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1.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(4): e4101, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289625

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La duración de la inmunidad natural generada por la COVID-19 está por definir, lo que determina la probable reinfección. Objetivo: Destacar la necesidad de mantener las medidas de prevención a propósito de un caso de reinfección en un trabajador sanitario. Presentación de caso: Paciente femenina de 48 años de edad con antecedentes de salud que, en junio, 2020 y marzo, 2021 se le diagnóstica la COVID-19, en ambos casos con el comportamiento de enfermedad sintomática leve. Después de 24 horas de comenzar con cefalea, mareos y tos seca se confirma el diagnóstico de infección por SARS CoV-2 con PCR positivo y umbral de ciclo (CT) en 24.84. Pasados 9 meses y 9 días de la infección original, y dos días posteriores a recibir la vacuna BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), comienza con malestar general, tos seca, secreción nasal y dolor de garganta, con PCR positivo y CT de 17.61. Conclusiones: La posibilidad de la reinfección por la COVID-19 orienta la necesidad de fortalecer las acciones de prevención de la transmisión en instituciones de salud en tanto las evidencias científicas nos provean de recursos más eficaces para su control(AU)


Introduction: The duration of natural immunity generated by COVID-19 is yet to be defined, which determines the probable reinfection. Objective: To analyze issues related to natural infection and the need to maintain prevention practices regarding a case of reinfection in a health care worker. Case presentation: Forty-eight-year-old female patient without comorbidities who was diagnosed with COVID-19 in June 2020 and March 2021, in both cases as a mild symptomatic disease. Twenty-four hours after the onset with headache, dizziness, and dry cough, the diagnosis of SARS CoV-2 infection was confirmed by positive PCR and cycle threshold (CT) at 24.84. Nine months and nine days after original infection, and two days after receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech), the patient began with general malaise, dry cough, runny nose, and sore throat, with a positive PCR and CT of 17.61. Conclusions: The possibility of reinfection by COVID-19 points to the need to strengthen transmission prevention practices in healthcare facilities as long as scientific evidence provides us with more effective resources for its control(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Reinfection , COVID-19 , Health Facilities , Immunity, Innate , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 91-99, July. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285230

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A obesidade é uma condição inflamatória crônica de baixo grau relacionada a distúrbios cardíacos. No entanto, o mecanismo responsável pela inflamação cardíaca relacionada à obesidade não é claro. O receptor do tipo toll 4 (TLR-4) pertence a um receptor da família das transmembranas, responsável pela resposta imune, cuja ativação estimula a produção de citocinas pró-inflamatórias. Objetivo Testar se a ativação do receptor TLR-4 participa do processo de cardiomiopatia da obesidade, devido à produção de citocinas por meio da ativação do NF-ĸB. Métodos Ratos Wistar machos foram randomizados em dois grupos: o grupo controle (C, n = 8 animais) que recebeu dieta padrão/água e o grupo obeso (OB, n = 8 animais) que foi alimentado com dieta rica em açúcar e gordura e água mais 25% de sacarose por 30 semanas. Análise nutricional: peso corporal, índice de adiposidade, alimentos, água e ingestão calórica. Análise de distúrbios relacionados à obesidade: glicose plasmática, ácido úrico e triglicerídeos, HOMA-IR, pressão arterial sistólica, TNF-α no tecido adiposo. A análise cardíaca incluiu: expressão das proteínas TLR-4 e NF-ĸB, níveis de TNF-α e IL-6. Comparação pelo teste t de Student não pareado ou teste de Mann-Whitney com um valor de p <0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados O grupo OB apresentou obesidade, glicose elevada, triglicerídeos, ácido úrico, HOMA, pressão arterial sistólica e TNF-α no tecido adiposo. O grupo OB apresentou remodelação cardíaca e disfunção diastólica. A expressão de TLR-4 e NF-ĸB e os níveis de citocinas foram maiores em OB. Conclusão Nossos achados concluem que, em uma condição obesogênica, a inflamação derivada da ativação do TLR-4 cardíaco pode ser um mecanismo capaz de levar à remodelação e disfunção cardíaca.


