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1.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 8-16, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249054

ABSTRACT

Resumen. La encefalopatía hipóxico-isquémica es una causa frecuente e importante de daño neurológico en recién nacidos a término y prematuros. Un evento centinela de esta condición es la vasa previa, específicamente cuando existe anormalidad de la placenta como la inserción "velamentosa" del cordón umbilical. Algunos reportes evidencian la asociación entre estas dos condiciones, pero son escasos los que dan cuenta del proceso de recuperación y del pronóstico neurológico de los niños afectados por ellas. Se presenta el caso de un paciente, con antecedentes de inserción "velamentosa" del cordón umbilical y encefalopatía hipóxico-isquémica, que recibió hipotermia terapéutica (cool cap). Se describe su proceso de rehabilitación neurológica y se calculó el porcentaje de probabilidad de presentar esta condición frente a la población sin estos factores. El niño tenía cinco años y el puntaje en su prueba de Apgar fue de 0 al minuto y de 2 a los 15 minutos. Desarrolló encefalopatía hipóxico-isquémica grave secundaria a una inserción "velamentosa" del cordón umbilical sin diagnóstico prenatal, con gran compromiso neurológico y multisistémico inicial. El proceso de recuperación incluyó el manejo inicial multidisciplinario en la unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales y el inicio temprano de habilitación neurológica. Hoy el niño está escolarizado y en terapia integral, no presenta deficiencias motoras ni sensoriales en el examen físico, aunque la prueba neuropsicológica sugiere un riesgo de trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad. Habitualmente, los niños con encefalopatía hipóxico-isquémica grave presentan discapacidad por deficiencias motoras, cognitivas o conductuales. El haber recibido hipotermia terapéutica y un manejo estructurado de rehabilitación redujo en gran medida las deficiencias esperadas y ha promovido un satisfactorio desarrollo físico y neurológico.


Abstract. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is a frequent and important cause of neurological problems in term and preterm newborns. A sentinel event of this entity is the vasa previa, specifically when there is an abnormality of the placenta such as a velamentous cord insertion. Some reports have shown the association between these two entities, but those regarding the recovery process and the neurological prognosis of children with both conditions are scarce. We present the case of a patient with a history of velamentous cord insertion and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia (cool cap). We describe his neurological rehabilitation process and we calculated the percentage of probability of presenting this condition compared to the population without these factors. The patient was a five-year-old boy with an Apgar index at birth equal to zero at one minute and equal to two at fifteen minutes who developed severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy secondary to a velamentous cord insertion without prenatal diagnosis and a marked initial neurological and multisystemic compromise. The recovery process included early multidisciplinary management in the neonatal intensive care unit and a focus on early neurological habilitation. The patient is currently in school and he undergoes comprehensive therapies; on physical examination, he presents no motor or sensory deficiencies. His neuropsychological test suggests the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children with severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy usually have disabilities due to motor, cognitive, and/or behavioral deficiencies. Having received therapeutic hypothermia and a structured rehabilitation process greatly reduced the expected deficiencies according to prognosis and have promoted satisfactory physical and neurological development.


Subject(s)
Umbilical Cord , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Hypothermia, Induced , Neurological Rehabilitation
2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 42281, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1094844

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar evidências acerca do uso seguro da hipotermia terapêutica em recém-nascidos. Método: revisão integrativa realizada entre junho e julho de 2018, em fontes eletrônicas da Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde e PubMed, por meio da pergunta:"Que evidências podem subsidiar o cuidado de enfermagem voltado para a redução de sequelas em recém-nascidos submetidos à hipotermia terapêutica?".Foram eleitos nove artigos para análise, sendo oito internacionais e um nacional. Resultados:o resfriamento deve acontecer por 72 horas, com hipotermia leve. As indicações para inclusão no protocolo foram: primeiras seis horas de vida, idade gestacional maior que 35 semanas e acidose na primeira hora de vida.São cuidados essenciais: monitoração hemodinâmica, observação da pele, controle térmico retal, vigilância do Eletroencefalograma de Amplitude Integrada. Conclusão: a terapêutica apresenta benefícios, porém sua aplicação depende de protocolo institucional e treinamento das equipes com foco nas potenciais complicações.


Objective: to identify the evidence on safe use of therapeutic hypothermia in newborns. Method: integrative review of the literature, conducted between June and July of 2018, in electronic sources from the Virtual Health Library and PubMed, through the question: "What evidence can support nursing care aimed at reducing sequelae in newborns undergoing therapeutic hypothermia?". Analysis was conducted for nine selected article, being eight from international literature and one from Brazilian national literature. Results: cooling should occur for 72 hours with mild hypothermia. Indications for inclusion in the protocol were: first six hours of life, gestational age greater than 35 weeks and acidosis in the first hour of life. Essential care includes hemodynamic monitoring, skin observation, rectal thermal control, Integrated Amplitude Electroencephalogram surveillance. Conclusion: the therapy has benefits, but its application depends on institutional protocol and team training focusing on potential complications.


