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Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 520-526, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985902


Objective: To systematically evaluate the correlation between prenatal steroid exposure and hypoglycemia in late preterm neonates. Methods: Eight databases in either Chinese or English, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, Scopus, CNKI, Wanfang and VIP, were searched to extract the studies on the correlation between prenatal steroid exposure and hypoglycemia in late preterm neonates published from the establishment of each database to December 2022. The Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 14.0 statistical software. Results: A total of 9 studies were included in this Meta-analysis, including 6 retrospective cohort studies, 2 prospective cohort studies and 1 randomized controlled trial (RCT) study, involving 9 143 premature infants. The Meta-analysis showed that prenatal steroid exposure increased the risk of late preterm neonatal hypoglycemia (RR=1.55, 95%CI 1.25-1.91, P<0.001). The similar correlation between prenatal steroid exposure and hypoglycemia in late preterm neonates was all found in the following subgroups: North America (RR=1.57, 95%CI 1.37-1.80, P<0.001), enrolling pregnant women with gestational diabetes (RR=1.62, 95%CI 1.26-2.08, P<0.001), A-grade literature quality (RR=1.43, 95%CI 1.14-1.79, P=0.002), criteria for hypoglycemia ≤40 mg/dl (1 mg/dl=0.056 mmol/L, RR=1.49, 95%CI 1.28-1.73, P<0.001), sample size of 501-1 500 (RR=1.69, 95%CI 1.19-2.40, P=0.003) and >1 500 (RR=1.65, 95%CI 1.48-1.83, P<0.001), steroid injection dosage and frequency of 12 mg 2 times (RR=1.66, 95%CI 1.50-1.84, P<0.001), the time interval from antenatal corticosteroid administration to delivery of 24-47 h (RR=1.98, 95%CI 1.26-3.10, P=0.003), unadjusted gestational age (RR=1.78, 95%CI 1.02-3.10,P=0.043) and unadjusted birth weight (RR=1.80, 95%CI 1.22-2.66, P=0.003). Meta-regression results showed that steroid injection frequency and dose were the main sources of high heterogeneity among studies (P=0.030). Conclusion: Prenatal steroid exposure may be a risk factor for hypoglycemia in late preterm neonates.

Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Birth Weight , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Infant, Premature , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Steroids/adverse effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(10): 1334-1341, oct. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431849


BACKGROUND: The use of glucose lowering agents with favorable weight profile is a growing practice in Diabetology. AIM: To characterize medication combinations in patients with type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and their effect on metabolic control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of medical records of 249 outpatients with T2D with a median age of 66 years, cared for at a medical network. Clinical characteristics, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), details of Diabetes treatment (types of drugs or insulin), renal function, lipids and B12 vitamin levels were registered. RESULTS: The median disease duration was 16 years. The most recent HbA1c was 7.4%. No patient was using sulfonylureas, 45 were using Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, 113 were using Sodium-glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT2i) Inhibitors, 21 used Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists (GLP1ra), 158 used basal insulin and 61 on basal plus bolus insulin. The use of SGLT2i or GLP1ra was associated with a metabolic control similar to those patients not using them, while patients on rapid insulin had a significantly worse metabolic control and a tendency to greater body mass index. The use of basal insulin and rapid insulin was significantly associated with more hypoglycemia events. CONCLUSIONS: The use of SGLT2i and GLP1ra in patients with T2D is associated with better metabolic control than rapid insulin with less risk of hypoglycemia. The use of these therapies should be prioritized in the future.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Ambulatory Care , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Glycated Hemoglobin/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Insulin/adverse effects
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(1): 115-119, ene. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389609


ABSTRACT Insulin antibodies (IAs) induced by exogenous insulin rarely cause hypoglycemia. However, insulin autoantibodies (IAAs) in insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) can cause hypoglycemia. The typical manifestations of IAS are fasting or postprandial hypoglycemia, elevated insulin level, decreased C-peptide levels, and positive IAA. We report a 45-year-old male with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) treated with insulin analogues suffering from recurrent hypoglycemic coma and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). His symptoms were caused by exogenous insulin and were similar to IAS. A possible reason was that exogenous insulin induced IA. IA titers were 61.95% (normal: 300 mU/L and < 0.02 nmol/L when hypoglycemia occurred. Based on his clinical symptoms and other examinations, he was diagnosed with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia caused by IA. His symptoms improved after changing insulin regimens from insulin lispro plus insulin detemir to recombinant human insulin (Gensulin R) and starting prednisone.

