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1.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Centro Nacional de Salud Pública; 1 ed; Set. 2022. 14 p. ilus.(Serie Nota Técnica, 036).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERU, INS-PERU | ID: biblio-1402626

ABSTRACT

La presente publicación describe la evidencia científica disponible respecto a la efectividad y seguridad del uso obligatorio de mascarilla versus en el ámbito escolar, a partir de estudios realizados en instituciones educativas en un contexto de disponibilidad de vacunas. Se reportó una asociación significativa entre escuelas con orden de uso obligatorio de mascarillas y una reducción importante en el número de casos de COVID-19 en estudiantes y trabajadores de las escuelas. Sin embargo, la evidencia procede de cuatro estudios ecológicos, no fue posible determinar el efecto aislado del uso de mascarillas de otras medidas de mitigación y el análisis no tomó en cuenta factores como nivel de adherencia o cumplimiento del mandato, tipo de mascarilla empleada, transmisión en el hogar, los diferentes protocolos para detección de casos en las escuelas incluidas y su capacidad para detectar los casos asintomáticos. Todos los estudios se realizaron en un periodo de disponibilidad de vacunas, en su mayoría para niños de 12 años o más, y previo a la circulación de la variante Omicron. Un análisis secundario identificó que la mayor intensidad de la transmisión comunitaria, mayor nivel de individualismo de la población y el nivel de educación secundaria en comparación a nivel pre-escolar, se asociaron con un incremento del riesgo de infección en las escuelas. El riesgo disminuyó con la aplicación de medidas preventivas únicas (distanciamiento físico o uso de mascarillas) o combinadas (distanciamiento físico y uso de mascarillas) versus ninguna medida y con el aumento en la inmunidad de la población. Respecto a los efectos psicosociales y en la comunicación, los resultados de 6 estudios fueron heterogéneos. No se encontró un efecto importante en la capacidad de los niños para inferir las emociones a partir de rostros con mascarillas, no hubo diferencias en el rendimiento cognitivo cuando los niños estuvieron expuestos previamente al uso de mascarillas frente a los que no la usaron y la comprensión del lenguaje fue similar cuando el orador usaba o no la mascarilla, en ausencia de ruido. Por otro lado, se evidenció un menor desempeño en la capacidad de reconocimiento facial y una alteración en el procesamiento de los rostros que usaban una mascarilla.


Subject(s)
Safety , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Education, Primary and Secondary , Absenteeism , Facial Recognition , Physical Distancing , N95 Respirators , COVID-19 , Disaster Mitigation , Immunity , Masks
3.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(2): 239-250, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400204

ABSTRACT

A resposta imune desenvolvida pelo hospedeiro contra o Mycobacterium tuberculosis é considerada de natureza complexa e multifacetada. Esta interação bacilo-hospedeiro resulta, na maioria das vezes, em uma infecção latente assintomática, podendo ou não evoluir para a forma ativa da tuberculose (TB). O presente estudo objetivou atualizar e sumarizar o conhecimento científico acerca dos mecanismos imunológicos associados à infecção e sua progressão para a TB ativa. Trata-se de uma revisão narrativa, realizada a partir do levantamento bibliográfico de artigos científicos indexados nas bases de dados PubMed/MEDLINE e SciELO, nos últimos 20 anos. Nas últimas décadas, a caracterização de linfócitos Tγδ, MAIT, iNKT e outra células T CD1 restritas proporcionaram um maior entendimento do papel da imunidade inata na infecção pelo bacilo. A migração de linfócitos T CD4+ produtores de IFN-g, TNF-α e de outras moléculas solúveis, promove o recrutamento e formação do granuloma, estrutura que beneficia tanto o hospedeiro quanto o bacilo. Eventualmente, um desequilíbrio nesta complexa rede de interação, resulta em uma resposta inflamatória exacerbada que contribui para o desenvolvimento de um granuloma necrótico. Por fim, a exaustão da resposta imune local frente à contínua exposição ao bacilo, associada ao perfil anti-inflamatório dos linfócitos Th2 e linfócitos Treg, favorecem a inativação funcional e, consequentemente, o desenvolvimento da doença ativa. A resposta imunológica é crucial para o desenvolvimento da infecção por M. tuberculosis. Portanto, estudos que possibilitem uma maior compreensão sobre a interação bacilohospedeiro podem viabilizar o desenvolvimento de novos métodos diagnósticos, estratégias terapêuticas e, sobretudo, avanços no desenvolvimento de imunobiológicos.


The immune response developed by the host against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is considered a complex and multifaceted nature. This host-bacillus interaction, which in most cases results in an asymptomatic latent infection that may or may not evolve to the development of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The present study aimed to update and summarize the current scientific knowledge regarding the immunological mechanisms associated with infection and the development of active disease. This is a narrative review, based on scientific articles indexed in the PubMed/ MEDLINE and SciELO databases over the last 20 years. In recent decades, the characterization of Tγδ lymphocytes, MAIT, iNKT and CD1-restricted T cells has provided a better understanding of the role of innate immunity in bacilli infection. The migration of T CD4+ lymphocytes that produce IFN-γ, TNF-α and other soluble molecules, promotes the recruitment and formation of the granuloma, a structure that benefits both the host and the bacillus. Eventually, an imbalance in this complex interaction network results in an exacerbated inflammatory response that contributes to the development of a necrotic granuloma. Finally, exhaustion of the local immune response due to continuous exposure to the bacillus, associated with the anti-inflammatory profile of Th2 lymphocytes and Treg lymphocytes, favor functional inactivation and, consequently, the development of active disease. The immune response is crucial for the development of M. tuberculosis infection. Therefore, studies that enable a greater understanding of the hostbacillus interaction may enable the development of new diagnostic methods, therapeutic strategies and, above all, advances in the development of immunobiologicals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Immunity , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Therapeutics , T-Lymphocytes , CD4 Antigens , Health Strategies , PubMed , Allergy and Immunology , Granuloma
4.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(2): 251-255, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400205

ABSTRACT

A COVID-19 é a enfermidade causada pelo SARS-CoV-2, descrita em 2019, em Wuhan. Desde então, causou a morte de milhões de pessoas. A doença caracteriza-se entre sintomas gripais e gastrointestinais, podendo evoluir com gravidade. A importância de compreender como melhorar a eficácia da vacinação levou à investigação de fatores que podem influenciar a resposta imune. A prática de exercícios foi identificada como um fator que pode melhorar a função imunológica e, portanto, ser um potencial adjuvante para respostas imunes. O treinamento crônico, ou altos níveis de atividade física durante um período prolongado (mês/ anos) e, separadamente, o exercício agudo ­ a realização de uma única sessão de exercício (minutos/horas), são dois segmentos relacionados à resposta imunológica ao exercício físico. O exercício agudo é conhecido por gerar efeitos de curto prazo sobre o sistema imune, mas parecem existir efeitos contrastantes entre sessões de exercícios moderados e exercícios prolongados. Na ausência de uma medicação profilática ou tratamento efetivo, a existência de vacinas e associação com a prática de exercícios, particularmente em populações em risco de disfunção imunológica, como idosos, deve ser estimulada. Assim, nesta revisão os autores buscam dissertar e hipotetizar sobre os efeitos do exercício nas respostas à vacinação. Enfim, a prática de exercícios se apresenta como adjuvante dos efeitos imunológicos sobre a vacinação, todavia, com o andamento da vacinação global para SARS-CoV-2, serão necessários estudos com acompanhamento regular para que possamos avaliar a correlação entre a atividade física e a resposta imunológica a estes imunizantes.


COVID-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which was first described in Wuhan in 2019. Since then, it has caused the death of millions of people. COVID-19 is characterized by flulike and gastrointestinal symptoms and may become severe. The importance of understanding how to improve vaccination effectiveness has led to the investigation of factors that may influence immune response. Exercise has been associated with improved immune function and, therefore, may be a potential adjuvant to vaccine-induced immune responses. Chronic training (high levels of physical activity over a prolonged period [months/ years]) or acute exercise alone (engaging in a single exercise session [minutes/hours)] are two segments related to the immune response to physical exercise. Acute exercise is known to have short-term effects on the immune system, but there seems to be contrasting effects between moderate exercise sessions and prolonged exercise. In the absence of prophylactic medication or effective treatment, vaccination plus exercise, particularly in populations at risk for immune dysfunction such as older adults, should be encouraged. Thus, in this review, we aimed to discuss and hypothesize the effects of exercise on vaccination responses. Exercise is presented as an adjuvant to improve the immunological effects of vaccination; however, as the COVID-19 vaccination advances worldwide, studies with regular monitoring will be necessary to evaluate the correlation between physical activity and the immune response to these vaccines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise , Vaccination , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Immunity , Signs and Symptoms , Therapeutics , Risk Factors , Allergy and Immunology , Immune System
5.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(2): 271-284, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400222

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Asthma is an inflammatory airway disease that is influenced by several factors. An evolutionarily conserved serine/ threonine kinase named mTOR plays a key role in the integration of environmental signals in the form of growth factors, amino acids, and energy. In the immune system, mTOR is a critical regulator. The mTOR pathway exerts central control over processes in the immune response and in T-cell proliferation, multiplication, and differentiation. Variations in the gene responsible for mTOR complexes have been associated with different critical levels of cytokines, increased likelihood of developing asthma, and increased prevalence of atopy. Objective and method: This study aimed to investigate the association of mTOR gene variants with asthma, asthma severity, and atopy, as well as to perform a cytokine analysis. Result and conclusion: The findings reinforce the importance of mTOR gene variants in the development of asthma.


Introdução: A asma é uma doença inflamatória das vias aéreas, com diversos fatores influenciando essa condição inflamatória. A mTOR, uma serina/treonina quinase evolutivamente conservada, desempenha um papel central na integração de sinais ambientais na forma de fatores de crescimento, aminoácidos e energia. No sistema imunológico, a mTOR se apresenta como um regulador crítico. A via mTOR se destaca pelo controle central na resposta do sistema imunológico, bem como na proliferação, multiplição e diferenciação das células T. Variações no gene responsável pelos complexos mTOR têm sido associadas a diferentes níveis críticos de citocinas, aumento da probabilidade de desenvolver asma e aumento da prevalência de atopia. Objetivo e método: O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a associação entre as variantes do gene mTOR com asma e sua gravidade, atopia, além da análise de citocinas. Resultado e conclusão: Os achados reafirmam a importância das variantes do gene mTOR no desenvolvimento da asma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma , Threonine , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Serine , Signs and Symptoms , Therapeutics , Prevalence , Cytokines , Immune System , Immunity , Methods
6.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(1): 43-49, ene. 28, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1354457

ABSTRACT

La incidencia de enfermedades alérgicas en la infancia va en aumento, y se ha convertido en una de las principales consultas. Una posible causa es la disbiosis del microbioma intestinal, relacionada con estados inflamatorios aumentados. Debido a la necesidad de mejorar la calidad de vida, y el impacto en lo económico y en lo educativo, surgen los probióticos como tratamiento adyuvante, por lo que se pretende determinar la asociación del uso de Bifidobacterium en menores de 5 años con la modulación de la respuesta inmune en enfermedades alérgicas. El microbioma intestinal inicia su desarrollo y maduración desde la gestación, continúa en el nacimiento y termina hasta los 3 años, influenciado por factores maternos, neonatales y ambientales. La disbiosis intestinal generada por estos factores reduce la proporción de bifidobacterias, lo cual se relaciona con estados proinflamatorios. En consecuencia, estudios del uso de Bifidobacterium en niños con enfermedades alérgicas ha evidenciado mejora de síntomas y calidad de vida. Los probióticos favorecen un microbioma intestinal saludable, asociado a un estado antiinflamatorio, debido a la regulación en el balance celular Th1/Th2/T reguladoras y células asesinas naturales. Esta modulación en la respuesta inmune permite mejor control de síntomas, calidad de vida y menor incidencia de enfermedades alérgicas en la infancia


The incidence of allergic diseases in childhood is increasing, and has become one of the main queries. One possible cause is dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, related to increased inflammatory states. Due to the need to improve the quality of life, and the economic and educational impact, probiotics emerge as adjuvant treatment, so it is intended to determine the association of the use of Bifidobacterium in children under 5 years with the modulation of the immune response in allergic diseases. The intestinal microbiome begins its development and maturation from gestation, continues at birth and ends up to 3 years, influenced by maternal, neonatal and environmental factors. The intestinal dysbiosis generated by these factors reduces the proportion of bifidobacteria, which is related to proinflammatory states. Consequently, studies of the use of Bifidobacterium in children with allergic diseases have shown improvement in symptoms and quality of life. Probiotics favor a healthy intestinal microbiome, associated with an anti-inflammatory state, due to the regulation of the regulatory Th1/Th2/T cell balance and natural killer cells. This modulation in the immune response allows better control of symptoms, quality of life and lower incidence of allergic diseases in childhood


Subject(s)
Bifidobacterium , Disease , Probiotics , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Child , Immunity
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922579

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA) alleviates cognitive impairment by suppressing the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway, which triggers immune-inflammatory responses in the hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia (VaD).@*METHODS@#The experiments were conducted in 3 parts and in total the Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 8 groups by a random number table, including sham, four-vessel occlusion (4-VO), 4-VO+EA, 4-VO+non-EA, sham+EA, 4-VO+lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 4-VO+LPS+EA, and 4-VO+TAK-242 groups. The VaD model was established by the 4-VO method. Seven days later, rats were treated with EA at 5 acupoints of Baihui (DV 20), Danzhong (RN 17), Geshu (BL 17), Qihai (RN 6) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6), once per day for 3 consecutive weeks. Lymphocyte subsets, lymphocyte transformation rates, and inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) were measured to assess immune function and inflammation in VaD rats. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrastructure of nerve cells in the hippocampus. The levels of TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, and TNF-α were detected after EA treatment. TLR4/MyD88 signaling and cognitive function were also assessed after intracerebroventricular injection of TLR4 antagonist TAK-242 or TLR4 agonist LPS with or without EA.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the 4-VO group, EA notably improved immune function of rats in the 4-VO+EA group, inhibited the protein and mRNA expressions of TLR4 and MyD88 in the hippocampus of rats, reduced the expressions of serum IL-6 and TNF-α (all P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#EA attenuated cognitive impairment associated with immune inflammation by inhibition of the TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway. Thus, EA may be a promising alternative therapy for the treatment of VaD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dementia, Vascular/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Hippocampus/metabolism , Immunity , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 560-565, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935427

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect and mechanism of activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) Toll-like receptor (TLR3) signaling pathway in recombinant HBsAg (rHBsAg) immune response. Methods: White blood cells were collected from peripheral blood of 13 healthy donors in the preparation of blood products. PBMC was isolated and treated with Poly I:C (Poly I:C group) and PBS (control group) respectively. 48 h later, some cells were collected and the expressions of TLR3 signaling pathway proteins were detected by flow cytometry. After activating (Poly I:C group)/inactivating (control group) TLR3 signaling pathway, rHBsAg was given to both groups for 72 h, and the proportions of DC, T, B cells and their subsets in PBMC were detected by flow cytometry. Paired t-test, paired samples wilcoxon signed-rank test and canonical correlation analyses were used for statistical analysis. Results: The percentage of TLR3 protein-positive cells (19.21%) and protein expression (8 983.95), NF-κB protein expression (26 193.13), the percentage of pNF-κB protein-positive cells (13.73%) and its proportion in NF-κB (16.03%), and the percentage of pIRF3 protein-positive cells (12.64%) and its proportion in IRF3 (21.80%) in Poly I:C group were higher than those in control group (11.54%, 8 086.00, 22 340.66, 8.72%, 9.71%, 9.57%, 19.12%) (P<0.05), and the percentage of TRIF protein-positive cells (89.75%) and protein expression (304 219.54) were higher in Poly I:C group than in the control group (89.64%, 288 149.72) (P>0.05). After PBMC stimulation by rHBsAg, the proportions of mDC (2.90%), pDC (1.80%), B cell (5.31%) and plasma cell (67.71%) in Poly I:C group were significantly higher than those in the control group (1.83%, 0.81%, 4.23%, 58.82%) (P<0.05). Results of canonical correlation analysis showed that the expression of TLR3 protein was positively correlated with the proportions of plasma cells, the expression of pIRF3 protein was positively correlated with the proportions of plasma cells and mDC, and the percentage of pNF-κB protein-positive cells and the percentage of pIRF3 protein-positive cells were positively correlated with the proportion of CD4+T cells. Conclusions: Poly I:C can activate TLR3/TRIF/NF-κB and TLR3/TRIF/IRF3 signaling pathway, promote the function of downstream signaling molecules, and then promote the maturation of DC, induce the immune responses of CD4+T cell, and promote the maturation and activation of B cells and the immune response of rHBsAg.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/pharmacology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Humans , Immunity , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , NF-kappa B , Poly I-C/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935271

ABSTRACT

The evaluation methods of immune persistence include direct evaluation, indirect evaluation, model prediction, and meta-analysis and so on. Direct evaluation is the gold standard for evaluating the immune persistence of vaccines by quantifying the protective effect of vaccines on the onset and (or) infection of preventable diseases. Indirect evaluation of immune persistence by immunological surrogate indicators is more widely used in practice. In addition, mathematical models and meta-analysis can also be used to evaluate the immune persistence of vaccines. It is of great significance to select the appropriate evaluation method to analyze the immune persistence of the vaccine according to the specific situation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunity , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Vaccines/immunology
10.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 263-275, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929205

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence indicates that the gut microbiome contributes to the host immune response to infectious diseases. Here, to explore the role of the gut microbiome in the host immune responses in COVID-19, we conducted shotgun metagenomic sequencing and immune profiling of 14 severe/critical and 24 mild/moderate COVID-19 cases as well as 31 healthy control samples. We found that the diversity of the gut microbiome was reduced in severe/critical COVID-19 cases compared to mild/moderate ones. We identified the abundance of some gut microbes altered post-SARS-CoV-2 infection and related to disease severity, such as Enterococcus faecium, Coprococcus comes, Roseburia intestinalis, Akkermansia muciniphila, Bacteroides cellulosilyticus and Blautia obeum. We further analyzed the correlation between the abundance of gut microbes and host responses, and obtained a correlation map between clinical features of COVID-19 and 16 severity-related gut microbe, including Coprococcus comes that was positively correlated with CD3+/CD4+/CD8+ lymphocyte counts. In addition, an integrative analysis of gut microbiome and the transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) showed that genes related to viral transcription and apoptosis were up-regulated in Coprococcus comes low samples. Moreover, a number of metabolic pathways in gut microbes were also found to be differentially enriched in severe/critical or mild/moderate COVID-19 cases, including the superpathways of polyamine biosynthesis II and sulfur oxidation that were suppressed in severe/critical COVID-19. Together, our study highlighted a potential regulatory role of severity related gut microbes in the immune response of host.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridiales , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Immunity , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939694

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the occurrence of immune dysfunction in children with aplastic anemia (AA) and the factors that may lead to immune dysfunction, analyze the relationship between the expression of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and immune dysfunction.@*METHODS@#A total of 34 children with AA treated in our hospital from December 2016 to September 2018 were selected. All the children received immunosuppressive therapy (IST) for 6 months. According to whether the children had immune dysfunction after 6 months of treatment, they were divided into occurrence group and non occurrence group. General information and laboratory indices were compared between the two groups, and serum G-CSF level was tested, the relationship between serum G-CSF level and immune dysfunction in AA children after treatment with IST was observed and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#After treatment with IST for 6 months, 12 cases developed immune dysfunction (35.29%). Serum interferon (IFN)-γ level of the occurrence group was higher but G-CSF level was lower than those of the non occurrence group (P<0.05), while the difference of other baseline data was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that overexpression of serum IFN-γ and low expression of G-CSF were both the influencing factors of immune dysfunction in AA children after IST treatment (OR>1, P<0.05). ROC curve was drawn, and the result showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of serum G-CSF level predicted the risk of immune dysfunction after IST was 0.843>0.80, when the index cut-off value was set at 6.614 pg/ml, the predictive value was ideal.@*CONCLUSION@#AA children have a higher risk of immune dysfunction after IST, which may be related to the low expression of serum G-CSF. The detection of serum G-CSF expression can be considered to predict the risk of immune dysfunction in AA children after IST, so as to guide early clinical intervention.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic , Antilymphocyte Serum/therapeutic use , Child , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Humans , Immunity , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(4): 361-370, out.dez.2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399785

ABSTRACT

O corpo humano tende sempre a procurar um estado de homeostase, buscando o equilíbrio entre todos os sistemas. O exercício físico está presente na rotina diária de indivíduos, mesmo com objetivos diferentes, porém a influência no sistema imunológico não é muitas vezes abordada como fator relevante. O sistema imune é responsável por proteger o organismo contra infecções e doenças, podendo ser modulado perante a resposta de exercícios físicos regulares. Tendo em vista que, atualmente, existe uma preocupação maior em tornar e manter a imunidade eficiente, a prática regular e moderada do exercício pode contribuir para uma maior eficácia desse sistema, dessa forma, podendo ser considerada uma proteção ao corpo humano. O objetivo dessa revisão foi sintetizar os dados de estudos presentes na literatura que demonstram a influência do exercício físico na resposta do sistema imunológico, tornando possível compreender as alterações moleculares, fisiológicas, metabólicas e celulares que levam a um tipo específico de resposta do organismo humano.


The human body always tends to seek a homeostasis state, trying to balance all systems. Physical exercise is present in the routine of individuals even with different goals, but the influence in the immune system isnt a relevant factor. The immune system is responsible for protecting the human body against some infections and diseases, and could be modulated in response by some regular physical exercise. At the moment there is a greater concern to keep efficient immunity, a practice of regular and moderate exercise can contribute to a better effectiveness of this system, thus, it can be considered a form of protection to the human body. The objective of this review was to synthesize some data from any studies presented in the literature that demonstrate the influence of physical exercise on the immune system response. Making it possible to understand the molecular mechanisms, physiological, metabolic and cellular changes that turn to a specific type of response in the human body.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise , Immune System , Immunity , Dendritic Cells , Immunoglobulins , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocytes , Monocytes , Cytokines , Human Body , Chemokines , Protective Factors , Endurance Training , Homeostasis , Leukocytes , Macrophages , Neutrophils
13.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(4): 385-394, out.dez.2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399793

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammation in the esophageal mucosa driven by an antigen-mediated abnormal immune response with apparent increasing prevalence worldwide. Genetically predisposed individuals present with a dysfunctional esophageal barrier and an abnormal immune response mediated by Th2 and IgE against certain allergens. Consequently, esophageal lesions can cause dysmotility, fibrosis and loss of esophageal barrier function. Clinical manifestations are age-related and include symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Diagnosis is established by specific histological features associated with the presence of at least 15 eosinophils per high-power field. Management of EoE includes control of allergic diseases with diet restrictions and/or pharmacological treatment with proton-pump inhibitors and corticosteroids, not completely effective and limited by possible side effects and impairment of quality of life. Although immunological mechanisms of EoE are still less clear than other allergic diseases, biologic trials indicate some promising perspectives for EoE management. The purpose of this review is to present the current evidence of biologic drugs as options for EoE treatment.


Esofagite eosinofílica (EOE) é uma inflamação crônica da mucosa esofágica com resposta imune antígeno-mediada anormal e com aparente aumento mundial na prevalência. Indivíduos geneticamente predispostos se apresentam com quadro de disfunção da barreira esofágica e uma resposta imune, mediada por TH2 e IGE, anormal contra certos alérgenos. Consequentemente, lesões esofágicas podem causar dismotilidade, fibrose e perda da função de barreira. O quadro clínico apresenta variação conforme idade e inclui sintomas de disfunção esofágica. O diagnóstico é estabelecido por achados histológicos específicos associados à presença de, ao menos, 15 eosinófilos por campo de alta potência. O manejo inclui controle do quadro alérgico com restrição dietética e/ou tratamento medicamentoso com bloqueadores da bomba de prótons e corticosteroides. São tratamentos sem completa efetividade, com efeitos colaterais e prejuízo na qualidade de vida. Ainda que os mecanismos imunológicos da EOE sejam menos claros que as demais doenças alérgicas, novos ensaios com imunobiológicos salientam uma perspectiva promissora de tratamento para a EOE. O objetivo desta revisão é apresentar as atuais evidências de uso de imunobiológicos como uma nova opção de terapêutica para a esofagite eosinofílica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Diet , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Eosinophilic Esophagitis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Omalizumab , Therapeutics , Biological Products , Fibrosis , Immunoglobulin E , Prevalence , Drug Therapy , Endoscopy , Esophageal Mucosa , Immunity , Inflammation , Antigens
14.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(4): 395-408, out.dez.2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399798

ABSTRACT

Introdução: É necessário conhecer a situação de alergistas/ imunologistas nos diferentes cenários de atuação, identificando perfis e eventuais dificuldades. O conhecimento destes dados poderá servir de subsídio para fomentar a implementação de políticas que garantam a integralidade na atenção à saúde do paciente com doenças alérgicas e erros inatos da imunidade (EII). Objetivo: Verificar o perfil dos especialistas em Alergia e Imunologia no Brasil, em relação ao local de atuação, acesso a exames, terapias e o impacto da pandemia COVID-19 sobre o seu exercício profissional. Métodos: Estudo descritivo-exploratório, com dados coletados por inquérito on-line, utilizando-se a ferramenta Google Forms. Todos os associados adimplentes da ASBAI foram convidados a participar. O questionário abordou aspectos sociodemográficos e profissionais. As informações foram analisadas no programa SPSS versão 20.0. Resultados: Quatrocentos e sessenta associados responderam ao questionário. Observou-se predomínio de mulheres (73%), com mediana de idade de 47 anos. A maioria dos participantes atua no setor privado (95%), e 47% no setor público. Aproximadamente 80% dos que atendem no setor público referiram ter acesso a algum exame diagnóstico para doenças alérgicas e EII. Apenas 35% dos especialistas do sistema público têm acesso a imunoterapia alérgeno específica, contra 96% dos que atuam no setor privado. Já aos medicamentos imunobiológicos, 53% e 72% dos especialistas que atuam no serviço público e privado, respectivamente, referiram acesso. Mais de 60% dos associados participantes da pesquisa tiveram redução no número de consultas em pelo menos 50%, e 56% tem realizado atendimento por teleconsulta durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Conclusão: Os associados da ASBAI têm incorporado na sua prática clínica os avanços na terapia das doenças imunoalérgicas, mas vários métodos diagnósticos ainda são pouco acessíveis. A presença do especialista em Alergia e Imunologia no SUS, também precisa ser ampliada. A pandemia do coronavírus trouxe a discussão da telemedicina como um método de atendimento clínico em nossa especialidade.


Introduction: It is necessary to know the situation of allergists/ immunologists in different scenarios of action, identifying profiles and possible difficulties. The knowledge of these data can serve as a subsidy to promote the implementation of policies that ensure comprehensive health care for patients with allergic diseases and inborn errors of immunity (IEI). Objective: To verify the profile of specialists in Allergy and Immunology in Brazil, concerning the place of work, access to tests, therapies, and the impact of the pandemic on their professional practice. Methods: Descriptive-exploratory study, with data collected through an online survey, using the Google Forms tool. All compliant ASBAI members were invited to participate. The questionnaire addressed sociodemographic and professional aspects. The information was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results: Four hundred and sixty associates answered the questionnaire. Women were predominant (73%), and the median age was 47 years. Most participants work in the private sector (95%) and 47% in the public sector. Approximately 80% of those who work in the public sector reported having access to some diagnostic tests for allergic diseases and IEI. Only 35% of specialists in the public system have access to specific allergen immunotherapy, against 96% of those working in the private sector. As for immunobiological drugs, 53% and 72% of specialists working in the public and private service, respectively, reported access. More than 60% of the members participating in the survey had a reduction in the number of consultations by at least 50% and 56% have been assisted by teleconsultation during the Covid19 pandemic. Conclusion: ASBAI associates have incorporated advances in the therapy of immune allergic diseases into their clinical practice, but several diagnostic methods are still inaccessible. The presence of specialists in Allergy and Immunology in the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) also needs to be expanded. The coronavirus pandemic brought the discussion of telemedicine as a method of clinical care practice in our specialty.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 21st Century , Brazil , Comprehensive Health Care , Allergy and Immunology , Allergists , COVID-19 , Patients , Referral and Consultation , Societies, Medical , Therapeutics , Unified Health System , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , Public Sector , Private Sector , Remote Consultation , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Health Services Needs and Demand , Hypersensitivity , Immunity , Immunotherapy
15.
Medicina UPB ; 40(2): 41-49, 13 oct. 2021. tab, Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342180

ABSTRACT

La infección respiratoria causada por el SARS-CoV-2 fue declarada pandemia por la OMS en marzo 11 de 2020. Este nuevo beta-coronavirus, producto probablemente de la mutación aleatoria de un coronavirus infectante de animales, ha impactado la humanidad, creado una gran mortalidad entre la población, y también ha desestabilizado la interacción entre los seres humanos y su calidad de vida. El trabajo conjunto de investigadores que han analizado los casos de COVID-19, los mecanismos biológicos, los efectos en el ser humano y las posibles vías de intervención conducen a exitosos avances científicos en el entendimiento de la infección, la creación de inmunidad y el uso de ciertos medicamentos, además de una novedosa e histórica forma de creación de nuevas vacunas eficientes y seguras. No se puede olvidar el esfuerzo en medidas de protección personal como el lavado de manos, higiene de superficies, distanciamiento social y equipos de protección, entre otras. En esta revisión narrativa analizamos algunos puntos importantes en el proceso infeccioso, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico, manejo y prevención de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019, COVID-19.


The respiratory infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 was declared a pandemic by the WHO on March 11, 2020. This new beta-coronavirus, probably the product of the random mutation of a coronavirus infecting animals, has affected humanity, created great mor-tality among the population, and it has also destabilized the interaction between human beings and their quality of life. The joint work of researchers who have analyzed the COVID-19 cases, the biological mechanisms, their effects on human beings, and possible intervention pathways have led to successful scientific advances in the understanding of the infection, the creation of immunity, the use of specific medications, in addition to an innovative and historical way of creating new vaccines that are both efficient and safe. It is also crucial to note that the effort to produce positive results involves the continued used of safety precautions such as handwashing, surface disinfection, social distancing and protective equipment, among others. This narrative review will analyze relevant aspects regarding the process of infection, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management, and prevention of the disease caused by the 2019 coronavirus, COVID-19.


A infecção respiratória causada pelo SARS-CoV-2 foi declarada pandemia pela OMS em 11 de março de 2020. Este novo beta-coronavírus, provavelmente produto da mutação aleatória de um coronavírus que infecta animais, impactou a humanidade, criou uma grande mortalidade entre a população, e também desestabilizou a interação entre o ser humano e sua qualidade de vida. O trabalho conjunto de investigadores que anali-saram os casos de COVID-19, os mecanismos biológicos, os efeitos no ser humano e as possíveis vias de intervenção conduzem a avanços científicos exitosos na compreensão da infecção, na criação de imunidade e na utilização de certos medicamentos, além de uma forma nova e histórica de criar novas vacinas eficientes e seguras. Não se pode esquecer o esforço em medidas de proteção individual como lavagem das mãos, higiene das superfícies, distanciamento social e equipamentos de proteção, entre outros. Nesta revisão narrativa analisamos alguns pontos importantes no processo infeccioso, manifes-tações clínicas, diagnóstico, manejo e prevenção da doença coronavírus 2019, COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Protective Devices , Signs and Symptoms , World Health Organization , Vaccines , Hand Disinfection , Mortality , Coronavirus , Physical Distancing , Immunity
16.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(5): 464-467, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288615

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Immunity is closely related to health. When the body's immunity is strong, it is healthy. On the contrary, various diseases appear. Sports dance is an entertainment and fitness sports project that integrates sports, music, aesthetics, and dance, the body movement dance as the necessary content and two-person or collective exercises as the primary form of exercise. Studies have shown that long-term adherence to Tai Chi exercise can significantly increase the serum immunoglobulin IgA, IgG, and IgM levels. Objective: The paper explores the effect of physical dance exercise on serum immunoglobulin and T lymphocyte subsets of college students. Methods: The thesis randomly selected 16 male and female students in the first-grade physical dance optional course of public physical education as the experimental group. They performed physical dance exercises three times a week, 40 minutes each time, and the training intensity was controlled at a heart rate of 135-150 beats/min. Ten weeks; besides, 16 male and female students in the first grade were selected as the control group, and no physical dance exercise was performed; all the subjects were drawn from the elbow venous blood on an empty stomach at the same time before and after the experiment to measure serum immunoglobulin and T lymph Cell subpopulation content. Results: After ten weeks of sports dance training, the serum immunoglobulin IgG of both men and women in the experimental group increased significantly (P<0.01), and the CD4+% and CD4+/CD8+ ratio of T lymphocyte subgroups showed extremely significant and significant increases (P <0.01, P<0.05), serum IgM tended to increase, IgA, CD8+% tended to decrease, but there was no significant change. Conclusions: Long-term physical dance exercise can improve the body's immune function. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: la inmunidad está estrechamente relacionado con la salud. Cuando la inmunidad del cuerpo es fuerte éste está sano. En caso contrario, aparecen diversas enfermedades. La danza deportiva é um projeto de entretenimiento y fitness que integra el deporte, la música, la estética y la danza, el movimiento corporal como contenido necesario y los ejercicios de das personas ou colectivos como forma principal de ejercicio. Los estudios han demonstraram que a adesão a largo plazo al ejercicio de Tai Chi pode aumentar também os niveles séricos de imunoglobulina IgA, IgG e IgM. Objetivo: O artigo explora o efeito do exercício físico de danza em subconjuntos de imunoglobulina sérica e linfocitos T de estudiantes universitários. Métodos: Para que a tese seja selecionada aleatoriamente, 16 ex-alunos e ex-alunos do curso optativo de danza física de primer grado de educação física pública como grupo experimental. Realizaron ejercicios de danza física tres veces por semana, 40 minutes cada vez, y la intensidad del entrenamiento se controló a una frecuencia cardíaca de 135-150 latidos/min. durante as semanas; además, se selecionar 16 alumnos y alumnas de primer grado como group de control, el que no realizó ningún ejercicio físico de danza. A todos os sujetos se les extrajo sangre venosa del codo com o estómago vacío, durante, antes e depois do experimento para medir o conteúdo da subpoblación de células T y de imunoglobulina sérica. Resultados: Después de diez semanas de entrenamiento de danza deportiva, la imunoglobulina IgG sérica de hombres y mujeres en el grupo experimental aumentó complementar (P <0,01), y la proporción CD4 +% y CD4 +/CD8 + de los subgrupos de linfocitos T mostró incrementos extremadamente provados. (P <0,01,P <0,05), la IgM sérica tendió a aumentar, la IgA, CD8 +% tendió a disminuir, mas nenhum hubo cambio projetado. Conclusiones: El ejercicio de danza física a largo plazo puede mejorar la función inmunológica del cuerpo. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los results del tratamiento.


