Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 918
Filter
1.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 50(1): 52-56, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251634

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El trastorno por consumo de alcohol es una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en el mundo. La enfermedad hepática alcohólica es una complicación común de este trastorno y la encefalopatía hepática es una seria comorbilidad de la cirrosis alcohólica. Los factores precipitantes pueden relacionarse con infección, sangrado gastrointestinal, deshidratación o efectos de psicofármacos (p. ej., benzodiacepinas e hipnóticos no benzodiacepínicos). Se expone un caso del manejo hospitalario de un paciente con un trastorno severo por consumo de alcohol, cirrosis y encefalopatía hepática, quien desarrolla síntomas de abstinencia alcohólica durante su hospitalización y la complejidad del manejo antagónico de un delirium gabaérgico propio de la encefalopatía hepática en el contexto de un delirium glutamatérgico-noradrenérgico por abstinencia alcohólica.


ABSTRACT Alcohol use disorder is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Alcoholic liver disease is a common complication of this disorder, and hepatic encephalopathy is a serious complication of alcoholic cirrhosis. Precipitating factors may be related to infection, gastrointestinal bleeding, dehydration or the effects of psychotropic drugs (e.g. benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics). We present a case of the hospital management of a patient with a severe alcohol use disorder, cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy who developed alcohol withdrawal symptoms while in hospital, and discuss the complexity of the antagonistic management of a GABAergic delirium characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy in the context of a glutamatergic-noradrenergic delirium due to alcohol withdrawal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Precipitating Factors , Delirium , Psychotropic Drugs , Therapeutics , Benzodiazepines , Comorbidity , Dehydration , Alcoholism , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic
2.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(2): 137-146, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115828

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La planificación de cirugías para el manejo del síndrome de apneahipopnea obstructiva del sueño (SAHOS) ha incrementado su precisión desde la introducción de la endoscopía del sueño inducido por fármacos (DISE). OBJETIVO: Evaluar la técnica de faringoplastía de reposición con suturas barbadas (BRP) para el colapso velofaríngeo y/o de paredes laterales orofaríngeas evaluado mediante DISE en pacientes con SAHOS. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Ochenta y ocho pacientes fueron evaluados para cirugía mediante antropometría, escala de somnolencia de Epworth (ESS) y poligrafía respiratoria. Veinte y seis de 88 pacientes fueron seleccionados. De los 26, 14 accedieron al tratamiento quirúrgico, el que se seleccionó en base a la DISE. En todos los casos, se realizó BRP. RESULTADOS: A los 3 meses de la cirugía hubo mejoría en 10/14 pacientes (criterios de Sher, disminución del índice de apnea-hipoapnea a <20 o 50% del basal). La ESS bajó en promedio de 12 a 5 puntos (p <0,05). No se reportaron incidentes en el posoperatorio y no han ocurrido eventos adversos. CONCLUSIÓN: La técnica de BRP es una técnica sencilla y útil para la expansión anterior y lateral del paladar blando y orofaringe, con una tasa de éxito similar en esta cohorte a la reportada internacionalmente.


INTRODUCTION: Surgical planning for the management of obstructive sleep apneahypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) has changed since the introduction of drug induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). AIM: To evaluate the technique of barbed sutures reposition pharyngoplasty (BRP) for velopharyngeal collapse and/or oropharyngeal lateral walls after DISE evaluation in OSAHS patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 88 patients were evaluated for surgery by anthropometry, Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and respiratory polygraphy. 26 of 88 patients were selected. Of the 26, 14 agreed to surgical treatment, which was selected on DISE findings. In all cases, BRP was performed. RESULTS: Three months after surgery there was improvement in 10/14 patients (Sher criteria, apnea-hypopnea index reduction at <20 or 50% of baseline). The ESS improved on average 12 to 5 (p <0.05). No incidents were reported in the post-operative period and no adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: The BRP technique is a simple and useful technique for the anterior and lateral expansion of the soft palate and oropharynx, with a similar success rate in this cohort to that internationally reported.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pharynx/surgery , Suture Techniques , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/surgery , Endoscopy/methods , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/surgery , Body Mass Index , Anthropometry , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleepiness , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786217

ABSTRACT

The interventional cardiology is growing and evolving. Many complex procedures are now performed outside the operating room to manage cardiovascular pathologies which had been traditionally treated with cardiac surgery. Appropriate sedation strategy is crucial for improved patient comfort and successful procedure while ensuring safety. Sedation for cardiovascular intervention is frequently challenging, especially in critically-ill, high-risk patients. This review addresses pre-procedure evaluation and preparation of patients, proper monitoring, commonly used sedatives and analgesics, and considerations for specific procedures. Appropriate depth of sedation and analgesia should be balanced with patient, procedural and institutional factors. Understanding of the pharmacology of sedatives/analgesics, vigilant monitoring, ability and proper preparation for management of potential complications may improve outcomes in patients undergoing sedation for cardiovascular procedures.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Analgesics , Anesthesia , Cardiology , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Operating Rooms , Pathology , Pharmacology , Thoracic Surgery
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786179

