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Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 751-757, Nov.Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520380


Abstract Background: Our objective was to compare the safety and efficacy of Target-Controlled Infusion (TCI) versus intermittent bolus of propofol for colonoscopy sedation. Methods: We conducted a randomized (1:1), single-blind, parallel-group superiority trial with fifty ASA I or II patients, both sexes, aged 18 to 65 years, Body Mass Index ≤ 30, undergoing colonoscopy, allocated to receive propofol by TCI (effect-site, 2 μg.mL-1 plus 0.5 μg.mL-1 until unconsciousness and as necessary for agitation) or intermittent bolus (1 plus 0.5 every 5 minutes or as above). The primary safety outcome was the need for airway maneuvers and the primary efficacy outcome was the need for interventions to adjust the level of sedation. Secondary outcomes included incidence of agitation, propofol dose, and time to recovery. Results: The median (IQR) number of airway maneuvers and interventions needed to adjust sedation was 0 (0-0) vs. 0 (0-0) (p = 0.239) and 1 (0-1) vs. 3 (1-4) (p < 0.001) in the TCI and control groups, respectively. Agitation was more common in the intermittent bolus group - 2 (0-2) vs. 1 (0-1), p < 0.001. The mean ± SD time to recovery was 4.9 ± 1.4 minutes in the TCI group vs. 2.3 ± 1.6 minutes in the control group (p < 0.001). The total propofol dose was higher in the TCI group (234 ± 46 μ vs. 195 ± 44 μ (p = 0.040)). Conclusions: During colonoscopy, TCI is as safe as intermittent bolus of propofol while reducing the incidence of agitation and the need for dose adjustments. However, intermittent bolus administration was associated with lower total propofol dose and earlier recovery.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Propofol , Unconsciousness , Single-Blind Method , Colonoscopy , Anesthetics, Intravenous , Hypnotics and Sedatives
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(4): e202202806, ago. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1442558


Introducción. La adecuada sedación y analgesia es fundamental en el tratamiento de pacientes que requieren asistencia ventilatoria mecánica (AVM). Se recomienda la utilización de protocolos y su monitoreo; son dispares los resultados reportados sobre adhesión e impacto. Objetivos. Evaluar el impacto de la implementación de un protocolo de sedoanalgesia sobre el uso de benzodiacepinas, opioides y evolución en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos (UCIP), en pacientes que requieren AVM mayor a 72 horas. Métodos. Estudio tipo antes-después, no controlado, en la UCIP de un hospital pediátrico. Se desarrolló en 3 etapas: preintervención de diagnóstico situacional (de abril a septiembre de 2019), intervención y posintervención de implementación del protocolo de sedoanalgesia, educación sobre uso y monitorización de adherencia y su impacto (de octubre de 2019 a octubre de 2021). Resultados. Ingresaron al estudio 99 y 92 pacientes en las etapas pre- y posintervención, respectivamente. Presentaron mayor gravedad, menor edad y peso en el período preintervención. En la comparación de grupos, luego de ajustar por gravedad y edad, en la etapa posintervención se reportó una reducción en los días de uso de opioides en infusión continua (6 ± 5,2 vs. 7,6 ± 5,8; p = 0,018) y los días de uso de benzodiacepinas en infusión continua (3,3 ± 3,5 vs. 7,6 ± 6,8; p = 0,001). No se observaron diferencias significativas en los días de AVM y en los días totales de uso de benzodiacepinas. Conclusión. La implementación de un protocolo de sedoanalgesia permitió reducir el uso de fármacos en infusión continua.

Introduction. Adequate sedation and analgesia is essential in the management of patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV). The implementation of protocols and their monitoring is recommended; mixed results on adherence and impact have been reported. Objectives. To assess the impact of the implementation of a sedation and analgesia protocol on the use of benzodiazepines, opioids, and evolution in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in patients requiring MV for more than 72 hours. Methods. Before-and-after, uncontrolled study in the PICU of a children's hospital. The study was developed in 3 stages: pre-intervention for situational diagnosis (from April to September 2019), intervention, and post-intervention for implementation of a sedation and analgesia protocol, education on use, and monitoring of adherence and impact (from October 2019 to October 2021). Results. A total of 99 and 92 patients were included in the study in the pre- and post-intervention stages, respectively. Patients had a more severe condition, were younger, and had a lower weight in the preintervention period. After adjusting for severity and age, the group comparison in the post-intervention stage showed a reduction in days of continuous infusion of opioids (6 ± 5.2 versus 7.6­5.8, p = 0.018) and days of continuous infusion of benzodiazepines (3.3 ± 3.5 versus 7.6 ± 6.8, p = 0.001). No significant  differences were observed in days of MV and total days of benzodiazepine use. Conclusion. The implementation of a sedation and analgesia protocol resulted in a reduction in the use of continuous infusion of drugs.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Analgesia , Analgesics, Opioid , Pain , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Hypnotics and Sedatives
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 283-290, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439617