Los anticuerpos contra la insulina (AI) inducidos por la insulina exógena raramente causan hipoglucemia. No obstante, los autoanticuerpos contra la insulina (AIA) en el síndrome autoinmune de insulina (SAI) pueden causar hipoglucemia. Las manifestaciones típicas del SAI son la hipoglucemia en ayunas o posprandial, niveles elevados de insulina, la disminución del nivel de péptido C y AIA positivos. Presentamos un paciente hombre de 45 años con diabetes mellitus de tipo 1 (DMT1) tratado con análogos de insulina, que sufría comas hipoglucémicos recurrentes y cetoacidosis diabética (CAD). Sus síntomas fueron causados por la insulina exógena y fueron similares al SAI. La posible razón fue que la insulina exógena indujo AI. El título de AI era del 61,95% (Normal: 300 mU/L y < 0,02 nmol/L cuando se producía la hipoglucemia. Basados en sus síntomas clínicos y otros exámenes, se le diagnosticó hipoglucemia hiperinsulinémica causada por la AI. Sus síntomas mejoraron después de cambiar el régimen de insulina de lispro más insulina detemir a insulina humana recombinante (Gensulin R) y de empezar a tomar prednisona.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , C-Peptide/therapeutic use , Coma , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Insulin/therapeutic use , Insulin Antibodies/therapeutic use
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(2): 164-171, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248819


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of hypoglycemia and the treatment satisfaction in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using insulin analogues. Subjects and methods: This observational retrospective study included 516 adult patients with T1D from 38 cities in Southern Brazil. Demographics and clinical data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Hypoglycemia was defined as an event based on either symptoms or self-monitored blood glucose < 70 mg/dL. Treatment satisfaction was evaluated using the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire status version (DTSQs) and with a specific question with scores ranging from 0-10. Common mental disorders were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Results: Overall, the mean age was 38 ± 14 years and 52% of the participants were women. The median diabetes duration was 18 years. The scores for insulin analogue treatment satisfaction were higher than those for previous treatments. DTSQ scores had a median value of 32 (interquartile range 29-35) and remained unchanged over time. The percentage of patients with hypoglycemia (including severe and nocturnal) was comparable across groups divided according to duration of use of insulin analogues. Most patients (n=395, 77%) screened positive for common mental disorders. Conclusions: Patient satisfaction with insulin analogue treatment was high and remained unchanged with time. Episodes of hypoglycemia also remained unchanged over time among patients using insulin analogues.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Insulins/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Patient Satisfaction , Middle Aged
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(1): 117-119, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152887


ABSTRACT This is a retrospective report of the frequency of severe hypoglycemia and the association between common mental disorders and type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin analogues. Patients with severe hypoglycemia compared with those without this complication had a higher prevalence of positive screening for common mental disorders (88% vs.77%, respectively, p = 0.03).

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Hypoglycemia , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Mental Disorders , Mental Disorders/chemically induced , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Insulin/adverse effects
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(2): 104-115, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003533


Abstract Diabetes during pregnancy has been linked to unfavorable maternal-fetal outcomes. Human insulins are the first drug of choice because of the proven safety in their use. However, there are still questions about the use of insulin analogs during pregnancy. The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of insulin analogs compared withhuman insulin in the treatment of pregnant women with diabetes througha systematic review withmeta-analysis. The search comprised the period since the inception of each database until July 2017, and the following databases were used:MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ISIWeb of Science, LILACS, Scopus, SIGLE andGoogle Scholar.We have selected 29 original articles: 11 were randomized clinical trials and 18 were observational studies.We have explored data from 6,382 participants. All of the articles were classified as having an intermediate to high risk of bias. The variable that showed favorable results for the use of insulin analogs was gestational age, with a mean difference of - 0.26 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.03-0.49; p = 0.02), but with significant heterogeneity (Higgins test [I2] = 38%; chi-squared test [χ2] = 16.24; degree of freedom [DF] = 10; p = 0.09). This result, in the clinical practice, does not compromise the fetal well-being, since all babies were born at term. There was publication bias in the gestational age and neonatal weight variables. To date, the evidence analyzed has a moderate-to-high risk of bias and does not allow the conclusion that insulin analogs are more effective when compared with human insulin to treat diabetic pregnant women.

