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Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 693-699, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985976


Objective: To establish and validate a nomogram-based predictive model for idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with the collected clinical and biochemical data of patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) including 249 patients with unilateral primary aldosteronism (UPA) and 107 patients with IHA, who were treated at the Department of Endocrinology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from November 2013 to November 2022. Plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured by chemiluminescence. Stepwise regression analysis was applied to select the key predictors of IHA, and a nomogram-based scoring model was developed. The model was validated in another external independent cohort of patients with PA including 62 patients with UPA and 43 patients with IHA, who were diagnosed at the Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. An independent-sample t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and χ2 test were used for statistical analysis. Results: In the training cohort, in comparison with the UPA group, the IHA group showed a higher serum potassium level [M(Q1, Q3), 3.4 (3.1, 3.8) mmol/L vs. 2.7 (2.1, 3.1) mmol/L] and higher PRC [4.0 (2.1, 8.2) mU/L vs. 1.5 (0.6, 3.4) mU/L] and a lower PAC post-saline infusion test (SIT) [305 (222, 416) pmol/L vs. 720 (443, 1 136) pmol/L] and a lower rate of unilateral adrenal nodules [33.6% (36/107) vs. 81.1% (202/249)]; the intergroup differences in these measurements were statistically significant (all P<0.001). Serum potassium level, PRC, PAC post-SIT, and the rate of unilateral adrenal nodules showed similar performance in the IHA group in the validation cohort. After stepwise regression analysis for all significant variables in the training cohort, a scoring model based on a nomogram was constructed, and the predictive parameters included the rate of unilateral adrenal nodules, serum potassium concentration, PAC post-SIT, and PRC in the standing position. When the total score was ≥14, the model showed a sensitivity of 0.65 and specificity of 0.90 in the training cohort and a sensitivity of 0.56 and specificity of 1.00 in the validation cohort. Conclusion: The nomogram was used to successfully develop a model for prediction of IHA that could facilitate selection of patients with IHA who required medication directly.

Humans , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Nomograms , Hypertension , Cross-Sectional Studies , Aldosterone , Saline Solution , Renin , Potassium
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(1): 12-18, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359333


El hiperaldosteronismo primario (HAP) es la causa más común de hipertensión arterial secundaria. A pesar de la prevalencia del HAP (6-10%) y sus consecuencias, los mecanismos que median los efectos deletéreos renales y extrarenales originados por la aldosterona más allá de la hipertensión arterial (ej. inflamación renal, alteraciones cardiacas y disfunción vascular), siguen siendo poco conocidos. Estudios previos sugieren que el exceso de aldosterona aumentaría proteínas sensibles a la activación del receptor de mineralocorticoides (MR), como las lipocalinas LCN2 (NGAL) y ORM1. OBJETIVO: Determinar la concentración de las lipocalinas ORM1, NGAL y NGAL-MMP9 en sujetos HAP. SUJETOS Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohorte transversal en sujetos adultos (similares en sexo, edad e IMC) separados en controles normotensos (CTL), hipertensos esenciales (HE) y con screening positivo de HAP (aldosterona ≥9 ng/dL y ARP < 1 ng/mL*h acorde a las guías internacionales de HAP). Se determinó la presión arterial sistólica (PAS) y diastólica (PAD), aldosterona plasmática, actividad renina plasmática (ARP) y la relación aldosterona / actividad de renina plasmática (ARR). Se determinó la concentración de NGAL, NGAL-MMP9 y ORM1 en suero por ELISA. RESULTADOS: Detectamos mayores niveles de ORM1 en sujetos HAP. No se detectaron diferencias en NGAL ni NGAL-MMP9 entre los grupos. Detectamos una asociación positiva de ORM1 con ARP (rho= -0,407, p=0,012) y con ARR (rho= 0,380 p= 0,021). CONCLUSIÓN: La mayor concentración de ORM1 en sujetos HAP y las asociaciones de ORM1 con aldosterona, ARP y ARR, proponen a esta proteína como un potencial biomarcador de HAP y de utilidad en el desarrollo de algoritmos diagnósticos de HAP.

