans , Metabolic Diseases/etiology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Little is known about the effects of environmental cobalt exposure on insulin resistance (IR) in the general adult population. We investigated the association between cobalt concentration and IR.@*METHODS@#A total of 1281 subjects aged more than 20 years with complete blood cobalt data were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2015-2016 cycle. Blood cobalt levels were analyzed for their association with IR among all populations and subgroups by sex. Regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of blood cobalt concentrations in association with fasting glucose, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were estimated using multivariate linear regression after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, education level, and household income. A multivariate generalized linear regression analysis was further carried out to explore the association between cobalt exposure and IR.@*RESULTS@#A negative association between blood cobalt concentration (coefficient = - 0.125, 95% CI - 0.234, - 0.015; P = 0.026) and HOMA-IR in female adults in the age- and sex-adjusted model was observed. However, no associations with HOMA-IR, fasting glucose, or insulin were found in the overall population. In the generalized linear models, participants with the lowest cobalt levels had a 2.74% (95% CI 0.04%, 5.50%) increase in HOMA-IR (P for trend = 0.031) compared with subjects with the highest cobalt levels. Restricted cubic spline regression suggested that a non-linear relationship may exist between blood cobalt and HOMA-IR.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These results provide epidemiological evidence that low levels of blood cobalt are negatively associated with HOMA-IR in female adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cobalt/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Pollutants/blood , Female , Homeostasis , Humans , Insulin/blood , Insulin Resistance , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Sex Factors , United States , Young Adult
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879958

ABSTRACT

The primary cilium, a sensory organelle that protrudes from the surface of most eukaryotic cells, receives and transduces various critical signals that are essential for normal development and homeostasis. Structural or functional disruption of primary cilia causes a number of human diseases, including cancer. Primary cilia has cross talks with cell cycle and it may act as a cell cycle checkpoint to suppress cancer development. Moreover, primary cilia has cross-regulation with autophagy, which may affect tumor progression. We then discuss the association of the primary cilia with several oncogenic signaling pathways, including Shh, Wnt, Notch and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR). Since these signaling pathways are often over-activated in many types of human cancers, primary cilia are likely to play a role in the tumorigenesis by modulating these pathways. Finally, we summarize current progress on the role of cilia during tumorigenesis and the challenges that the cilia-cancer field faces.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Carcinogenesis , Cilia , Homeostasis , Humans , Signal Transduction
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879954

ABSTRACT

Cholesterol is an important lipid in the body of mammals and an essential component of membrane structures. Cholesterol homeostasis is critical for the maintenance of cellular and body activities, and is mainly regulated by the balance of cholesterol biosynthesis and the exogenous cholesterol uptake. Aberrantly regulated cholesterol metabolism promotes tumor cell proliferation,survival,invasion and metastasis,and their adaptability into the tumor microenvironment. Therefore,targeting cholesterol biosynthesis and reduction of plasma cholesterol levels and cholesterol esterification will provide new strategies for cancer treatment. This review summarizes the current understanding in cholesterol homeostasis regulation and its function in the occurence and development of cancer,as well as current metabolism-targeted cancer treatments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Proliferation , Cholesterol , Homeostasis , Lipid Metabolism , Neoplasms , Tumor Microenvironment
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e10138, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153533

ABSTRACT

Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) and sarcolemmal Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) structures are involved in heart cell Ca2+ homeostasis. Previous studies have shown discrepancies in their function and expression in heart failure. The goal of this study was to evaluate heart function and hypertrophied muscle Ca2+-handling protein behavior under pressure overload. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Aortic stenosis (AoS), induced by a clip placed at the beginning of the aorta, and Control (Sham). After 18 weeks, heart function and structure were evaluated by echocardiogram. Myocardial function was analyzed by isolated papillary muscle (IPM) at basal condition and Ca2+ protein functions were evaluated after post-pause contraction and blockage with cyclopiazonic acid in IPM. Ca2+-handling protein expression was studied by western blot (WB). Echocardiogram showed that AoS caused concentric hypertrophy with enhanced ejection fraction and diastolic dysfunction inferred by dilated left atrium and increased relative wall thickness. IPM study showed developed tension was the same in both groups. AoS showed increased stiffness revealed by enhanced resting tension, and changes in Ca2+ homeostasis shown by calcium elevation and SERCA2a blockage maneuvers. WB revealed decreased NCX1, SERCA2a, and phosphorylated phospholambam (PLB) on serine-16 in AoS. AoS had left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction compared to Sham; this could be related to our findings regarding calcium homeostasis behavior: deficit in NCX1, SERCA2a, and phosphorylated PLB on serine-16.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Calcium/metabolism , Ventricular Remodeling , Rats, Wistar , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/metabolism , Homeostasis
15.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(2): 65-73, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283551