Resumo Diabetes durante a gestação tem sido relacionado a desfechos materno-fetais desfavoráveis. As insulinas humanas são a primeira escolha medicamentosa, devido à comprovada segurança no seu uso. Entretanto, ainda há questionamentos sobre o uso dos análogos da insulina na gestação. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a efetividade dos análogos da insulina comparados às insulinas humanas no tratamento de gestantes com diabetes por meio de uma revisão sistemática com metanálise. A busca compreendeu desde o início de cada base de dados até julho de 2017, e foi realizada nos seguintes bancos de dados: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, LILACS, Scopus, SIGLE e Google Scholar. Selecionamos 29 artigos originais, sendo 11 ensaios clínicos randomizados e 18 estudos observacionais. Exploramos dados de 6.382 participantes. Todos os artigos foram classificados como sendo de intermediário a alto risco de viés. A variável que demonstrou resultado favorável ao uso dos análogos da insulina foi idade gestacional, com uma diferençamédia de - 0.26 (95% índice de confiança [IC]: 0.03-0.49; p = 0.02), porém com heterogeneidade significativa (teste de Higgins [I2] = 38%; teste do qui quadrado [χ2] =16.24; graus de liberdade [GL] =10; p = 0.09). Esse resultado, na prática clínica, não compromete o bem-estar fetal, uma vez que todos os bebês nasceram a termo. Houve viés de publicação nas variáveis idade gestacional e peso neonatal. Até o momento, as evidências analisadas possuem um risco de viés moderado a elevado e não permitem concluir que os análogos da insulina sejam mais efetivos em comparação às insulinas humanas para tratar gestantes diabéticas.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Prenatal Care/methods , Birth Weight , Fetal Macrosomia/etiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , Gestational Age , Treatment Outcome , Observational Studies as Topic , Insulin Aspart/therapeutic use , Insulin Lispro/therapeutic use , Insulin Glargine/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Insulin/analogs & derivatives
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(1): 6-10, 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-981150


Antecedentes: En el tratamiento de la diabetes se buscan insulinas de acción más prolongada y con menores tasas de hipoglicemias. Objetivo. Uso del análogo de insulina de acción ultralenta degludec en diabéticos tipo 1 (DM1) tratados previamente con glargina. Pacientes y método: Se observaron 230 DM1 durante 18 meses, promedio de edad 34 años y de diagnóstico 14 años, registrándose parámetros clínicos, bioquímicos, hipoglicemias y requerimientos de insulina (U/kg/peso), en régimen basal/bolo, con degludec y ultra-rápida precomidas. Degludec se ajustó quincenalmente. Resultados: A los 3 meses, la glicemia de ayunas disminuyó de 253mg/dl (243-270) a 180 mg/dl (172- 240), (p< 0,05); a los 6 meses a 156 mg/dl (137-180) (p< 0,05), a los 12 meses a 151 mg/dl (50-328) (p< 0,001) y a los 18 meses 150 (50-321) (p<0,001). La HbA1c, inicialmente de 10,6% (10,3-12,2) bajó a los 3 meses a 8,7% (8,2-11,1) (p< 0,05), a 6 meses a 8,3% (8,0-9,6) (p<0,05), a los 12 meses subió 9,0% (5,9-14,5) (p<0,001) y a los 18 meses 9,0% (5,9-14,6) (p<0,001). La dosis de degludec fue 0,5 U/kg/peso a los 18 meses. Hubo reducción de hipoglicemias: a los 3 meses 14 leves, 4 moderados 1 grave; a los 6 meses 8 leves, 2 moderados y ninguna grave; a los 12 meses 1 leve, y a los 18 meses 2 leves, 1 moderado y ninguna grave. Un 7,8% no presentó hipoglicemias. Conclusión: Degludec en DM1 mostró reducir las glicemias de ayunas y HbA1c, y menor número de hipoglicemias.