Primary hyperaldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension. Despite the prevalence of PA (6-10%) and its consequences, the mechanisms that mediate the deleterious renal and extrarenal effects caused by aldosterone beyond arterial hypertension (eg renal inflammation, cardiac alterations and vascular dysfunction), remain barely known. Previous studies suggest that excess aldosterone would increase proteins sensitive to activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), such as lipocalins LCN2 (NGAL) and ORM1. AIM: To determine the concentration of the lipocalins ORM1, NGAL and NGAL-MMP9 in PA subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study in adult subjects (similar in sex, age and BMI) grouped as normotensive controls (CTL), essential hypertensive (HE) and subjects with positive PA screening (aldosterone ≥ 9 ng/dL and PRA <1 ng/mL*h, according to international PA guidelines). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, plasma aldosterone, plasma renin activity (PRA), and plasma aldosterone renin ratio (ARR) were determined. The concentration of NGAL, NGAL-MMP9 and ORM1 in serum was determined by ELISA. RESULTS: We detected higher levels Recibido: 03-09-2021 of ORM1 in PA subjects. No differences in NGAL or NGAL-MMP9 were detected between the groups. We detected a positive association of ORM1 with ARP (rho = -0.407, p < 0.05) and with ARR (rho = 0.380 p <0.05). CONCLUSION: The high levels of ORM1 in PA subjects and the associations of ORM1 with aldosterone, ARP and ARR, suggest ORM1 is a potential biomarker of PA, and useful in the development of a diagnostic algorithm for PA.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Orosomucoid/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Lipocalins/analysis , Lipocalins/blood , Hyperaldosteronism/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Renin/analysis , Aldosterone/blood , Arterial Pressure , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 639-647, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927562


BACKGROUND@#Since the diagnostic value of aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) calculated by plasma renin concentration (PRC) or plasma renin activity (PRA) is still inconclusive, we conducted a meta-analysis by systematically reviewing relevant literature to explore the difference in the diagnostic efficacy of ARR calculated by PRC or PRA, so as to provide guidance for clinical diagnosis.@*METHODS@#We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library from the establishment of the database to March 2021. We included studies that report the true positive, false positive, true negative, and false negative values for the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism, and we excluded duplicate publications, research without full text, incomplete information, or inability to conduct data extraction, animal experiments, reviews, and systematic reviews. STATA 15.1 was used to analyze the data.@*RESULTS@#The pooled results showed that ARR (plasma aldosterone concentration [PAC]/PRC) had a sensitivity of 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78-0.86), a specificity of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.92-0.95), a positive-likelihood ratio (LR) of 12.77 (95% CI: 7.04-23.73), a negative LR of 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07-0.17), and symmetric area under the curve (SAUC) of 0.982, respectively. Furthermore, the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of ARR (PAC/PRC) was 180.21. Additionally, the pooled results showed that ARR (PAC/PRA) had a sensitivity of 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.95), a specificity of 0.91 (95% CI: 0.90-0.93), a positive LR of 7.30 (95% CI: 2.99-17.99), a negative LR of 0.10 (95% CI: 0.04-0.26), and SAUC of 0.976, respectively. The DOR of ARR (PAC/PRA) was 155.52. Additionally, we conducted a subgroup analysis for the different thresholds (<35 or ≥35) of PAC/PRC. The results showed that the DOR of the cut-off ≥35 groups was higher than the cut-off <35 groups (DOR = 340.15, 95% CI: 38.32-3019.66; DOR = 116.40, 95% CI = 23.28-581.92).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The research results suggest that the determination of ARR (PAC/PRC) and ARR (PAC/PRA) was all effective screening tools for PA. The diagnostic accuracy and diagnostic value of ARR (PAC/PRC) are higher than ARR (PAC/PRA). In addition, within a certain range, the higher the threshold, the better the diagnostic value.

Humans , Aldosterone , Area Under Curve , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Hypertension , Renin
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 27(2): 65-70, abr./jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1491667


O hiperaldosteronismo se define pela hipersecreção de aldosterona pelas suprarrenais, resultando em excesso de sódio e redução de potássio sanguíneo. Esta hipersecreção deve-se à síntese autônoma de aldosterona por células adrenais hiperplásicas ou neoplásicas, que agem independentemente da estimulação pelo sistema renina-angiotensina. A doença acomete felinos de adultos maduros a idosos. O excesso de aldosterona culmina em hipertensão sistêmica e/ou hipocalemia, que levam à fraqueza muscular e alterações oculares. O diagnóstico é baseado em exames laboratoriais e de imagem, e o tratamento pode ser clínico ou cirúrgico. O prognóstico é considerado favorável quando as medicações são capazes de melhorar as manifestações clínicas ou quando é possível realizar o procedimento cirúrgico. O presente trabalho visa relatar o caso de um felino macho de 13 anos, castrado, sem raça definida, com hipocalemia persistente secundária a um presuntivo tumor adrenal.