Objetivo: identificar la evidencia sobre el uso seguro de la hipotermia terapéutica en recién nacidos. Método: revisión integradora de la literatura, realizada entre junio y julio de 2018, en fuentes electrónicas de la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud y PubMed, a través de la pregunta: "¿Qué evidencia puede apoyar la atención de enfermería dirigida a reducir las secuelas en los recién nacidos que sufren hipotermia terapéutica?". Se realizaron análisis para nueve artículos seleccionados, ocho de literatura internacional y uno de literatura nacional brasileña. Resultados: el enfriamiento debe ocurrir durante 72 horas con hipotermia leve. Las indicaciones para la inclusión en el protocolo fueron: primeras seis horas de vida, edad gestacional mayor de 35 semanas y acidosis en la primera hora de vida. El cuidado esencial incluye monitoreo hemodinámico, observación de la piel, control térmico rectal, vigilancia integrada de electroencefalograma de amplitud. Conclusión: la terapia tiene beneficios, pero su aplicación depende del protocolo institucional y del entrenamiento del equipo, enfocándose en posibles complicaciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Clinical Protocols/standards , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy , Patient Safety/standards , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Hypothermia, Induced/standards , Asphyxia Neonatorum/complications , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/etiology , Hypothermia, Induced/adverse effects , Hypothermia, Induced/nursing
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 523-529, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098282

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the morphometric and the pattern of protein and gene expression related to the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in experimental focal cerebral ischemia and the hole of neuroprotection with hypothermia and ketoprofen. For this analysis, 120 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (20 animals each): control - no surgery (20 animals); sham - simulation of surgery (20 animals); ischemic - focal ischemia for 1 hour, without reperfusion (80 animals) and divided into four subgroups with 20 animals each: ischemic + intraischemic hypothermia; ischemic + previous intravenous ketoprofen, and ischemic + hypothermia and ketoprofen. The infarct volume was measured using morphometric analysis of infarct areas defined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and the patterns of expression of the apoptosis genes (Fas, c-Flip, caspase-8 and caspase-3) and the apoptosis protein caspase-3 were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Hypo expression of genes of extrinsic pathway of apoptosis was observed: Fas receptor, c-Flip and caspase-8 in the ischemics areas. Increases in the gene and protein caspase-3 in the ischemic areas were also observed, and these increases were reduced by hypothermia and ketoprofen, also noted in the morphometric study. The caspases-3 increase suggests that this gene plays an important role in apoptosis, probably culminating in cell death and that the neuroprotective effect of hypothermia and ketoprofen is involved.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la morfometría y el patrón de expresión de proteínas y genes relacionados con la vía apoptótica extrínseca en la isquemia cerebral focal experimental y el agujero de neuroprotección con hipotermia y ketoprofeno. Se dividieron aleatoriamente 120 ratas en 3 grupos (20 animales cada uno): control - sin cirugía (20 animales); simulación - simulación de cirugía (20 animales); isquemia isquemia focal durante 1 hora, sin reperfusión (80 animales) y dividida en cuatro subgrupos con 20 animales cada uno: isquemia + hipotermia intraisquémica; isquemia + ketoprofeno intravenoso previo, e isquemia + hipotermia y ketoprofeno. El volumen del infarto se midió utilizando un análisis morfométrico de áreas de infarto definidas por cloruro de trifenil tetrazolio y los patrones de expresión de los genes de apoptosis (Fas, c-Flip, caspase-8 y caspase-3) y la proteína de apoptosis caspase-3 fueron evaluados por PCR cuantitativa en tiempo real e inmunohistoquímica, respectivamente. Se observó hipoexpresión de genes de la vía extrínseca de la apoptosis: receptor Fas, c-Flip y caspasa-8 en las áreas isquémicas. También se observaron aumentos en el gen y la proteína caspasa-3 en las áreas isquémicas y estos aumentos se redujeron por hipotermia y ketoprofeno, también observado por estudio morfométrico. El aumento de caspasas-3 sugiere que este gen tiene un papel importante en la apoptosis, y probable causa de muerte celular, involucrando el efecto neuroprotector de la hipotermia y el ketoprofeno.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Brain Ischemia/genetics , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Ketoprofen/pharmacology , Apoptosis/genetics , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Caspase 3/genetics , Caspase 8/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hypothermia, Induced
4.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(1): 43-48, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115449