Abstract Background: Conventional dental care is often impossible in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Non-collaborative behaviors, sometimes associated with aggressiveness, are usual justifications for premedication in this population. Thereby, this research focuses on the effects of oral midazolam versus oral ketamine plus midazolam as preanesthetic medication in ASD. Methods: The sample included 64 persons with ASD, aged 2-59 years, scheduled for dental care under general anesthesia. The primary objective of this study was to compare degrees of sedation between two parallel, double-blinded, equally proportional groups randomized to receive oral midazolam (0.5−1, maximum 15 mg) or oral midazolam (0.5−1) associated with oral S(+)-ketamine (3−1, maximum 300 mg). The secondary outcomes were the need of physical stabilization to obtain intravenous line, awakening time, and occurrence of adverse events. Results: According to the dichotomous analysis of sedation level (Ramsay score 1 and 2 versus Ramsay ≥ 3), oral association of S(+)-ketamine and midazolam improved sedation, with increased probability of Ramsay ≥ 3, Relative Risk (RR) = 3.2 (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] = 1.32 to 7.76) compared to midazolam alone. Combined treatment also made it easier to obtain venous access without physical stabilization, RR = 2.05 (95% CI = 1.14 to 3.68). There were no differences between groups regarding awakening time and the occurrence of adverse events. Conclusion: The association of oral S(+)-ketamine with midazolam provides better preanesthetic sedation rates than midazolam alone and facilitates intravenous line access in patients with autism.

Humans , Autism Spectrum Disorder/chemically induced , Autism Spectrum Disorder/drug therapy , Ketamine , Preanesthetic Medication , Midazolam , Double-Blind Method , Conscious Sedation , Hypnotics and Sedatives
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 1-10, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981596


Objective Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist with sedative and analgesic properties but without respiratory depression effect and has been widely used in perioperative anesthesia. Here we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on maintaining perioperative hemodynamic stability in elderly patients.Methods PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Data were searched for randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) on the application of dexmedetomidine in maintaining perioperative hemodynamic stability in elderly patients from their inception to September, 2021. The standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were employed to analyze the data. The random-effect model was used for the potential clinical inconsistency.Results A total of 12 RCTs with 833 elderly patients (dexmedetomidine group, 546 patients; control group, 287 patients) were included. There was no significant increase in perioperative heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in the dexmedetomidine group before and during the operation. In addition, the variations of hemodynamic indexes including HR, MAP, SBP (systolic blood pressure), and DBP were significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group compared with the control group (HR: SMD = -0.87, 95% CI: -1.13 to -0.62; MAP: SMD = -1.12, 95% CI: -1.60 to -0.63; SBP: SMD = -1.27, 95% CI: -2.26 to -0.27; DBP: SMD = -0.96, 95% CI: -1.33 to -0.59). Subgroup analysis found that with the prolongation of 1.0 μg/kg dexmedetomidine infusion, the patient's heart rate declined in a time-dependent way.Conclusion Dexmedetomidine provides more stable hemodynamics during perioperative period in elderly patients. However, further well-conducted trials are required to assess the effective and safer doses of dexmedetomidine in elderly patients.

Humans , Aged , Dexmedetomidine/adverse effects , Hemodynamics , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Blood Pressure , Heart Rate
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 324-327, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986855


OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of propofol used for painless gastroscopy and colonoscopy on psychomotility recovery.@*METHODS@#One hundred adult patients undergoing painless gastroscopy and colonoscopy were recruited, aged 18-72 years, with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status Ⅰ-Ⅱ. According to age, the patients were divided into youth group (20-39 years old, 27 cases), middle age group (40-54 years old, 37 cases), and elder group (55-64 years old, 36 cases). Propofol was continuously infused according to the patients' condition to mantain the bispectal index (BIS) score 55-64. All the patients received psychomotility assesment 30 min before the operations when the discharge criteria were met including number cancellation test, number connection test and board test. The heart rate, blood pressure, saturation of pulse oximetry, electrocardiograph and BIS were monitored during the operation. The operating time, recovery time, total volume of propofol and discharge time were recorded. If the results obtained were inferior to those before operation, a third assessment was taken 30 minutes later until the results recovered or being superior to the baseline levels.@*RESULTS@#All the patients completed the first and second assessments, and 25 patients had taken the third assessment. There was no statistically significant difference in the results of psychomotility assessment when the patients met the discharge standard. Furthermore, the results were analyzed by grouping with age, and there was no statistical difference in the test results of the youth and middle age groups compared with the preoperative group, among which, the efficiency of the number cancellation test was significantly better than that before operation in the youth group (P < 0.05). However, in the elderly patients the number cancellation efficiency, number connection test and board test were significantly inferior to that before operation (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the accuracy of number cancellation compared with that before operation. The patients who needed the third test in the elder group were significantly more than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Compared with the preoperative results, there was no statistical difference in the test results of those who completed the third test.@*CONCLUSION@#The psychomotility function of the patients who underwent painless gastroscopy and colonoscopy was recovered when they met discharge criteria. The elderly patients had a prolonged recovery period.

Adult , Aged , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Humans , Young Adult , Propofol , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Gastroscopy/methods , Conscious Sedation/methods , Colonoscopy/methods
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 634-638, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980772


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the clinical efficacy of Bushen Anshen acupuncture (acupuncture for tonifying kidney and calming spirit ) in treating perimenopausal insomnia (PMI) of kidney-yin deficiency.@*METHODS@#A total of 72 patients with PMI of kidney-yin deficiency were randomized into an observation group (36 cases, 1 case dropped off) and a control group (36 cases, 1 case dropped off). Acupuncture was applied at Baihui (GV 20) and bilateral Shenshu (BL 23), Taixi (KI 3), Anmian (Extra) in the observation group, while sham acupuncture of shallow needling at non-acupoints was applied in the control group. The treatment was required once every other day, 3 times a week for 10 times in the two groups. Before and after treatment, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) was used to evaluate the subjective sleep quality, and polysomnography (PSG) was used to monitor the objective sleep quality in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the scores of sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, hypnotic, daytime dysfunction and total score of PSQI were decreased compared with those before treatment in the observation group (P<0.01), the scores of sleep duration, sleep efficiency and total score of PSQI were decreased compared with those before treatment in the control group (P<0.05); the scores of sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, hypnotic and total score of PSQI in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the sleep time was prolonged, the sleep efficiency was improved, the sleep latency and the awake time after falling asleep were shortened, the arousal awake index was reduced (P<0.01) when PSG indexes were monitored, and the percentage of non-rapid eye movement sleep period 1 (N1%) was decreased while the percentage of non-rapid eye movement sleep period 3 (N3%) was increased (P<0.05) compared with those before treatment in the observation group; there was no statistical difference in the PSG indexes compared with those before treatment in the control group (P>0.05). After treatment, compared with the control group, the sleep time was prolonged, the sleep efficiency was improved, the sleep latency and the awake time after falling asleep were shortened, the arousal awake index and N1% were decreased in the observation group (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Bushen Anshen acupuncture can effectively improve the subjective and objective sleep quality in PMI patients of kidney-yin deficiency.

Humans , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Perimenopause , Yin Deficiency , Acupuncture Therapy , Kidney , Hypnotics and Sedatives
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 477-490, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447620


Abstract Background Up to 60% of pediatric surgical patients develop high levels of preoperative anxiety. This study compared the effects of oral combinations of midazolam and ketamine with oral midazolam alone for pediatric preanesthetic medication. Methods The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO as CRD42020172920. A systematic literature search was conducted using Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and Web of Science for randomized controlled trials comparing oral combinations of midazolam and ketamine with midazolam alone as preanesthetic medication in elective surgical pediatric patients. Meta-analyses included the following outcomes: anxiety and sedation levels, child's behavior during separation from parents, face mask acceptance, and venipuncture. The quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria. Results Twenty studies were included. The following effects (RR (95% CI)) were observed for combinations of ketamine and midazolam relative midazolam alone: anxiolysis (1.2 (0.94-1.52); p= 0.15; I2 = 80%; GRADE = very low); satisfactory sedation (1.2 ( 1.10-1.31); p< 0.001; I2 = 71%; GRADE = very low); behavior during parental separation (1.2 (1.06-1.36); p= 0.003; I2 = 88%; GRADE = very low); facial mask acceptance (1.13 (1.04-1.24); p= 0.007; I2 = 49%; GRADE = very low); behavior during venipuncture (1.32 (1.11-1.57); p= 0.002; I2 = 66%; GRADE = very low). Conclusions While similar probabilities of obtaining anxiolysis were found, adequate sedation, calm behavior during child's separation from parents, low levels of fear during face mask adaptation, and cooperative behavior during peripheral venous cannulation were more likely with midazolam-ketamine combinations.