Hyperaldosteronism is defined by the hypersecretion of aldosterone by the adrenal glands resulting in excess sodium and reduced blood potassium. This hypersecretion is due to the autonomous synthesis of aldosterone by hyperplastic or neoplastic adrenal cells, which act independently of stimulation by the renin-angiotensin system. The disease affects felines in the age group from mature adults to the elderly. The excess of aldosterone culminates in systemic hypertension and/or hypokalemia, which leads to muscle weakness and ocular changes. The diagnosis is based on laboratory and imaging tests and treatment can be clinical or surgical. The prognosis is considered favorable when the medications are able to improve the clinical manifestations or when it is possible to perform the surgical procedure. The present paper aims to report the case of a 13-year-old male cat, castrated, crossbred, with persistent hypokalemia secondary to a presumptive adrenal tumor.

Animals , Cats , Cats/abnormalities , Cats/physiology , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Hypertension , Adrenocortical Adenoma/diagnosis
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(3): 185-190, June 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020056


El diagnóstico de hiperaldosteronismo primario (HPAP) aumentó en los últimos años y algunos autores lo consideran la principal causa de hipertensión arterial secundaria. Estudiamos la prevalencia de HPAP en el total de pacientes hipertensos atendidos en la Unidad de Hipertensión Arterial, en el período comprendido entre julio 1999 a julio 2017. Se incluyeron 2500 pacientes y en 79 se diagnosticó HPAP (3.2%). El HPAP fue más frecuente en mujeres (55.7%), observándose un incremento en la edad geriátrica con relación a estudios previos (27.8%). El diagnóstico se sospechó ante la presencia de kaliuria inapropiada y alcalosis metabólica, acompañada de un cociente aldosterona/actividad de renina plasmática superior a 30 (ng/dl)/(ng/ ml/h). Tras su confirmación se realizaron estudios de imagen para determinar la etiología. Se detectaron así 29 casos (36.8%) de adenomas productores de aldosterona y 5 de hiperplasia bilateral suprarrenal con nódulos. La tomografía computarizada identificó el 100% de los adenomas y de las hiperplasias con nódulos corticales bilaterales. El tratamiento con suprarrenalectomía y/o antialdosterónicos resultó eficaz en el control de la presión arterial en el 69.9% de los casos. Se comentan aspectos particulares de esta serie, como la remisión de la insuficiencia renal, la elevada presencia de litiasis urinaria hipercalciúrica y la detección de un carcinoma de mama tras dosis prolongadas de espironolactona.

The diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism (PHPA) has progressively increased over the last years and some authors consider it as the main cause of secondary hypertension. We studied the prevalence of PHPA in hypertensive patients followed at the Hypertension Unit from July 1999 to July 2017. A total of 2500 patients were included and diagnosis of PHPA was done in 79 of them (3.2%). It was more frequent in women (55.7%) with an increased incidence in the elderly, as compared to previous studies (27.8%). Initial diagnosis was suspected upon the presence of inappropriate kaliuria and metabolic alkalosis, associated to an aldosterone/plasma renin activity ratio > 30 (ng/dl)/(ng/ml/h). After confirmation of the presence of PA, imaging techniques to determine the etiology were performed. In this way, 29 cases (36.8%) of aldosterone-producing adenoma and 5 cases of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia with nodules were identified. Computed tomography identified the adenomas and hyperplasias with bilateral cortical nodules in all patients. Adrenalectomy and/o r antialdosteronics were efficient in controlling blood pressure in 69.9% of cases. Of note in this series was the remission of stage 3 chronic renal failure in two cases, the high prevalence of hypercalciuric urinary lithiasis and a case of breast carcinoma after prolonged treatment with spironolactone.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Hypertension/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Renin/blood , Aldosterone/blood , Hyperaldosteronism/complications , Hyperaldosteronism/blood
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(3): 305-312, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887562