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las dislipidemias favorecen la formación precoz de placas ateroscleróticas, aumentando el riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECVs). La Actividad Física (AF) es un factor protector de ECVs, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la asociación entre AF medida objetivamente y dislipidemias en población pediátrica. METODOLOGÍA: La AF fue evaluada en 159 niños (9-13 años) de la Región de La Araucanía a través de acelerometría (ActiGraph GT3X+). Por este medio se estimó el porcentaje de AF moderada a vigorosa (AFMV) y el de conducta sedentaria (CS). Sujetos con ≥60 min de AFMV se consideraron físicamente activos según recomendación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Individuos con %CS>75° percentil fueron considerados sedentarios. El perfil lipídico fue determinado usando métodos convencionales. Fueron calculados índices de aterogenicidad TG/cHDL e índice de aterogenicidad del plasma (IAP). RESULTADOS: 37,1% presentó dislipidemia, 8% hipercolesterolemia, 19,5% hipertrigliceridemia, 6,3% cLDL elevado y 25,2% cHDL disminuido. Solo un 9,4% fueron considerados físicamente activos de acuerdo a la recomendación de la OMS. En los sujetos físicamente activos no hubo caso de dislipidemias (p= 0,032) y tampoco bajos niveles de cHDL (p= 0,013). El %AFMV estaba reducido en sujetos con cHDL bajo y se correlacionó positivamente con HDL-c (r= 0,157, p=0,048). Además, el %AFMV se correlacionó con menores valores de TG/cHDL (r= -0,193, p=0,015) e IAP (r= -0,214, p=0,006). Si bien el comportamiento sedentario no estuvo asociado con riesgo de dislipidemias, el %CS se correlacionó positivamente con niveles de glucosa (r= 0,159, p=0,044) y HOMA-IR (r= 0,178, p=0,037) y negativamente con Quicki (r= -0,160, p=0,044). CONCLUSIONES: Los hallazgos sugieren que la AF se correlaciona a menor frecuencia de dislipidemias y la práctica de AFMV aumentaría los valores de HDL-c y reduciría los índices aterogénicos, por lo que promoverla puede significar disminuir el riesgo de ECVs en nuestra población. Además, la CS se relaciona con un aumento en valores de glucosa e índices de resistencia insulínica en escolares de la Región de La Araucanía.


Dyslipidemias cause early formation of atherosclerotic plaque, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Physical Activity (PA) is a protective factor against CVDs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between objectively measured PA with dyslipidemias in a pediatric population. METHOD: The PA was evaluated in 159 children (9-13 years old) from Región de La Araucanía using accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X +). The percentage of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were estimated. Subjects with ≥60 min of MVPA were considered physically active according to the recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO). Individuals with %SB >75th percentile were sedentary. The lipid profile was determined using conventional methods. TG/HDL-C ratio and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) were calculated. RESULTS: 37.1% presented dyslipidemia, 8% hypercholesterolemia, 19.5% hypertriglyceridemia, 6.3% elevated LDL-C and 25.2% decreased HDL-C. Only 9.4% were physically active according to the WHO recommendation. In physically active subjects where no cases of dyslipidemias (p =0.032) and no low HDL-C (p = 0.013). The %MVPA was reduced in subjects with low HDL-C and positively correlated with HDL-c (r = 0.157, p = 0.048). In addition, %MVPA was correlated with lower TG / HDL-C values (r = -0.193, p = 0.015) and AIP (r = -0.214, p = 0.006). SB was not associated with risk of dyslipidemia, % SB was positively correlated with glucose levels (r = 0.159, p = 0.044) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.178, p = 0.037) and negatively with Quicki (r = -0.160, p = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that PA is it correlates to a lower frequency of dyslipidemia and the practice of MVPA would increase HDL-c values and reduce atherogenic index, promoting it may been reducing the risk of CVDs in our population. In addition, the SB is related to an increase in glucose values and insulin resistance index in schoolchildren in Región de La Araucanía.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise , Dyslipidemias/blood , Students , Triglycerides/blood , Body Weight , Insulin Resistance , Chile , Anthropometry , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Primary and Secondary , Atherosclerosis/blood , Sedentary Behavior , Accelerometry , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Homeostasis , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
16.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(1): 29-37, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146470