Abstract Background Obesity is a chronic low-grade inflammation condition related to cardiac disorders. However, the mechanism responsible for obesity-related cardiac inflammation is unclear. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) belongs to a receptor of the transmembrane family responsible for the immune response whose activation stimulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Objective To test whether the activation of the TLR-4 receptor participates in the obesity cardiomyopathy process, due to cytokine production through NF-ĸB activation. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups: the control group (C, n= 8 animals) that received standard diet/water and the obese group (OB, n= 8 animals) that were fed a high sugar-fat diet and water plus 25% of sucrose for 30 weeks. Nutritional analysis: body weight, adiposity index, food, water, and caloric intake. Obesity-related disorders analysis: plasma glucose, uric acid and triglycerides, HOMA-IR, systolic blood pressure, TNF-α in adipose tissue. Cardiac analysis included: TLR-4 and NF-ĸB protein expression, TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Comparison by unpaired Student's t-test or Mann- Whitney test with a p-value < 0.05 as statistically significant. Results The OB group showed obesity, high glucose, triglycerides, uric acid, HOMA, systolic blood pressure, and TNF-α in adipose tissue. OB group presented cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. TLR-4 and NF-ĸB expression and cytokine levels were higher in OB. Conclusion Our findings conclude that, in an obesogenic condition, the inflammation derived from cardiac TLR-4 activation can be a mechanism able to lead to remodeling and cardiac dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Cardiomyopathies , Rats, Wistar , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Obesity
4.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(1): 76-81, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152788

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are part of the dendritic cells family and are a relevant link between innate and adaptive immunity. They are the most potent producers of type 1 interferon, generating antiviral response, stimulating macrophages and dendritic cells and inducing activation and migration of natural killer cells. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells also exert a role as antigen-presenting cells, promote T-lymphocyte responses, immunoregulation, plasma cells differentiation and antibody secretion. Even though plasmacytoid dendritic cells are not usually present in normal skin, their presence is detected in healing processes, viral infections, and inflammatory, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. In recent years, the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in several dermatological diseases has been described, enhancing their potential role in the pathogenesis of such conditions. Future studies on the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in dermatology may lead to new therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Humans , Interferon Type I , Dermatology , Dendritic Cells , T-Lymphocytes , Immunity, Innate
5.
Ghana Med. J. (Online) ; 55(2): 56-63, 2021.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1337553

ABSTRACT

Malaria-endemic areas of the world are noted for high morbidity and mortality from malaria. Also noted in these areas is the majority of persons in the population having acquired malaria immunity. Though this acquired malaria immunity does not prevent infection, it resists the multiplication of Plasmodium parasites, restricting disease to merely uncomplicated cases or asymptomatic infections. Does this acquired malaria immunity in endemic areas protect against other diseases, especially outbreak diseases like COVID-19? Does malaria activation of innate immunity resulting in trained or tolerance immunity contribute to protection against COVID-19? In an attempt to answer these questions, this review highlights the components of malaria and viral immunity and explores possible links with immunity against COVID-19. With malaria-endemic areas of the world having a fair share of cases of COVID-19, it is important to direct research in this area to evaluate and harness any benefits of acquired malaria immunity to help mitigate the effects of COVID-19 and any possible future outbreaks


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , Malaria
6.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 333-346, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888732