ABSTRACT Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension (HTN), with an estimated prevalence of 4% of hypertensive patients in primary care and around 10% of referred patients. Patients with PA have higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than age- and sex-matched patients with essential HTN and the same degree of blood pressure elevation. PA is characterized by an autonomous aldosterone production causing sodium retention, plasma renin supression, HTN, cardiovascular damage, and increased potassium excretion, leading to variable degrees of hypokalemia. Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) account for around 40% and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism for around 60% of PA cases. The aldosterone-to-renin ratio is the most sensitive screening test for PA. There are several confirmatory tests and the current literature does not identify a "gold standard" confirmatory test for PA. In our institution, we recommend starting case confirmation with the furosemide test. After case confirmation, all patients with PA should undergo adrenal CT as the initial study in subtype testing to exclude adrenocortical carcinoma. Bilateral adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is the gold standard method to define the PA subtype, but it is not indicated in all cases. An experienced radiologist must perform AVS. Unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the preferential treatment for patients with APAs, and bilateral hyperplasia should be treated with mineralocorticoid antagonist (spironolactone or eplerenone). Cardiovascular morbidity caused by aldosterone excess can be decreased by either unilateral adrenalectomy or mineralocorticoid antagonist. In this review, we address the most relevant issues regarding PA screening, case confirmation, subtype classification, and treatment.

Humans , Hyperaldosteronism/complications , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Hyperaldosteronism/therapy , Hypertension/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Renin/blood , Adrenal Glands/diagnostic imaging , Adrenalectomy , Aldosterone/blood , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Hyperaldosteronism/blood
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 13(3)dez. 2015. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-774726


O hiperaldosteronismo primário é causa de hipertensão arterialsecundária, com possibilidade de cura após cirurgia em 30a 75% dos casos. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um casode hipertensão arterial secundária a adenoma adrenal produtorde aldosterona. Paciente feminino, 35 anos, natural de Beruri(AM), procedente de Manaus, foi admitida com pressão arterialde 220x125mmHg associada a fraqueza muscular de membrosinferiores e câimbras. Na história patológica pregressa, havia orelato de hipertensão arterial diagnosticada há 2 anos, em tratamentocom três classes de anti-hipertensivos. Durante internaçãoem hospital geral, o quadro relatado associado à hipocalemiae alcalose metabólica sugeriram diagnóstico de hipertensão arterialsecundária a hiperaldosteronismo primário. Níveis elevadosde aldosterona plasmática, com renina suprimida e relação aldosterona-renina elevada, confirmaram o diagnóstico de hiperaldosteronismoprimário. A tomografia computadorizada deabdome evidenciou lesão tumoral com 2,3x2,0cm em glândulasuprarrenal esquerda sugestiva de adenoma adrenal. Pacientefoi submetida a adrenalectomia à esquerda com histopatologiacompatível com adenoma adrenal. Seis meses após a cirurgia,paciente evoluiu com normalização da calemia, porém mantevehipertensão arterial com necessidade de terapia anti-hipertensiva,sem novos picos hipertensivos. Se hiperaldosteronismo primáriodiagnosticado precocemente, há possibilidade de cura dahipertensão arterial secundária após adrenalectomia, reduzindo o efeito deletério da mesma sobre os sistemas cardiovascular, cerebrovasculare renal.(AU)

The primary hyperaldosteronism is a cause of secondaryhypertension, with the possibility of healing after surgery in 30to 75% of cases. The objective of this study was to report a caseof secondary hypertension to aldosterone-producing adrenaladenoma. A female patient, 35 years, from Beruri (AM), Brazil,who came to Manaus, was admitted into the emergency room withblood pressure of 220x125mmHg, associated with lower limbmuscle weakness and cramps. In the past medical history, there wasa report of hypertension diagnosed 2 years before, and she was undertreatment with three classes of antihypertensive drugs. Duringhospitalization in a general hospital, the case reported associatedto hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis suggested a diagnosis ofhypertension secondary to primary hyperaldosteronism. Elevatedlevels of plasmatic aldosterone, suppressed renin and highaldosterone-renin relation suggested primary hyperaldosteronism.The abdominal computerized tomography scan revealed a tumor of2.3x2.0cm in the left adrenal gland, suggesting adrenal adenoma.Patient underwent left adrenalectomy and histopathology wascompatible to adrenal adenoma. After 6 months of surgery, thepatient experienced normalization of kalemia but kept arterialhypertension, requiring anti-hypertensive therapy, but had no othershypertensive peaks. Early diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronismallowed the cure of hypertension after adrenalectomy, reducingdeleterious effects of high blood pressure levels on the cardiovascular,cerebrovascular and renal systems.(AU)

Humans , Female , Adult , Adrenocortical Adenoma/pathology , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Hypertension/etiology , Adrenalectomy/instrumentation , Aldosterone/chemistry
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(5): 441-447, Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764113


Objectives Primary aldosteronism (PA) is characterized by the autonomous overproduction of aldosterone. Its prevalence has increased since the use of the aldosterone (ALD)/plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR). The objective of this study is to determine ARR and ARC (ALD/plasma renin concentration ratio) cut-off values (COV) and their diagnostic concordance (DC%) in the screening for PA in an Argentinian population.Design multicenter prospective study.Subjects and methods We studied 353 subjects (104 controls and 249 hypertensive patients). Serum aldosterone, PRA and ARR were determined. In 220 randomly selected subjects, 160 hypertensive patients and 60 controls, plasma renin concentration (PRC) was simultaneously measured and ARC was determined.Results According to the 95th percentile of controls, we determined a COV of 36 for ARR and 2.39 for ARC, with ALD ≥ 15 ng/dL. In 31/249 hypertensive patients, ARR was ≥ 36. PA diagnosis was established in 8/31 patients (23/31 patients did not complete confirmatory tests). DC% between ARR and ARC was calculated. A significant correlation between ARR and ARC (r = 0.742; p < 0.0001) was found only with PRA > 0.3 ng/mL/h and PRC > 5 pg/mL. DC% for ARR and ARC above or below 36 and 2.39 was 79.1%, respectively.Conclusion This first Argentinian multicenter study determined a COV of 36 for ARR and 2.39 for ARC. Applying an ARR ≥ 36 in the hypertensive group, we confirmed PA in a higher percentage of patients than the previously reported one in our population. As for ARC, further studies are needed for its clinical application, since DC% is acceptable only for medium range renin values.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Mass Screening/standards , Aldosterone/blood , Argentina/epidemiology , Hyperaldosteronism/complications , Hyperaldosteronism/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Potassium/blood , Radioimmunoassay , Reference Standards , Renin/blood , Sensitivity and Specificity
J. bras. med ; 102(5)set.-out. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-730200


A hipertensão arterial humana primária ou essencial abrange, na sua maioria, indivíduos no estágio I (pressão arterial sistólica [PAS] entre 140 e 160mmHg e pressão arterial diastólica [PAD] entre 90 e 100mmHg) e mesmo em estágios mais avançados (estágio II - PAS até 180mmHg, PAD até 110mmHg). Assintomática por muitos anos, tem sido cunhada como "o matador silencioso". Os sintomas e sinais mais frequentemente observados nos indivíduos hipertensos estão associados à hipertensão arterial de origem secundária ou são consequência da duração e gravidade do comprometimento dos órgãos-alvo (coração, cérebro, rim, olhos e vasos arteriais)...

The primary human arterial hypertension or essential cover mostly individuals in stage I (systolic blood pressure [SBP] between 140 and 160mmHg and diastolic blood pressure [DBP] between 90 and 100mmHg) and even in the most advanced stages (stage II - PAS until 180mmHg, PAD until 110mmHg). Asymptomatic for many years, it has been named as "the silent killer". The symptoms and signals more frequently observed in hypertensive individuals are related to arterial hypertension that has secondary orign or being consequence due duration and gravity of target organ which were affected (heart, brain, kidney, eyes and anterial vessels)...

Humans , Male , Female , Headache/etiology , Hypertensive Encephalopathy/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological , Pheochromocytoma/diagnosis , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Cushing Syndrome/diagnosis , Organs at Risk , Vision Disorders/etiology , Vomiting , Vertigo/etiology
J. bras. med ; 102(3)jul. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-719970


A hipertensão arterial (HA) resistente pode ser definida como a pressão arterial (PA) sistólica e/ou diastólica que permanece sem controle, apesar do tratamento mantido com doses ótimas envolvendo três classes diferentes de agentes anti-hipertensivos, sendo um deles um diurético. A HA resistente não deve ser considerada sinônimo de hipertensão arterial não controlada ou pseudorresistência. O objetivo desta revisão é mostrar a importância do correto diagnóstico, a identificação de fatores associados que podem ser reversíveis e também de novas abordagens terapêuticas...

Resistant hypertension can be defined as the systolic or diastolic blood pressure who remain uncontrolled despite maintained treatment with optimal doses from three different classes of antihypertensive agents, one being a diuretic. Resistant hypertension should not be considered synonymous of uncontrolled hypertension or pseudo-resistance. The aim of this review is to show the importance of correct diagnosis, the identification of factors associated that may be reversible and novel therapeutic approaches...

Humans , Male , Female , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/therapy , Catheter Ablation/methods , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Baroreflex , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Spironolactone/administration & dosage , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Arterial Pressure
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 11(3)jul.-set. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-686981


O hiperaldosteronismo primário (HP) é causa potencialmente curável de hipertensão. A maioria dos pacientes desenvolve sinais e sintomas típicos (hipertensão refratária, hipocalemia e alcalose metabólica), porém, alguns casos podem ter apresentações especiais como a miopatia hipocalêmica que pode simular polimiosite, tornando o diagnóstico mais difícil. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso raro de hiperaldosteronismo primário associado à rabdomiólise por hipocalemia simulando polimiosite.Paciente do sexo feminino, 44 anos, com hipertensão de difícil controle a 10 anos, apresentando episódios intermitentes de fraqueza simétrica de cinturas escapular e pélvica associada à mialgia difusa e intensa. Durante a internação foi feito o diagnóstico de HP, adenoma unilateral, e submetida à adrenalectomia videolaparoscópica,com controle dos níveis pressóricos no seguimento ambulatorial. O hiperaldosteronismo primário pode apresentar-se de forma semelhante à polimiosite; assim, em pacientes hipertensos e com episódios de fraqueza ou mialgia de repetição é um importante diagnóstico diferencial a ser considerado.

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a potentially curable cause of hypertension. Most patients develop typical signs and symptoms (nonresponsive hypertension, hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis); however, some cases may have special presentations, such as hypokalemic myopathy which can simulate polymyositis making the diagnosis more difficult. The objective of this study was to report a rare case of primary aldosteronism associated with rhabdomyolysis due to hypokalemia simulating polymyositis. Forty-four-year-old female patient, with hard-to control hypertension for 10 years, presenting with intermittent episodes of symmetrical weakness of pelvic and shoulder girdles associated with intense and diffuse myalgia. During admission the diagnosis of PA, unilateral adenoma, was made and she underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy with control of blood pressure during follow-up. PA may present similarly to polymyositis; therefore, in patients with hypertension and repeated episodes of weakness or myalgia, it is an important diagnosis to be considered.

Humans , Female , Adult , Aldosterone , Hypokalemia , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Polymyositis , Diagnosis, Differential
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 489-492, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-33017


In patients with primary aldosteronism who have bilateral adrenal incidentalomas, it is important to identify which adrenal gland is secreting excess aldosterone. Traditionally, adrenal vein sampling (AVS) has been performed for lateralization despite its invasiveness. Here we report a case of bilateral adrenal incidentaloma in which 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) was used to identify the functional adrenal mass. A 53-yr-old man was referred to our clinic due to bilateral adrenal incidentalomas (right: 1 cm, left: 2.5 cm) on computed tomography (CT). Given his history of colon cancer, FDG-PET/CT scanning was used to rule out metastasis. Although there was focal hot uptake lesion in the right adrenal gland, the patient was suspected primary aldosteronism clinically more than metastasis because of the patient's underlying hypertension with hypokalemia. It was consistent with the results of AVS. Based on these findings, we propose that FDG-PET/CT can be used instead of AVS to identify the source of primary aldosteronism between two bilateral adrenal incidentalomas.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adrenal Glands/pathology , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypokalemia/diagnosis , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography
J. bras. med ; 100(2): 16-22, maio-jun. 2012. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-682791


A hipertensão arterial (HA) resistente pode ser definida como a pressão arterial (PA) sistólica e/ou diastólica que permanece sem controle, apesar do tratamento mantido com doses ótimas envolvendo três classes diferentes de agentes anti-hipertensivos, sendo um deles um diurético. A HA resistente não deve ser considerada sinônimo de hipertensão arterial não controlada ou pseudorresistência. O objetivo desta revisão é mostrar a importância do correto diagnóstico, a identificação de fatores associados que podem ser reversíveis e também de novas abordagens terapêuticas.

Resistant hypertension can be defined as the systolic or distolic blood pressure who remain uncontrolled despite maintained treatment with optimal doses from three different classes of antihypertensive agents, one being a diuretic. Resistant hypertension should not be considered synonymous of uncontrolled hypertension or pseudo-resistance. The aim of this review is to show the importance of correct diagnosis, the identification of factors associated that may be reversible and novel therapeutic approaches.

Humans , Male , Female , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/therapy , Catheter Ablation/methods , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Baroreflex , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Spironolactone/administration & dosage , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Arterial Pressure
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 71(6): 525-530, dic. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-633912


El hiperaldosteronismo primario (HP) es la forma más común de hipertensión arterial (HTA) secundaria. Recientemente varios estudios sugieren que la prevalencia de esta enfermedad varía entre 5% y 15% entre la población hipertensa, y 20% para hipertensión arterial refractaria. El objetivo de este estudio fue, ante la gran variabilidad de prevalencias sobre HP según las publicaciones internacionales y pocos datos en la Argentina, aportar la prevalencia de HP en un hospital general del interior del país, relacionándolo con el grado de HTA y presencia de normokalemia. En este estudio transversal se realizó dosaje de A/ARP en 123 pacientes hipertensos, suspendiendo toda medicación que interfiriera en los dosajes hormonales; se utilizó como método confirmatorio el test de solución salina (SS) para el diagnóstico de HP y la tomografía computarizada (TC) de abdomen para el diagnóstico etiológico del HP. Se detectó una relación A/ARP elevada en 20 (16.4%) pacientes. En 18 se realizó el test de SS, confirmando el diagnóstico de aldosteronismo en 8 (6.5% del total). En la TC, dos presentaron adenomas, y seis glándulas suprarrenales normales. Todos los pacientes con HP pertenecían al grupo II y III de HTA según el VI Joint National Committee (VI JNC) y el 50% fue normokalémico. Encontramos una prevalencia de 6.5% de HP, asociado a grado II y III de hipertensión, y valores de potasio normal en la mitad de los pacientes.

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a possible cause of endocrine hypertension. Recent studies have suggested a prevalence ranging between 5% and 15% of all hypertensive patients, and 20% in patients with refractory hypertension.The objective of this transversal study was to establish the prevalence of PA in a hypertensive population using the aldosterone / plasma renin ratio (ARR) as a screening method, considering that the prevalence rates for PA among hypertensive people present a wide range and that there are only few reports in Argentina. This ratio was then related with the degree of hypertension and with the presence or absence of hypokalemia. Serum aldosterone and plasma renin activity levels were measured in 123 hypertensive patients after discontinuing all medications that could interfere with the hormonal tests. Patients with an aldosterone/plasma renin activity ratio > 25 were submitted to the saline suppression test (SST) to confirm the diagnosis of PA, followed by computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen. Twenty patients presented an ARR > 25 (16.4%). Eighteen were submitted to the SST, eight had a diagnosis of PA confirmed with positive SST (6.5%). Of 8 patients who underwent an abdominal CT, two showed adenoma, and six normal adrenal anatomy. All the eight patients with a PA diagnosis belonged to group II and III of hypertension according to Joint National Committee VI (JNC VI), and only 4 (50%) were normokalemic. We found a 6.5% prevalence of PA, associated with grade II and III hypertension, and normal potassium values in half of the patients with PA.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Aldosterone/blood , Hyperaldosteronism/blood , Hyperaldosteronism/epidemiology , Renin/blood , Argentina/epidemiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Hypertension/complications , Hypokalemia/complications , Prevalence
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 18(1): 41-46, mayo 2010. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-578203


La identificación de las formas quirúrgicamente corregibles de aldosteronismo primario (AP) requiere implementar la medición en sangre venosa suprarrenal (M-SVS) para demostrar la lateralización del exceso de aldosterona. En los pacientes con AP y secreción lateralizada de aldosterona, la suprarrenalectomía puede permitir la normalización de la presión arterial a largo plazo, así como la corrección del AP. En esta presentación resumimos los criterios para la selección de los pacientes candidatos a la M-SVS, la técnica para su realización y los parámetros para el análisis e interpretación de sus resultados.

Humans , Male , Female , Aldosterone/classification , Aldosterone/metabolism , Adrenal Glands , Hyperaldosteronism/surgery , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Hyperaldosteronism/therapy , Hypertension
Av. cardiol ; 30(1): 63-66, mar. 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-607837


El hiperaldosteronismo primario es una de las formaspotencialmente curables de hipertensión arterial. Solía ser considerado un trastorno poco común, pero algunos expertos creen que puede ser la causa de hipertensión en un 5% a un14% de los pacientes. En la mayoría de los casos resulta de un tumor benigno de la glándula suprarrenal y se presenta en personas entre los 30 y 50 años de edad. En estos casos, la HTA es secundaria a la acción de aldosterona a nivel renal, la cual determina un aumento en la reabsorción de sal y agua, lo que se traduce en un aumento del volumen intravascular y secundariamente en elevación de la presión arterial.

Primary hyperaldosteronism is one of the potentially curable forms of arterial hypertension. It used to be considered an uncommon problem, but some experts believe it can be the cause of hypertension in 5 to 14% of patients. In most cases it is a benign tumor of the adrenal glands, appearing between ages 30 and 50 years. In these cases, hypertension is secondary to the action of aldosterone at the renal level, resulting in an increase in the reabsorption of salt and water, which is translated secondarily to an increase in the intravascular volume and an elevation of arterial pressure.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Adrenocortical Adenoma/diagnosis , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1379-1383, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187900


Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism (GRA) is an autosomal-dominant inheritable form of hyperaldosteronism with early onset hypertension. GRA is caused by unequal crossing-over of the steroid 11beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) genes. As a result of chimeric gene duplication, aldosterone is ectopically synthesized in the adrenal zona fasciculata under the control of adrenocorticotropin. Here, we describe three cases of GRA in a Korean family. The proband-a 21-yr-old female-was incidentally found to have high blood pressure (170/108 mmHg). Her 46-yr-old father had been treated twice for cerebral hemorrhage at the ages of 29 and 39 yr. Her 15-yr-old brother had a 2-yr history of hypertension; however, he was never treated. Their laboratory test results showed normokalemia, hyporeninemia, hyperaldosteronism, and a high plasma aldosterone concentration-to-plasma renin activity ratio. Normal saline loading failed to suppress aldosterone secretion. However, dexamethasone administration effectively suppressed their plasma aldosterone concentrations. Following genetic analyses with PCR and direct sequencing to document the chimeric gene and crossover site, respectively, we identified CYP11B1/CYP11B2 and determined the breakpoint of unequal crossover to be located between intron 2 of CYP11B1 and exon 3 of CYP11B2.

Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Aldosterone/blood , Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2/genetics , Asian People/genetics , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Family , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Hypertension/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Renin/blood , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase/genetics
Rev. méd. Chile ; 136(7): 905-914, jul. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-496014


Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a known cause of hypertension. In the kidney, aldosterone promotes sodium and water reabsorption, increasing the intravascular volume and blood pressure (BP). In the cardiovascular system, aldosterone modifies endothelial and smooth muscle cell response, increasing cardiovascular risk in a blood pressure-independent way. Recently a high prevalence of PA (near to 10 percent) in hypertensive population, has been detected measuring plasma aldosterone/renin activity ratio (ARR) as screening test. This ratio increases along with the severity of the hypertensive disease. The diagnostic work up of PA should confirm the autonomy of aldosterone secretion from the renin-angiotensin system and should differentiate the clinical subtypes of the disease. These are idiopathic aldosteronism (IA) and aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). Other causes are familial hyperaldosteronism (FH) type I (glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism), FH-II (non glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism), primary adrenal hyperplasia and adrenal carcinoma. This article reviews the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of PA and also the clinical, biochemical and genetic characteristics ofits different subtypes.

Humans , Aldosterone/metabolism , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnosis , Hypertension/etiology , Aldosterone , Hyperaldosteronism/complications , Hyperaldosteronism/therapy , Hypertension/blood , Mass Screening , Renin-Angiotensin System , Renin/blood