Humans , Child , Anesthesia , Ketamine , Anxiety , Preanesthetic Medication , Midazolam , Hypnotics and Sedatives
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 641-664, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520344


Abstract Background: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for its sedative, analgesic, and anxiolytic effects. Non-Operating Room Anesthesia (NORA) is a modality of anesthesia that can be done under general anesthesia or procedural sedation or/and analgesia. In this particular setting, a level-2 sedation, such as the one provided by DEX, is beneficial. We aimed to study the effects and safety of DEX in the different NORA settings in the adult population. Methods: A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Interventions using DEX only or DEX associated with other sedative agents, in adults (18 years old or more), were included. Procedures outside the NORA setting and/or without a control group without DEX were excluded. MEDLINE,, Scopus, LILACS, and SciELO were searched. The primary outcome was time until full recovery. Secondary outcomes included hemodynamic and respiratory complications and other adverse events, among others. Results: A total of 97 studies were included with a total of 6,706 participants. The meta-analysis demonstrated that DEX had a higher time until full recovery (95% CI = [0.34, 3.13] minutes, a higher incidence of hypotension (OR = 1.95 [1.25, 3.05], p = 0.003, I2 = 39%) and bradycardia (OR = 3.60 [2.29, 5.67], p < 0.00001, I2 = 0%), and a lower incidence of desaturation (OR = 0.40 [0.25, 0.66], p = 0.0003, I2 = 60%). Conclusion: DEX in NORA procedures in adults was associated with a lower incidence of amnesia and respiratory effects but had a long time to recovery and more hemodynamic complications..

Conscious Sedation , Dexmedetomidine , Anesthesia , Patient Safety , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Anesthesiology
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1438286


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of sedatives by older adults attending a private outpatient geriatric clinic in Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil, and its association with falls and hip fractures. METHODS: Using a longitudinal design, the prevalence of benzodiazepine and nonbenzodiazepine ("z-drugs") intake by older adults was described and their association with the incidence of falls and fractures (30 days after the initial visit) was evaluated through logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 7821 older adults were included in the study, most of them women (72.50%), with a mean age of 77.5 years and a mean Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index (IVCF-20) score of 16.5. The overall prevalence of sedative use (any sedative) was 6.19%, with 4.48% benzodiazepines and 1.98% z-drugs. The most widely used sedatives were clonazepam (29.04%), zolpidem (28.65%), and alprazolam (23.44%). Falls were reported for 182 patients (2.33%), with a higher incidence among users of any sedatives (4.34; p = 0.002; OR = 1.94, adjusted for sex, age, and IVCF-20) and benzodiazepines (5.14%; p < 0.001; OR = 2.28) than among non-users (2.19%). Hip fractures occurred in 33 patients (0.42%), and again were more frequent among users of sedatives (1.03%; p = 0.032; OR = 2.57) and benzodiazepines (1.43%; p = 0.003; OR = 3.45) than among non-users (0.38%). CONCLUSIONS: The use of sedatives, especially benzodiazepines, is associated with an increased incidence of falls and hip fractures in older adults

OBJETIVO: Investigar a utilização de sedativos entre idosos atendidos em ambulatório privado de geriatria em Belo Horizonte (MG), bem como sua associação com quedas e fraturas de fêmur. METODOLOGIA: Trata-se de estudo longitudinal, no qual foi descrita a prevalência de uso de benzodiazepínicos e drogas Z entre idosos (60 anos ou mais) e avaliada sua associação com a incidência de queda e fratura (30 dias após consulta inicial) por meio de regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 7821 idosos, com maioria feminina (72,50%), idade média de 77,5 anos e Índice de Vulnerabilidade Clínico Funcional (IVCF-20) médio de 16,5 pontos. A prevalência de uso de sedativos em geral foi de 6,19%, sendo 4,48% de benzodiazepínicos e 1,98% de drogas Z. Os medicamentos sedativos mais utilizados foram clonazepam (29,04%), zolpidem (28,65%) e alprazolam (23,44%). Relatou-se queda para 182 idosos (2,33%), com incidência maior entre usuários de sedativos (4,34; p = 0,002; OR = 1,94 ajustada por sexo, idade e IVCF-20) e de benzodiazepínicos (5,14%; p < 0,001; OR = 2,28) do que entre não usuários (2,19%). Identificou-se fratura de fêmur em 33 idosos (0,42%), sendo mais frequente entre usuários de sedativos (1,03%; p = 0,032; OR = 2,57) e de benzodiazepínicos (1,43%; p = 0,003; OR = 3,45) do que entre não usuários (0,38%). CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a incidência de quedas e fraturas de fêmur em idosos possui associação com o uso de medicamentos sedativos, em especial os benzodiazepínicos

