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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(6): e202310035, dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1517944

ABSTRACT

Los niños con lesiones selares y/o supraselares pueden presentar diabetes insípida central con posterior secreción inadecuada de hormona antidiurética. Nosotros observamos, en algunos casos, aumento de la incidencia de poliuria, natriuresis e hiponatremia, tríada diagnóstica del síndrome cerebral perdedor de sal. Aquí comunicamos la evolución de 7 pacientes con antecedentes de daño agudo del sistema nervioso central y diabetes insípida central seguida por síndrome cerebral perdedor de sal. Como tratamiento aportamos secuencialmente fluidos salinos parenterales, cloruro de sodio oral, desmopresina, mineralocorticoides e incluso tiazidas. Ante la persistencia de poliuria con hiponatremia, agregamos ibuprofeno. Como resultado de este esquema terapéutico secuencial, este grupo redujo significativamente los valores de diuresis diaria de 10 ml/kg/h a 2 ml/kg/h en un tiempo promedio de 5 días, normalizando también las natremias (de 161 mEq/L a 143 mEq/L) en un tiempo promedio de 9 días. En ningún caso observamos efectos adversos asociados al tratamiento.


Children with sellar and/or suprasellar lesions may develop central diabetes insipidus with subsequent inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. An increased incidence of polyuria, natriuresis, and hyponatremia has been reported in some cases, which make up the diagnostic triad of cerebral salt wasting syndrome. Here we report the clinical course of 7 patients with a history of acute central nervous system injury and central diabetes insipidus followed by cerebral salt wasting syndrome. Treatment included the sequential use of parenteral saline solution, oral sodium chloride, desmopressin, mineralocorticoids, and even thiazides. Due to persistent polyuria and hyponatremia, ibuprofen was added. As a result of this sequential therapeutic regimen, daily urine output reduced significantly from 10 mL/ kg/h to 2 mL/kg/h over an average period of 5 days, together with a normalization of natremia (from 161 mEq/L to 143 mEq/L) over an average period of 9 days. No treatment-related adverse effects were observed in any case.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic , Hyponatremia/etiology , Hyponatremia/drug therapy , Polyuria/complications , Polyuria/etiology , Research , Ibuprofen/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. med. Urug ; 39(1): e701, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1431904

ABSTRACT

La encefalitis límbica (EL) autoinmune es una afección neurológica infrecuente de curso subagudo con manifestaciones neuropsicológicas. Actualmente el tratamiento inmunoterápico agudo o de mantenimiento es dirigido según el anticuerpo neural acompañante y la presencia o ausencia de cáncer. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 52 años con hipotiroidismo autoinmune, síndrome de secreción inadecuada de hormona antidiurética (SIADH) e hiponatremia (hipoNa) persistente, con evolución progresiva de perdida de la memoria y crisis distónicas faciobraquiales (DFBC) a quien se le realiza un diagnóstico oportuno de encefalitis límbica. Recibió tratamiento intravenoso combinado en base a corticoides e inmunoglobulina con buena respuesta y morbilidad mínima neuropsicológica. El reconocimiento de esta patología permite un diagnóstico y tratamiento temprano, imprescindible para mejorar el pronóstico de estos pacientes.


Autoimmune limbic encephalitis is a rather unusual neurological condition with subacute progression and neuropsychological symptoms. Currently, acute or maintenance treatment with immunotherapy is targeted depending on the accompanying neural specific antibody and the presence or absence of cancer. The study presents the case of a 52-year-old woman suffering from autoimmune hypothyroidism, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH) and persistent hyponatremia, with progressive evolution which involved memory loss and faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). She was timely diagnosed with limbic encephalitis and was treated with intravenous combined corticosteroids and immunoglobulin therapy. Response was good, with minimum neuropsychological. Recognizing this condition allows for early diagnosis and treatment, what is key to improve the prognosis of these patients.