Background: In the treatment of diabetes, longer-acting insulins with lower rates of hypoglycaemia are sought. Objective. Use of ultralow-acting insulin analog degludec in type 1 diabetic patients (T1D) previously treated with glargine. Patients and method: 230 T1D patients were observed during 18 months, average of age 34 years and of diagnosis 14 years, registering clinical, biochemical, hypoglycemia and insulin requirements (U / kg / weight), in basal / bolus regimen, with degludec and ultra-fast pre-meals. Degludec adjusted himself fortnightly. Results: At 3 months, the fasting glycemia decreased from 253 mg / dl (243-270) to 180 mg / dl (172 - 240), (p <0.05); at 6 months at 156 mg / dl (137-180) (p <0.05), at 12 months at 151 mg / dl (50-328) (p <0.001) and at 18 months 150 (50-321) ;(p <0.001). HbA1c, initially of 10.6% (10.3-12.2), decreased after 3 months to 8.7% (8.2 - 11.1) (p <0.05), to 6 months to 8 months, 3% (8.0-9.6) (p <0.05), at 12 months it rose 9.0% (5.9-14.5) (p <0.001) and at 18 months 9.0 % (5.9-14.6) (p <0.001). The dose of degludec was 0.5 U / kg / weight at 18 months. There was reduction of hypoglycemia: at 3 months, 14 mild, 4 moderate, 1 severe; at 6 months 8 mild, 2 moderate and none serious; at 12 months 1 mild, and at 18 months 2 mild, 1 moderate and none serious. 7.8% did not present hypoglycemia. Conclusion: Degludec in T1D patients showed to reduce fasting glycemia and HbA1c, and lower number of hypoglycemia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Insulin, Long-Acting/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Insulin Glargine/adverse effects , Insulin Glargine/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects
Actual. osteol ; 14(3): 205-218, sept. - dic. 2018. ilus., graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052695


La diabetes es una enfermedad crónica asociada con importantes comorbilidades. El sistema esquelético parece ser un objetivo adicional de daño mediado por diabetes. Se acepta que la diabetes tipo 1 y tipo 2 se asocian con un mayor riesgo de fractura ósea. Varios estudios han demostrado que los cambios metabólicos causados por la diabetes pueden influir en el metabolismo óseo disminuyendo la calidad y la resistencia del hueso. Sin embargo, los mecanismos subyacentes no se conocen por completo pero son multifactoriales y, probablemente, incluyen los efectos de la obesidad, hiperglucemia, estrés oxidativo y acumulación de productos finales de glicosilación avanzada. Estos darían lugar a un desequilibrio de varios procesos y sistemas: formación de hueso, resorción ósea, formación y entrecruzamiento de colágeno. Otros factores adicionales como la hipoglucemia inducida por el tratamiento, ciertos medicamentos antidiabéticos con un efecto directo sobre el metabolismo óseo y mineral, así como una mayor propensión a las caídas, contribuirían al aumento del riesgo de fracturas en pacientes con diabetes mellitus. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo describir los mecanismos fisiopatológicas subyacentes a la fragilidad ósea en pacientes diabéticos. (AU)

Diabetes is a chronic disease associated with important comorbidities. The skeletal system seems to be an additional target of diabetes mediated damage. It is accepted that type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with an increased risk of bone fracture. Several studies have shown that metabolic changes caused by diabetes can influence bone metabolism by decreasing bone quality and resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms are not completely known but they are multifactorial and probably include the effects of obesity, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and accumulation of advanced glycosylation end products. These would lead to an imbalance of several processes and systems: bone formation, bone resorption, formation and collagen crosslinking. Other additional factors such as treatment-induced hypoglycemia, certain antidiabetic medications with a direct effect on bone and mineral metabolism, as well as an increased propensity for falls, would contribute to the increased risk of fractures in patients with diabetes mellitus. This review aims to describe the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bone fragility in diabetic patients. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/metabolism , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/drug therapy , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Glycosylation , Risk Factors , Oxidative Stress , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Fractures, Bone/complications , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Obesity/complications
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(11): 1309-1316, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985704


Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) intoxication is potentially lethal. After ingestion, AAS is rapidly transformed into salicylic acid that dissociates into an hydrogen ion plus salicylate. Salicylate is the main form of AAS in the body and produces multiple alterations. Initially, the stimulation of the ventilatory center promotes a respiratory alkalosis. Then, the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by salicylate, will generate a progressive metabolic acidosis due to the accumulation of ketoacids, lactic acid and dicarboxylic acids among others. Another alterations include hydro electrolytic disorders, gastrointestinal lesions, neurological involvement, ototoxicity and coagulopathy. The correct handling of acetylsalicylic acid intoxication requires an thorough knowledge of its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Treatment consists in life support measures, gastric lavage, activated charcoal and urinary alkalization to promote the excretion of salicylates. In some occasions, it will be necessary to start renal replacement therapy as soon as possible.

Humans , Aspirin/poisoning , Aspirin/metabolism , Fibrinolytic Agents/poisoning , Fibrinolytic Agents/metabolism , Drug Overdose/physiopathology , Drug Overdose/therapy , Acidosis/chemically induced , Water-Electrolyte Balance/drug effects , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Drug Overdose/metabolism , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypotension/chemically induced , Mitochondria/drug effects
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(5): 566-570, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983788


SUMMARY Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS, Hirata's disease) is a rare hypoglycemic disorder characterized by spontaneous hypoglycemia associated with extremely high circulating insulin levels and positive anti-insulin antibody results. Thus far, most cases have been reported in Asian countries, notably Japan, with few cases reported in western countries. As a possible cause, it is associated with the use of drugs containing sulfhydryl radicals, such as captopril. This report refers to a 63-year-old female Brazilian patient with a history of postprandial hypoglycemia. After extensive investigation and exclusion of other causes, her hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia was considered to have likely been induced by captopril. Most cases of IAS are self-limiting. However, dietary management, corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and rituximab have already been used to treat patients with IAS. In our case, after discontinuation of captopril, an initial decrease in insulin autoantibody levels was observed followed by improvement in episodes of hypoglycemia. Although it is a rare disease, IAS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Patients with suspected IAS must be screened for autoimmunity-related drugs for insulin. Initial clinical suspicion of IAS can avoid unnecessary costs associated with imaging examinations and/or invasive surgical procedures.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/chemically induced , Captopril/adverse effects , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemia/immunology , Insulin Antibodies/drug effects , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , Autoimmune Diseases/ethnology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Syndrome , Blood Glucose/analysis , Brazil , Hypoglycemia/ethnology , Insulin Antibodies/immunology
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 5(3): 109-111, sept. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254308


Overuse of antidiabetic medications is the most common cause of hypoglycemia in diabetic subjects. Here, we report a case of hypoglycemia associated with sulfonylurea administration. An 83-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of loss of consciousness and fainting. The patient's blood glucose level was of 33 mg/dL, and she received emergency treatment with an intravenous 10% dextrose solution. In conclusion, sulfonylureas in combination with antidiabetic therapy increase the risk of hypoglycemic events in elderly patients with renal failure. Therefore, we suggest that physicians should closely monitor these patients for hypoglycemia and, preferably, use drugs that have less hypoglycemia side effects

Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Sulfonylurea Compounds/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(5): 618-626, mayo 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961438


Fluoroquinolone type antimicrobials can cause hypo or hyperglycemia in certain patients. We performed a structured review about this side effect, searching articles published in English or Spanish with full text access in PubMed/Medline. The following MESH terms were used: Hypoglycemia, Hyperglycemia, Quinolones, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin. Additionally, we evaluated the clinical relevance of potential drug interactions, based on the probability of occurrence and the severity of the interaction effect. We obtained 42 publications about the issue; 22 references were selected, where the severity of the interaction in patients with risk factors was evaluated. Patients receiving antidiabetic medications and with risk factors such as advanced age and renal failure may be more likely to have a severe hypoglycemia. In these patients, this drug interaction should be considered clinically relevant since its risk is high or very high.

Humans , Fluoroquinolones/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Severity of Illness Index
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(2): e17617, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951924


ABSTRACT We investigated whether oral lactate could prevent seizures and deaths in mice with severe hypoglycemia induced by a high dose of insulin. For this purpose, mice were fasted for 15 h and then given an intraperitoneal injection of regular insulin (5.0 U/kg or 10.0 U/kg). Immediately after insulin injection, the mice received an oral dose of saline (control), glucose (5.5 mmol/kg), or lactate (18.0 mmol/kg). Glucose and lactate levels were measured in the blood and brain before and after the seizures began. Glucose and lactate delayed (p < 0.05) the onset of seizures associated with severe insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Elevated (p < 0.05) brain levels of lactate were associated with an absence of seizures in mice that received glucose or lactate, suggesting that lactate could prevent convulsions associated with severe insulin-induced hypoglycemia. However, the same oral dose of lactate that delayed the onset of convulsions also increased the mortality rate. In contrast, diazepam (3.0 mg/kg) prevented seizures and markedly decreased the frequency of death during severe insulin-induced hypoglycemia. The results demonstrated that in contrast to oral glucose, oral lactate intensifies insulin toxicity.