ABSTRACT

RNA viruses cause a multitude of human diseases, including several pandemic events in the past century. Upon viral invasion, the innate immune system responds rapidly and plays a key role in activating the adaptive immune system. In the innate immune system, the interactions between pathogen-associated molecular patterns and host pattern recognition receptors activate multiple signaling pathways in immune cells and induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferons to elicit antiviral responses. Macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells are the principal innate immune components that exert antiviral activities. In this review, the current understanding of innate immunity contributing to the restriction of RNA viral infections was briefly summarized. Besides the main role of immune cells in combating viral infection, the intercellular transfer of pathogen and host-derived materials and their epigenetic and metabolic interactions associated with innate immunity was discussed. This knowledge provides an enhanced understanding of the innate immune response to RNA viral infections in general and aids in the preparation for the existing and next emerging viral infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferons , RNA , RNA Viruses , Virus Diseases
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1237-1248, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878627

ABSTRACT

RNA interference (RNAi) is one of the important mechanisms to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. One of the original functions of RNAi is to facilitate the antiviral strategy of host. Early studies reveal that invertebrates can use RNAi to resist viruses. However, if this mechanism exists in mammals is still controversial. The latest studies confirm that mammals do have the RNAi-based immunity, and researchers believe that RNAi-based antiviral immunity is a brand-new immunological mechanism that was neglected in the past. It is worthy to note that virus can also use RNAi to enhance its infectivity and immune escape in host cells. This review introduces the research history of RNAi-based antiviral immunity in animals and summarizes the main findings in this field. Last but not least, we indicate a series of unresolved questions about RNAi-based antiviral immunity, and explore the relationship between RNAi-based antiviral immunity and other innate immunological pathways. The virus-mediated RNAi pathway in animal is not only an interesting basic biology question, but also has important guiding roles in the development of antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Mammals , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA, Viral
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1189-1204, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878624

ABSTRACT

The innate immune system initiates innate immune responses by recognizing pathogen-related molecular patterns on the surface of pathogenic microorganisms through pattern recognition receptors. Through cascade signal transduction, it activates downstream transcription factors NF-κB and interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), and then leads to the production of inflammatory cytokines and type Ⅰ interferon, which resists the infection of pathogenic microorganism. TBK1 is a central adapter protein of innate immune signaling pathway and can activate both NF-κB and IRFs. It is a key protein kinase in the process of anti-infection. The finetuning regulation of TBK1 is essential to maintain immune homeostasis and resist pathogen invasion. This paper reviews the biological functions and ubiquitin modification of TBK1 in innate immunity, to provide theoretical basis for clinical treatment of pathogenic infections and autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Signal Transduction , Ubiquitin
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 175-180, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878246

ABSTRACT

The great omentum is an intraperitoneal organ and plays an important role in protecting the environment of the peritoneal cavity. Several specialized innate immune cells including B1 cells and resident macrophages are found in the omentum, which may be attributed to the unique niche and its special stromal cells. However, it is not clear how these omental innate immune cells contribute to the peritoneal immunity. This review attempts to summarize the latest research on the omental innate immunity and discuss its involvement in the immune response of the peritoneal cavity.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Macrophages , Omentum , Peritoneal Cavity , Stromal Cells
10.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(3): 309-324, 26 de noviembre 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Article in English | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1130005

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and the attendant physiological symptoms associated with the COVID-19 disease have led to an explosion of interest studying different aspects of the immune response. As of yet, the particular roles of natural killer cells are not well understood in this disease. NK cells are critical first-response cytotoxic cells of the innate immune system. NK cells are traditionally considered important for their roles in innate immunity against tumors and viral infected cells, as well as their ability to produce cytokines, particularly interferon-γ, and participate in antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). Here, we describe the role of NK cells in peripheral blood and in the lungs with respect to the pathology caused by SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the implications of proposed different types of therapies on NK cells. Evidence is accumulating that NK cells play an important role in initial surveillance as part of innate immunity. With the progression of the disease and rising inflammation, these cells, when in circulation, appear to become exhausted and ineffective. In the COVID lung, however, a complex interplay between inflammatory cells, chemokines, cytokines and aberrantly activated migratory NK cells occurs, potentiating local inflammation and the critical situation in the lungs.