A encefalite límbica (LE) autoimune é uma condição neurológica rara de curso subagudo com manifestações neuropsiquiátrica. Atualmente, o tratamento com imunoterapia aguda ou de manutenção é orientado de acordo com o anticorpo neural e a presença ou ausência de câncer. Apresentamos o caso de uma mulher de 52 anos com hipotireoidismo autoimune, síndrome de secreção inapropriada de hormônio antidiurético e hiponatremia persistente, com evolução progressiva da perda de memória e crises distônicas faciobraquiais que foi diagnosticada oportunamente como encefalite límbica. Recebeu tratamento endovenoso combinado à base de corticoide e imunoglobulina com boa resposta e morbidade neuropsiquiátrica mínima. O reconhecimento desta patologia permite um diagnóstico e tratamento precoces, essenciais para melhorar o prognóstico desses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Limbic Encephalitis/therapy , Hyponatremia , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome
4.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 774-778, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982026

ABSTRACT

An 18-day-old male infant was admitted to the hospital due to recurrent hyperkalemia for more than 10 days. The neonate had milk refusal and dyspnea. The blood gas analysis revealed recurrent hyperkalemia, hyponatremia and metabolic acidosis. Adrenocortical hormone replacement therapy was ineffective. Additional tests showed a significant increase in aldosterone levels. Family whole exome sequencing revealed that the infant had compound heterozygous in the SCNNIA gene, inherited from both parents. The infant was diagnosed with neonatal systemic pseudohypoaldosteronism type I. The infant's electrolyte levels were stabilized through treatment with sodium polystyrene sulfonate and sodium supplement. The infant was discharged upon clinical recovery. This study provides a focused description of differential diagnosis of salt-losing syndrome in infants and introduces the multidisciplinary management of neonatal systemic pseudohypoaldosteronism type I.


Subject(s)
Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Male , Pseudohypoaldosteronism/genetics , Hyperkalemia/etiology , Hyponatremia/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential
5.
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(4): 325-333, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513192

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic spread rapidly, creating a worrisome scenario worldwide. In hospitalized patients, dysnatremia (hyponatremia and/or hypernatremia) is the most common electrolyte disturbance, reported in 30­40% of cases and associated with a poor prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the association between dysnatremia and mortality in hospitalized patients infected with SARS-COV-2. Methods: Retrospective longitudinal study that analyzed data from hospital records of 1,000 patients with COVID-19 (median age, 62.5 years; 57.1% men), including 109 (10.9%) deaths. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazard models with Hazard Ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were applied to confirm the association between dysnatremia (hyponatremia and/or hypernatremia) and death. Results: Hypernatremia was detected in 83 (76.1%) of the patients who died, with a cumulative reduction in survival (p < 0.01) and a 2.42-fold increased mortality risk (95%CI: 1.45­2.91). In the multivariable analysis, hypernatremia was the main factor associated with increased mortality (HR: 1.50; 95%CI: 1.23­1.81). Long length of stay (LOS) (HR: 1.54; 95%CI: 1.21­1.78), old age (HR: 1.63; 95%CI: 1.28­1.88), and chronic kidney disease (HR: 1.77; 95%CI: 1.21­3.30) were also associated with death. Conclusion: Hypernatremia during hospitalization is an important risk factor for poor prognosis and an increased mortality risk. LOS, old age, and chronic kidney disease could also be used for risk stratification in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data
6.
Journal of Medicine University of Santo Tomas ; (2): 103-113, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-974269