ABSTRACT

Currently, sedation anesthesia is increasingly used in many medical fields, from gastroscopy to medical imaging. The demand for sedation anesthesia is expected to increase gradually with increasing number of day surgeries and increased expectations from medical services. The demand for sedation anesthesia is considerably higher than the available pool of anesthesiologists; therefore, in a significant number of cases, sedation anesthesia is induced by non-anesthesiologists. However, there is no systematic provision of education or expertise for non-anesthesiologists in delivering sedation anesthesia. In cases of non-anesthesiologists inducing anesthesia, social controversy is often caused by medical accidents and substance abuse. In this review, I have briefly summarized what non-anesthesiologists should know about sedation anesthesia and have presented guidelines simplifying sedation anesthesia for non-anesthesia medical personnel.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Surgical Procedures , Anesthesia , Dexmedetomidine , Diagnostic Imaging , Education , Etomidate , Gastroscopy , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Ketamine , Propofol , Substance-Related Disorders
6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5395, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133746

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the prevalence of palliative sedation use and related factors. Methods An observational study based on data collected via electronic questionnaire comprising 23 close-ended questions and sent to physicians living and working in the state of São Paulo. Demographic data, prevalence and frequency of palliative sedation use, participant's familiarity with the practice and related motivating factors were analyzed. In order to minimize memory bias, questions addressing use frequency and motivating factors were limited to the last year prior to survey completion date. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. Results In total, 20,168 e-mails were sent and 324 valid answers obtained, resulting in 2% adherence. The overall prevalence of palliative sedation use over the course of professional practice was 68%. However, only 48% of respondents reported having used palliative sedation during the last year, primarily to relieve pain (35%). The frequency of use ranged from one to six times (66%) during the study period and the main reason for not using was the lack of eligible patients (64%). Approximately 83% of physicians felt comfortable using palliative sedation but only 26% reported having specific academic training in this field. Conclusion The prevalence of palliative sedation use is high, the primary indication being pain relief. However, frequency of use is low due to lack of eligible patients.


RESUMO Objetivo Verificar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao uso de sedação paliativa. Métodos Trata-se de estudo observacional realizado a partir do preenchimento de um questionário eletrônico com 23 questões objetivas enviado a médicos paulistas. Foram avaliados os dados demográficos, a prevalência e a frequência de uso da sedação paliativa; o nível de conhecimento a respeito da técnica; e as motivações para sua utilização. Visando minimizar o viés de recordação, questões sobre a frequência de uso e motivações para tal, as respostas deveriam se referir ao último ano em relação à data de preenchimento da pesquisa. Foi utilizada estatística descritiva para sumarizar os resultados. Resultados Foram enviados 20.168 e-mails e obtiveram-se 324 respostas válidas, resultando em 2% de adesão. A prevalência de utilização da sedação paliativa ao longo do histórico de atuação profissional foi de 68%, mas apenas 48% utilizaram a sedação paliativa no último ano, motivados, principalmente, pela presença de dor no paciente (35%). A frequência de uso foi de uma a seis vezes (66%), e a principal razão para não empregar a sedação paliativa foi a ausência de pacientes elegíveis (64%). Aproximadamente 83% dos médicos sentiam-se confortáveis quanto ao uso de sedação paliativa, mas apenas 26% possuíam formação teórica específica na área. Conclusão A prevalência de uso da sedação paliativa é alta, sendo utilizada, na maioria das vezes, para proporcionar o alívio da dor do paciente. Por outro lado, sua frequência de utilização é baixa, principalmente pela ausência de pacientes elegíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Palliative Care/statistics & numerical data , Terminal Care , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Pain , Palliative Care/methods , Palliative Care/ethics , Prevalence , Advance Care Planning/ethics
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200206, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132262

ABSTRACT

Abstract The high prevalence of anxiety disorders associated with pharmacotherapy side effects have motivated the search for new pharmacological agents. Species from Citrus genus, such as Citrus limon (sicilian lemon), have been used in folk medicine as a potential therapy to minimize emotional disorders. In order to searching for new effective treatments with fewer side effects, the present study evaluated the anxiolytic mechanism of action and the hypnotic-sedative activity from the Citrus limon fruit's peels essential oil (CLEO). Adults male Swiss mice were submitted to barbiturate-induced sleep test; elevated plus-maze (EPM) and light-dark box (LDB) (evaluation of the mechanism of action); rotarod; and catalepsy tests. CLEO oral treatment decreased latency and increased the sleep total time; moreover it induced in animals an increased the number of entries and percentage of time spent into open arms of the EPM; an increased the number of transitions and the percentage of time into light compartment in the LDB; which were only antagonized by flumazenil pretreatment, with no injury at motor function. Thus, results suggest that CLEO treatment induced an anxiolytic behavior suggestively modulated by the benzodiazepine binding site of the GABAA receptor or by an increase of GABAergic neurotransmission, without cause impairment in the motor coordination.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Citrus/chemistry , GABA Modulators/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Anti-Anxiety Agents/isolation & purification , Maze Learning/drug effects , Hypnotics and Sedatives/isolation & purification
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828892