ABSTRACT

El diagnóstico clínico de resistencia insulínica (RI) es difícil, ya que el Clamp no es aplicable a la clínica. El así llamado "síndrome metabólico", un predictor clínico de la RI, no identifica alrededor de la mitad de los sujetos afectados. Previamente, definimos adecuadamente (Análisis ROC) los niveles de corte diagnóstico de los siguientes predictores bioquímicos: HOMA1, HOMA2, QUICKI e ISI-Composite, a través de analizar datos de 90 sujetos (53 no resistentes y 37 resistentes) que tenían una medición directa de su resistencia insulínica (Test de supresión pancreática, TSP, Test de Reaven) y también, una curva de tolerancia a la glucosa oral (CTG). Los puntos de corte obtenidos exhibieron un mucho mejor desempeño diagnóstico comparados con los puntos de corte convencionales. También encontramos un predictor nuevo, simple, económico y eficiente, el I0*G60. Definimos la "normalidad metabólica" de la CTG usando las medianas de los valores de varios parámetros en 312 sujetos con un G120 dentro de los 2 primeros terciles del grupo de normo-tolerantes a la glucosa (NGT, n=468; G120: 51-110 mg/dL, los con mejor función beta insular). A las medianas de la función beta insular y de la sensibilidad insulínica se les asignó un valor de un 100%. Se calculó el % relativo de función beta insular (%RFBI) y el % relativo de sensibilidad insulínica (%RSI) del resto de la cohorte (n=573) contra estos valores de referencia. El "OGTT Squeezer" se escribió en Excel. Las glicemias y las insulinemias de la CTG fueron las entradas del programa. Las salidas fueron: I0*G60, ISI-OL, QUICKI, and HOMA1 (predictores) y el índice insulinogénico, el índice de disposición, %RFBI y %RSI (parámetros). El programa también caracterizó la tolerancia glucídica de acuerdo a los criterios de la ADA 2003. El formato final del programa, HTML 5, facilita su uso. Desarrollamos tres versiones del programa: completa, abreviada y mínima.


Clinically, diagnosing insulin resistance (IR) is difficult since the Clamp is not applicable to clinical work. The so-called "Metabolic Syndrome", a clinical surrogate of IR, fails to identify around 50% of affected subjects. Previously, we properly defined (ROC Analysis) the diagnostic cut-offs of the following biochemical predictors: HOMA1, HOMA2, QUICKI, and ISI-Composite by analyzing data from 90 subjects (53 non-insulin-resistant and 37 insulin-resistant subjects) who had a direct measurement of insulin resistance (Pancreatic Suppression Test, PST, Reaven's Test), and also, an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). The resulting cut-offs exhibited much better performances compared with the conventional cut-offs. We also found a new, simple, inexpensive and efficient predictor, the I0*G60. We chose to define the "metabolic normalcy" of the OGTT by using the median values of several parameters in 312 NGT subjects with a G120 in the first 2 tertiles of the NGT group (n=468; G120: 51-110 mg/dL, those with the best beta-cell function). The median values of both Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity of these subjects were assigned a 100% value. Both % Relative Beta-Cell Function (%RBCF) and % Relative Insulin Sensitivity (%RIS) of everyone else in the cohort (n=573) was calculated against these reference values. The "OGTT Squeezer" was written in Excel. The OGTT's glucose and insulin values served as the inputs of the program. The outputs were: I0*G60, ISI-OL, QUICKI, and HOMA1 (predictors), and Insulinogenic Index, Disposition Index, %RBCF, and %RIS (parameters). Moreover, the program characterized the OGTT according to the ADA 2003 criteria. The HTML 5 format of the program facilitates its use. We developed 3 versions of the program: complete, abbreviated, and minimal versions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin Resistance , Glucose Tolerance Test/methods , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Homeostasis
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(9): 1235-1240, Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136376