ABSTRACT

@#<jats:p>Objectives: To determine if online team-based learning (TBL) is effective in improving knowledge outcomes and confidence about hyponatremia in its clinical recognition, classification, diagnostic work up, and management among fourth year medical students Study design: A quantitative evaluative design. Population and Setting: Fourth year medical students (medical clerks) rotating in the Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines from July to December 2020. Methodology: A modified TBL workshop is adopted in teaching fourth year medical clerks about hyponatremia. The TBL session was held with a group of medical clerks weekly from July to December 2020. As a pre-workshop preparation, the medical clerks were assigned to read ahead of time the clinical practice guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia developed by the European Renal Best Practice. After reading it, they were asked to answer an Individual Readiness Assessment Test (IRAT) composed of 20 case-based multiple-choice questions (MCQ). The group was thereafter divided into 4 subgroups and asked to discuss the same MCQ-based exam and present it as a Team Readiness Assessment Test (TRAT). As each subgroup presented their IRAT, the facilitator discussed the underlying concepts for each question and its application in actual cases of hyponatremia. The facilitator then summarized the learning outcomes at the end of the TBL workshop. For team application (TAPP), the students created a concept map and formulated admitting orders. The medical clerks were then surveyed on their confidence in hyponatremia diagnosis and management during pre-TBL workshop, after IRAT, after TRAT, and after discussion with the facilitator. Statistical Design: Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the study variables and included the mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage. Within-group comparisons of different outcomes across the different timeframes were conducted using one-way multivariate analysis of variance (one-way MANOVA). Cognizant that the study has multiple outcomes or dependent variables which were compared at four different timeframes, multivariate analysis was utilized to minimize the inflation of family-wise errors (FWE). Results: Comparative analysis indicated that the mean readiness scores of the respondents after TRAT was significantly higher (t=–91.61, p=0.001) compared to the mean readiness scores after IRAT. Comparative analysis using paired t-test indicated that the mean confidence scores of the respondents in the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of hyponatremia were significantly higher among the respondents after the IRAT (t=–24.26, p=0.001), TRAT (t=–34.58, p=0.001), and facilitator discussion (t=–42.72, p=0.001) approaches compared to the mean pre-TBL confidence score. The mean knowledge score of the respondents on the creation of a concept map and the formulation of admission orders of patients with hyponatremia was 25.54±1.98 (95% CI 25.26-25.82). Conclusion: Findings of this study are not to be interpreted as demonstrating a causal relationship. Furthermore, the results are only hypothesis-generating at best. The study showed that online TBL has the potential to be an effective method in improving knowledge outcomes and confidence about hyponatremia in its clinical recognition, classification, diagnostic work-up, and management among fourth year medical students. As a preliminary evaluation of TBL, further studies can be conducted to determine its effectiveness as a teaching modality in the medical curricula in comparison to the traditional method before being adopted as a teaching-learning activity. Key words: team-based learning, online learning, COVID-19, hyponatremia, medical education</jats:p>


Subject(s)
Education, Distance , COVID-19 , Hyponatremia
7.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 369-375, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936161