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the median effective dose (ED) of intranasal dexmedetomidine for procedural sedation in uncooperative pediatric patients with acyanotic congenital heart disease before and after cardiac surgery.@*METHODS@#We prospectively recruited 47 children (22 in preoperative group and 25 in postoperative group) who needed sedation for transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). A modified up-and-down sequential study design was employed to determine dexmedetomidine dose for each patient with a starting dose of 2 μg/kg in both groups; dexmedetomidine doses for subsequent subjects were determined according to the responses from the previous subject using the up-and-down method at a 0.25 μg/kg interval. The ED was determined using probit regression. The onset time, examination time, wake-up time and adverse effects were measured, and the safety was evaluated in terms of changes in vital signs every 5 min.@*RESULTS@#The ED value of intranasal dexmedetomidine for sedation was 1.84 μg/kg (95% : 1.68-2.00 μg/kg) in children with congenital heart disease before cardiac surgery, and 3.38 μg/kg (95% : 3.21-3.54 μg/kg) after the surgery. No significant difference was found between the two groups in the demographic variables, onset time, examination time, wake-up time, or adverse effects.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In children with acyanotic congenital heart disease, the ED of intranasal dexmedetomidine for TTE sedation increases to 3.38 μg/ kg after cardiac surgery from the preoperative value of 1.84 μg/kg.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intranasal , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Child , Dexmedetomidine , Heart Defects, Congenital , General Surgery , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828726

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect and safety of vacuum stretcher combined with feeding in cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination for neonates.@*METHODS@#A prospective study was performed for the neonates with hyperbilirubinemia, with a gestational age of >34 weeks and stable vital signs, who needed cranial MRI examination and did not need oxygen inhalation hospitalized in the Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, from September to November, 2019. The neonates were randomly divided into a vacuum stretcher combined with feeding group and a conventional sedation group. Vital signs were monitored before, during, and after MRI examination. The success rate of MRI procedure was recorded.@*RESULTS@#A total of 80 neonates were enrolled in the study, with 40 neonates in the vacuum stretcher combined with feeding group and 40 in the conventional sedation group. The vacuum stretcher combined with feeding group had a significantly higher success rate of MRI procedure than the conventional sedation group (P0.05). No complications, such as apnea, acute allergic reactions, and malignant fever, were observed.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Vacuum stretcher combined with feeding can improve the success rate of MRI procedure and reduce the use of sedatives, and meanwhile, it does not increase related risks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Infant, Newborn , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prospective Studies , Stretchers , Vacuum
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828725

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare intranasal midazolam and intramuscular phenobarbital sodium for their sedative effect in neonates undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).@*METHODS@#A total of 70 neonates who underwent cranial MRI from September 2017 to March 2019 were randomized into an observation group and a control group, with 35 cases in each group. The observation group received intranasal drops of midazolam (0.3 mg/kg), and the control group received intramuscular injection of phenobarbital sodium (10 mg/kg). The sedation status of the neonates was evaluated using the Ramsay Sedation Scale. Meanwhile, the two groups were compared for the success rate of MRI procedure and incidence of adverse reactions.@*RESULTS@#In the observation group, the sedation score was the highest at 20 minutes post administration, then was gradually decreasing, and decreased to the lowest level at 70 minutes post administration. In the control group, the sedation score was the lowest at 10 minutes post administration, then was gradually increasing, and increased to the highest level at 40 minutes and 50 minutes post administration, followed by a gradual decrease. Comparison of the sedation score at each time period suggested that the sedation score was significantly higher in the observation group than in the control group within 40 minutes post administration (P0.05). The success rate of MRI procedure was significantly higher in the observation group than in the control group (89% vs 69%, P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Intranasal midazolam is superior to intramuscular phenobarbital sodium in the sedative effect in neonates undergoing MRI, with the benefits of being fast, convenient, safe, and effective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Pharmacology , Infant, Newborn , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Midazolam , Prospective Studies , Single-Blind Method
11.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(6): 649-656, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058196

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Se analiza la efectividad y seguridad de un protocolo específico de sedoanalgesia para procedimien tos, y evalúa la satisfacción del personal sanitario con cada procedimiento. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio prospectivo de un protocolo de sedoanalgesia para procedimientos en ámbito hospitalario en menores de 18 años, con una estrategia individualizada según la situación basal del paciente, el tipo de procedimiento y la experiencia del pediatra responsable de la sedación. Se registraron las variables: diagnóstico que motiva el procedimiento, tipo de procedimiento, datos antropométri cos, alergias, medicación, estado ASA y enfermedad de base, tiempo de ayuno, auscultación pul monar, temperatura, saturación de oxígeno, frecuencia respiratoria, frecuencia cardiaca, tensión arterial, lugar de sedación, tipo de fármaco, dosis, tipo de vía, escala de sedación Ramsay, duración de la sedación, tipo y tratamiento de efectos adversos, presencia de familiares durante todo el pro cedimiento y satisfacción del paciente. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron 279 sedaciones. Los fármacos más usados fueron óxido nitroso (62,7%) y midazolam (16,5%); las vías de administración más utili zadas fueron la inhalada (62,4%) y la intravenosa (15,8%). La satisfacción fue alta para el pediatra (92,5%), el enfermero (94,3%), los familiares (96,8%) y los pacientes (93,6%), con una buena correlación entre ellos, y fue significativamente menor al usar midazolam y las vías nasal y bucal. La tasa de efectos adversos fue del 3,2%, y ninguno fue grave. CONCLUSIONES: La implementación de un protocolo específico de sedoanalgesia para procedimientos en el ámbito hospitalario consigue una alta efectividad y seguridad, además de un alto nivel de satisfacción, tanto en familiares como en personal sanitario.