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Sarcopenia is characterized by the involuntary loss of lean body mass associated with a progressive reduction of muscle strength. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in kidney transplant recipients and its association with the determining factors that control muscle homeostasis. METHODS: We evaluated renal transplant recipients undergoing follow-up at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Maranhão from June 2017 to July 2018 and who met the inclusion criteria. Sarcopenia was defined according to the European criteria. The skeletal muscle mass index was measured by dual-energy radiological absorptiometry; the values <7,26 kg/m2 for men and <5,5 kg/m2 for women were adopted for muscle depletion. For handgrip strength, values of <30 kg for men and <20 kg for women were considered as reduced muscle strength. In both sexes, the cutoff point for walking speed was <0,8 m/s. RESULTS: We evaluated 83 renal transplant recipients with a mean age of 48.8 ± 12,1 years and predominantly males (57,8%). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 19,3%. Among individuals without sarcopenia, 17,9% had a decrease in handgrip strength and 40,3% has altered gait speed. DISCUSSION: Individuals submitted to renal transplant may develop sarcopenia while still young and already present altered muscle function and strength even before the depletion of lean body mass. CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis may allow the prevention of sarcopenia and provide a better quality of life for patients.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: A sarcopenia é caracterizada pela perda involuntária da massa magra associada à redução da força e função muscular, de modo progressivo. OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de sarcopenia em transplantados renais e sua associação com os fatores determinantes que controlam a homeostase do músculo. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados indivíduos transplantados renais em acompanhamento no Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal do Maranhão no período de junho de 2017 a julho de 2018 e que preencheram os critérios. A sarcopenia foi definida de acordo com o critério europeu. O índice de massa muscular esquelética foi medido por meio da densitometria computadorizada por absorciometria radiológica de dupla energia; valores <7,26 kg/m2 para homens e <5,5 kg/m2 para mulheres foram adotados para depleção muscular. Para força de preensão manual, valores de <30 kg para homens e <20 kg para mulheres foram considerados como redução da força muscular. Em ambos os sexos, o ponto de corte para velocidade de marcha reduzida foi <0,8 m/s. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 83 transplantados renais, com média de idade de 48,8±12,1 anos e predominância de indivíduos do sexo masculino (57,8%). A prevalência de sarcopenia foi de 19,3%. Entre os indivíduos sem sarcopenia, 17,9% já tinham diminuição da força de preensão manual e 40,3%, alteração do teste de marcha. DISCUSSÃO: Indivíduos submetidos ao transplante renal podem desenvolver sarcopenia jovens e apresentar alteração da função e da força muscular mesmo antes da depleção da massa magra. CONCLUSÃO: O diagnóstico precoce pode permitir a prevenção da sarcopenia e propiciar melhor qualidade de vida aos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Kidney Transplantation , Sarcopenia , Quality of Life , Prevalence , Hand Strength , Homeostasis , Middle Aged
18.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(2): e183, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138902