El brote del nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 y los síntomas fisiológicos concomitantes asociados con la enfermedad COVID-19 han provocado una explosión de interés en la investigación de diferentes aspectos de la respuesta inmune. Hasta el momento, no se comprenden bien las funciones particulares de las células asesinas naturales (NK, por sus siglas en inglés: natural killer) en esta enfermedad. Las células NK son importantes células citotóxicas de primera línea que forman parte del sistema inmune innato. Las células NK se consideran tradicionalmente importantes por su papel en la inmunidad innata contra tumores y contra células infectadas por virus, así como por su capacidad para producir citoquinas y participar en la citotoxicidad celular dependiente de anticuerpos (ADCC, por sus siglas en inglés: antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity). Aquí, se describe el papel de las células NK en sangre periférica y en pulmones con respecto a la nueva patología causada por SARS-CoV-2 y discute las implicaciones de los diferentes tipos de terapias propuestos con respecto a células NK. Al momento, diversos tipos de evidencia comienzan a revelar que las células NK podrían desempeñar un papel crucial en la vigilancia inicial contra el SARS-CoV-2. Con la progresión de la enfermedad y el aumento de la inflamación, estas células cuando están en circulación, parecen agotarse ("exhausted") y volverse ineficaces. En los pulmones de pacientes con COVID-19, sin embargo, se produce una interacción compleja entre células inflamatorias, quimioquinas, citoquinas y células NK migratorias activadas de manera aberrante, lo que potencia la inflamación local, contribuyendo a una situación más crítica a la función pulmonar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Coronavirus Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Cytokines , Betacoronavirus
11.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 309-320, set. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130605

ABSTRACT

En los últimos años se ha determinado que los neutrófilos son células altamente versátiles y sofisticadas, cuyas funciones van mucho más allá de la eliminación de los microorganismos. En la infección con el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (HIV), si bien el papel de los neutrófilos no está totalmente caracterizado, actualmente está claro que la relación entre los neutrófilos y el virus es mucho más compleja de lo que se pensaba. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar en pacientes con infección asintomática, y sin tratamiento antirretroviral, el efecto de la infección por el HIV sobre la muerte celular de los neutrófilos y la expresión de receptores de superficie. En pacientes seropositivos sin tratamiento hubo un aumento de la apoptosis temprana de los neutrófilos en relación a los grupos controles. Esta apoptosis aumentada no depende de la activación de la vía extrínseca o intrínseca. En estos pacientes hubo un aumento de la expresión de TLR2 que, unido al aumento de la apoptosis temprana, podría ser indicativo de un fenotipo activado de los neutrófilos. En conclusión, este trabajo aporta información sobre aspectos relacionados con la apoptosis de los neutrófilos en estadios tempranos de la infección por HIV, contribuyendo así a una mayor comprensión acerca del efecto de este virus sobre componentes de la respuesta inmune innata.


In recent years it has been determined that neutrophils are highly versatile and sophisticated cells whose functions go far beyond the elimination of microorganisms. In Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, the role of neutrophils is not fully characterized but it is now clear that the relationship between neutrophils and HIV is much more complex than previously thought. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on neutrophil cell death and the expression of surface molecules on neutrophils in patients with asymptomatic infection and without antiretroviral treatment (ART). In HIV seropositive patients without antiretroviral therapy there was an increase in the early apoptosis of neutrophils in relation to the control groups. This increased apoptosis does not depend on the activation of the extrinsic or intrinsic pathway. In these patients there was an increase in the expression of TLR2 which, together with the increase of early apoptosis, could be indicative of an activated phenotype of neutrophils. In conclusion, this study provides information on aspects related to the apoptosis of neutrophils in early stages of HIV infection and therefore contributes to a better understanding of the effect of this virus on components of the innate immune response.


Nos últimos anos, determinou-se que os neutrófilos são células altamente versáteis e sofisticadas, cujas funções vão muito além da eliminação dos microrganismos. Na infecção pelo HIV, embora o papel dos neutrófilos não esteja totalmente caracterizado, atualmente fica bem claro que a relação entre os neutrófilos e o vírus é muito mais complexa do que se pensava anteriormente. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar em pacientes com infecção assintomática, e sem tratamento antirretroviral, o efeito da infecção pelo HIV na morte celular dos neutrófilos e a expressão de receptores de superfície. Nos pacientes soropositivos sem tratamento, houve um aumento da apoptose precoce dos neutrófilos em relação aos grupos controle.Esta apoptose aumentada não depende da ativação da via extrínseca ou intrínseca. Nestes pacientes, houve um aumento da expressão de TLR2 que, juntamente com o aumento da apoptose precoce, poderia ser indicativo de um fenótipo ativado dos neutrófilos. Em conclusão, este trabalho fornece informações sobre aspectos relacionados com a apoptose dos neutrófilos em estágios precoces da infecção pelo HIV, contribuindo desse modo para uma maior compreensão sobre o efeito deste vírus nos componentes da resposta imune inata.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Phenotype , Viruses , HIV Infections , HIV , Immunity, Innate , Neutrophils , Role , Therapeutics , HIV Antibodies/genetics , Cell Death , Apoptosis , Anti-Retroviral Agents , Toll-Like Receptor 2 , Asymptomatic Infections
12.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(2): 301-307, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099514

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) has been brought to global attention in the search of knowledge about the virus and its pathogenesis. The immune response is essential to control and eliminate the infection, however, maladjusted immune responses may result in severe disease fisiopathology. Gaining a deeper understanding of the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the immune systems of the hosts may help us anticipate the development of persistent pulmonary inflammation and, why not, be the first step to therapeutic success and trying to save more lives. In this review, we provide an update on CoV virology and our vision of pathogenesis understanding it from the stages of infection, without forgetting the cytokine storm resulting from the interaction of the virus with ACE2 receptors widely distributed in the body.


La reciente emergencia de síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo producido por coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), enfermedad denominada COVID-19 ha traído la atención mundial a la búsqueda de conocimiento sobre este virus y su patogenia. La respuesta inmune es esencial para controlar y erradicar la infección, sin embargo, las respuestas inmunes descontroladas pueden resultar en la fisiopatología de la enfermedad grave. Lograr una comprensión más profunda de la interacción entre SARS-COV-2 y el sistema inmune de los huéspedes podría ayudar a anticiparnos al desarrollo de una inflamación pulmonar persistente causada por el SARS-CoV-2, y por qué no, ser la puerta de entrada al éxito terapéutico e intentar salvar mayor número de vidas. En esta revisión, proporcionamos una actualización sobre la virología y nuestra visión de la patogenia, entendiéndola desde las fases o etapas de la infección, sin olvidar el estallido de citoquinas resultantes de la interacción del virus con los receptores ACE2 ampliamente distribuidos en el organismo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Cytokines/physiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Immunity, Innate/physiology
13.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): 331-337, 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114902

ABSTRACT

A fines de diciembre de 2019, un nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) fue identificado como el agente causal de una nueva enfermedad respiratoria llamada COVID-19 por la OMS. Sus síntomas incluyen fiebre, tos seca y dificultad respiratoria. Estos síntomas en general son leves, aunque, pueden ser fatales en adultos mayores y pacientes con comorbilidades. Se realizó búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed y Clinical Key donde se seleccionaron 22 artículos de acuerdo con los criterios de inclusión. SARS-CoV-2 pertenece al género de los Betacoronavirus y tiene similitudes genómicas con SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV. El virión de SARS-CoV-2 consta de una nucleocápside y de una envoltura externa compuesta por proteínas estructurales principales y accesorias. Su material genético consiste en una cadena de RNA monocatenario de polaridad positiva, en el que, se codifican proteínas importantes para su transcripción y replicación. El mecanismo de infección de SARS-CoV-2 comienza con la unión del virión a un receptor (ACE2) de la célula huésped y su posterior entrada por endocitosis. El genoma RNA viral se libera al citoplasma donde se transcriben y se traducen las proteínas necesarias para la producción de las proteínas estructurales y para la replicación de su material genético. Posteriormente, el RNA replicado se asocia con la nucleocápside y se ensambla junto con las proteínas estructurales para conformar las partículas víricas que serán liberadas de la célula infectada. El sistema inmune hace frente a la infección viral mediante el reconocimiento de patrones moleculares asociados a patógenos (PAMPs) por parte de la inmunidad innata y por la acción de los linfocitos T y B por parte de la inmunidad humoral. El conocimiento de las bases genéticas y moleculares de SARS-CoV-2 permite visualizar la posibilidad de establecer tratamientos farmacológicos o desarrollo de vacunas para controlar y disminuir los efectos patogénicos de la enfermedad.


In late December 2019, a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as a causative agent of a new respiratory disease called COVID-19 by WHO. Its symptoms include fever, dry cough, and shortness of breath. Generally, these symptoms are mild, although, can be fatal in older adults and patients with comorbidities. A bibliographic search was carried out in Pubmed and Clinical Key. 22 articles were selected according to inclusion criteria. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the genus of Betacoronaviruses and has genomic similarities to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 virion is made up of a nucleocapsid and external envelope composed of main structural and accesory proteins. Its genetic is a positive sense single stranded RNA in which important proteins are encoded for their transcription and replication. The mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection begins with the binding of the virion to (ACE2) receptor of the host cell and subsequent entry by endocytosis. This RNA genome is released into cytoplasm and the necessary proteins for the production of structural proteins and the replication of genetic material are transcribed and translated. Then, the replicated RNA associates with the nucleocapsid and assembles together with the structural proteins to form the viral particles that will be released from the infected cell. The immune system faces viral infection through the recognition of molecular patterns associated with pathogens (PAMPs) by innate immunity and the action of T cells and B cells by humoral immunity. Knowledge of the genetic and molecular basis of SARS-CoV-2 allows us to visualize the possibility of establishing pharmacological or vaccine treatments to control and reduce the pathogenic effects of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Immunity, Innate
14.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2020. xv, 81 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128701

ABSTRACT

A malária cerebral (MC) é responsável por muitas mortes ocasionadas pela infecção por Plasmodium falciparum. Devido à dificuldade em estudar os mecanismos imunes envolvidos no desenvolvimento de MC em humanos, o uso de modelos murinos de malária cerebral experimental (MCE) tem sido amplamente empregado. Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar o papel das células imunes inatas no desenvolvimento ou não de MCE utilizando os modelos experimentais de camundongos C57BL/6 e BALB/c infectados com Plasmodium berghei ANKA. A sobrevida, parasitemia, peso, temperatura corporal e a quebra da barreira hematoencefálica confirmaram a resistência e suscetibilidade dos camundongos BALB/c e C57BL/6 parasitados ao desenvolvimento de MCE, respectivamente. Embora os camundongos BALB/c e C57BL/6 infectados tenham apresentado diferentes cursos clínicos da doença, eles exibiram a mesma parasitemia. A esplenomegalia foi observada em ambas as linhagens de camundongos durante a infecção. Entre as subpopulações mieloides investigadas, encontramos o influxo de neutrófilos e monócitos inflamatórios em cinética e proporções diferentes entre as linhagens. Já os macrófagos da polpa vermelha (MPV) dos camundongos BALB/c mantiveram seus valores constante ao longo da infecção, entretanto, responderam ao processo infeccioso ampliando a expressão do receptor de manose CD206. Interessantemente, os animais C57BL/6 apresentaram redução no número total dos MPV e MPV CD206+ após a infecção.