ABSTRACT

A nivel mundial, la tercera causa de muerte por causa cardiovascular es el Tromboembolismo Pulmonar (TEP), después del Infarto agudo de Miocardio y el Accidente cerebrovascular, con una incidencia anual estimada de 40 casos por cada 100.000 habitantes. Se comunica el caso clínico de un paciente de 44 años con diagnóstico de TEP recurrente con Hipertensión pulmonar tromboembólica crónica (CTPH) que fue sometido a tromboendarterectomía pulmonar bilateral (PTE) bajo paro circulatorio con hipotermia profunda. Se informa de los resultados de los medios de diagnóstico y del tratamiento quirúrgico mediante la tromboendarterectomía. Se discute el tema en el contexto de la experiencia internacional y nacional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/surgery , Endarterectomy/methods , Hypertension, Pulmonary/surgery , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypothermia, Induced
5.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(1): 116-121, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092796

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: En recién nacidos (RN) con encefalopatía hipóxico isquémica (EHI) en hipotermia se describen alte raciones metabólicas que se asocian a pronóstico neurológico. La hipomagnesemia ha sido reportada en la literatura, pero no es medida ni corregida en todos los centros de atención neonatal. Objeti vo: Evaluar la frecuencia de hipomagnesemia e hipocalcemia en RN con EHI en tratamiento con hipotermia corporal total y evaluar la respuesta al aporte de sulfato de magnesio. Pacientes y Méto do: Estudio prospectivo, observational y descriptivo en RN con EHI sometidos a hipotermia corporal total, hospitalizados entre los años 2016-2017. Se realizó medición seriada en sangre de magnesemia (Mg) y calcemia (Ca). Con Mg menor o igual de 1,8 mg/dl se administró suplemento como sulfato de Mg para mantener niveles entre 1,9 y 2,8 mg/dl. Se describió la frecuencia de hipomagnesemia e hipocalcemia y su presentación en el tiempo. Se realizó registro prospectivo de evolución clínica. Se hizo un análisis estadístico descriptivo, con medidas de tendencia central. Resultados: Se incluyeron 16 pacientes. Presentaron hipomagnesemia 13/16 (81,3%), la que fue precoz (6-36 h de vida), nor malizándose con aporte de sulfato de magnesio, requiriendo 2a dosis 4 de ellos. Presentaron hipo- calcemia 6/16 (37,5%). Conclusiones: La hipomagnesemia es frecuente (80%), similar a lo descrito en la literatura. Dado su importancia fisiológica debe controlarse y corregirse, de igual manera que el calcio.


Abstract: Introduction: In newborns with the diagnosis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated with hypother mia, metabolic alterations are observed, which are associated with neurological prognosis. Hypo magnesemia has been reported frequently in the literature in these patients, but it is not measured or corrected in all neonatal healthcare centers. Objective: To evaluate the frequency of hypomag nesemia and hypocalcemia in newborns with HIE treated with whole-body hypothermia and to evaluate the response to the magnesium sulfate administration. Patients and Method: Prospective, observational and descriptive study in hospitalized newborns with the diagnosis of HIE and trea ted with whole-body hypothermia between the years 2016 and 2017. Serial blood measurement of magnesemia (Mg) and calcemia (Ca) was performed. When presenting an Mg level < 1.8 mg/dl, supplementation with magnesium sulfate was administered to maintain levels between 1.9 and 2.8 mg/dl. The frecuency of hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia and clinical evolution was registered. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed, with central tendency measures. Results: Sixteen ca ses were included, 13 of them presented hypomagnesemia (81.3%), with early-onset (6-36 hours of life), which was normalized with magnesium sulfate treatment, receiving a second dose 4 patients. Six of 16 patients presented hypocalcemia (37.5 %). Conclusions: Hypomagnesemia is frequent (80%), similar to that described in the literature, and should be controlled and corrected early, given its physiological role, in the same way that calcium is controlled.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/complications , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Hypothermia, Induced , Magnesium Deficiency/etiology , Biomarkers/blood , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hypocalcemia/diagnosis , Hypocalcemia/drug therapy , Hypocalcemia/epidemiology , Magnesium/blood , Magnesium Deficiency/diagnosis , Magnesium Deficiency/drug therapy , Magnesium Deficiency/epidemiology , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use
7.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(4): e002101, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141414