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La vitamina D, considerada más que una vitamina, una prohormona, se le atribuye múltiples e importantes funciones que van más allá de la homeostasis cálcica. El creciente interés por la vitamina D está relacionado con el descubrimiento de sus receptores y de la expresión de la enzima 1α-hidroxilasa en diferentes tejidos del organismo. Esto ha generado la descripción de un gran número de efectos de la vitamina D en diferentes tejidos y en diversos procesos fisiológicos como: actividad antitumoral, reparación del ácido desoxirribonucleico (DNA), control de la apoptosis, estrés oxidativo, inmunomodulación, adhesión celular y metabolismo y otras funciones aún por esclarecer, y aunque los estudios no son concluyentes, los mismos proponen una relación entre niveles bajos de la vitamina y algunas enfermedades crónicas, autoinmunes y oncológicas. Objetivo: El propósito del presente artículo es describir las funciones extraesqueléticas de la vitamina D y su relación con algunas enfermedades a partir de información actualizada. Método: Se utilizó como buscador de información científica el Google Académico. Se revisaron 101 artículos provenientes de diferentes bases de datos: PubMed, SciELO y páginas web en general; de los cuales fueron referenciados 74 documentos. Conclusiones: Existe evidencia del efecto extraóseo de la hormona vitamina D, así como de la influencia biológica desfavorable de sus bajos niveles, sin embargo, no existe consenso relativo al efecto beneficioso de la suplementación con esta hormona(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Vitamin D, considered, more than a vitamin, a prohormone, is attributed multiple and important functions beyond calcium homeostasis. The growing interest in vitamin D is related to the discovery of its receptors and the expression of the 1α-hydroxylase enzyme in different body tissues. This has generated the description of a large number of effects of vitamin D in different tissues and it involvement in various physiological processes such as antitumor activity, DNA repair, control of apoptosis, oxidative stress, immunomodulation, cell adhesion, and metabolism, as well as other functions still to be clarified; and, although studies are not conclusive, they suggest a relationship between low levels in the vitamin and some chronic, autoimmune and oncological diseases. Objective: The purpose of this article was to describe, based on updated information, the extraskeletal functions of vitamin D and its relationship with some diseases. Methods: Google Scholar was the search engine used to retrieve scientific information. We reviewed 101 articles from different databases, such as PubMed, SciElo, and web pages in general. Out of this number, 74 were chosen as referents. Conclusions: There is evidence about the extra-bone effect of the hormone known as vitamin D, as well as about the unfavorable biological influence of its low levels; however, there is no consensus regarding the beneficial effect of supplementation with this hormone(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Homeostasis/drug effects , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic/trends
19.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(4): 437-453, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149033

ABSTRACT

Resumen El sistema del complemento juega un papel central en la inmunidad innata, es una línea de defensa contra patógenos y participa en la homeostasis. La activación anormal del complemento contribuye al desarrollo de patologías de variable severidad, tanto inmunológicas y hematológicas como renales. Entre ellas, las microangiopatías trombóticas (MAT) representan un grupo de enfermedades raras con manifestaciones clínicas comunes caracterizadas por anemia hemolítica no inmune, trombocitopenia y daño de órgano(s) blanco. Si bien la clasificación de las MAT sigue siendo desafiante y no ha sido internacionalmente estandarizada, la descripción de entidades asociadas a anomalías del complemento fue comprobada con la eficiencia de la terapia anticomplemento en los pacientes. Las herramientas de diagnóstico desarrolladas en las últimas décadas son esenciales actualmente para diferenciar las MAT más características del grupo; esto es, la púrpura trombótica trombocitopénica (PTT) y el síndrome urémico hemolítico (SUH). En el presente trabajo se presenta una revisión del funcionamiento del sistema del complemento en condiciones fisiológicas, para poder explicar luego cuáles son las alteraciones del sistema implicadas en el desarrollo de las MAT y describir las herramientas disponibles para detectarlas en el laboratorio.


Abstract The complement system plays a crucial role in the innate immune response, being the first-line defense against pathogens and regulating homeostasis. Uncontrolled complement activation can cause immunologic, hematologic as well as renal syndromes of variable severity. Among them, thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) represent a group of rare diseases characterised by similar clinical manifestations such as microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), peripheral thrombocytopenia and organ injury. Although TMA classification is still challenging and no international consensus has been reached, complement-associated disorders have been described thanks to the efficiency of anti-complement therapy in patients. Diagnostic tools developed in the last decades are essential to differentiate the two most well characterized TMA: thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). This review will describe how the complement system works in physiological conditions in order to explain how complement abnormalities are involved in TMA, and finally how to detect those anomalies using laboratory tests.