INTRODUCTION: We analyze the effectiveness and safety of a specific analgosedation protocol for procedures, and eva luate the satisfaction of the health personnel with each procedure. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Prospective study of an analgosedation protocol for hospital procedures in children under 18 years of age, with an individualized strategy based on the patient's baseline situation, the type of procedure and the experience of the pediatrician responsible for the sedation. The following variables were recorded: diagnosis motivating the procedure, type of procedure, anthropometric data, allergies, medication, ASA status and baseline disease, fasting time, lung auscultation, temperature, oxygen saturation, res piratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, sedation location, type of drug, dose, route of administra tion, Ramsay sedation scale, duration of sedation, type and treatment of adverse effects, presence of family members throughout the procedure, and patient satisfaction. RESULTS: 279 sedations were performed. The most commonly used drugs were nitrous oxide (62.7%) and midazolam (16.5%); the most commonly used routes of administration were the inhaled one (62.4%) and the intravenous one (15.8%). The satisfaction was high for the pediatrician (92.5%), the nurse (94.3%), the family (96.8%), and patients (93.6%), with a good correlation between them, and it was significantly lower when using midazolam and the nasal and oral routes. The adverse effects rate was 3.2%, and none was severe. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a specific analgosedation protocol for procedures in the hospital environment achieves high levels of effectiveness and safety, as well as a high level of satisfaction, both in family members and in health personnel.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Clinical Protocols , Patient Satisfaction , Pediatricians/psychology , Analgesia/methods , Anesthesia/methods , Job Satisfaction , Midazolam , Family/psychology , Prospective Studies , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic , Pain, Procedural/prevention & control , Analgesia/adverse effects , Analgesia/psychology , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Anesthesia/psychology , Nitrous Oxide , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology
12.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 664-670, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054902

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Reports regarding the causative drugs of drug-induced cutaneous adverse reactions in China are indistinct, such that different regions have reported the spectrum of drugs differs substantially in different clinical conditions. Objective: To explore the causative drugs that led to cutaneous reactions. Methods: Adverse drug reaction reports from central China were collected and divided into cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions groups. Cases were reviewed retrospectively for causative drugs. Results: The male:female ratio was equal in both cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions. In cutaneous adverse reactions (n = 482), the highest incidence happened between 51 and 60 years of age and the top three causative drugs were antibiotics (48%), Chinese medicine (16%), and allopurinol (9%). In severe cutaneous adverse reactions (n = 126), the highest incidence happened between 41 and 50 years of age and the top three causative drugs were sedative-hypnotics and antiepileptics (39%), antibiotics (22%), and allopurinol (15%). Carbamazepine was the most frequently used single-drug (16/18) in sedative-hypnotics and antiepileptics. β-lactams were the most frequently used antibiotics that induced both cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Study limitations: The small sample size, retrospective design, collection of cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions at different time frames and locations, and exclusion of patients taking more than five medications are limitations of the study. Conclusions: Gender does not affect cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions. The top three drugs to induce cutaneous adverse reactions are antibiotics, Chinese medicine, and allopurinol, while those that triggered severe cutaneous adverse reactions are sedative-hypnotics and antiepileptics, antibiotics, and allopurinol. Carbamazepine is the most frequent single drug that induces severe cutaneous adverse reactions. β-lactams are the most frequently used antibiotics that induce both cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Drug Eruptions/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Hypnotics and Sedatives/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects
13.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(5): 469-476, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057463

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Emergence agitation is a negative behavior commonly recorded after pediatric tonsillectomy. We investigated the efficacy of preoperative premedication with oral transmucosal buccal dexmedetomidine on the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in preschool children undergoing tonsillectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods: Ninety patients aged (3-6 years), ASA I‒II were enrolled into three groups (n = 30) to receive oral transmucosal dexmedetomidine 0.5 µg.kg-1 (Group DEX I), 1 µg.kg-1 (Group DEX II) or saline placebo (Group C). Our primary endpoint was the Watcha agitation score at emergence in PACU. Secondary outcomes were preoperative sedation score, intraoperative hemodynamics, postoperative Objective Pain Scale (OPS) and adverse effects. Results: The patients' demographics, preoperative sedation scores and extubation time showed no difference between groups. Significant differences between groups in incidence and frequency distribution of each grade of Watcha score were evident at 5 minutes (p= 0.007), 10 minutes (p= 0.034), 30 minutes (p= 0.022), 45 minutes (p= 0.034) and 60 minutes (p= 0.026), postoperatively with significant differences between DEX I and II groups. DEX groups showed lower OPS scores at 5 minutes (p= 0.011), 10 minutes (p= 0.037) and 30 minutes (p= 0.044) after arrival at PACU, with no difference between DEX I and II groups. Patients in DEX II group exhibited lower intraoperative mean heart rate at 15 min (p= 0.020), and lower mean arterial pressure at 30 minutes, (p= 0.040), 45 minutes (p= 0.002) and 60 minutes (p= 0.006) with no significant differences between groups in other time points. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the clinical advantage and the simple technique of oral transmucosal DEX premedication for emergence agitation in preschool children undergoing tonsillectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia compared with saline placebo. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov trial registry: NCT02720705.