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Benzodiazepines/administration & dosage , Accidental Falls , Femoral Fractures/drug therapy , Health Services for the Aged , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Longitudinal Studies
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(1): 15-25, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360558


Abstract Objectives: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a highly selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, which is the main sedative in the intensive care unit. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness and adverse events of DEX in maintaining hemodynamic stability in pediatric cardiac surgery. Sources: Databases such as PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, WANFANG STATA and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched for articles about the application of DEX in maintaining hemodynamic stability during and after pediatric cardiac surgery up to 18th Feb. 2021. Only randomized controlled trials were included and random-effects model meta-analysis was applied to calculate the standardized mean deviation (SMD), odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Summary of the findings: Fifteen articles were included for this meta-analysis, and 9 articles for qualitative analysis. The results showed that preoperative prophylaxis and postoperative recovery of DEX in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery were effective in maintaining systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and reducing heart rate (HR) (SBP: SMD = -0.35,95% CI: -0.72, 0.01; MAP: SMD = -0.83, 95% CI: -1.87,0.21; DBP: SMD = -0.79,95% CI: -1.66,0.08; HR: SMD = -1.71,95% CI: -2.29, -1.13). In addition, the frequency of Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia in the DEX treatment group was lower than that in the placebo group. Conclusions: The application of DEX for preoperative prophylaxis and postoperative recovery in pediatric cardiac surgery patients are effective in maintaining hemodynamic stability, and the clinical dose of DEX is not significantly related to the occurrence of pediatric adverse events which may be related to individual differences.

Humans , Child , Dexmedetomidine/adverse effects , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Blood Pressure , Hemodynamics , Hypnotics and Sedatives/adverse effects
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 748-752, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939657


OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effect of sequential sedative and analgesic drugs in preventing delirium and withdrawal symptoms in children after ventilator weaning.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on 61 children who were admitted and received mechanical ventilation support for ≥5 days in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of Dongguan Children's Hospital Affiliated to Guangdong Medical University from December 2019 to September 2021. The children were divided into a control group (30 children with no maintenance of analgesic and sedative drugs after ventilator weaning) and an observation group (31 children with sequential sedative and analgesic drugs maintained for 48 hours after ventilator weaning). The two groups were compared in terms of the Sophia Observation Withdrawal Symptoms Scale (SOS) score, the Pediatric Delirium Scale (PD) score, the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) score, and the incidence rates of delirium or withdrawal symptoms at 24 and 72 hours after ventilator weaning.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the incidence rate of delirium at 24 hours and 72 hours after ventilator weaning between the two groups (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had significantly lower incidence rate of withdrawal symptoms and scores of SOS, PD, and RASS scales at 24 hours and 72 hours after ventilator weaning (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Sequential sedation and analgesia after ventilator weaning can reduce the incidence of withdrawal symptoms within 72 hours after ventilator weaning, but it cannot reduce the incidence rate of delirium.

Child , Humans , Analgesia , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Delirium/prevention & control , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Pain , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/prevention & control , Ventilator Weaning
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; : 24-39, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927437


INTRODUCTION@#In Singapore, non-anaesthesiologists generally administer sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy. The drugs used for sedation in hospital endoscopy centres now include propofol in addition to benzodiazepines and opiates. The requirements for peri-procedural monitoring and discharge protocols have also evolved. There is a need to develop an evidence-based clinical guideline on the safe and effective use of sedation by non-anaesthesiologists during gastrointestinal endoscopy in the hospital setting.@*METHODS@#The Academy of Medicine, Singapore appointed an expert workgroup comprising 18 gastroenterologists, general surgeons and anaesthesiologists to develop guidelines on the use of sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy. The workgroup formulated clinical questions related to different aspects of endoscopic sedation, conducted a relevant literature search, adopted Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology and developed recommendations by consensus using a modified Delphi process.@*RESULTS@#The workgroup made 16 recommendations encompassing 7 areas: (1) purpose of sedation, benefits and disadvantages of sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy; (2) pre-procedural assessment, preparation and consent taking for sedation; (3) Efficacy and safety of drugs used in sedation; (4) the role of anaesthesiologist administered sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy; (5) performance of sedation; (6) post-sedation care and discharge after sedation; and (7) training in sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy for non-anaesthesiologists.@*CONCLUSION@#These recommendations serve to guide clinical practice during sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy by non-anaesthesiologists in the hospital setting.