ABSTRACT

Pituitary immune-related adverse events induced by programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitors in advanced lung cancer patients: A report of 3 cases SUMMARY Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand 1 (PD-L1) have been widely used in lung cancer treatment, but their immune-related adverse events (irAEs) require intensive attention. Pituitary irAEs, including hypophysitis and hypopituitarism, are commonly induced by cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 inhibitors, but rarely by PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) deficiency (IAD) is a special subtype of pituitary irAEs, without any other pituitary hormone dysfunction, and with no enlargement of pituitary gland, either. Here, we described three patients with advanced lung cancer who developed IAD and other irAEs, after PD-1 inhibitor treatment. Case 1 was a 68-year-old male diagnosed with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma with high expression of PD-L1. He was treated with pembrolizumab monotherapy, and developed immune-related hepatitis, which was cured by high-dose methylprednisolone [0.5-1.0 mg/(kg·d)]. Eleven months later, the patient was diagnosed with primary gastric adenocarcinoma, and was treated with apatinib, in addition to pembrolizumab. After 17 doses of pembrolizumab, he developed severe nausea and asthenia, when methylprednisolone had been stopped for 10 months. His blood tests showed severe hyponatremia (121 mmol/L, reference 137-147 mmol/L, the same below), low levels of 8:00 a.m. cortisol (< 1 μg/dL, reference 5-25 μg/dL, the same below) and ACTH (2.2 ng/L, reference 7.2-63.3 ng/L, the same below), and normal thyroid function, sex hormone and prolactin. Meanwhile, both his lung cancer and gastric cancer remained under good control. Case 2 was a 66-year-old male with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma, who was treated with a new PD-1 inhibitor, HX008, combined with chemotherapy (clinical trial number: CTR20202387). After 5 months of treatment (7 doses in total), his cancer exhibited partial response, but his nausea and vomiting suddenly exacerbated, with mild dyspnea and weakness in his lower limbs. His blood tests showed mild hyponatremia (135 mmol/L), low levels of 8:00 a.m. cortisol (4.3 μg/dL) and ACTH (1.5 ng/L), and normal thyroid function. His thoracic computed tomography revealed moderate immune-related pneumonitis simultaneously. Case 3 was a 63-year-old male with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma. He was treated with first-line sintilimab combined with chemotherapy, which resulted in partial response, with mild immune-related rash. His cancer progressed after 5 cycles of treatment, and sintilimab was discontinued. Six months later, he developed asymptomatic hypoadrenocorticism, with low level of cortisol (1.5 μg/dL) at 8:00 a.m. and unresponsive ACTH (8.0 ng/L). After being rechallenged with another PD-1 inhibitor, teslelizumab, combined with chemotherapy, he had pulmonary infection, persistent low-grade fever, moderate asthenia, and severe hyponatremia (116 mmol/L). Meanwhile, his blood levels of 8:00 a.m. cortisol and ACTH were 3.1 μg/dL and 7.2 ng/L, respectively, with normal thyroid function, sex hormone and prolactin. All of the three patients had no headache or visual disturbance. Their pituitary magnetic resonance image showed no pituitary enlargement or stalk thickening, and no dynamic changes. They were all on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with prednisone (2.5-5.0 mg/d), and resumed the PD-1 inhibitor treatment when symptoms relieved. In particular, Case 2 started with high-dose prednisone [1 mg/(kg·d)] because of simultaneous immune-related pneumonitis, and then tapered it to the HRT dose. His cortisol and ACTH levels returned to and stayed normal. However, the other two patients' hypopituitarism did not recover. In summary, these cases demonstrated that the pituitary irAEs induced by PD-1 inhibitors could present as IAD, with a large time span of onset, non-specific clinical presentation, and different recovery patterns. Clinicians should monitor patients' pituitary hormone regularly, during and at least 6 months after PD-1 inhibitor treatment, especially in patients with good oncological response to the treatment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/drug therapy , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/therapeutic use , B7-H1 Antigen/therapeutic use , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Hyponatremia/drug therapy , Hypopituitarism/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Nausea/drug therapy , Pituitary Gland/pathology , Pneumonia , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/therapeutic use , Prolactin/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(2): e1609, tab
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1280347

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hiponatremia es la alteración electrolítica más frecuente en el paciente geriátrico. Existen evidencias que la asocian a un peor pronóstico en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca. Objetivo: Caracterizar los pacientes geriátricos ingresados con hiponatremia al ingreso e insuficiencia cardíaca. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo durante el año 2018 en el Hospital Universitario Clínico Quirúrgico Calixto García que incluyó 260 pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca e hiponatremia al ingreso. Para el análisis estadístico de los datos reutilizaron la prueba de chi cuadrada y el análisis multivariado de ANOVA para la asociación entre variables. Resultados: La edad media fue 72,6 ± 8,2, predominaron las mujeres (55,0 por ciento). Prevaleció la puntuación de Charlson 3-4 (33,8 por ciento), la fracción de eyección conservada, 70,8 por ciento; clase funcional III, 33,8 por ciento; estadía menor a 6 días, 43,1 por ciento y fallecieron 51,9 por ciento de la muestra estudiada. Se asociaron significativamente con la mortalidad al egreso, el índice de comorbilidad y la clase funcional III-IV, p< 0,05. Conclusiones: Existe una elevada mortalidad en pacientes geriátricos hospitalizados por insuficiencia cardiaca e hiponatremia al ingreso asociada a la presencia de comorbilidad y a la clasificación de la insuficiencia cardiaca(AU)