Resumo Objetivos: A agitação ao despertar da anestesia é um comportamento negativo comumente registrado após amigdalectomia pediátrica. Avaliamos a eficácia da pré-medicação com dexmedetomidina via transmucosa oral no pré-operatório sobre a incidência e gravidade da agitação ao despertar em crianças pré-escolares submetidas à amigdalectomia sob anestesia com sevoflurano. Métodos: Noventa pacientes entre três e seis anos e estado físico ASA I-II foram incluídos em três grupos (n = 30) para receber 0,5 µg.kg-1 ou 1 µg.kg-1 de dexmedetomidina via transmucosa oral (Grupo DEX I e Grupo DEX II, respectivamente) ou solução salina (Grupo C). O desfecho primário foi o escore de agitação ao despertar medido com a escala de Watcha na SRPA. Os desfechos secundários foram escore de sedação pré-operatória, hemodinâmica intraoperatória, escore OPS (Objective Pain Scale) e efeitos adversos no pós-operatório. Resultados: A demografia dos pacientes, os escores de sedação pré-operatória e o tempo de extubação não apresentaram diferença entre os grupos. Diferenças significativas entre os grupos na distribuição da incidência e frequência de cada grau do escore de Watcha foram evidentes aos 5 minutos (p = 0,007), 10 minutos (p = 0,034), 30 minutos (p = 0,022), 45 minutos (p = 0,034) e 60 minutos (p = 0,026) no pós-operatório, com diferenças significativas entre os grupos DEX I e II. Os grupos DEX apresentaram escores OPS mais baixos aos 5 minutos (p = 0,011), 10 minutos (p = 0,037) e 30 minutos (p = 0,044) após a chegada à SRPA, sem diferença entre os grupos DEX I e II. Os pacientes do grupo DEX II apresentaram menor frequência cardíaca média aos 15 minutos de intraoperatório (p = 0,020) e menor pressão arterial média aos 30 minutos, (p = 0,040), 45 minutos (p = 0,002) e 60 minutos (p = 0,006), sem diferenças significativas entre os grupos em outros momentos. Conclusão: Este estudo demonstra a vantagem clínica e a técnica simples da pré-medicação com DEX por via transmucosa oral para agitação ao despertar em crianças pré-escolares submetidas à amigdalectomia sob anestesia com sevoflurano, comparado à solução salina. Registro do estudo: Clinical Trials.gov trial registry: NCT02720705.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Tonsillectomy , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Emergence Delirium/prevention & control , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Administration, Buccal , Single-Blind Method , Mouth Mucosa
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 3129-3140, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011862

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo do estudo é estimar a prevalência do uso de clonazepam no Estado do Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Estudo ecológico e descritivo do consumo de clonazepam (2009-2013), com dados do Sistema Nacional de Gerenciamento de Produtos Controlados da Anvisa. O consumo foi medido pela Dose Diária Definida, com indicadores por população total e com 18 anos e mais utilizando a DDD padronizada de 8mg (anticonvulsivante) e a de 1mg (hipnosedativo). Os Municípios da Região Metropolitana foram agrupados segundo os Índices de Desenvolvimento Humano (IDH) e de GINI, submetidos à análise de conglomerados e apresentados segundo o consumo de clonazepam. No Estado do RJ, o consumo entre 2009 e 2013 aumentou de 0,35 para 1,97 DDD/1000 habitantes. Os valores são maiores para os indivíduos acima de 18 anos. Empregando-se 1mg ao invés de 8mg, chega-se a 21 DDD/1000 habitantes acima de 18 anos, em 2013. Rio de Janeiro e Niterói, com os maiores IDH, apresentaram em 2013 os maiores consumos, 3,38 e 4,52 DDD, respectivamente. Os dados sugerem que até 2% da população adulta é usuária de clonazepam, possivelmente como hipnosedativo. Deve-se atentar para o uso ampliado e fora de indicações terapêuticas, dados o potencial de abuso e as reações adversas ao clonazepam.


Abstract This descriptive, ecological study of clonazepam consumption in Rio de Janeiro State (RJ) estimated use prevalence from 2009 to 2013 using data from the National Controlled Product Management System operated by Brazil's health surveillance agency, Anvisa. Consumption was measured by total population and by population over 18 years old, using the standardised Daily Defined Doses of 8 mg (anticonvulsant) and 1 mg (sedative-hypnotic). The municipalities of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region were grouped by Human Development Index (HDI) and GINI index, subjected to cluster analysis and ranked by clonazepam consumption. From 2009 to 2013, consumption in the state rose from 0.35 to 1.97 DDD/1000 population, but the figures are higher for individuals over 18 years of age. A DDD of 1 mg instead of 8mg returns consumption in 2013 of 21 DDD/1000 population over 18 years of age. Consumption in 2013 was highest - 3.38 and 4.52 DDD, respectively - in Rio de Janeiro and Niterói, which have the highest HDIs. This suggests that up to 2% of the adult population uses clonazepam, possibly as a sedative-hypnotic. This broad use and use outside therapeutic indications deserves attention, given clonazepam's potential for abuse and adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Clonazepam/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Brazil , Cluster Analysis , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
15.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(4): 404-409, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011571