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Insulin/administration & dosage , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Lactic Acid/adverse effects , Diazepam
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 10(4): 131-136, oct. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-998986


OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy and safety of degludec insulin in Type 1 diabetic patients. PATIENTS AND METHOD: In a prospective study, 230 type 1 diabetics patients, average aged 34 years age and 14 years of diagnosis of diabetes and treated with two doses of insulin glargine U-100, were changed to degludec. Patients had glycosylated hemoglobins (HbA1c) greater than 10 percent. Results were recorded at 3 and 6 months with parameters clinical, biochemical, insulin requirements per kilogram of weight (U/kg/wt) and hypoglycemia. Capillary glycemia was evaluated three times a day and the dose of insulin degludec every two weeks. The statistical analysis used was average and rank, standard deviation, normal Swilk test, categorical Chi2 and continuous ANOVA or Kwallis, and p < 0.05. A psychological survey was conducted to evaluate satisfaction with the new treatment. RESULTS: Fasting blood glucose decreased from 253 (range 243-270) at 180 mg/dl (172-240) at 3 months and at 156 (137-180) at 6 months after the change insulin (p < 0.05). HbA1c, initially 10.6 percent (10.4-12.2) decreased to 8.7 percent (9.3-10.1) and 8.3 percent (8.7-9.7) at 3 and 6 months, respectively (p < 0.05). There was a decrease in basal insulin requirements from 0.7 to 0.4 U/kg/60 percent reduction in hypoglycaemia; both mild and moderate and severe. Isolated nocturnal hypoglycaemias were recorded in only 4 patients in this group. CONCLUSION: Six months of treatment with degludec insulin reduces fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and hypoglycemia, both mild and moderate severe and nocturnal, which makes this new ultra-long acting basal insulin a safe and effective tool for the management of type 1 diabetics patients

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Insulin, Long-Acting/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Follow-Up Studies , Patient Satisfaction , Insulin, Long-Acting/administration & dosage , Insulin, Long-Acting/adverse effects , Insulin Glargine/administration & dosage , Insulin Glargine/adverse effects , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(10): e5948, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888932


Atropine (AT) and dipyrone (Dp) induce a delay of gastric emptying (GE) of liquids in rats by inhibiting muscarinic receptors and activating β2-adrenergic receptors, respectively. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of pretreatment with AT and Dp, given alone or in combination, on the effect of hypoglycemia in the liquid GE in rats. Male Wistar adult rats (280-310 g) were pretreated intravenously with AT, Dp, AT plus Dp or their vehicle and then treated 30 min later with iv insulin or its vehicle (n=8-10 animals/group). Thirty min after treatment, GE was evaluated by determining, in awake rats, the percent gastric retention (%GR) of a saline meal labeled with phenol red administered by gavage. The results indicated that insulin induced hypoglycemia in a dose-dependent manner resulting in a significant reduction in %GR of liquid only at the highest dose tested (1 U/kg). Pretreatment with AT significantly increased %GR in the rats treated with 1 U/kg insulin. Surprisingly, after pretreatment with AT, the group treated with the lowest dose of insulin (0.25 U/kg) displayed significantly lower %GR compared to its control (vehicle-treated group), which was not seen in the non-pretreated animals. Pretreatment with Dp alone at the dose of 40 mg/kg induced an increase in %GR in both vehicle and 0.25 U/kg-treated rats. A higher dose of Dp alone (80 mg/kg) significantly reduced the effect of a marked hypoglycemia induced by 1 U/kg of insulin on GE while in combination with AT the effect was completely abolished. The results with AT suggest that moderate hypoglycemia may render the inhibitory mechanisms of GE ineffective while Dp alone and in combination with AT significantly overcame the effect of hypoglycemia on GE.

Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Atropine/pharmacology , Dipyrone/pharmacology , Gastric Emptying/drug effects , Hypoglycemia/physiopathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Atropine/administration & dosage , Dipyrone/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Models, Animal , Premedication , Rats, Wistar
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(3): 173-179, June 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841566


La diabetes mellitus se asocia con complicaciones vasculares y elevadas tasas de morbimortalidad. La terapia oportuna con insulina y su intensificación cuando es necesaria, representan estrategias apropiadas para evitar o retardar la aparición de dichas complicaciones. Sin embargo, la incidencia de hipoglucemia y las dificultades en la adherencia al tratamiento representan barreras para alcanzar el éxito terapéutico. Las nuevas combinaciones de análogos de insulina constituyen tratamientos que presentarían ventajas farmacocinéticas y farmacodinámicas, logrando beneficios clínicos tales como un mejor control metabólico, la disminución de eventos hipoglucémicos y, por su simplicidad, potencialmente una mayor adherencia al tratamiento.

Diabetes mellitus is associated with vascular complications and high rates of morbidity and mortality. Timely insulin therapy, intensified when necessary, represent appropriate measures to prevent or delay the onset of complications. However, the incidence of hypoglycemia and difficulties in treatment adherence represent barriers to achieve therapeutic success. Premixes analogs and, specially, combinations of insulin analogues are associated with pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic advantages, that translate into clinical benefits such as improved metabolic control, decreased hypoglycemic events and, for their simplicity, potentially greater adherence.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Insulins/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Drug Therapy, Combination , Insulins/pharmacokinetics , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(1): 47-53, Feb. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774625


ABSTRACT Objective To compare the effects of the neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) recombinant human insulin formulations Gansulin and Humulin N® on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Subjects and methods Prospective, double-blind, randomized, parallel, single-center study of 37 individuals with T2DM treated with NPH insulin formulations. The Tukey-Kramer test for multiple comparisons, the Wilcoxon paired comparison test and the Chi-Square test were used for the statistical analyses. The significance level was set at 5% (p < 0.05). Results The NPH insulin formulations Humulin and Gansulin similarly reduced the HbA1c levels observed at the end of the study compared with the values obtained at the beginning of the study. In the Humulin group, the initial HbA1c value of 7.91% was reduced to 6.56% (p < 0.001), whereas in the Gansulin group, the reduction was from 8.18% to 6.65% (p < 0.001). At the end of the study, there was no significant difference between the levels of glycated hemoglobin (p = 0.2410), fasting plasma glucose (FG; p = 0.9257) and bedtime plasma glucose (BG; p = 0.3906) between the two insulin formulations. There was no nt difference in the number of hypoglycemic events between the two insulin formulations, and no severe hyp episodes were recorded. Conclusion This study demonstrated similar glycemic control by NPH insulin Gansulin compared with human insulin Humulin N® in patients with T2DM.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Isophane Insulin, Human/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/analysis , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Double-Blind Method , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/economics , Insulin, Regular, Human/therapeutic use , Isophane Insulin, Human/economics , Prospective Studies , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Statistics, Nonparametric , Treatment Outcome
J. bras. med ; 101(5): 11-20, set.-out. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-706141


A hipoglicemia é um evento potencialmente grave, com significativa morbidade. É rara em indivíduos sem diabetes, e pode ocorrer com frequência variável em pacientes com diabetes mellitus, especialmente naqueles que utilizam insulina. Para minimizar esse risco é imprescindível que se individualize o tratamento, estabelecendo metas glicêmicas de acordo com a idade, expectativa de vida, comorbidades e estilo de vida

Hypoglycemia is a potentially serious event with significant morbidity. It is rare in individuals without diabetes and can occur in a quite variable frequency in diabetic patients, especially in those that use insulin. In order to minimize its risk in these groups, it is essential to individualize treatment, establishing glycemic targets according to age, life expectancy, comorbidities and lifestyle

Humans , Male , Female , Hypoglycemia/diagnosis , Hypoglycemia/therapy , Insulin/adverse effects , Insulin/metabolism , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Blood Glucose/physiology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Insulinoma/surgery , Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Neurons/metabolism
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2011; 21 (5): 297-298
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-131104


A 42-year-old multigravida with severe pre-eclampsia had an emergency caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. Peri-operatively, her arterial pressure was controlled with oral methydopa and an intravenous infusion of labetalol. Post-operatively, in the Intensive Care Unit, she had recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia which required treatment with intravenous glucose. These episodes resolved when the labetalol infusion was stopped. Clinicians should be aware of the potential of labetalol to cause hypoglycaemia

Humans , Female , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Infusions, Intravenous , Perioperative Care , Pregnancy , Cesarean Section , Pre-Eclampsia/drug therapy , Eclampsia , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists