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1.
Rev. Asoc. Med. Bahía Blanca ; 33 (2), 2023;33(2): 2-3, oct. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1517069

ABSTRACT

El contexto socio-cultural actual, con su vertiginoso indi¬vidualismo y cada vez más alejado de lo colectivo, nos exige ejercitar la bioética y reflexionar sobre la lógica inmunitaria y la teoría del sistema inmunitario. La división siempre fue igual: blanco/negro, el bien/el mal, anticuerpo/antígeno, normal/patológico, occidente/oriente, civilización/barbarie, gen/proteína, y la lista es inagotable. Desde la lógica inmunitaria estas asociaciones se sintetizan en el par dicotómico vertical lo propio/lo no propio, donde el cuerpo humano biologizado (o biomedicalizado) representaría lo propio, que debe protegerse de lo considerado no propio, como podría ser un microorganismo o un cáncer. ¿De qué hablamos cuando hablamos de inmunidad? Depende. En la sinopsis del libro de divulgación científica Qué es el sistema inmune, escrito por Gabriel Rabinovich y Jorge Geffner, se anuncia (2014): "Sin que nos demos cuenta, nuestro organismo es un territorio en el que día y noche se desarrollan batallas épicas. Se producen en la intimidad de nuestros tejidos, y con armas más versátiles y efectivas que ninguna de las diseñadas por la industria bélica. Las protagoniza el sistema inmune, que distingue lo propio de lo extraño, nos protege de microorganis¬mos patógenos y descarta errores en la cadena de producción de las células (1)". En otro sentido, en la solapa del libro Immunitas. Protec¬ción y negación de la vida de Roberto Espósito se lee (2009): "La inmunidad preserva la comunidad al tiempo que la debilita". La fisiología del sistema inmunológico obedece a una lógica contradictoria: "la vida busca afirmase en aquello que la niega" (2). Es decir, para sobrevivir, conservar, proliferar y potenciar lo propio, se necesita de lo extraño. ¿Quién se puede negar a proteger lo que es de uno (tu cuerpo, tu casa, tu renta, tu país)? "Lo no propio" representa la esencia de la categoría "enfermedad" y se establece como ejemplar predilecto del discurso inmunitario, habiendo evo¬lucionado en sentido común. El sentido común, la obviedad vacía, materializa las re¬presentaciones del vulgo y produce un ethos mediado por el discurso biomédico con el objetivo de cosificar y colocar a las personas bajo la órbita comercial, donde "lo no propio" y la "enfermedad" funcionan como dispositivo espectacular de valor agregado. En este sentido, Donna Haraway sostiene: "Dirijo mi atención principalmente hacia ese polimorfo y poderosos objeto de fe, conocimiento y práctica llamado sistema inmunitario. Mi tesis es que el Sistema Inmunitario es un elaborado ícono para sistemas clave de "diferenciación" simbólica y material en el capitalismo tardío. Preeminente¬mente un objeto del siglo veinte, el Sistema Inmunitario es un mapa dibujado para guiar el reconocimiento y el desconoci¬miento del sí mismo y del otro en la dialéctica de la política occidental (Haraway en Esposito, 2009)." Este rasgo esencial del Sistema Inmune (lo no propio) se encuadra en el hábito de designar a las instituciones y a los eventos culturales como conceptos médico-biológicos y calificarlos en términos de moralidad, siempre en pares dicotómicos verticales, donde lo "mejor/peor" o "superior/inferior" es el sustrato favorito para fabricar conceptos aso¬ciados a ellos, en este caso "lo propio/lo no propio" (3, 4). La naturaleza del mecanismo inmunitario es una teoría, devenida verdad, cuya atracción para el estudiantado y su facilidad para estudiarla y comprenderla proviene de la dicotomía axiológica "lo propio y lo no propio" y desde la metáfora bélica. El problema surge cuando ­televisión de por medio­ se produce el pasaje de verdades (conceptos) médicas a la comunidad, porque la sociedad y el espectáculo encuentran en el fascinante discurso médico su argumentación teórica (5). Ahora bien, imaginemos la siguiente definición: El Sistema Inmunitario se encarga de reconocer e incluir lo no propio, para interactuar con lo propio y fortalecerse. El contenido y el mecanismo fisiológico es el mismo; sólo cambió el discurso y, por ende, el significado. Lamentablemente, para que "la cosa funcione" el discurso inmunitario debe ser el de siempre: el de una batalla, y si es épica mejor.


Subject(s)
Immunity , Biological Science Disciplines , Medicine
3.
Afr. j. lab. med. (Online) ; 12(1): 1-10, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1413422

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in China in 2019 and later ignited a global pandemic. Contrary to expectations, the effect of the pandemic was not as devastating to Africa and its young population compared to the rest of the world. To provide insight into the possible reasons for the presumed immune sufficiency to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Africa, this review critically examines literature published from 2020 onwards on the dynamics of COVID-19 infection and immunity and how other prevalent infectious diseases in Africa might have influenced the outcome of COVID-19. Studies characterising the immune response in patients with COVID-19 show that the correlates of protection in infected individuals are T-cell responses against the SARSCoV-2 spike protein and neutralising titres of immunoglobin G and immunoglobin A antibodies. In some other studies, substantial pre-existing T-cell reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 was detected in many people from diverse geographical locations without a history of exposure. Certain studies also suggest that innate immune memory, which offers protection against reinfection with the same or another pathogen, might influence the severity of COVID-19. In addition, an initial analysis of epidemiological data showed that COVID-19 cases were not severe in some countries that implemented universal Bacillus Calmette­Guerin (BCG) vaccination policies, thus supporting the potential of BCG vaccination to boost innate immunity. The high burden of infectious diseases and the extensive vaccination campaigns previously conducted in Africa could have induced specific and non-specific protective immunity to infectious pathogens in Africans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vaccination , Coronavirus , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , T-Lymphocytes , Communicable Diseases , Pandemics , Immunity
4.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 504-508, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986160

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of combined blockade of interleukin-33 (IL-33) and inducible co-stimulatory molecule (ICOS) on carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic liver fibrosis and imbalance of T helper lymphocyte subsets in mice. Methods: There were 40 BALB/c mice in each model and control group. Flow cytometry was used to determine the proportion of Th1/Th2/Th17 cells in the splenic lymphocyte suspension of mice, the expression levels of interferon γ, IL-4, and IL-17 in the splenic lymphocyte suspension of liver fibrosis mice after combined blockade of IL-33 and ICOS, and the pathological changes of liver histopathology in mice with liver fibrosis. Two independent sample t-test was used to compare data between groups. Results: Compared with the non-blocking group, the proportion of Th2 and Th17 cells in the IL-33/ICOS blocking group was significantly down-regulated (Th2: 65.96% ± 6.04% vs. 49.09% ± 7.03%; Th17: 19.17% ± 4.03% vs. 9.56% ± 2.03%), while the proportion of Th1 cells and Th1/Th2 ratio were up-regulated (Th1: 17.14% ± 3.02% vs. 31.93% ± 5.02%; Th1/Th2: 0.28 ± 0.06 vs. 0.62 ± 0.23), and the difference was statistically significant (t = 5.15, 6.03, 7.14, 4.28, respectively, with P < 0.05). After entering the chronic inflammation stage of liver fibrosis in mice (10 weeks), compared with the non-blocking group, the expression levels of IL-4 and IL-17 in the blockade group were significantly down-regulated [IL-4: (84.75 ± 14.35) pg/ ml vs. (77.88 ± 19.61) pg/ml; IL-17: (72.38 ± 15.13) pg/ml vs. (36.38 ± 8.65) pg/ml], while the expression of interferon γ was up-regulated [(37.25 ± 11.51) pg/ml vs. (77.88 ± 19.61) pg/ml], and the difference was statistically significant (t: IL-4: 4.71; IL-17: 5.84; interferon γ: 5.05, respectively, with P < 0.05). Liver histopathological results showed that hepatic necrosis, hepatic lobular structural disorder, and fibrous tissue hyperplasia were significantly lower in the blockade group than those in the non-blocking group at 13 weeks of liver fibrosis. Conclusion: Combined blockade of the ICOS signaling pathway and IL-33 can regulate Th2 and Th17 polarization, down-regulate the inflammatory response, and inhibit or prevent the occurrence and progression of fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-33/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Carbon Tetrachloride , Th2 Cells , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Th1 Cells , Th17 Cells/pathology , Immunity
5.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 673-676, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985545

ABSTRACT

With the expansion of mpox virus infection from endemic to a global epidemic in 2022, the WHO declared that the mpox event constituted a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Due to the high degree of gene sequence similarity among orthopox viruses and cross-reactive antibodies induced by orthoviruses, smallpox vaccination may affect the immune response induced by mpox virus infection. The analysis of the protective effects of smallpox vaccination against mpox virus infection will help define the focus of prevention and control. In this review, we clarify the protection of the smallpox vaccine against mpox virus infection by analyzing the correlation between smallpox vaccination, immune response status, and clinical data and providing evidence for the prevention, control, and strategies of mpox epidemics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Smallpox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/drug therapy , Smallpox Vaccine/therapeutic use , Vaccination , Immunity
6.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 278-283, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971073

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of breastfeeding on immune function in infants with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 135 infants with HCMV infection who were admitted to Children's Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University from January 2021 to May 2022, and all these infants received breastfeeding. According to the results of breast milk HCMV-DNA testing, the infants were divided into two groups: breast milk HCMV positive (n=78) and breast milk HCMV negative (n=57). According to the median breast milk HCMV-DNA load, the infants in the breast milk HCMV positive group were further divided into two subgroups: high viral load and low viral load (n=39 each). Related indicators were compared between the breast milk positive and negative HCMV groups and between the breast milk high viral load and low viral load subgroups, including the percentages of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD3+CD8+ T cells, and CD19+ B cells), CD4+/CD8+ ratio, IgG, IgM, IgA, and urine HCMV-DNA load.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences in the percentages of CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD3+CD8+ T cells, and CD19+ B cells, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, IgG, IgM, IgA, and urine HCMV-DNA load between the breast milk HCMV positive and HCMV negative groups, as well as between the breast milk high viral load and low viral load subgroups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Breastfeeding with HCMV does not affect the immune function of infants with HCMV infection.