RESUMEN Introducción: la inmunidad está estrechamente relacionada con la salud. Cuando la inmunidad del cuerpo es fuerte éste está sano. En caso contrario, aparecen diversas enfermedades. La danza deportiva es un proyecto de entretenimiento y fitness que integra el deporte, la música, la estética y la danza, el movimiento corporal como contenido necesario y los ejercicios de dos personas o colectivos como forma principal de ejercicio. Los estudios han demostrado que la adherencia a largo plazo al ejercicio de Tai Chi puede aumentar significativamente los niveles séricos de inmunoglobulina IgA, IgG e IgM. Objetivo: El artículo explora el efecto del ejercicio físico de danza en subconjuntos de inmunoglobulina sérica y linfocitos T de estudiantes universitarios. Métodos: Para la tesis se seleccionaron aleatoriamente a 16 alumnos y alumnas del curso optativo de danza física de primer grado de educación física pública como grupo experimental. Realizaron ejercicios de danza física tres veces por semana, 40 minutos cada vez, y la intensidad del entrenamiento se controló a una frecuencia cardíaca de 135-150 latidos/min. durante diez semanas; además, se seleccionaron 16 alumnos y alumnas de primer grado como grupo de control, el que no realizó ningún ejercicio físico de danza. A todos los sujetos se les extrajo sangre venosa del codo con el estómago vacío, durante, antes y después del experimento para medir el contenido de la subpoblación de células T y de inmunoglobulina sérica. Resultados: Después de diez semanas de entrenamiento de danza deportiva, la inmunoglobulina IgG sérica de hombres y mujeres en el grupo experimental aumentó significativamente (P <0.01), y la proporción CD4 +% y CD4 + / CD8 + de los subgrupos de linfocitos T mostró incrementos extremadamente significativos. (P <0.01, P <0.05), la IgM sérica tendió a aumentar, la IgA, CD8 +% tendió a disminuir, pero no hubo cambios significativos. Conclusiones: El ejercicio de danza física a largo plazo puede mejorar la función inmunológica del cuerpo. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Universities , Immunoglobulins/blood , Dancing/physiology , Immunity/physiology , Student Health Services , Time Factors , Lymphocyte Count
17.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 20 ago 2021. 1-6 p. ilus.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1283937

ABSTRACT

De acordo com o Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) apesar dos avanços obtidos, nos últimos meses, no desenvolvimento de imunizantes para a COVID-19, algumas perguntas continuam sem respostas, como por exemplo, por quanto tempo as vacinas são capazes de proteger a população da infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2 (CDC, 2021), imunidade híbrida e a necessidade de booster, adicionado ao protocolo inicialmente proposto. Apesar de a maioria dos estudos utilizar os níveis séricos de anticorpos neutralizantes contra o SARS-CoV-2, ainda considera-se desconhecido o nível de anticorpos neutralizantes que garante proteção contra a COVID-19 (CALLAWAY, 2021; BENOTMANE et al., 2021). Por outro lado, embora existam outros mecanismos responsáveis pela resposta imune mediada por células T e B de memória imunológica, Khoury e colaboradores (2021) consideram que a concentração dos anticorpos neutralizantes após contato com o vírus (indivíduos convalescentes soropositivos) e/ou após administração de um imunizante seja capaz de predizer a resposta imune à doença.


According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), despite the advances made in recent months in the development of immunizers for COVID-19, some questions remain unanswered, such as, for example, how long are vaccines able to protect the population from SARS-CoV-2 infection (CDC, 2021), hybrid immunity and the need for a booster, added to the initially proposed protocol. Although most studies use serum levels of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the level of neutralizing antibodies that guarantee protection against COVID-19 is still unknown (CALLAWAY, 2021; BENOTMANE et al., 2021 ). On the other hand, although there are other mechanisms responsible for the immune response mediated by immune memory T and B cells, Khoury et al (2021) consider that the concentration of neutralizing antibodies after contact with the virus (convalescent seropositive individuals) and/or after administration of an immunizing agent is able to predict the immune response to the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity
18.
Infectio ; 25(2): 94-100, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250074

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por SARS-CoV-2 es hoy el principal problema de salud pública en el mundo. No es claro el papel de las citoquinas en la fisiopatología del COVID-19,que en algunos individuos presenta una progresión rápida, severa y mortal asociada con proinflamación sistémicos relacionada con coagulopatías y fallas multiorgánicas. En este estudio, evaluamos los niveles séricos de citoquinas y su correlación con IgM, IgG e IgA, en 24 muestras de individuos positivos y 8 muestras de individuos negativos, para SARS-CoV-2. Hallamos concentraciones significativamente menores de IFN-g, TNF, IL-2 e IL-4 y un aumento significativo de IL-6 en el grupo de infectados hospitalizados respecto a los no infectados, así como una tendencia significativa al aumento, para IgG e IgA en el mismo grupo de individuos, respecto a infectados asintomáticos. Nuestros datos soportan el papel de la IL-6 en la severidad de la enfermedad destacando su potencial papel como biomarcador en la prognosis de esta patología. También, soportan la hipótesis sobre la función de los anticuerpos en el control efectivo del patógeno; se observa una respuesta inmune humoral más débil, frente a la proteína de la nucleocápside viral, en individuos con un mejor curso de la enfermedad.


Abstract The emergency caused by the infection in humans of SARS-COV-2 and the clinical syndrome resulting from the infection (COVID-19) is a major public health crisis with global repercussions. Currently, the role of different cytokine profiles in the infection pathophysiology and its outcome remains unclear despite the coordina ted efforts of the scientific community. COVID-19 shows a rapid progression where the disease severity and mortality are linked to systemic pro-inflammatory pro cesses associated to a dysregulation in the cytokine production balance, resulting in blood clothing disorders and multiorgan failure. Here we evaluate the serum concentration for a cytokine panel as well as the antibody titers of IgM, IgG and IgA from 24 individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR (divided into three separate groups according to disease severity) and eight RT-PCR-negative controls. Significantly lower concentrations of IFN-g, TNF, IL-2 and IL-4, and a higher production of IL-6 were observed in hospitalized COVID-19 patients when compared to SARS-CoV-2-negative individuals. Furthermore, a significant and sustained increase in the levels of IgG and IgA was found for the group of hospitalized patients compared to asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals. Our data support previous findings on the role of cytokines like IL-6 in the severity of the disease and highlight their potential use as biomarkers for the prognosis of COVID-19. Finally, we provide evidence supporting the potential function of the antibody response in the effective control of the virus, showing that a somehow weaker humoral immune response can be associated to milder forms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cytokines , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Colombia , Immunity , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
19.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe2): 39-41, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280088

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Grape proanthocyanidin is a good health product, without side effects and excellent biological activity, but research in the field of sports tonic is still relatively slow. Currently, the technology of preparation and extraction of grape proanthocyanidins is relatively mature. This fact laid the groundwork for sports tonic proanthocyanidin research. This study first described the biological structure of proanthocyanidin in grapes, and built the immune system of volleyball players before and after taking proanthocyanidin sports supplements. He then analyzed the factors that influence immunity. The results show that the primary index subsystem is consistent with the total system in each phase, but there are still few differences over time, which can be divided into four phases: development, recession, recovery and stability; at the level of scientific training it is reasonable. Male and female athletes take exercise supplements containing proanthocyanidin at each level of training. Regarding humoral immunity and cellular immunity, there was no adverse reaction. This study may offer some reference value for other athletes before and after taking proanthocyanidin as a sports supplement.


RESUMO A proantocianidina da uva é um produto bom para a saúde, sem efeitos colaterais e excelente atividade biológica, mas a pesquisa no campo do tônico esportivo ainda é relativamente lenta. Atualmente, a tecnologia de preparação e extração das proantocianidinas de uva está relativamente madura. Este fato lançou as bases para a investigação da proantocianidina desportiva tónica. Este estudo descreveu, em primeiro lugar, a estrutura biológica da proantocianidina das uvas, e construiu o sistema imunitário dos jogadores de voleibol antes e depois de tomar suplementos desportivos de proantocianidina. Em seguida analisou os fatores que influenciam a imunidade. Os resultados mostram que o subsistema de índice primário é coerente com o sistema total em cada fase, mas ainda há poucas diferenças no tempo, que podem ser divididas em quatro fases: desenvolvimento, recessão, recuperação e estabilidade; no plano de formação científico e razoável. Os atletas do sexo masculino e feminino tomam suplementos de exercício contendo proantocianidina em cada estágio de treinamento. Com respeito à imunidade humoral e à imunidade celular não houve reação adversa. Este estudo pode oferecer algum valor de referência para outros atletas antes e depois de tomar proantocianidina como suplemento desportivo.


RESUMEN La proantocianidina de la uva es un producto bueno para la salud, sin efectos colaterales y excelente actividad biológica, pero la investigación en el campo del tónico deportivo aun es relativamente lenta. Actualmente, la tecnología de preparación y extracción de las proantocianidinas de uva está relativamente madura. Este hecho lanzó las bases para la investigación de la proantocianidina deportiva tónica. Este estudio describió, en primer lugar, la estructura biológica de la proantocianidina de las uvas, y construyó el sistema inmunitario de los jugadores de voleibol antes y después de tomar suplementos deportivos de proantocianidina. Enseguida analizó los factores que influencian la inmunidad. Los resultados muestran que el subsistema de índice primario es coherente con el sistema total en cada fase, pero aun hay pocas diferencias en el tiempo, que pueden ser divididas en cuatro fases: desarrollo, recesión, recuperación y estabilidad; en el plano de la formación científica es razonable. Los atletas del sexo masculino y femenino toman suplementos de ejercicio conteniendo proantocianidina en cada nivel de entrenamiento. Con respecto a la inmunidad humoral y a la inmunidad celular no hubo reacción adversa. Este estudio puede ofrecer algún valor de referencia para otros atletas antes y después de tomar proantocianidina como suplemento deportivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Dietary Supplements , Proanthocyanidins/administration & dosage , Athletic Performance/physiology , Volleyball/physiology , Immunity/drug effects
20.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 25(2): 345-354, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279428

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La histoplasmosis diseminada progresiva constituye una expresión singular y rara de la infección por Histoplasma capsulatum. Sus formas agudas de presentación suelen aparecer en pacientes con deficiencias inmunitarias graves (fundamentalmente VIH). Sin embargo, en regiones de alta endemicidad, incluso pacientes sin inmunodeficiencia demostrada pueden desarrollar esta afección. Se presentó un paciente de 47 años de edad, con antecedentes de haber sufrido un cuadro grave de histoplasmosis pulmonar 18 años antes. El paciente fue ingresado por un cuadro de: fiebre, astenia, sudoración nocturna, disnea, tos seca, hepatoesplenomegalia, anemia y trombocitopenia marcada. Progresó a una insuficiencia respiratoria aguda y fue internado en cuidados intensivos con ventilación mecánica invasiva. Se demostró crecimiento de Histoplasma capsulatum en la muestra de lavado bronquioalveolar y reacción granulomatosa no caseificante en médula ósea, confirmándose el diagnóstico de histoplasmosis diseminada progresiva. El paciente recibió tratamiento con anfotericina B y se recuperó totalmente en pocas semanas.


ABSTRACT Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis is a unique and rare expression of the infection cause by Histoplasma capsulatum. Its acute forms of presentation usually appear in patients with severe immunodeficiency disorders (mainly HIV). However, even patients without proven immunodeficiency can develop this condition in regions of high endemicity. We present a 47-year-old male patient with a previous history of severe pulmonary histoplasmosis eighteen years earlier. The patient was admitted due to the presence of fever, asthenia, night sweats, dyspnea, dry cough, hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and marked thrombocytopenia. He progressed to acute respiratory failure and was admitted to the intensive care unit requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Growth of Histoplasma capsulatum was demonstrated in the bronchoalveolar lavage sample and a non-caseating granulomatous reaction was found in the bone marrow, confirming the diagnosis of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis. The patient received amphotericin B treatment and made a full recovery within a few weeks.


Subject(s)
Histoplasma , Histoplasmosis , Immunity
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