Introduction: Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte alteration in geriatric patients. There is evidence that associates it with a worse prognosis in patients with heart failure. Objective: To describe geriatric patients admitted with hyponatremia on admission and heart failure. Method: A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study was carried out in 2018 at Calixto García Surgical Clinical University Hospital, including 260 patients with heart failure and hyponatremia on admission. For the statistical analysis of the data, they reused the chi-square test and the multivariate analysis of ANOVA for the association between variables. Results: The mean age was 72.6 ± 8.2, women predominated (55.0 percent). Prevalence was observed in the Charlson score 3-4 (33.8 percent), the ejection fraction preserved (70.8 percent); functional class III was 33.8 percent; 43.1 percent stayed less than 6 days and 51.9 percent of the sample studied died. They were significantly associated with mortality at discharge, the comorbidity index and functional class III-IV, p <0.05. Conclusions: There is a high mortality in geriatric patients hospitalized for heart failure and hyponatremia on admission associated with the presence of comorbidity and the classification of heart failure(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Health Services for the Aged , Heart Failure/etiology , Hyponatremia/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
9.
Med. infant ; 28(1): 16-22, Marzo 2021. ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, UNISALUD, LILACS | ID: biblio-1282313

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Para disminuir la aparición de hiponatremias en los últimos años se aumentaron las concentraciones de sodio en las soluciones de mantenimiento, llegando a recomendarse las isotónicas, con mejoras de laboratorio pero con dudoso impacto clínico. En el Hospital Garrahan se utiliza una solución estándar hipotónica con cloruro de sodio 0,45%. Antes de reemplazar la solución según recomendaciones internacionales se decidió establecer la prevalencia de hiponatremia en pacientes internados, y su asociación con la solución estándar de hidratación. Población y métodos: Pacientes de 1 mes a 18 años, internados en el Hospital Garrahan. Estudio prospectivo y observacional. Se registró si el paciente recibía hidratación parenteral y la concentración de sodio. Se consideró hiponatremia significativa la presencia de sodio sérico menor a 130 mEq/L. y/o la presencia de síntomas compatibles con hiponatremia. Resultados: En 3003 internaciones la prevalencia global de hiponatremias diagnosticadas fue 4.4%, y asciende a 6.3% si se consideran solo los pacientes que fueron estudiados con ionograma (se le extrajo ionograma al 70,6% de los pacientes internados). La prevalencia de hiponatremias significativas fue de 1.5% (n=44) de los internados, y las hiponatremias significativas en internados que recibían la solución hipotónica estándar de mantenimiento fue de 0.3% (n=9). Conclusiones: En una población donde se utiliza una solución estándar con cloruro de sodio 0,45% -pero se modifica individualmente para las necesidades de cada paciente- la prevalencia de hiponatremias totales y significativas fue similar e incluso inferior a la publicada en otras series. (AU)


Introduction: To reduce the appearance of hyponatremia, in recent years, sodium concentrations were increased in maintenance solutions, and isotonic solutions were recommended, leading to improvements in laboratory studies, but with a doubtful clinical impact. A standard hypotonic solution with 0.45% sodium chloride is used at Garrahan Hospital. Before replacing the solution according to international recommendations, it was decided to determine the prevalence of hyponatremia in inpatients and its association with the standard hydration solution. Population and methods: Patients from 1 month to 18 years old, hospitalized at Garrahan Hospital. Prospective and observational study. Parenteral hydration of the patient and the sodium concentration were recorded. Significant hyponatremia was defined as serum sodium less than 130 mEq/L, and/or the presence of symptoms of hyponatremia. Results: In 3003 hospitalizations, the overall prevalence of diagnosed hyponatremia was 4.4%, increasing to 6.3% if only patients in whom a ionogram was performed were included (a ionogram was performed in 70.6% of the inpatients). Of all inpatients, 1.5% (n=44) had significant hyponatremia, and 0.3% (n=9) of the patients receiving the standard maintenance hypotonic solution had significant hyponatremia. Conclusions: In a population in whom a standard solution with 0.45% sodium chloride is used - but which is individually modified according to the needs of each patient - the prevalence of total and significant hyponatremia was similar and even lower than that reported in other series (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Osmolar Concentration , Water-Electrolyte Balance , Child, Hospitalized , Fluid Therapy , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Hyponatremia/therapy , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 64-69, feb. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385315