A redução nos valores de MPV CD206+ foi acompanhada pelo aumento no número e percentual de MPV iNOS+. Curiosamente, o número total de macrófagos da polpa branca (MPB) e MPB iNOS+ aumentou nos animais BALB/c e se manteve constante nos animais C57BL/6 infectados. Ao avaliarmos a expressão de CD206 nos MPB, observamos diminuição no percentual e número total dessas células em ambos os animais após infecção. Também realizamos a análise da expressão de CD206 e iNOS em microglias, macrófagos residentes do sistema nervoso central. Estas células, em ambas as linhagens, apresentaram a mesma cinética de aumento na expressão do receptor de manose CD206, e redução diferenciada na expressão de iNOS ao longo da infecção. Toda essa regulação dos marcadores fenotípicos nos macrófagos esplênicos de camundongos BALB/c ocorreu na presença de níveis séricos elevados de INF-γ e da citocina regulatória IL-10, no 4º dia após infecção, quando comparados aos camundongos C57BL/6. Nossos dados sugerem que, apesar de camundongos resistentes à MCE desenvolverem uma forte resposta imune ao parasito, o animal é favorecido pelo desencadeamento de um perfil antiinflamatório de resposta, como a ativação de macrófagos do tipo M2 e produção de citocinas regulatórias. Enquanto que os animais suscetíveis ao desenvolvimento de MCE respondem a infecção montando uma resposta com perfil pró-inflamatório nos momentos inicias da resposta imune, através do aumento no número de macrófagos com perfil M1 e pela produção de TNF e IL-6. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Mice , Plasmodium , Malaria, Cerebral , Immunity, Innate , Macrophages
16.
Clinics ; 75: e1980, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133360

ABSTRACT

Considering that female sexual hormones may modulate the inflammatory response and also exhibit direct effects on the cells of the immune system, herein, we intend to discuss the sex differences and the role of estradiol in modulating the lung and systemic inflammatory response, focusing on its possible application as a treatment modality for SARS-CoV-2 patients. COVID-19 patients develop severe hypoxemia early in the course of the disease, which is silent most of the time. Small fibrinous thrombi in pulmonary arterioles and a tumefaction of endothelial were observed in the autopsies of fatal COVID-19 cases. Studies showed that the viral infection induces a vascular process in the lung, which included vasodilation and endothelial dysfunction. Further, the proportions of CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes were strongly reduced in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Estradiol is connected with CD4+ T cell numbers and increases T-reg cell populations, affecting immune responses to infection. It is known that estradiol exerts a protective effect on endothelial function, activating the generation of nitric oxide (NO) via endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Estrogen attenuates the vasoconstrictor response to various stimuli and induces vasodilation in the pulmonary vasculature during stress situations like hypoxia. It exerts a variety of rapid actions, which are initiated after its coupling with membrane receptors, which in turn, may positively modulate vascular responses in pulmonary disease and help to maintain microvascular flow. Direct and indirect mechanisms underlying the effects of estradiol were investigated, and the results point to a possible protective effect of estradiol against COVID-19, indicating that it may be considered as an adjuvant therapeutic element for the treatment of patients affected by the novel coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Estradiol/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/virology , Sex Factors , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Inflammation/drug therapy
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190408, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The mechanism of resistance to SbIII in Leishmania is complex, multifactorial and involves not only biochemical mechanisms, but also other elements, such as the immune system of the host. OBJECTIVES In this study, putative changes in the immunological profile of human monocytes infected with wild-type (WT) and antimony (SbIII)-resistant Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum lines were evaluated. METHODS Susceptibility assays WT and SbIII-resistant L. braziliensis and L. infantum were performed using lines THP-1 human monocytic lineage. Phagocytic capacity, cytokine profile, intracellular nitric oxide (NO) production and surface carbohydrate residues profile were performed in peripheral blood monocytes by flow cytometry. FINDINGS The phagocytic capacity and intracellular NO production by classical (CD14++CD16-) and proinflammatory (CD14++CD16+) monocytes were higher in the presence of L. infantum lines compared to L. braziliensis lines. The results also highlight proinflammatory monocytes as the cellular subpopulation of major relevance in a phagocytosis event and NO expression. It is important to note that L. infantum induced a proinflammatory cytokine profile characterised by higher levels of TNF-α in culture supernatant than L. braziliensis. Conversely, both Leishmania lines induce high levels of IL-6 in culture supernatant. Analysis of the expression profile of surface carbohydrates showed that L. braziliensis presents 4.3-fold higher expression of galactose(β1,4)N-acetylglucosamine than L. infantum line. Interestingly, the expression level of α-N-acetylgalactosamine residues was 2-fold lower in the SbIII-resistant L. braziliensis line than its counterpart WT line, indicating differences in surface glycoconjugates between these lines. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results showed that L. braziliensis and L. infantum induce different innate immune responses and a highly inflammatory profile, which is characteristic of infection by L. infantum, the species associated with visceral disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Phagocytosis/immunology , Leishmania braziliensis/immunology , Monocytes/parasitology , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Antimony/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Drug Resistance , Monocytes/immunology , Leishmania infantum/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Immunity, Innate
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811071

ABSTRACT

Since the airways are constantly exposed to various pathogens and foreign antigens, various kinds of cells in the airways—including structural cells and immune cells—interact to form a precise defense system against pathogens and antigens that involve both innate immunity and acquired immunity. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play critical roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, defense against pathogens and the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, especially at body surface mucosal sites such as the airways. ILCs are activated mainly by cytokines, lipid mediators and neuropeptides that are produced by surrounding cells, and they produce large amounts of cytokines that result in inflammation. In addition, ILCs can change their phenotype in response to stimuli from surrounding cells, which enables them to respond promptly to microenvironmental changes. ILCs exhibit substantial heterogeneity, with different phenotypes and functions depending on the organ and type of inflammation, presumably because of differences in microenvironments. Thus, ILCs may be a sensitive detector of microenvironmental changes, and analysis of their phenotype and function at local sites may enable us to better understand the microenvironment in airway diseases. In this review, we aimed to identify molecules that either positively or negatively influence the function and/or plasticity of ILCs and the sources of the molecules in the airways in order to examine the pathophysiology of airway inflammatory diseases and facilitate the issues to be solved.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Cellular Microenvironment , Cytokines , Homeostasis , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Lymphocytes , Neuropeptides , Phenotype , Plastics , Population Characteristics , Respiratory Tract Diseases
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1198-1208, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826858

ABSTRACT

In this research, we studied the formation of Drosophila melanogaster FADD (Fas-associated death domain-containing protein) amyloid fiber and its influence on signal transduction in IMD (Immune deficiency) signaling pathway to better understand the regulation mechanism of Drosophila innate immune signaling pathway, which will provide reference for the immune regulation in other species. First, we purified dFADD protein expressed in Escherichia coli and performed Sulfur flavin T binding and transmission electron microscopy to identify the dFADD amyloid fibers formed in vitro. Then we investigated the formation of dFADD polymers in S2 cells using SDD-AGE and confocal microscope. We also constructed dFADD mutants to find out which domain is essential to fiber formation and its effect on IMD signal transduction. Our results revealed that dFADD could be polymerized to form amyloid fiber polymers in vitro and inside the cells. Formation of fibers relies on DED (Death-effector domain) domain of dFADD, since DED domain-deleted mutant existed as a monomer. Dual luciferase reporter assay showed that intact DED domain was required for the induction of downstream antimicrobial peptides, indicating that fiber formation was the key to IMD signal transduction. Our study revealed the role of dFADD in mediating the cascade between IMD and Dredd in the IMD signaling pathway by forming amyloid fibers, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved regulatory mechanism of innate immune signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drosophila Proteins , Allergy and Immunology , Drosophila melanogaster , Allergy and Immunology , Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein , Allergy and Immunology , Immunity, Innate , Allergy and Immunology , Signal Transduction
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