Resumo O sistema do complemento desempenha um papel central na imunidade inata, sendo uma linha de defesa contra patógenos e participando da homeostase. A ativação anormal do complemento contribui para o desenvolvimento de patologias de gravidade variável, como imunológicas, hematológicas e renais. Entre elas, as microangiopatias trombóticas (MAT) representam um grupo de doenças raras com manifestações clínicas comuns caracterizadas por anemia hemolítica não imune, trombocitopenia e lesão de órgão(s) alvo. Embora a classificação das MAT continue sendo desafiadora e não tenha sido padronizada internacionalmente, a descrição de entidades associadas a anomalias do complemento foi comprovada com a eficiência da terapia anticomplemento nos pacientes. As ferramentas de diagnóstico desenvolvidas nas últimas décadas são atualmente essenciais para diferenciar as MAT mais características do grupo, que são a púrpura trombocitopênica trombótica (PTT) e a síndrome hemolítica urêmica atípica (SHU). Neste trabalho, é apresentada uma revisão do funcionamento do sistema de complemento em condições fisiológicas, a fim de explicar posteriormente quais são as alterações do sistema compreendidas no desenvolvimento das MAT, e descrever as ferramentas disponíveis para detectá-las em laboratório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers/analysis , Complement Activation/physiology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/diagnosis , Homeostasis , Anemia, Hemolytic/diagnosis
20.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(2): 135-142, Mar.-Apr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132288

ABSTRACT

Abstract Inflammation of periodontal tissues is the consequence of interaction between periodontal pathogens and immune system. This is associated with increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, which may exert destructive effect to the periodontal tissues when released over long period. The aim of this study was to chronologically track the homeostasis of oral keratinocytes following removal of periodontal pathogens. This was done by investigating expression of selected inflammatory markers and integrity of epithelial monolayers in vitro. Rat oral keratinocytes were stimulated with heat-killed Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis over 7-days then bacteria were washed away and epithelial cells re-cultured for 3-days. Expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 was measured by ELISA while transcription of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase -8 (MMP-8) was measured by polymerase chain reaction before and after removal of bacteria. Integrity of epithelial sheet was investigated by using transepithelial electrical resistance. Data showed general downregulation of IL-1b, IL-6, and IL-8 associated with restoring transcription of TIMP-1 and MMP-8 to normal level following removal of bacteria from epithelial cultures. However, expression of IL-8 and MMP-8 remained significantly higher than unstimulated epithelial cells despite withdrawal of F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis respectively from oral keratinocytes cultures. In addition, integrity of epithelial barrier function remained compromised even after removal of P. gingivalis. Results suggest that even after three days following removal of periodontal pathogens, oral keratinocytes sustained persistent upregulation of certain inflammatory markers that could compromise integrity of epithelial barrier function.


Resumo A inflamação dos tecidos periodontais é a consequência da interação entre patógenos periodontais e o sistema imunológico. Isso está associado ao aumento da expressão de citocinas inflamatórias, que podem exercer efeito destrutivo nos tecidos periodontais quando liberadas por um longo período. O objetivo deste estudo foi rastrear cronologicamente a homeostase dos queratinócitos orais após a remoção dos patógenos periodontais. Isto foi feito através da investigação da expressão de marcadores inflamatórios selecionados e da integridade de monocamadas epiteliais in vitro. Os queratinócitos orais de rato foram estimulados com Fusobacterium nucleatum e Porphyromonas gingivalis destruídas pelo calor por 7 dias, depois as bactérias foram lavadas e as células epiteliais foram cultivadas novamente por 3 dias. A expressão de IL-1b, IL-6 e IL-8 foi medida por ELISA, enquanto a transcrição do inibidor tecidual de metaloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) e matriz metalopeptidase-8 (MMP-8) foi medida por reação em cadeia da polimerase antes e após a remoção de bactérias. A integridade da folha epitelial foi investigada usando resistência elétrica transepitelial. Os dados mostraram uma regulação negativa geral de IL-1b, IL-6 e IL-8 associada à restauração da transcrição de TIMP-1 e MMP-8 para o nível normal após a remoção de bactérias de culturas epiteliais. No entanto, a expressão de IL-8 e MMP-8 permaneceu significativamente maior que as células epiteliais não estimuladas, apesar da retirada de F. nucleatum e P. gingivalis, respectivamente, das culturas de queratinócitos orais. Além disso, a integridade da função da barreira epitelial permaneceu comprometida mesmo após a remoção de P. gingivalis. Os resultados sugerem que, mesmo após três dias após a remoção dos patógenos periodontais, os queratinócitos orais sustentaram uma regulação positiva persistente de certos marcadores inflamatórios que poderiam comprometer a integridade da função da barreira epitelial.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 , Epithelial Cells , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Homeostasis
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