ABSTRACT

Abstract Crossover studies continue to be published in spite of warnings about their inherent risks in relation to behavioral outcomes. This study took the opportunity of access to secondary data analysis in order to demonstrate the impact of a crossover design on the outcomes of randomized clinical trials aimed at the behavior of children during dental treatment. We evaluated the effect of the sequence of sedative administration, the sedative and the participant's age on the behavior of children undergoing two sequential dental visits. Eighteen uncooperative healthy young children were equally randomly assigned to: (G1) 1.0 mg/kg oral midazolam (first session) and oral placebo (second session); (G2) oral placebo (first) and 1.0 mg/kg oral midazolam (second). One trained observer assessed children's behavior. Data were analyzed by three-way mixed ANOVA. Both midazolam [mean(SD); 71.7%(16.5)] and placebo [48.6%(33.1)] produced more struggling behavior when they were administered in the first session compared to the second one (p=0.001). For the placebo, children aged 2-3 years exhibited more struggling behavior [G1 54.9%(36.2); G2 80.5%(8.3)] than those aged 4-5 years (p=0.04). Also, the reduction of percentage of struggling behavior was higher in G1 for older children (76.2%) and in G2 for younger children (32.9%). There were significant interactions between drug and sequence of administration, and between drug and age. The results of our study confirm the conventional wisdom that crossover study design is inappropriate to evaluate children's behavior/anxiety related-dental treatment under sedation and the results of crossover studies of dental sedation should be treated with extreme caution.


Resumo Pouco se sabe sobre o impacto de um delineamento cruzado nos desfechos de ensaios clínicos randomizados voltados ao comportamento de crianças durante tratamento odontológico. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito da sequência de administração do sedativo, da droga em si e da idade dos participantes no comportamento de crianças que receberam duas consultas odontológicas consecutivas. Dezoito crianças saudáveis não colaboradoras, 2-5 anos de idade, foram randomizadas em dois grupos: G1 - 1,0 mg/kg midazolam oral (primeira sessão) e placebo oral (segunda sessão); G2 - placebo (primeira) e 1,0 mg/kg midazolam oral (segunda). Um observador treinado avaliou o comportamento infantil. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA de três fatores (alfa=0,05). Midazolam [média(DP); 71,7%(16,5)] e placebo [48,6%(33,1)] resultaram em mais comportamento não cooperativo quando administrados na primeira sessão comparado com a segunda (p=0,001). Com o uso do placebo, crianças de 2-3 anos de idade exibiram mais comportamento não cooperativo [G1 54,9%(36,2); G2 80,5%(8,3)] que as de 4-5 anos de idade (p=0,04). Além disso, a porcentagem de redução do comportamento não cooperativo foi maior em crianças mais velhas em G1 (76,2%) e em crianças mais novas em G2 (32,9%). Considerando a avaliação do comportamento infantil sob sedação, a primeira sessão odontológica influenciou a segunda visita. Os resultados deste estudo confirmam a especulação de que o delineamento cruzado é inadequado para avaliar o comportamento odontológico relacionado à ansiedade/comportamento infantil; os resultados dos ensaios cruzados de sedação odontológica devem ser tratados com extrema cautela.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Conscious Sedation , Anesthesia, Dental , Midazolam , Child Behavior , Cross-Over Studies , Hypnotics and Sedatives
16.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(4): 305-311, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043432

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring can positively affect cognitive performance through decreasing the use of sedative agents. We aimed to evaluate the effect of BIS monitoring on early cognitive performance among patients undergoing sedation for colonoscopy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled trial in a university hospital. METHODS: 100 patients were randomized into two groups. In the monitored group (n = 50), the depth of anesthesia was monitored using the BIS, and BIS scores were maintained between 60 and 80. In the usual care group (n = 50), BIS monitoring was not performed. To determine the patients' baseline cognitive performance levels, the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Trieger dot test (TDT) and clock drawing test (CDT) were used. The patients' post-procedure cognitive performance levels were determined when they were classified as ready for discharge. RESULTS: The total volume (mg) of propofol used [median (range) IQR] in the sedation procedure was lower in the monitored group [100 (50-200) 100-140] than in the usual care group [150 (75-200) 100-200] (P < 0.001). The discharge scores [mean (SD)] using MMSE and CDT were higher in the monitored group [26 (3) and 3 (1), respectively] than in the usual care group [23 (3) and 2 (1), respectively] (P = 0.002 and P = 0.002, respectively). The discharge scores using TDT [mean (SD)] were lower in the monitored group [11 (7)] than in the usual care group [15 (11)] (P = 0.033). CONCLUSION: BIS monitoring among sedated patients was associated with lower propofol use and smaller decline in cognitive performance. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12617000134325).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Propofol/administration & dosage , Colonoscopy/methods , Cognition/drug effects , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Patient Satisfaction , Electroencephalography
17.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(3): 379-387, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011633