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in choroid plexus and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in astrocyte of the hippocampal formation (HF) was studied in the rat to determine the role of AQP1 and AQP4 in the pathophysiology of systemic hyponatremia (SH). SH was induced by coadministration of dextrose solution intraperitoneally and through subcutaneous implantation of an osmotic minipump containing 8-deamino-arginin vasopressin (50ng/µl/h) for 24 and 48 h. Twenty- four and 48 h after the drug administration, there were significant reductions in Na+ concentration (111 ± 5 and 104 ± 2 mmol) and serum osmolarity (240 ± 13 and 221 ± 14 mOsm/L) as compared with control values (140 ± 4.7 mmol and 296 ± 5.2 mOsm/L), (p<0.01). The expression of AQP1 in the choroid plexus was increased three to five times from 24 h to 48 h after SH (329.86 ± 10.2 % and 531.5 ± 4.4 %, n=4, p<0.01). In contrast, AQP4 expression was significantly decreased up to 48 h after SH (36 ± 9 %, n=4, p<0.01). Quantitative immunoblotting revealed significant decreases of neuronal proteins in the HF after 24 to 48 h of SH. Therefore, we suggest that altered expression of AQP1 and AQP4 plays important role in the pathogenesis of systemic hyponatremia.


RESUMEN: En este análisis se estudió la expresión de acuaporina-1 (AQP1) en plexo coroideo y acuaporina-4 (AQP4) en astrocitos de la formación hipocampal (FH) en ratas para determinar el papel de AQP1 y AQP4 en la fisiopatología de la hiponatremia sistémica (HS). La HS fue inducida mediante la coadministración de solución de dextrosa por vía intraperitoneal y mediante la implantación subcutánea de una minibomba osmótica que contenía vasopresina 8-desaminoarginina (50 ng /µ l / h) durante 24 y 48 h. Veinticuatro y 48 h después de la administración del fármaco, hubo reducciones significativas en la concentración de Na + (111 ± 5 y 104 ± 2 mmol) y la osmolaridad sérica (240 ± 13 y 221 ± 14 mOsm /µL) en comparación con los valores de control (140 ± 4,7 mmol y 296 ± 5,2 mOsm / L), (p <0,01). La expresión de AQP1 en el plexo coroideo se incrementó de tres a cinco veces de 24 a 48 h después de HS (329,86 ± 10,2 % y 531,5 ± 4,4 %, n = 4, p <0,01). Por el contrario, la expresión de AQP4 se redujo significativamente hasta 48 h después de HS (36 ± 9 %, n = 4, p <0,01). La inmunotransferencia cuantitativa reveló disminuciones significativas de proteínas neuronales en el FH después de 24 a 48 h de SH. Por lo tanto, sugerimos que la expresión alterada de AQP1 y AQP4 juega un papel importante en la patogénesis de la hiponatremia sistémica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Brain/metabolism , Aquaporin 1/metabolism , Aquaporin 4/metabolism , Hyponatremia/metabolism , Immunoblotting , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
11.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(2): 291-294, feb. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389444

ABSTRACT

Low molecular weight heparin-induced hyperkalemia is not an uncommon side effect. The development of hyponatremia is well described although it is less common. We report a 72-year-old woman with lumbar metastases who developed hyponatremia and hyperkalemia on the tenth day of hospitalization. Hyponatremia, with limited criteria for syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, did not resolve with vigorous volume restriction. Hyperkalemia without an acid-base disorder or baseline renal failure, did not resolve after losartan was stopped. Enoxaparin-induced hypoaldosteronism was proposed and the drug was discontinued. After four days' persistence of the electrolyte disturbance, dexamethasone was changed to Hydrocortisone, and parameters normalized in 24 hours. The patient remained well until discharge and during outpatient control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Hyperkalemia/chemically induced , Hyponatremia/chemically induced , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Hospitalization
12.
In. Manzanares Castro, William; Aramendi Epstein, Ignacio; Pico, José Luis do. Disionías en el paciente grave: historias clínicas comentadas. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.51-68, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1344692
13.
In. Manzanares Castro, William; Aramendi Epstein, Ignacio; Pico, José Luis do. Disionías en el paciente grave: historias clínicas comentadas. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.69-87, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1344693
14.
In. Manzanares Castro, William; Aramendi Epstein, Ignacio; Pico, José Luis do. Disionías en el paciente grave: historias clínicas comentadas. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.89-102.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1344694
15.
In. Manzanares Castro, William; Aramendi Epstein, Ignacio; Pico, José Luis do. Disionías en el paciente grave: historias clínicas comentadas. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.393-406.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1344748
16.
In. Manzanares Castro, William; Aramendi Epstein, Ignacio; Pico, José Luis do. Disionías en el paciente grave: historias clínicas comentadas. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.407-433, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1344749
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(3): 181-183, set 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391952

ABSTRACT

Convulsive seizures caused by hyponatremia occur when this condition is severe and develops quickly, resulting in a brain's adaptive inability to contain brain swelling. Seizures are rarely the cause of shoulder fractures. This is a case report of bilateral humerus fracture following a single epileptic seizure caused by drug hyponatremia, an unconventional event in medical practice. A 69-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room after a single tonic-clonic seizure with spontaneously ceased sphincter relaxation, showing Glasgow 6. No falls or restraint were reported by observers. When alert, the patient reported pain and difficulty moving both arms. During examination, the movement was li- mited to the right and left. Anteroposterior radiographs revealed bilateral fracture at the neck of humerus. To complement inves- tigation for further lesions, a computed tomography confirmed bilateral fracture-dislocation with impaction of the humeral head with the glenoid. Atraumatic bilateral fracture-dislocation of the humerus after epileptic seizure is a very rare event. It is believed that some of these diagnoses have been neglected due to the difficulty of characterizing the patient's pain in a postictal state. The importance of a detailed physical examination shall be emphasized in risk groups such as the polymedicated elderly.


Convulsive seizures caused by hyponatremia occur when this condition is severe and develops quickly, resulting in a brain's adaptive inability to contain brain swelling. Seizures are rarely the cause of shoulder fractures. This is a case report of bilateral humerus fracture following a single epileptic seizure caused by drug hyponatremia, an unconventional event in medical practice. A 69-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room after a single tonic-clonic seizure with spontaneously ceased sphincter relaxation, showing Glasgow 6. No falls or restraint were reported by observers. When alert, the patient reported pain and difficulty moving both arms. During examination, the movement was li- mited to the right and left. Anteroposterior radiographs revealed bilateral fracture at the neck of humerus. To complement inves- tigation for further lesions, a computed tomography confirmed bilateral fracture-dislocation with impaction of the humeral head with the glenoid. Atraumatic bilateral fracture-dislocation of the humerus after epileptic seizure is a very rare event. It is believed that some of these diagnoses have been neglected due to the difficulty of characterizing the patient's pain in a postictal state. The importance of a detailed physical examination shall be emphasized in risk groups such as the polymedicated elderly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Seizures/complications , Shoulder Dislocation/etiology , Shoulder Fractures/etiology , Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic/complications , Shoulder Dislocation/surgery , Shoulder Dislocation/rehabilitation , Shoulder Dislocation/diagnostic imaging , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Shoulder Fractures/rehabilitation , Shoulder Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Radiography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Physical Therapy Modalities , Amnesia, Anterograde/etiology , Hydrochlorothiazide/adverse effects , Hyponatremia/chemically induced , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects
18.
Med. UIS ; 33(2): 85-93, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346449

ABSTRACT

Resumen La hiponatremia es el trastorno hidroelectrolítico más frecuente observado en pacientes hospitalizados y es importante resaltar que se ha asociado a morbilidad y mortalidad de estos. Esta entidad representa un proceso fisiopatológico relacionado con una alteración en la homeostasis del agua, en la cual los pacientes presentan síntomas en su mayoría neurológicos, que se correlacionan con el nivel de sodio y el tiempo de aparición del trastorno. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed y Lilacs de monografías, artículos de revisión y artículos originales con el objetivo de revisar aspectos sobre la clínica, diagnóstico y manejo de la entidad. Para el diagnóstico, la batería de estudios se solicita en función del contexto clínico, actuando temprano y permitiendo la corrección del trastorno de acuerdo al escenario respectivo. La hiponatremia es un problema médico frecuente que bajo un abordaje práctico y sencillo permite tomar decisiones clínicas de forma oportuna. MÉD.UIS. 2020;33(2):85-93.


Abstract Hyponatremia is the most frequent hydroelectrolytic disorder observed in hospitalized patients and it is important to note that it has been associated with morbidity and mortality in this patients. This entity represents a pathophysiological process related to an alteration in water homeostasis, in which patients present symptoms mostly neurological, that correlate with the sodium level and the time of onset of the disorder. A search of the PubMed and Lilacs databases of monographies, review articles and originals articles was performed with the objective to review clinical, diagnostic and management aspects of this entity. For diagnosis, the clinical laboratory studies are requested depending on the clinical context, acting early and allowing correction of the disorder according to the respective scenario. Hyponatremia is a frequent medical problem that requires a practical and simple approach favoring clinical decisions in a timely manner. MÉD.UIS. 2020;33(2):85-93.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sodium , Electrolytes , Hyponatremia , Body Water , Saline Solution
19.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 33(2): 175-184, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090660

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Heart failure (HF) is worldwide known as a public health issue with high morbimortality. One of the issues related to the evolution of HF is the high rate of hospital readmission caused by decompensation of the clinical condition, with high costs and worsening of ventricular function. Objective To quantify the readmission rate and identify the predictors of rehospitalization in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Methods Hospital-based historic cohort of patients admitted with acute decompensated HF in a private hospital from Recife/PE, from January 2008 to February 2016, followed-up for at least 30 days after discharge. Demographic and clinical data of admission, hospitalization, and clinical and late outcomes were analyzed. Logistic regression was used as a strategy to identify the predictors of independent risks. Results 312 followed-up patients, average age 73 (± 14), 61% males, 51% NYHA Class III, and 58% ischemic etiology. Thirty-day readmission rate was 23%. Multivariate analysis identified the independent predictors ejection fraction < 40% (OR = 2.1; p = 0.009), hyponatremia (OR = 2.9; p = 0.022) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as the cause of decompensation (OR = 1.1; p = 0,026). The final model using those three variables presented reasonable discriminatory power (C-Statistics = 0.655 - HF 95%: 0.582 - 0.728) and good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow p = 0.925). Conclusions Among hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure, the rate of readmission was high. Hyponatremia, reduced ejection fraction and ACS as causes of decompensation were robust markers for the prediction of hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; 33(2):175-184)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Patient Readmission , Heart Failure/therapy , Hospitalization , Prognosis , Stroke Volume , Retrospective Studies , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/prevention & control , Hyponatremia
20.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 17(1): 1-12, abr 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099832

ABSTRACT

Los cuadros de deshidratación son frecuentes en pediatría, muchos de ellos acompañados de alteraciones electrolíticas. La deshidratación asociada a trastornos del sodio puede implicar riesgos para la salud de los pacientes pediátricos tanto en el desarrollo del cuadro como en su tratamiento. Objetivo: crear un algoritmo de manejo de los cuadros de deshidratación asociados a lateraciones del sodio para manejo de pacientes pediátricos. Métodos: se realizó revisión de la literatura disponible sobre deshidratación con hiper e hiponatremia, en inglés y español, incluyendo libros y artículos de revistas. Se presenta en el actual documento los aspectos básicos sobre la fisiopatología de la deshidratación asociada a trastornos del sodio, su clínica, diagnóstico y manejo detallado, para el uso en la práctica clínica diaria.


Dehydration is common in pediatric patients, frequently accompanied with electrolite disturbances. Dehydration associated with sodium disturbances can involve risk for pediatric patient health during the development of the disease and during its treatment. Objective: to create an algorithm of management of dehydration with sodium disturbances in pediatric patients. Methods: review of literature about dehydration with hypernatremia and hyponatremia, in english and spanish, including books and published articles. We present in this document the basic aspects of physiopathology of dehydration with sodium disturbances, clinical presentation, diagnosis and detailed management, so it can be consulted for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Dehydration/diagnosis , Dehydration/etiology , Dehydration/therapy , Hyponatremia/physiopathology , Diarrhea , Hypernatremia/diagnosis , Hypernatremia/prevention & control , Hyponatremia/diagnosis , Hyponatremia/prevention & control
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