Humans , Conscious Sedation , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Hospitals , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Singapore
Rev. baiana enferm ; 36: e46373, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1387623


Objetivo: investigar a associação entre fatores sociodemográficos e consumo de álcool, tabaco e hipnóticos em mulheres rurais. Método: estudo transversal realizado com 259 mulheres rurais. Para a coleta dos dados, utilizou-se formulário estruturado e o Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Para a análise empregou-se o Teste qui-quadrado e/ou Exato de Fisher com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Resultados: observou-se associação entre o uso do tabaco e a cor (p=0,041), a crença religiosa (p=0,001) e benefício governamental (p=0,006). Houve associação entre o consumo de álcool e a crença religiosa (p≤0,001). Quanto a necessidade de intervenção, observou-se associação entre tabaco e cor (p=0,009), renda (p=0,001) e benefício governamental (p=0,006), assim como álcool e idade (p=0,035), crença religiosa (p=0,006) e renda (p=0,002). Conclusão: fatores como religião, cor, renda, idade e benefício governamental estão associados ao uso de álcool e tabaco em mulheres rurais.

Objetivo: investigar la asociación entre factores sociodemográficos y consumo de alcohol, tabaco e hipnótico en mujeres rurales. Método: estudio transversal realizado con 259 mujeres rurales. Para la recolección de datos, se utilizó un formulario estructurado y se utilizó la Prueba de Detección de Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Para el análisis se utilizó el Chi-Cuadrado y/o la Prueba Exacta de Fisher con un intervalo de confianza del 95%. Resultados: hubo asociación entre el consumo de tabaco y el color (p=0,041), la creencia religiosa (p=0,001) y el beneficio gubernamental (p=0,006). Hubo una asociación entre el consumo de alcohol y las creencias religiosas (p≤0,001). En cuanto a la necesidad de intervención, hubo una asociación entre el tabaco y el color (p=0,009), los ingresos (p=0,001) y el beneficio del gobierno (p=0,006), así como el alcohol y la edad (p=0,035), las creencias religiosas (p=0,006) y los ingresos (p=0,002). Conclusión: factores como la religión, el color, los ingresos, la edad y el beneficio del gobierno están asociados con el consumo de alcohol y tabaco en las mujeres rurales.

Objective: to investigate the association between sociodemographic factors and alcohol, tobacco and hypnotic consumption in rural women. Method: cross-sectional study conducted with 259 rural women. For data collection, a structured form was used and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test was used. For the analysis, the Chi-Square and/or Fisher's Exact Test with a 95% confidence interval was used. Results: there was an association between tobacco use and color (p=0.041), religious belief (p=0.001) and governmental benefit (p=0.006). There was an association between alcohol consumption and religious belief (p≤0.001). Regarding the need for intervention, there was an association between tobacco and color (p=0.009), income (p=0.001) and government benefit (p=0.006), as well as alcohol and age (p=0.035), religious belief (p=0.006) and income (p=0.002). Conclusion: factors such as religion, color, income, age and government benefit are associated with alcohol and tobacco use in rural women.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alcohol Drinking , Rural Health , Women's Health , Tobacco Products , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sociodemographic Factors
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(4): 600-615, out.-dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357197


RESUMO O manejo cardíaco, ventilatório e renal no ambiente de terapia intensiva tem melhorado nas últimas décadas. Cognição e sedação representam dois dos últimos desafios a vencer. Como a sedação convencional não é ideal, e a sedação evocada por agonistas adrenérgicos alfa-2 (sedação "cooperativa" com dexmedetomidina, clonidina ou guanfacina) representa uma alternativa valiosa, este artigo abrange três tópicos práticos para os quais há lacunas na medicina baseada em evidência. O primeiro deles é a mudança de sedação convencional para sedação cooperativa ("mudança"): a resposta curta consiste em retirada abrupta de sedação convencional, implantação imediata de infusão de um agonista alfa-2 e uso de "sedação de resgate" (bolos de midazolam) ou "sedação agressiva" (haloperidol em bolos) para estabilizar a sedação cooperativa. O segundo tópico é a mudança de sedação convencional para sedação cooperativa em pacientes instáveis (por exemplo: delirium tremens refratário, choque séptico, síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo etc.), pois, para evitar a hipotensão e a bradicardia provocadas por desativadores simpáticos, a resposta curta é manter o volume sistólico por administração de volume, vasopressores e inotrópicos. Por fim, para evitar essas mudanças e dificuldades associadas, os agonistas alfa-2 podem ser sedativos de primeira linha. A resposta curta é administrar agonistas alfa-2 lentamente desde a admissão ou intubação endotraqueal, até estabilização da sedação cooperativa. Dessa forma, conclui-se que os agonistas alfa-2 são, ao mesmo tempo, agentes desativadores simpáticos e sedativos, bem como a desativação simpática implica na manutenção do volume sistólico e na avaliação persistente da volemia. A medicina baseada em evidência deve documentar esta proposta.

ABSTRACT Cardiac, ventilatory and kidney management in the critical care setting has been optimized over the past decades. Cognition and sedation represent one of the last remaning challenges. As conventional sedation is suboptimal and as the sedation evoked by alpha-2 adrenergic agonists ("cooperative" sedation with dexmedetomidine, clonidine or guanfacine) represents a valuable alternative, this manuscript covers three practical topics for which evidence-based medicine is lacking: a) Switching from conventional to cooperative sedation ("switching"): the short answer is the abrupt withdrawal of conventional sedation, immediate implementation of alpha-2 agonist infusion and the use of "rescue sedation" (midazolam bolus[es]) or "breakthrough sedation" (haloperidol bolus[es]) to stabilize cooperative sedation. b) Switching from conventional to cooperative sedation in unstable patients (e.g., refractory delirium tremens, septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, etc.): to avoid hypotension and bradycardia evoked by sympathetic deactivation, the short answer is to maintain the stroke volume through volume loading, vasopressors and inotropes. c) To avoid these switches and associated difficulties, alpha-2 agonists may be considered first-line sedatives. The short answer is to administer alpha-2 agonists slowly from admission or endotracheal intubation up to stabilized cooperative sedation. The "take home" message is as follows: a) alpha-2 agonists are jointly sympathetic deactivators and sedative agents; b) sympathetic deactivation implies maintaining the stroke volume and iterative assessment of volemia. Evidence-based medicine should document our propositions.

Humans , Clonidine , Dexmedetomidine , Critical Care , Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists , Hypnotics and Sedatives
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 428-433, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347287


RESUMO Objetivo: Construir um modelo de custo-efetividade para comparar o uso de propofol com o de midazolam em pacientes críticos adultos sob uso de ventilação mecânica. Métodos: Foi construído um modelo de árvore decisória para pacientes críticos submetidos à ventilação mecânica, o qual foi analisado sob a perspectiva do sistema privado de saúde no Brasil. O horizonte temporal foi o da internação na unidade de terapia intensiva. Os desfechos foram custo-efetividade por hora de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva evitada e custo-efetividade por hora de ventilação mecânica evitada. Foram obtidos os dados do modelo a partir de metanálise prévia. Assumiu-se que o custo da medicação estava incluído nos custos da unidade de terapia intensiva. Conduziram-se análises univariada e de sensibilidade probabilística. Resultados: Pacientes mecanicamente ventilados em uso de propofol tiveram diminuição de sua permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e na duração da ventilação mecânica, respectivamente, em 47,97 horas e 21,65 horas. Com o uso de propofol, ocorreu redução média do custo de U$2.998,971 em comparação ao uso do midazolam. A custo-efetividade por hora de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva evitada e por hora de ventilação mecânica evitada foi dominante, respectivamente, em 94,40% e 80,8% do tempo. Conclusão: Ocorreu diminuição significante do custo associado ao uso de propofol, no que se refere à permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e à duração da ventilação mecânica para pacientes críticos adultos.

ABSTRACT Objective: To build a cost-effectiveness model to compare the use of propofol versus midazolam in critically ill adult patients under mechanical ventilation. Methods: We built a decision tree model for critically ill patients submitted to mechanical ventilation and analyzed it from the Brazilian private health care system perspective. The time horizon was that of intensive care unit hospitalization. The outcomes were cost-effectiveness per hour of intensive care unit stay avoided and cost-effectiveness per hour of mechanical ventilation avoided. We retrieved data for the model from a previous meta-analysis. We assumed that the cost of medication was embedded in the intensive care unit cost. We conducted univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results: Mechanically ventilated patients using propofol had their intensive care unit stay and the duration of mechanical ventilation decreased by 47.97 hours and 21.65 hours, respectively. There was an average cost reduction of US$ 2,998.971 for propofol when compared to midazolam. The cost-effectiveness per hour of intensive care unit stay and mechanical ventilation avoided were dominant 94.40% and 80.8% of the time, respectively. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in costs associated with propofol use related to intensive care unit stay and duration of mechanical ventilation for critically ill adult patients.

Humans , Adult , Midazolam , Propofol , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hospitalization , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Intensive Care Units
RFO UPF ; 26(2): 213-220, 20210808. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1443777


Dentes supranumerários são caracterizados como um excesso no número de dentes da série normal. Os mesiodentes, definidos pela sua localização mediana aos incisivos centrais superiores, referem-se ao tipo de dente supranumerário mais comumente encontrado na cavidade oral, normalmente intraósseo e assintomático. A presença desses dentes pode ocasionar alterações na dentição permanente, mas a abordagem cirúrgica na fase da dentição mista mostra resultados satisfatórios no alinhamento dental espontâneo. Em pacientes pediátricos, a sedação consciente com óxido nitroso tem demonstrado ser uma alternativa segura e eficaz no controle do medo e da ansiedade. Objetivo: relatar um procedimento cirúrgico de remoção de dois mesiodentes em paciente pediátrico sob anestesia local associada à sedação com óxido nitroso. Relato de caso: paciente do sexo feminino, 11 anos de idade, necessitava de remoção cirúrgica de dois dentes supranumerários localizados em região anterior de maxila. Com a avaliação da tomografia computadorizada, pôde-se observar a posição em que ambos se encontravam. Realizou-se também a exodontia do elemento dentário 14, como solicitado pela ortodontista, para posterior continuidade do tratamento ortodôntico. Devido à complexidade cirúrgica e ao tempo operatório, considerando a idade da paciente e o possível aumento nos níveis de ansiedade, optou-se pela realização de sedação consciente com óxido nitroso. Conclusão: clinicamente, dentes supranumerários podem causar danos locais. O tratamento cirúrgico associado à sedação consciente mostrou-se bastante seguro e efetivo no controle comportamental, além de poder ser implementado na rotina ambulatorial.(AU)

Supernumerary teeth are defined as those in addition to the normal series. The mesiodens, is the most common supernumerary tooth and it is present in the midline between the two central incisors. It is usually intraosseous and asymptomatic. The presence of these teeth may cause changes in permanent dentition and the surgical approach in the mixed dentition phase shows satisfactory results in spontaneous dental alignment. In pediatric patients, conscious sedation with nitrous oxide has been shown to be a safe and effective alternative in controlling fear and anxiety. Objective. To report a surgical procedure for the removal of two mesiodens in a pediatric patient under local anesthesia associated with nitrous oxide sedation. Case report. 11-year-old female patient required surgical removal of two upper mesiodens. The computed tomography images assisted to indicate their exact position. The extraction of the upper right premolar (tooth #14) was also performed as requested by the orthodontist. Considering the patient's age and the possible increase in anxiety levels, along with surgical complexity and operative time, the conscious sedation with nitrous oxide was selected. Conclusion. Clinically, supernumerary teeth cause local damage and surgical treatment associated with conscious sedation has proved to be quite safe and effective in the behavioral control besides being able to be implemented in the outpatient routine.(AU)

Humans , Female , Child , Tooth Extraction/methods , Tooth, Supernumerary/surgery , Conscious Sedation/methods , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Nitrous Oxide/therapeutic use , Tooth, Supernumerary/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(6): 864-872, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389539


Background: The appropriate use of analgesia, sedation, neuromuscular blockade and the diagnosis and prevention of delirium (ASBD) are associated with better outcomes in critically ill patients at Intensive Care Unit (ICUs). Aim: To know the practices about analgesia, sedation, delirium, and neuromuscular blockade use among healthcare professionals working in adult ICUs in Chile. Material and Methods: An electronic survey was sent to 812 professionals working in ICUs using a previously published instrument, which was adapted and authorized by the author. Results: We received 278 surveys. Fifty two percent of respondents were physicians, 34% nurses and 11% physical therapists. Their age ranged between 30 and 39 years in 43% and was over 50 years in 9%. Eighty four percent evaluated pain routinely, but only 26% use a validated scale. Sedation was routinely evaluated with a validated scale and 73% referred to have a protocol. Neuromuscular block is seldom used, and little monitoring occurs (43%). Delirium is routinely evaluated by 48% of respondents, usually using the CAM-ICU scale. Conclusions: There is a heterogeneous adherence to the ASBD recommended practices. The main gaps are in the assessment of pain, monitoring of neuromuscular blockade and diagnosis of delirium through validated instruments.

Humans , Adult , Neuromuscular Blockade/adverse effects , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/prevention & control , Analgesia , Pain , Chile , Critical Care , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Intensive Care Units