Subject(s)
Female , Child , Humans , Infant , Breast Feeding , Cytomegalovirus Infections , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Retrospective Studies , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Milk, Human , Cytomegalovirus , Immunity , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 586-602, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970393

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a highly conserved mechanism for material degradation and recycling in eukaryote cells, and plays important roles in growth, development, stress tolerance and immune responses. ATG10 plays a key role in autophagosome formation. To understand the function of ATG10 in soybean, two homologous GmATG10 genes, namely GmATG10a and GmATG10b, were silenced simultaneously by bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) induced gene silencing. The carbon starvation induced by dark treatment and Western blotting analysis of GmATG8 accumulation level indicated that concurrent silencing GmATG10a/10b resulted in the impairment of autophagy in soybean; disease resistance and kinase assays demonstrated that GmATG10a/10b participated in the immune responses by negatively regulating the activation of GmMPK3/6, indicating that GmATG10a/10b plays a negative regulatory role in immune response in soybean.


Subject(s)
Soybeans/genetics , Immunity
8.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 177-185, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of moxibustion on the stem cell factor (SCF)/tyrosine kinase receptor (c-kit) signaling pathway and immune function in rats with diarrhea irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), and to explore the mechanism of moxibustion for IBS-D.@*METHODS@#Among 52 young rats born from 6 healthy pregnant SPF rats, 12 rats were randomly selected into the normal group, and the remaining 40 rats were treated with the three-factor combination method of maternal separation, acetic acid enema and chronic restraint stress to establish the IBS-D rat model. Thirty-six rats with successful IBS-D model were randomly divided into a model group, a moxibustion group, and a medication group, 12 rats in each group. The rats in the moxibustion group were treated with suspension moxibustion at "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37); the rats in the medication group were treated with intragastric administration of rifaximin suspension (150 mg/kg). All the treatments were given once a day for 7 consecutive days. The body mass, loose stool rate (LSR), the minimum volume threshold when abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scored 3 were measured before acetic acid enema (35 days old), after modeling (45 days old), and after intervention (53 days old). After intervention (53 days old), HE staining was used to observe the morphology of colon tissue, and spleen and thymus coefficients were measured; ELISA method was used to detect serum inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor a [TNF-a], interleukin [IL]-10, IL-8), T-lymphocyte subsets (CD+4, CD+8, CD+45), value of CD+4/CD+8 and immune globulin (IgA, IgG, IgM); real-time PCR method and Western blot method was used to detect the expression of SCF, c-kit mRNA and protein in colon tissue; immunofluorescence staining method were used to detect positive expression of SCF and c-kit.@*RESULTS@#After intervention, compared with the normal group, in the model group, the body mass and the minimum volume threshold when AWR scored 3 were decreased (P<0.01), LSR, spleen and thymus coefficients, serum levels of TNF-α, IL-8, CD+4, CD+45, CD+4/CD+8, IgA, IgG, IgM were increased (P<0.01), serum IL-10 level and protein and mRNA expression of SCF and c-kit in colon tissue were decreased (P<0.01), and the positive expression of SCF and c-kit was decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, in the moxibustion group and the medication group, the body mass and the minimum volume threshold when AWR scored 3 were increased (P<0.01, P<0.05), LSR, spleen and thymus coefficients, serum levels of TNF-α, IL-8, CD+4, CD+8, CD+45, CD+4/CD+8, IgA, IgG, IgM were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05), serum IL-10 level and protein and mRNA expression of SCF and c-kit in colon tissue were increased (P<0.01), and the positive expression of SCF and c-kit was increased (P<0.01). Compared with the medication group, in the moxibustion group, the level of serum CD+4 was decreased (P<0.05), the value of CD+4/CD+8 was increased (P<0.01), and there was no significant difference in other indexes (P>0.05). The expression of SCF and c-kit mRNA was positively correlated with the minimum volume threshold when AWR scored 3 and IL-10 (P<0.01), and negatively correlated with remaining indexes (P<0.01, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion could reduce visceral hypersensitivity, improve symptoms of abdominal pain and diarrhea in IBS-D rats, and its mechanism may be related to up-regulation of the expression of SCF/c-kit signaling pathway and improvement of IBS-D immune function.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , Moxibustion/methods , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-8 , Maternal Deprivation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Diarrhea , Signal Transduction , Homeostasis , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Immunity , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin M
9.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 297-301, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982736

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the changes of inflammation and immune function in children with chronic tonsillitis after tonsillotomy. Methods:Prospectively collected 60 children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) diagnosed as chronic tonsillitis with adenoids and tonsillar hypertrophy from January to June 2021. Two groups were divided, the experimental group (n=30) underwent bilateral partial tonsillectomy + adenoidectomy by hypothermia plasma ablation, and the control group (n=30) underwent adenoidectomy by using the same hypothermia plasma ablation method. The number of tonsillitis attacks before surgery and within one year after surgery was recorded, and the serum immunoglobulin IgM, IgG, IgA, complement C3 and complement C4 levels before operation, one month and three months after operation were measured. Results:The number of tonsillitis attacks in the experimental group and the control group at one year after surgery was lower than that before surgery(P<0.05); The number of inflammatory attacks in the experimental group was (0.50±0.63) times/year, which was lower than that of (1.33±0.80) times/year in the control group. There was no significant difference in the five immunization results of the two groups at one month and three months after operation compared with before operation, and there was also no significant difference between the experimental and the control groups. Conclusion:Partial tonsillectomy can be applied to children with chronic tonsillitis, which can effectively reduce the number of tonsillitis attacks and has no effect on the immune function of children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Tonsillectomy/methods , Hypothermia , Tonsillitis/surgery , Adenoidectomy , Palatine Tonsil/surgery , Inflammation , Chronic Disease , Immunity
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21769, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439514

ABSTRACT

Abstract Currently, mucosal vaccine administration has stood out as an easier and non-invasive application method. It can also be used to induce local and systemic immune responses. In the COVID-19 pandemic context, nasal and oral vaccines have been developed based on different technological platforms. This review addressed relevant aspects of mucosal vaccine administration, with emphasis on oral and nasal vaccinations, in addition to the importance of using nanotechnology-based delivery systems to enable these strategies.


Subject(s)
Vaccines/analysis , Vaccination/adverse effects , Nanotechnology/instrumentation , Immunity/immunology
11.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 952023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1515284

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La síntesis intratecal de anticuerpos contra algunos virus neurotrópicos como sarampión, rubéola y virus varicela zoster en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple, con una frecuencia muy superior a la esperada, llevó a la introducción de la reacción sarampión-rubéola-varicela. La presencia de anticuerpos específicos detectados en el líquido cefalorraquídeo contra dos o más de estos virus apoyó el diagnóstico no solo de la esclerosis múltiple, sino de otras enfermedades autoinmunes que involucran al sistema nervioso central. Objetivo: Identificar la presencia de respuesta inmune intratecal poliespecífica en pacientes pediátricos con proceso neuroinflamatorio independiente del agente biológico involucrado. Presentación de caso: Se estudiaron ocho niños a los cuales, mediante inmunodifusión radial simple y por ensayo inmunoenzimático, se les cuantificaron las concentraciones de inmunoglobulina G y albúmina en suero, y líquido cefalorraquídeo, lo que permitió determinar la síntesis intratecal de inmunoglobulinas. Por métodos inmunoenzimáticos se cuantificaron las concentraciones de IgG específica contra los virus estudiados en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo, con lo cual se determinó el índice de anticuerpo específico. La reacción sarampión-rubéola-varicela fue positiva en cinco pacientes y los valores medios de este índice se encontraron por encima de 1,5 para citomegalovirus y virus herpes simple. Conclusiones: Se identificaron repuestas neuroinmune antiviral poliespecífica en pacientes pediátricos con proceso neuroinflamatorio(AU)


Introduction: The intrathecal synthesis of antibodies against some neurotropic viruses such as measles, rubella and varicella zoster virus in patients with multiple sclerosis, with a frequency much higher than expected, led to the introduction of the measles-rubella-varicella reaction. The presence of specific antibodies detected in cerebrospinal fluid against two or more of these viruses supported the diagnosis not only of multiple sclerosis, but also of other autoimmune diseases involving the central nervous system. Objective: To identify the presence of polyspecific intrathecal immune response in pediatric patients with neuroinflammatory process independent of the biological agent involved. Case presentation: Eight children were studied and their serum and cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin G and albumin concentrations were quantified by simple radial immunodiffusion and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis. The concentrations of specific IgG against the viruses studied in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods, thus determining the specific antibody index. The measles-rubella-varicella reaction was positive in five patients and the mean values of this index were found to be above 1.5 for cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus. Conclusions: Polyspecific antiviral neuroimmune antiviral responses were identified in pediatric patients with neuroinflammatory process(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Immunity/immunology , Antibodies/cerebrospinal fluid
12.
Univ. salud ; 24(supl.1): 308-314, Sep.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1424728

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, international organizations recommended regular physical exercise to maintain physical and mental health during confinement, however, it is an emerging disease, the evidence is not conclusive regarding the relationship between a physical inactivity and the risk of serious outcomes in patients with COVID-19, therefore, it is essential to identify the contribution of the type of physical exercise modality and the contribution to the immune system. Objective: To demonstrate the immunological response of different physical exercise modality in the population between 18 and 84 years of age, the population identified with the highest number of confirmed cases of COVID-19, in the report n°198 of the World Health Organization. Materials and methods: A review of the literature was carried out between Central Pubmed, Google Scholar and Scielo from January 2016 to December 2021. Results: Of the selected articles, it was possible to identify the main benefits in the immune response with both modalities of physical exercise (aerobic and/or resistance) in the target population. Conclusion: At present, the benefits on the immune response in patients with COVID-19 are completely unknown, which is why it is essential to identify the contribution on the immune response in different modalities of physical exercise in the population between 18-84 years of age.


Introducción: Durante la pandemia de COVID-19, organismos internacionales recomendaron ejercicio físico regular para mantener la salud física y mental durante el confinamiento, sin embargo, al tratarse de una enfermedad emergente, la evidencia no es concluyente en relación a una inactividad física y el riesgo de desenlaces graves en estos pacientes con COVID-19. Es fundamental identificar el aporte del tipo de modalidad de ejercicio físico al sistema inmunológico. Objetivo: Demostrar la respuesta inmunológica de las diferentes modalidades de ejercicio físico en la población de 18 a 84 años, población identificada con mayor número de casos confirmados de COVID-19, en el informe n°198 de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Materiales y métodos: Revisión de la literatura entre Pubmed Central, Google Scholar y Scielo (enero de 2016 - diciembre de 2021). Resultados: De los artículos seleccionados se identificó los principales beneficios en la respuesta inmune con ambas modalidades de ejercicio físico (aeróbico y/o resistencia) en dicha población. Conclusión: En la actualidad se desconoce por completo los beneficios sobre la respuesta inmune en pacientes con COVID-19, por ello, es fundamental identificar el aporte sobre la respuesta inmune en diferentes modalidades de ejercicio físico en la población entre 18-84 años de edad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise , Health , Resistance Training , Sedentary Behavior , Endurance Training , Immunity
13.
rev.cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 14(1): 1-16, 20221221.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1428600

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis prevalent in one-third of the world's population, adversely affecting maternal-fetal health by causing varying degrees of damage to the fetus. Objective: To assess the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies and associated risk factors in first-trimester pregnant women in Cúcuta, Colombia, in 2018. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional and correlational study in 111 women who voluntarily participated. Specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected by luminescence immunoassay (LIA). Results: Total seropositivity for IgM and IgG was 19.8% and 35.1%, respectively, 11.7% was for IgM only, and 53.2% corresponded to the overall seronegativity rate for T. gondii. Risk factors (CI = 95%) such as undercooked meat consumption (54.1% of cases, OR = 1.8, p = 0.120), tap water consumption (48.6%, OR = 1.4, p = 0.421), and goat or cow raw milk consumption (39.6%, OR = 0.78, p = 0.553) were identified; in addition, living with cats (23.4%) was identified as a risk factor significantly associated with parasite seropositivity (OR = 2.8, p = 0.025). Discussion and Conclusions: Our findings showed a possible risk of primary infection in more than half of the pregnant population, given the seronegativity against the parasite. A considerable frequency of suspected cases of very recent infection was also found. In addition to being associated with a previously recognized risk factor, this fact suggests the presence of other dietary risks that should be addressed through prevention strategies during prenatal care and the need to strengthen event surveillance.


Introdução: A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose prevalente em um terço da população mundial, que afeta negativamente a saúde materno-fetal, causando diversos graus de danos ao feto. Objetivo: Propôs-se avaliar o estado sorológico IgG e IgM anti - Toxoplasma gondii e fatores de risco relacionados, em gestantes no primeiro trimestre em Cúcuta, Colômbia, no ano de 2018. Material e Métodos: Estudo transversal e correlacional em Participaram 111 mulheres voluntariamente, que foram testadas para IgM e IgG específicos pelo imunoensaio LIA. Resultados: 19,8% e 35,1% do total de soropositividade foram encontrados para IgM e IgG, respectivamente, 11,7% foi apenas para IgM e 53,2% corresponde à frequência de soronegatividade geral para T.gondii; Foram identificados fatores de risco (IC=95%) , como consumo de carne mal cozida (54,1% dos casos, OR= 1,8, p=0,120 ), água da torneira (48,6%, OR=1,4, p=0,421), cru leite de cabra ou vaca (39,6%, OR=0,78, p=0,553 ), além de conviver com gatos (23,4%), sendo este último significativamente associado à soropositividade ao parasita ( OR=2,8 , p =0,025 ). Discussão e conclusões: Nossos achados revelam um possível risco de infecção primária em mais da metade da população gestante dada a sua soronegatividade contra o parasita, mas também uma frequência considerável de casos com suspeita de infecção muito recente, que, além de estar associada a um fator de risco previamente reconhecido , sugere outros aspectos de risco em torno da alimentação que devem ser impactados por meio de estratégias de prevenção durante o pré-natal, sugerindo a necessidade de fortalecer a vigilância em torno do evento.


Subject(s)
Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis , Risk Factors , Pregnant Women , Immunity
15.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Centro Nacional de Salud Pública; 1 ed; Set. 2022. 14 p. ilus.(Serie Nota Técnica, 036).
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, INS-PERU, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1402626

ABSTRACT

La publicación describe la evidencia científica disponible respecto a la efectividad y seguridad del uso obligatorio de mascarilla versus en el ámbito escolar, a partir de estudios realizados en instituciones educativas en un contexto de disponibilidad de vacunas. Se reportó una asociación significativa entre escuelas con orden de uso obligatorio de mascarillas y una reducción importante en el número de casos de COVID-19 en estudiantes y trabajadores de las escuelas. Sin embargo, la evidencia procede de cuatro estudios ecológicos, no fue posible determinar el efecto aislado del uso de mascarillas de otras medidas de mitigación y el análisis no tomó en cuenta factores como nivel de adherencia o cumplimiento del mandato, tipo de mascarilla empleada, transmisión en el hogar, los diferentes protocolos para detección de casos en las escuelas incluidas y su capacidad para detectar los casos asintomáticos. Todos los estudios se realizaron en un periodo de disponibilidad de vacunas, en su mayoría para niños de 12 años o más, y previo a la circulación de la variante Omicron. Un análisis secundario identificó que la mayor intensidad de la transmisión comunitaria, mayor nivel de individualismo de la población y el nivel de educación secundaria en comparación a nivel pre-escolar, se asociaron con un incremento del riesgo de infección en las escuelas. El riesgo disminuyó con la aplicación de medidas preventivas únicas (distanciamiento físico o uso de mascarillas) o combinadas (distanciamiento físico y uso de mascarillas) versus ninguna medida y con el aumento en la inmunidad de la población. Respecto a los efectos psicosociales y en la comunicación, los resultados de 6 estudios fueron heterogéneos. No se encontró un efecto importante en la capacidad de los niños para inferir las emociones a partir de rostros con mascarillas, no hubo diferencias en el rendimiento cognitivo cuando los niños estuvieron expuestos previamente al uso de mascarillas frente a los que no la usaron y la comprensión del lenguaje fue similar cuando el orador usaba o no la mascarilla, en ausencia de ruido. Por otro lado, se evidenció un menor desempeño en la capacidad de reconocimiento facial y una alteración en el procesamiento de los rostros que usaban una mascarilla.


Subject(s)
Safety , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Education, Primary and Secondary , Absenteeism , Facial Recognition , Physical Distancing , N95 Respirators , COVID-19 , Disaster Mitigation , Immunity , Masks
16.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(2): 239-250, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400204

ABSTRACT

A resposta imune desenvolvida pelo hospedeiro contra o Mycobacterium tuberculosis é considerada de natureza complexa e multifacetada. Esta interação bacilo-hospedeiro resulta, na maioria das vezes, em uma infecção latente assintomática, podendo ou não evoluir para a forma ativa da tuberculose (TB). O presente estudo objetivou atualizar e sumarizar o conhecimento científico acerca dos mecanismos imunológicos associados à infecção e sua progressão para a TB ativa. Trata-se de uma revisão narrativa, realizada a partir do levantamento bibliográfico de artigos científicos indexados nas bases de dados PubMed/MEDLINE e SciELO, nos últimos 20 anos. Nas últimas décadas, a caracterização de linfócitos Tγδ, MAIT, iNKT e outra células T CD1 restritas proporcionaram um maior entendimento do papel da imunidade inata na infecção pelo bacilo. A migração de linfócitos T CD4+ produtores de IFN-g, TNF-α e de outras moléculas solúveis, promove o recrutamento e formação do granuloma, estrutura que beneficia tanto o hospedeiro quanto o bacilo. Eventualmente, um desequilíbrio nesta complexa rede de interação, resulta em uma resposta inflamatória exacerbada que contribui para o desenvolvimento de um granuloma necrótico. Por fim, a exaustão da resposta imune local frente à contínua exposição ao bacilo, associada ao perfil anti-inflamatório dos linfócitos Th2 e linfócitos Treg, favorecem a inativação funcional e, consequentemente, o desenvolvimento da doença ativa. A resposta imunológica é crucial para o desenvolvimento da infecção por M. tuberculosis. Portanto, estudos que possibilitem uma maior compreensão sobre a interação bacilohospedeiro podem viabilizar o desenvolvimento de novos métodos diagnósticos, estratégias terapêuticas e, sobretudo, avanços no desenvolvimento de imunobiológicos.


The immune response developed by the host against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is considered a complex and multifaceted nature. This host-bacillus interaction, which in most cases results in an asymptomatic latent infection that may or may not evolve to the development of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The present study aimed to update and summarize the current scientific knowledge regarding the immunological mechanisms associated with infection and the development of active disease. This is a narrative review, based on scientific articles indexed in the PubMed/ MEDLINE and SciELO databases over the last 20 years. In recent decades, the characterization of Tγδ lymphocytes, MAIT, iNKT and CD1-restricted T cells has provided a better understanding of the role of innate immunity in bacilli infection. The migration of T CD4+ lymphocytes that produce IFN-γ, TNF-α and other soluble molecules, promotes the recruitment and formation of the granuloma, a structure that benefits both the host and the bacillus. Eventually, an imbalance in this complex interaction network results in an exacerbated inflammatory response that contributes to the development of a necrotic granuloma. Finally, exhaustion of the local immune response due to continuous exposure to the bacillus, associated with the anti-inflammatory profile of Th2 lymphocytes and Treg lymphocytes, favor functional inactivation and, consequently, the development of active disease. The immune response is crucial for the development of M. tuberculosis infection. Therefore, studies that enable a greater understanding of the hostbacillus interaction may enable the development of new diagnostic methods, therapeutic strategies and, above all, advances in the development of immunobiologicals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Immunity , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Therapeutics , T-Lymphocytes , CD4 Antigens , Health Strategies , PubMed , Allergy and Immunology , Granuloma
17.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(2): 251-255, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400205

ABSTRACT

A COVID-19 é a enfermidade causada pelo SARS-CoV-2, descrita em 2019, em Wuhan. Desde então, causou a morte de milhões de pessoas. A doença caracteriza-se entre sintomas gripais e gastrointestinais, podendo evoluir com gravidade. A importância de compreender como melhorar a eficácia da vacinação levou à investigação de fatores que podem influenciar a resposta imune. A prática de exercícios foi identificada como um fator que pode melhorar a função imunológica e, portanto, ser um potencial adjuvante para respostas imunes. O treinamento crônico, ou altos níveis de atividade física durante um período prolongado (mês/ anos) e, separadamente, o exercício agudo ­ a realização de uma única sessão de exercício (minutos/horas), são dois segmentos relacionados à resposta imunológica ao exercício físico. O exercício agudo é conhecido por gerar efeitos de curto prazo sobre o sistema imune, mas parecem existir efeitos contrastantes entre sessões de exercícios moderados e exercícios prolongados. Na ausência de uma medicação profilática ou tratamento efetivo, a existência de vacinas e associação com a prática de exercícios, particularmente em populações em risco de disfunção imunológica, como idosos, deve ser estimulada. Assim, nesta revisão os autores buscam dissertar e hipotetizar sobre os efeitos do exercício nas respostas à vacinação. Enfim, a prática de exercícios se apresenta como adjuvante dos efeitos imunológicos sobre a vacinação, todavia, com o andamento da vacinação global para SARS-CoV-2, serão necessários estudos com acompanhamento regular para que possamos avaliar a correlação entre a atividade física e a resposta imunológica a estes imunizantes.


COVID-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which was first described in Wuhan in 2019. Since then, it has caused the death of millions of people. COVID-19 is characterized by flulike and gastrointestinal symptoms and may become severe. The importance of understanding how to improve vaccination effectiveness has led to the investigation of factors that may influence immune response. Exercise has been associated with improved immune function and, therefore, may be a potential adjuvant to vaccine-induced immune responses. Chronic training (high levels of physical activity over a prolonged period [months/ years]) or acute exercise alone (engaging in a single exercise session [minutes/hours)] are two segments related to the immune response to physical exercise. Acute exercise is known to have short-term effects on the immune system, but there seems to be contrasting effects between moderate exercise sessions and prolonged exercise. In the absence of prophylactic medication or effective treatment, vaccination plus exercise, particularly in populations at risk for immune dysfunction such as older adults, should be encouraged. Thus, in this review, we aimed to discuss and hypothesize the effects of exercise on vaccination responses. Exercise is presented as an adjuvant to improve the immunological effects of vaccination; however, as the COVID-19 vaccination advances worldwide, studies with regular monitoring will be necessary to evaluate the correlation between physical activity and the immune response to these vaccines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise , Vaccination , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Immunity , Signs and Symptoms , Therapeutics , Risk Factors , Allergy and Immunology , Immune System
18.
Medicina (Ribeirao Preto, Online) ; 55(2)abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402465

ABSTRACT

The severity of SARS-CoV2 infection, Covid19 disease, should account for the diversity of human individual immu-noinflammatory responses. Serum immunological markers during Covid19 illness may lead to individualized thera-peutics with better outcomes. Efficient treatment for Covid19 may require: 1) early disease detection, 2) combined drug therapy for 3) targeting the virus replication cycle, and 4) individualized drug treatment for specific immu-noinflammatory human profile responses administered in a 5) timely manner. Covid19 is unlikely to be the last emergent human disease with fast pandemic potential. Gathering knowledge on the individual human host profiles of immunoinflammatory responses is an opportunity that could lead us to understand individual differences in re-sponse to infection at the individual and population level, paving the way to faster, more efficient strategies to tack-le upcoming infectious diseases. This is a position paper based on an integrative non-exhaustive literature revision (AU)


A diversidade das respostas imunoinflamatórias individuais humanas muito provavelmente tem papel na gravidade da doença Covid19 causada pela infecção pelo vírus SARS-CoV2. Marcadores imunológicos séricos durante a Covid19 po-dem guiar a escolha de terapias individualizadas com melhores resultados. O tratamento eficiente para Covid19 pode exigir: 1) detecção precoce da doença, 2) terapia medicamentosa combinada com alvo ao 3) ciclo de replicação do ví-rus e 4) terapia anti-inflamatória individualizada para perfis de respostas imunoinflamatórias humanas, administradas em tempo hábil. É improvável que a Covid19 seja a última doença humana emergente com potencial de alastramento veloz pandêmico. Reunir conhecimento sobre perfis de respostas imunoinflamatórias individuais dos hospedeiros humanos é uma oportunidade ímpar que pode nos levar a entender as diferenças dessas respostas entre indivíduos, abrindo caminho para estratégias terapêuticas mais rápidas e eficientes no combate à futuras epidemias (AU)


Subject(s)
Treatment Outcome , Essay , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Cytokine Release Syndrome , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/therapy , Immunity
19.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(1): 43-49, ene. 28, 2022.
Article in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1354457

ABSTRACT

La incidencia de enfermedades alérgicas en la infancia va en aumento, y se ha convertido en una de las principales consultas. Una posible causa es la disbiosis del microbioma intestinal, relacionada con estados inflamatorios aumentados. Debido a la necesidad de mejorar la calidad de vida, y el impacto en lo económico y en lo educativo, surgen los probióticos como tratamiento adyuvante, por lo que se pretende determinar la asociación del uso de Bifidobacterium en menores de 5 años con la modulación de la respuesta inmune en enfermedades alérgicas. El microbioma intestinal inicia su desarrollo y maduración desde la gestación, continúa en el nacimiento y termina hasta los 3 años, influenciado por factores maternos, neonatales y ambientales. La disbiosis intestinal generada por estos factores reduce la proporción de bifidobacterias, lo cual se relaciona con estados proinflamatorios. En consecuencia, estudios del uso de Bifidobacterium en niños con enfermedades alérgicas ha evidenciado mejora de síntomas y calidad de vida. Los probióticos favorecen un microbioma intestinal saludable, asociado a un estado antiinflamatorio, debido a la regulación en el balance celular Th1/Th2/T reguladoras y células asesinas naturales. Esta modulación en la respuesta inmune permite mejor control de síntomas, calidad de vida y menor incidencia de enfermedades alérgicas en la infancia


The incidence of allergic diseases in childhood is increasing, and has become one of the main queries. One possible cause is dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, related to increased inflammatory states. Due to the need to improve the quality of life, and the economic and educational impact, probiotics emerge as adjuvant treatment, so it is intended to determine the association of the use of Bifidobacterium in children under 5 years with the modulation of the immune response in allergic diseases. The intestinal microbiome begins its development and maturation from gestation, continues at birth and ends up to 3 years, influenced by maternal, neonatal and environmental factors. The intestinal dysbiosis generated by these factors reduces the proportion of bifidobacteria, which is related to proinflammatory states. Consequently, studies of the use of Bifidobacterium in children with allergic diseases have shown improvement in symptoms and quality of life. Probiotics favor a healthy intestinal microbiome, associated with an anti-inflammatory state, due to the regulation of the regulatory Th1/Th2/T cell balance and natural killer cells. This modulation in the immune response allows better control of symptoms, quality of life and lower incidence of allergic diseases in childhood


Subject(s)
Bifidobacterium , Disease , Probiotics , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Child , Immunity
20.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 212-217, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935271

ABSTRACT

The evaluation methods of immune persistence include direct evaluation, indirect evaluation, model prediction, and meta-analysis and so on. Direct evaluation is the gold standard for evaluating the immune persistence of vaccines by quantifying the protective effect of vaccines on the onset and (or) infection of preventable diseases. Indirect evaluation of immune persistence by immunological surrogate indicators is more widely used in practice. In addition, mathematical models and meta-analysis can also be used to evaluate the immune persistence of vaccines. It is of great significance to select the appropriate evaluation method to analyze the immune persistence of the vaccine according to the specific situation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunity , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Vaccines/immunology
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