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: There is no consensus on a single classification system for the obstructive findings in drug-induced sleep endoscopy. Previous classification systems have neglected to address the upper retropalatal obstruction, the segmental division of the lateral pharyngeal wall and the primary or secondary nature of laryngeal collapse. Objective: To propose, illustrate and evaluate a more comprehensive and yet simple classification for drug-induced sleep endoscopy findings. Methods: Cross sectional study in a tertiary sleep surgery unit. A total of 30 patients with obstructive sleep apnea underwent drug-induced sleep endoscopy according to a new classification system called LwPTL, and its findings were analyzed according to obstructive sleep apnea severity and body mass index. LwPTL incorporates the description of upper retropalatal collapse, distinguishes the lateral pharyngeal wall collapse into three levels and clarify when laryngeal collapses are primary or secondary. Results: 93.3% of the patients presented lateral pharyngeal wall collapse, usually at the level of the velum (73.3%). 80% presented multilevel collapse. Regarding the upper retropalatal region, LwPTL identified 10% of the cases presenting lateral salpingopharyngeal obstruction and 6.6% with high palatal collapse. 3.3% presented epiglottic collapse. Patients presenting lower levels of collapse, either from the lateral wall and/or tongue and/or larynx, represented 30% of the cases and had significantly more severe obstructive sleep apnea, without significant differences in body mass indexes. Conclusion: LwPTL seems a simple and straightforward staging system for classifying drug-induced sleep endoscopy, distinguishing the important upper retopalatal obstruction and the primary and secondary laryngeal collapses, providing more information for appropriate treatment selection.


Resumo Introdução: Não há consenso sobre um sistema único de classificação para os achados obstrutivos da endoscopia do sono induzido por drogas. Os sistemas de classificação anteriores negligenciaram a abordagem da obstrução retropalatal alta, a divisão segmentar da parede lateral da faringe e a natureza primária ou secundária do colapso laríngeo. Objetivo: Propor, ilustrar e avaliar uma classificação mais abrangente e simples para os achados da endoscopia do sono induzido por drogas. Método: Estudo transversal em uma unidade terciária de cirurgia do sono. Foram submetidos à endoscopia do sono induzido por drogas 30 pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono, de acordo com um novo sistema de classificação denominado LwPTL, e seus achados foram analisados de acordo com a gravidade da apneia obstrutiva do sono e índice de massa corpórea. O LwPTL incorpora a descrição do colapso retropalatal alto, distingue o colapso da parede faríngea lateral em três níveis e esclarece quando os colapsos laríngeos são primários ou secundários. Resultados: Apresentaram colapso da parede faríngea lateral 93,3% dos pacientes, geralmente no nível do palato mole (73,3%). Em 80% dos pacientes o colapso foi multinível. Em relação à região retropalatal alta, o LwPTL identificou 10% dos casos com obstrução salpingo-faríngea lateral e 6,6% com colapso alto do palato. Em 3,3% ocorreu colapso epiglótico. Pacientes com colapso em regiões baixas, tanto da parede lateral e/ou língua como e/ou laringe, representaram 30% dos casos e apresentaram apneia obstrutiva do sono significativamente mais grave, sem diferenças significantes no índice de massa corpórea. Conclusão: O LwPTL parece um sistema de estadiamento simples e direto para classificar os achados da endoscopia do sono induzido por drogas, distingue a importante obstrução retropalatal alta e os colapsos laríngeos primários e secundários, fornece mais informações para uma seleção adequada do tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharynx/physiopathology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Airway Obstruction/physiopathology , Endoscopy/methods , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Pharynx/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Polysomnography/methods , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnostic imaging , Airway Obstruction/diagnostic imaging
18.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 41(2): 168-178, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990820

ABSTRACT

Objective: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and the efficacy of the available anxiolytic drugs is less than desired. Adverse effects also compromise patient quality of life and adherence to treatment. Accumulating evidence shows that the pathophysiology of anxiety and related disorders is multifactorial, involving oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and glutamatergic dysfunction. The aim of this review was to evaluate data from animal studies and clinical trials showing the anxiolytic effects of agents whose mechanisms of action target these multiple domains. Methods: The PubMed database was searched for multitarget agents that had been evaluated in animal models of anxiety, as well as randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials of anxiety and/or anxiety related disorders. Results: The main multitarget agents that have shown consistent anxiolytic effects in various animal models of anxiety, as well in clinical trials, are agomelatine, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and omega-3 fatty acids. Data from clinical trials are preliminary at best, but reveal good safety profiles and tolerance to adverse effects. Conclusion: Agomelatine, NAC and omega-3 fatty acids show beneficial effects in clinical conditions where mainstream treatments are ineffective. These three multitarget agents are considered promising candidates for innovative, effective, and better-tolerated anxiolytics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Anxiety Disorders/drug therapy , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Acetamides/pharmacology , Neuroimmunomodulation/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Glutamine/drug effects
19.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(1): 15-20, jan.-mar. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003626