ABSTRACT

Uno de los efectos adversos que generan mayor impacto psicosocial en los pacientes que se someten a quimioterapia es la pérdida de cabello. El uso de los cascos fríos podría representar una alternativa para prevenir la alopecia. Estos dispositivos producen vasoconstricción en los vasos sanguíneos del cuero cabelludo provocando que los quimioterápicos lleguen en menores concentraciones a los folículos pilosos, y por consiguiente, evitando que los citotóxicos alcancen el metabolismo de las células foliculares. Se propone que este proceso permita prevenir la alopecia, aunque existe una preocupación que es la posibilidad de metástasis en cuero cabelludo si la quimioterapia no llega a este tejido. Partiendo de la consulta de una paciente con diagnóstico reciente de cáncer de mama, surge el interrogante si en pacientes en tratamiento con quimioterapia el uso de cascos fríos en comparación con su no utilización, disminuye la caída del cabello y si aumenta el riesgo de metástasis en cuero cabelludo. Luego de realizar una búsqueda, se analizaron los resultados de tres artículos pertinentes. Se concluye que el uso de cascos fríos en pacientes que reciben quimioterapia representaría una opción válida para prevenir la alopecia sin indicios de problemas de seguridad y se realiza una reseña acerca de la disponibilidad de los cascos fríos en Argentina. (AU)


One of the adverse effects that generate greater psychosocial impact in patients undergoing chemotherapy is hair loss. The use of cold caps could represent an alternative to prevent alopecia. These devices produce vasoconstriction in the blood vessels of the scalp, causing chemotherapeutic agents to reach the hair follicles in lower concentrations, and there forepreventing toxins from being metabolized by the follicular cells. Thus, alopecia could be prevented but, there is a concern that is the possibility of metastasis to the scalp if the therapy does not reach this tissue. Based on a consultation of a patient recently diagnosed with breast cancer, the question arises whether in patients undergoing chemotherapy the useof cold caps compared to their non-use reduces hair loss and whether it in creases the risk of metastasis to the scalp. After performing a search, the results of three relevant articles were analyzed. It is concluded that the use of cold helmets in patients receiving chemotherapy would represent a valid option to prevent alopecia without indications of safety problems. Finally, a review is made about the availability of scalp-cooling devices in Argentina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Alopecia/prevention & control , Head Protective Devices , Hypothermia, Induced/instrumentation , Argentina , Scalp , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Alopecia/chemically induced , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Neoplasm Metastasis , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 87(2): 63-70, abr.-dic. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1097496

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La asixia perinatal, producida al feto/neonato por hipoxia y/o hipoperfusión tisular, puede llevar a ence-falopatía hipóxico-isquémica (EHI). La hipotermia terapéutica (HT) es eicaz para tratar EHI moderada/severa. Objetivo: Determinar conocimientos y actitudes sobre EHI e HT del personal sanitario y estudiantes antes y después de una intervención educativa, Departamento de Pediatría, Hospital Escuela (HE), Tegucigalpa, 2019. Métodos: Estudio cuasi experimental. Médicos, enfermeras, estudiantes de grado y posgrado fueron invitados a participar mediante consentimiento informado. El ensayo consistió en evaluación pre-intervención (Fase 1), seguida de intervención educativa, video y documento enviados por aplicación WhatsApp, y evaluación post-intervención (Fase 2). Se registraron características sociodemográicas. Se evaluó conocimientos (Excelente, Muy bueno, Bue-no, Deiciente) y actitudes (Buena, Regular, Mala, Muy mala). Se midió el cambio (Delta Porcentaje) entre proporción de participantes de acuerdo a conocimientos y actitudes pre y post-intervención. Resultados: De 181 potenciales participantes, en Fase 1 participaron 147 (81.2%) y en Fase 2, 127 (70.2%). Inicialmente, 93.2% (137) demostró un conocimiento deiciente y actitud buena 38.0% (56), regular 28.0% (41), mala 32.0% (47). El conocimiento bueno aumentó en 561.2% (3.1% versus 20.5%), conocimiento muy bueno aumentó en 185.1% (4.7% versus 13.4%), conocimiento deiciente disminuyó en 35.9% (92.2% versus 59.1%). La actitud regular au-mentó en 37.0% (27.0% versus 37.0%), actitud mala disminuyó 30.4% (32.8% versus 22.8%). Discusión: La intervención educativa mejoró conocimiento y actitud en relación a HT y EHI. La HT disponible en HE puede mejorar el desenlace de EHI. Se recomienda fortalecer las medidas educativas institucionales sobre el protocolo de HT...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Asphyxia Neonatorum/complications , Education, Professional
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1283-1284, Nov.-Dec. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056351

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective & Introduction: To show the feasibility of a combined transperitoneal (TP) and retroperitoneal (RP) laparoscopic approach in a Von Hipple-Lindau (VHL) patient with multiple kidney tumors. VHL is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome characterized by a high incidence of benign and malignant tumors and cysts in many organs. Renal cell carcinoma is one of the most common and a leading cause of mortality (1). Surgical approach is usually complex because of its multiplicity and the need of maximum kidney function preservation due to the risk of future recurrences (2, 3). Intracorporeal renal hypothermia may be useful in these cases to prevent permanent renal function loss (4). Materials and Methods: A 40 years old male was being monitored for multiple bilateral renal masses. Family history included a VHL syndrome affecting his mother and sister. Past medical history included a VHL syndrome with multiple cerebellar and medular hemangioblastomas, a pancreatic cystoadenoma and bilateral kidney tumors which had significantly grown up during follow-up. The patient was scheduled for laparoscopic multiple partial nephrectomy. A combined TP and RP approach with intracorporeal hypothermia was chosen. Results: A total of six right kidney tumors were removed. Operative time was 240 min. Cold ischemia time was 50 min. Average kidney temperature was 23.7°C. Blood losses were negligible. The patient was discharged after 72 hours. No major changes in serum creatinine were found during the follow-up. Final pathology revealed a clear cell renal cell carcinoma, pT1a, ISUP grade 2 in most of the tumors but one ISUP grade 3. Surgical margins were negative. Conclusions: Combined TP and RP is a feasible alternative for the treatment of multiple renal tumors. It's safe and effective, allowing the use of intracorporeal hypothermia which may improve postoperative renal function. Consistent experience is needed before embarking on this surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , von Hippel-Lindau Disease/surgery , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Nephrectomy/methods , Peritoneal Cavity/surgery , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome
11.
CorSalud ; 11(3): 249-257, jul.-set. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089744

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El pseudoaneurisma de aorta ascendente, como complicación en cirugía cardíaca, tiene una incidencia menor del 0,5%, pero una mortalidad que varía del 6,7 al 60%. La manipulación aórtica y la infección son los principales factores predisponentes. Su clínica puede ser variada y constituir un hallazgo casual en controles posteriores. Se presenta el caso de una paciente operada de cirugía valvular mitral que a los 11 meses del postoperatorio se le diagnostica un pseudoaneurisma de aorta ascendente, que requirió tratamiento quirúrgico de emergencia. La cirugía fue llevada a cabo con la utilización de canulación periférica extramediastínica, sin requerir parada circulatoria, ni hipotermia para su correcta disección. El caso muestra una variante técnica para enfrentar una enfermedad poco frecuente, pero altamente desafiante, por la necesidad de reintervención y una correcta estrategia quirúrgica.


ABSTRACT False ascending aortic aneurysm, as a complication in cardiac surgery, has an incidence of less than 0.5%, but a mortality that ranges from 6.7% to 60%. Aortic manipulation and infection are the main predisposing factors. Its clinical presentation is non-specific and may be found incidentally on subsequent check-ups. The case of a patient undergoing mitral valve surgery who was diagnosed with ascending aortic false aneurysm, eleven months after postoperative period, requiring emergency surgical treatment is presented. The surgery was performed using extra-mediastinal peripheral cannulation, without induced circulatory arrest or hypothermia for proper dissection. The case shows a technical version to face an uncommon but highly challenging disease as it needs re-interventions and successful surgical strategies.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, False , Aorta , Postoperative Complications , Thoracic Surgery , Hypothermia, Induced
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 15-19, set. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040543

ABSTRACT

Si una dificultad sobreviene durante el nacimiento de un niño, por una anomalía materna o fetal, aguda o crónica, la asfixia del cerebro fetal constituye un riesgo mayor, porque ella podría dar como resultado la destrucción de las neuronas y la posibilidad de evolucionar hacia una encefalopatía hipóxico isquémica con secuelas a largo plazo. En esta revisión se resaltan los aspectos científicos más recientes pero a la vez se ofrece un margen de conocimiento imprescindible en cuanto a la patofisiología, diagnóstico y tratamiento, así como también se ofrece una perspectiva sobre el futuro de la atención clínica de la encefalopatía hipóxico isquémica.


If a difficulty arises during birth, due to a maternal or fetal anomaly, acute or chronic, asphyxia of the fetal brain constitutes a greater risk, because it could result in the destruction of neurons and the possibility of evolving towards a Ischemic Hypoxic Encephalopathy with long -term sequelae. This review highlights the most recent scientific aspects but at the same time it offers an essential margin of knowledge regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment, as well as offering a perspective on the future of clinical care of ischemic hypoxic encephalopathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Infant, Premature , Risk Factors , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/physiopathology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy , Hypothermia, Induced
14.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(4): 1114-1118, Jul.-Aug. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1020515

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to report the experience of conducting directed temperature control of a post-cardiopulmonary resuscitation patient, with reduced and basic inputs available at the institution. Method: an experience report of directed temperature control in patient (age 15 years), after four hours of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in an Intensive Care Unit of a hospital in São Paulo State countryside in 2016, according to the protocol suggested by the American Heart Association, in 2015. There were applications of cold compresses, plastic bags with crushed ice and rectal temperature control. Results: after eight hours, temperature had reached 93.2 ºF. Body cooling was maintained for 24 hours. However, bags with crushed ice were used in the first 6 hours. Conclusion: conduct of nurses to obtain the body cooling with reduced and basic inputs was effective during the stay at the Intensive Care Unit.


RESUMEN Objetivo: relatar la experiencia de la conducción de control dirigido de la temperatura de una paciente después de la resucitación cardiopulmonar, con insumos reducidos y básicos disponibles en la institución. Método: el informe de experiencia de control direccionado de la temperatura en paciente (edad 15 años), después de cuatro horas de resucitación cardiopulmonar en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva de un hospital del interior del estado de São Paulo, en el año 2016, conforme protocolo sugerido por la American Heart Association en 2015. Se utilizaron aplicaciones de compresas embebidas en agua helada, bolsas plásticas con hielo triturado y control de la temperatura rectal. Resultados: en ocho horas, la temperatura alcanzó los 34 ºC. El enfriamiento corporal se mantuvo durante 24 horas, sin embargo, las bolsas con hielo triturado se utilizaron en las primeras 6 horas. Conclusión: la conducta de los enfermeros para obtener el enfriamiento corporal con insumos reducidos y básicos, se mostró efectiva durante la permanencia en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva.


RESUMO Objetivo: relatar a experiência da condução de controle direcionado da temperatura de uma paciente pós ressuscitação cardiopulmonar, com insumos reduzidos e básicos disponíveis na instituição. Método: relato de experiência de controle direcionado da temperatura em paciente (idade 15 anos) após quatro horas de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar em uma unidade de terapia intensiva de um hospital do interior do Estado de São Paulo, no ano de 2016, conforme protocolo sugerido pela American Heart Association 2015. Utilizou-se aplicações de compressas embebidas em água gelada, sacos plásticos com gelo triturado e controle da temperatura retal. Resultados: em oito horas a temperatura atingiu 34ºC. O resfriamento corporal foi mantido por 24 horas, todavia os sacos com gelo triturado foram utilizados nas primeiras 6 horas. Conclusão: a conduta dos enfermeiros para obter o resfriamento corporal com insumos reduzidos e básicos, mostrou-se efetiva durante a permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Peritonitis/complications , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/adverse effects , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Appendicitis/surgery , Appendicitis/complications , Peritonitis/surgery , Vomiting/etiology , Body Temperature Regulation/physiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/standards , Fever/etiology
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(8): 1116-1121, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041063

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION The possibility that hypothermia has a therapeutic role during or after resuscitation from severe perinatal asphyxia has been a longstanding focus of research. Studies designed around this fact have shown that moderate cerebral hypothermia, initiated as early as possible, has been associated with potent, long-lasting neuroprotection in perinatal patients. OBJECTIVES To review the benefits of hypothermia in improving cellular function, based on the cellular characteristics of hypoxic-ischemic cerebral injury and compare the results of two different methods of cooling the brain parenchyma. METHODS Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, and PubMed were searched for articles registered between 1990 and 2019 in Portuguese and English, focused on trials comparing the safety and effectiveness of total body cooling with selective head cooling with HIE. RESULTS We found that full-body cooling provides homogenous cooling to all brain structures, including the peripheral and central regions of the brain. Selective head cooling provides a more extensive cooling to the cortical region of the brain than to the central structures. CONCLUSIONS Both methods demonstrated to have neuroprotective properties, although full-body cooling provides a broader area of protection. Recently, head cooling combined with some body cooling has been applied, which is the most promising approach. The challenge for the future is to find ways of improving the effectiveness of the treatment.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO A possibilidade de a hipotermia ter um papel terapêutico durante ou após a reanimação da asfixia perinatal grave tem sido um foco de pesquisa de longa data. Estudos desenhados em torno desse fato mostraram que a hipotermia cerebral moderada, iniciada o mais cedo possível, tem sido associada à neuroproteção potente e duradoura em espécies perinatais. OBJETIVOS Resumidamente, analisar os benefícios da hipotermia na melhoria da função celular, com base nas características celulares da lesão cerebral hipóxico-isquêmica e comparar os resultados de dois métodos diferentes de resfriamento do parênquima cerebral. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS Medline, Lilacs, SciELO e PubMed foram pesquisados para artigos registrados entre 1990 e 2019 nos idiomas português e inglês, com foco em estudos comparando segurança e eficácia do resfriamento corporal total com o resfriamento seletivo da cabeça com EHI. RESULTADOS Descobrimos que o resfriamento de corpo inteiro fornece resfriamento homogêneo para todas as estruturas cerebrais, incluindo as regiões periférica e central do cérebro. O resfriamento seletivo da cabeça fornece um resfriamento mais amplo para a região cortical do cérebro do que para as estruturas centrais. CONCLUSÕES Ambos os métodos demonstraram ter propriedades neuroprotetoras, embora o resfriamento de corpo inteiro forneça uma área mais ampla de proteção. Recentemente, o resfriamento da cabeça combinado com algum resfriamento corporal foi aplicado e essa é a maneira mais promissora. O desafio para o futuro é encontrar formas de melhorar a eficácia do tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asphyxia Neonatorum/therapy , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/prevention & control , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Clinical Studies as Topic , Neuroprotection
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke patients with malignant infarct cores were primarily treated with neurocritical care based on reperfusion and hypothermia. We evaluated the predictors for malignant progression and functional outcomes. METHODS: From January 2010 to March 2015 ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation with infarct volume >82 mL on baseline diffusion weighted image (DWI) within 6 hours from onset, with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≥15 were included. All patients were managed with intent for reperfusion and neurocritical care. Malignant progression was defined as clinical signs of progressive herniation. Predictive factors for malignant progression and outcomes of decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) were evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 49 patients were included in the study. Among them, 33 (67.3%) could be managed with neurocritical care and malignant progression was observed in the remainder. Decompressive surgery was performed in nine patients (18.4%). Factors predictive of malignant progression were initial DWI volumes (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.02; P=0.046) and parenchymal hematoma (OR, 6.77; 95% CI, 1.50 to 30.53; P=0.013) on computed tomography taken at Day 1. Infarct volume of >210 mL predicted malignant progression with 56.3% sensitivity and 90.9% specificity. Among the malignant progressors, 77.7% resulted in grave outcomes even with DHC, while all patients who declined surgery died. CONCLUSION: Acute ischemic stroke patients with malignant cores between 82 to 209 mL can be primarily treated with neurocritical care based on reperfusion and hypothermia with feasible results. In patients undergoing surgical decompression due to malignant progression, the functional outcomes were not satisfactory.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema , Critical Care , Decompression, Surgical , Decompressive Craniectomy , Diffusion , Hematoma , Humans , Hypothermia , Hypothermia, Induced , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Reperfusion , Sensitivity and Specificity , Stroke , Thrombectomy
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758468

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The benefits of targeted temperature management (TTM) for resuscitated out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with an initial non-shockable rhythm are still unclear. This study examined whether TTM reduces the mortality and improves the neurological outcomes of OHCA with a non-shockable initial rhythm. METHODS: This study analyzed the clinical outcome of 401 resuscitated patients with an initial non-shockable rhythm among a total of 1,616 OHCA patients who were registered in Cardiac Arrest Pursuit Trial with Unique Registration and Epidemiologic Surveillance. The impact of TTM was investigated after accounting for the patients' propensity for TTM. The primary outcome was a 30-day in-hospital course with a neurologically favorable outcome defined by a cerebral performance categories scale ≤2. RESULTS: TTM was performed in 89 patients (22%) with an initial non-shockable rhythm. Patients who has received TTM had a tendency to be younger, more likely to be female, and more likely to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention. The clinical outcome of the patients in the initial non-shockable rhythm treated by TTM was superior to those without TTM (hazard ratio [HR], 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27–0.46). Further analysis after propensity score matching or inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) showed consistent findings (propensity score matching: HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.22–0.45; IPTW: HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.31–0.52; P<0.001, all). CONCLUSION: In this nationwide OHCA registry, TTM was related to an approximately three-fold better 30-day neurologically favorable survival of resuscitated patients with TTM treatment than patients without TTM in the initial non-shockable rhythm.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Heart Arrest , Humans , Hypothermia, Induced , Mortality , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Prognosis , Propensity Score
18.
Clinics ; 74: e938, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039559

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The inflammatory response is a key mechanism of neuronal damage and loss during acute ischemic stroke. Hypothermia has shown promise as a treatment for ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigated the molecular signaling pathways in ischemic stroke after hypothermia treatment. METHODS: Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) was overexpressed or silenced in cultured cells. Nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) activity was assessed by measurement of the luciferase reporter gene. An ischemic stroke model was established in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats using the suture-occluded method. Animals were assigned to three groups: sham operation control, ischemic stroke, and ischemic stroke + hypothermia treatment groups. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) levels in the culture supernatant and blood samples were assessed by ELISA. Protein expression was measured by Western blotting. RESULTS: In HEK293 cells and primary cortical neuronal cultures exposed to hypothermia, CDK5 overexpression was associated with increased IL-1β, caspase 1, and NF-κB levels. In both a murine model of stroke and in patients, increased IL-1β levels were observed after stroke, and hypothermia treatment was associated with lower IL-1β levels. Furthermore, hypothermia-treated patients showed significant improvement in neurophysiological functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, hypothermia offers clinical benefit, most likely through its effects on the inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Brain Ischemia/therapy , NF-kappa B/blood , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5/blood , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Inflammation/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/blood , Brain Ischemia/blood , Blotting, Western , Acute Disease , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sixty percent of infants with severe neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy die, while most survivors have permanent disabilities. Treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is limited to therapeutic hypothermia, but it does not offer complete protection. Here, we investigated whether hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) promotes cell survival and suggested neuroprotective strategies.PURPOSE: HIF-1α deficient mice have increased brain injury after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI), and the role of HIF-2α in HI is not well characterized. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD)1 overexpression is not beneficial in neonatal HI. The expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α was measured in SOD1 overexpressing mice and compared to wild-type littermates to see if alteration in expression explains this lack of benefit.METHODS: On postnatal day 9, C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to HI, and protein expression was measured by western blotting in the ipsilateral cortex of wild-type and SOD1 overexpressing mice to quantify HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Spectrin expression was also measured to characterize the mechanism of cell death.RESULTS: HIF-1α protein expression did not significantly change after HI injury in the SOD1 overexpressing or wild-type mouse cortex. However, HIF-2α protein expression increased 30 minutes after HI injury in the wild-type and SOD1 overexpressing mouse cortex and decreased to baseline value at 24 hours after HI injury. Spectrin 145/150 expression did not significantly change after HI injury in the SOD1 overexpressing or wild-type mouse cortex. However, spectrin 120 expression increased in both wild-type and SOD1 overexpressing mouse at 4 hours after HI, which decreased by 24 hours, indicating a greater role of apoptotic cell death.CONCLUSION: HIF-1α and HIF-2α may promote cell survival in neonatal HI in a cell-specific and regional fashion. Our findings suggest that early HIF-2α upregulation precedes apoptotic cell death and limits necrotic cell death. However, the influence of SOD was not clarified; it remains an intriguing factor in neonatal HI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Brain Injuries , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Humans , Hypothermia, Induced , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Infant , Mice , Spectrin , Superoxide Dismutase , Superoxides , Survivors , Up-Regulation
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785596

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Despite increased survival in patients with cardiac arrest, it remains difficult to determine patient prognosis at the early stage. This study evaluated the prognosis of cardiac arrest patients using brain injury, inflammation, cardiovascular ischemic events, and coagulation/fibrinolysis markers collected 24, 48, and 72 hours after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).METHODS: From January 2011 to December 2016, we retrospectively observed patients who underwent therapeutic hypothermia. Blood samples were collected immediately and 24, 48, and 72 hours after ROSC. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100-B protein, procalcitonin, troponin I, creatine kinase-MB, pro-brain natriuretic protein, D-dimer, fibrin degradation product, antithrombin-III, fibrinogen, and lactate levels were measured. Prognosis was evaluated using Glasgow-Pittsburgh cerebral performance categories and the predictive accuracy of each marker was evaluated. The secondary outcome was whether the presence of multiple markers improved prediction accuracy.RESULTS: A total of 102 patients were included in the study: 39 with good neurologic outcomes and 63 with poor neurologic outcomes. The mean NSE level of good outcomes measured 72 hours after ROSC was 18.50 ng/mL. The area under the curve calculated on receiver operating characteristic analysis was 0.92, which showed the best predictive power among all markers included in the study analysis. The relative integrated discrimination improvement and category-free net reclassification improvement models showed no improvement in prognostic value when combined with all other markers and NSE (72 hours).CONCLUSION: Although biomarker combinations did not improve prognostic accuracy, NSE (72 hours) showed the best predictive power for neurological prognosis in patients who received therapeutic hypothermia.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Brain Injuries , Creatine , Discrimination, Psychological , Fibrin , Fibrinogen , Heart Arrest , Humans , Hypothermia, Induced , Inflammation , Lactic Acid , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Troponin I
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