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a incidência de eventos clínicos e não clínicos durante o transporte intra-hospitalar de pacientes críticos e analisar os fatores de risco associados. Métodos: Estudo de coorte, com coleta retrospectiva, no período de outubro de 2016 a outubro de 2017, tendo sido analisados todos os transportes intra-hospitalares para fins diagnósticos e terapêuticos em hospital de grande porte, que contava com seis unidades de terapia intensiva adulto, sendo avaliados os eventos adversos e os fatores de risco relacionados. Resultados: No período, foram realizados 1.559 transportes intra-hospitalares, em 1.348 pacientes, com média de idade de 66 ± 17 anos, tempo médio de transporte de 43 ± 34 minutos. Durante o transporte, 19,8% dos pacientes estavam em uso de drogas vasoativas; 13,7% em uso de sedativos e 10,6% estavam sob ventilação mecânica. Eventos clínicos ocorreram em 117 transportes (7,5%) e não clínicos em 125 transportes (8,0%). Falhas de comunicação foram prevalentes, no entanto, aplicando-se análise multivariada, uso de sedativos, noradrenalina e nitroprussiato, e o tempo de transporte maior que 36,5 minutos estiveram associados a eventos adversos clínicos. Uso de dobutamina e tempo de transporte superior a 36,5 minutos estiveram associados a eventos não clínicos. Ao final do transporte, 98,1% dos pacientes apresentaram condições clínicas inalteradas em relação ao seu estado basal. Conclusão: Transportes intra-hospitalares estão relacionados à alta incidência de eventos adversos; o tempo de transporte e a utilização de sedativos e drogas vasoativas estiveram relacionados a esses eventos.


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the incidence of clinical and non-clinical events during intrahospital transport of critically ill patients and to analyze the associated risk factors. Methods: Cohort study with retrospective data collected from October 2016 to October 2017. All cases of intrahospital transport for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in a large hospital with six adult intensive care units were analyzed, and the adverse events and related risk factors were evaluated. Results: During the study period, 1,559 intrahospital transports were performed with 1,348 patients, with a mean age of 66 ± 17 years and a mean transport time of 43 ± 34 minutes. During transport, 19.8% of the patients were using vasoactive drugs; 13.7% were under sedation; and 10.6% were under mechanical ventilation. Clinical events occurred in 117 transports (7.5%), and non-clinical events occurred in 125 (8.0%) transports. Communication failures were prevalent; however, the multivariate analysis showed that the use of sedatives, noradrenaline and nitroprusside and a transport time greater than 36.5 minutes were associated with adverse clinical events. The use of dobutamine and a transport time greater than 36.5 minutes were associated with non-clinical events. At the end of transport, 98.1% of the patients presented unchanged clinical conditions compared with baseline. Conclusion: Intrahospital transport is related to a high incidence of adverse events, and transport time and the use of sedatives and vasoactive drugs were related to these events.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Transportation of Patients/methods , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Nitroprusside/administration & dosage , Nitroprusside/adverse effects , Norepinephrine/administration & dosage , Norepinephrine/adverse effects , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Hospitals , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/adverse effects , Middle Aged
20.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(1): 32-36, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984061

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The use of diagnostic auditory brainstem response testing under sedation is currently the "gold standard" in infants and young children who are not developmentally capable of completing the test. Objective: The aim of the study is to compare a propofol-ketamine regimen to an oral chloral hydrate regimen for sedating children undergoing auditory brainstem response testing. Methods: Patients between 4 months and 6 years who required sedation for auditory brainstem response testing were included in this retrospective study. Drugs doses, adverse effects, sedation times, and the effectiveness of the sedative regimens were reviewed. Results: 73 patients underwent oral chloral hydrate sedation, while 117 received propofol-ketamine sedation. 12% of the patients in the chloral hydrate group failed to achieve desired sedation level. The average procedure, recovery and total nursing times were significantly lower in the propofol-ketamine group. Propofol-ketamine group experienced higher incidence of transient hypoxemia. Conclusion: Both sedation regimens can be successfully used for sedating children undergoing auditory brainstem response testing. While deep sedation using propofol-ketamine regimen offers more efficiency than moderate sedation using chloral hydrate, it does carry a higher incidence of transient hypoxemia, which warrants the use of a highly skilled team trained in pediatric cardio-respiratory monitoring and airway management.


Resumo Introdução: O uso de testes diagnósticos de potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico sob sedação é atualmente o padrão-ouro em lactentes e crianças pequenas que não têm desenvolvimento suficiente para realizar o exame. Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi comparar a sedação de crianças submetidas a testes de potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico com propofol-quetamina e com hidrato de cloral por via oral. Método: Pacientes entre 4 meses e 6 anos de idade que necessitaram de sedação para a realização do potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico foram incluídos nesse estudo retrospectivo. Foram revisadas as doses dos medicamentos, os efeitos adversos, os tempos de sedação e a eficácia das formas de sedação. Resultados: 73 pacientes foram submetidos à sedação oral com hidrato de cloral, enquanto 117 receberam sedação com propofol-quetamina; 12% dos pacientes do grupo hidrato de cloral não alcançaram o nível desejado de sedação. Os tempos médios de procedimento, recuperação e o tempo total de cuidados de enfermagem foram significativamente menores no grupo propofol-quetamina, entretanto este grupo experimentou maior incidência de hipoxemia transitória. Conclusão: Ambos os regimes de sedação podem ser utilizados com sucesso para sedar crianças para realização do exame de potencial evocado de tronco encefálico. Embora a sedação profunda com propofol e quetamina ofereça mais eficiência do que a sedação moderada com hidrato de cloral, ela apresenta maior incidência de hipoxemia transitória, o que requer uma equipe altamente qualificada, treinada em monitoramento cardiorrespiratório pediátrico e manejo de vias aéreas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Audiometry, Evoked Response/methods , Chloral Hydrate , Conscious Sedation/methods , Deep Sedation/methods , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Ketamine , Time Factors , Propofol , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Drug Combinations , Hearing Loss/diagnosis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL