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1.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 149-155, Junio 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443658

ABSTRACT

A pesar de los avances en los protocolos de tratamiento y en las medidas de soporte en pacientes con Leucemia Mieloide Aguda (LMA), 27% presentan recaídas de la enfermedad. Esto se debe, entre otras causas, a la persistencia de pequeñas cantidades de células malignas (blastos) resistentes a la terapia. Estas pequeñas cantidades de blastos remanentes se denominan Enfermedad Mínima Residual (EMR). La determinación de EMR requiere de técnicas no solo muy sensibles, sino también específicas, y permite evaluar la respuesta individual a la terapia. La introducción de la EMR como parámetro de respuesta y estratificación está bien definida en Leucemia Linfoblástica Aguda (LLA). Por el contrario, aunque existen publicaciones sobre el impacto pronóstico de la EMR en LMA, aún no se encuentra incluida en forma sistemática en los protocolos nacionales actuales, entre otros motivos, por lo laborioso de la determinación y por la necesidad de validación de la misma. Debe tenerse en cuenta que el inmunofenotipo de los blastos mieloides suele ser más heterogéneo que el de los blastos en LLA, presentando, en muchos casos, subpoblaciones diferentes entre sí, lo cual dificulta su detección certera y no hay consenso definido en cuanto a la metodología más eficaz. En este trabajo describimos una nueva estrategia de marcación y análisis estandarizada en un estudio multicéntrico internacional para LMA y la utilidad de la EMR como parámetro de respuesta y de estratificación. Asimismo, detallamos los resultados preliminares de nuestra cohorte de pacientes (AU)


Despite the improvement in treatment and supportive care of patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), 27% of them relapse. This is due to the persistence of small amounts of malignant cells (blasts) resistant to therapy, among other causes. These small amounts of blasts are called Minimal Residual Disease (MRD). The determination of MRD requires not only techniques with high sensitivity but also with high specificity, and allows to evaluate the individual response to treatment. The introduction of MRD as a response parameter is well established in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), and it is used in current stratification protocols. On the other hand, even though there are some reports regarding the prognostic impact of MRD in AML, it is still not included in the current national protocols due to the lack of validation of the determination, among other causes. This is due to the fact that the immunophenotype of myeloid blasts is more heterogeneous than in ALL, presenting different subpopulations, which difficults their accurate detection. Thus, there is still no consensus regarding the most effective approach. In this article, we describe a new staining and analysis strategy standardized by an international multicentric study, and the utility of EMR as a response and stratification parameter. Additionally, we show the preliminary results of our patient cohort. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Immunophenotyping/instrumentation , Neoplasm, Residual/diagnosis , Flow Cytometry/instrumentation
2.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 710-714, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985762

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic features of primary adrenal NK/T cell lymphoma (PANKL). Methods: Six cases of PANKL were collected at Henan Provincial People's Hospital from January 2000 to December 2021. The clinicopathologic features including morphology, immunophenotype, treatment and prognosis were retrospectively analyzed, and relevant literature was reviewed. Results: There were two males and four females. The median age was 63 years (ranged from 57 to 68 years). The tumors involved bilateral adrenal glands in 4 cases and unilateral adrenal gland in 2 cases. The main clinical symptom was low back pain without obvious cause. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is elevated in five cases. The imaging feature was rapidly enlarging mass initially confined to unilateral/bilateral adrenal glands. Morphologically, the lymphoid cells were mainly medium-sized with a diffuse growth pattern. Coagulative necrosis and nuclear fragmentation were common. Angioinvasion was seen. Immunophenotypically, the neoplastic cells were positive for CD3, CD56 and TIA-1 while CD5 was negative in 5 cases. All cases were positive for EBER by in situ hybridization with more than 80% proliferative activity by Ki-67. Four cases received chemotherapy, one case underwent surgery, and one case underwent surgery with chemotherapy. Follow-up was done in 5 cases; one case was lost to follow-up. Three patients died with a median survival of 11.6 months (3-42 months). Conclusions: PANKL is rare with highly aggressive clinical presentation and poor prognosis. Accurate diagnosis entails correlation of histomorphology, immunohistochemistry, EBER in situ hybridization and clinical history.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Retrospective Studies , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral/pathology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Prognosis , Immunophenotyping
3.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 69(1): 072734, jan.-mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1451999

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A citometria de fluxo é uma metodologia importante para o diagnóstico das doenças linfoproliferativas crônicas de células B (DLPCB), contudo, por vezes, o citometrista não encontra subsídios suficientes para a definição exata da entidade patológica envolvida. Objetivo: Analisar os laudos emitidos a pacientes com doenças linfoproliferativas crônicas (DLPC) atendidos em um laboratório particular de Belém-PA, segundo os critérios de classificação estabelecidos pelos estudos de Matutes et al. e Craig e Foon. Método: Estudo retrospectivo com laudos de pacientes que realizaram imunofenotipagem por citometria de fluxo para diagnóstico de DLPCB no período entre setembro de 2015 a dezembro de 2019. Resultados: Depois de aplicados os critérios de Matutes et al. e Craig e Foon para os laudos analisados, observou-se concordância em: 45,24% casos de leucemia linfoide crônica de células B/linfoma linfocítico de pequenas células B; 14,29% casos de linfoma folicular; 4,76% casos de leucemia de células pilosas; e 21,43% de casos definidos como "outras DLPCB não classificáveis por citometria de fluxo". Entretanto, o teste de hipóteses de Hotelling (p=0,0409) mostrou haver diferença estatística para a definição das DLPCB segundo os critérios aplicados. Conclusão: Os resultados ressaltam que, mesmo sendo a citometria de fluxo importante para a caracterização das DLPCB, por vezes, o citometrista necessita incluir no laudo a categoria "outras doenças linfoproliferativas crônicas de células B não classificadas por citometria de fluxo" para induzir o prescritor a solicitar mais exames complementares.


Introduction: Flow cytometry is an important methodology for the diagnosis of chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (CBCLPD), however, sometimes the cytometrist does not find sufficient elements for the exact definition of the pathological entity involved. Objective: To analyze the reports issued to patients with chronic lymphoproliferative diseases (CLPD) tested at a private laboratory in Belém-PA, according to the classification criteria established by the studies by Matutes et al. and Craig and Foon. Method: Retrospective study with reports of patients who underwent immunophenotyping by flow cytometry for the diagnosis of CBCLPD from September 2015 to December 2019. Results: After applying the criteria by Matutes et al. and Craig and Foon to the reports analyzed, agreement was reached for 45.24% of the cases of chronic b-cell lymphocytic leukemia/small B-cell lymphocytic lymphoma, 14.29% of the cases of follicular lymphoma, 4.76% of the cases of hairy cell leukemia and 21.43% of the cases defined as "other CBCLPDs not classifiable by flow cytometry". However, Hotelling's hypothesis test (p=0.0409) showed a statistical difference for the definition of CBCLPD according to the criteria adopted. Conclusion: The results emphasize that even though flow cytometry is important for the characterization of CBCLPD, sometimes the cytometrist needs to include the category "other chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases not classified by flow cytometry" in the report to induce the prescriber to request additional complementary exams.


Introducción. La citometría de flujo es una metodología importante para el diagnóstico de enfermedades linfoproliferativas crónicas de células B (ELPCB), sin embargo, en ocasiones el citometrista no encuentra suficientes subsidios para la definición exacta de la entidad patológica involucrada. Objetivo: Analizar los informes emitidos a pacientes con enfermedades linfoproliferativas crónicas (ELPC) tratados en un laboratorio privado en Belém-PA, de acuerdo con los criterios de clasificación establecidos por los estudios de Matutes et al. y Craig y Foon. Método: Retrospectivo con relatos de pacientes que se sometieron a inmunofenotipificación por citometría de flujo para el diagnóstico de ELPC de septiembre de 2015 a diciembre de 2019. Resultados: Tras aplicar los criterios de Matutes et al. y Craig y Foon a los informes analizados, se observó concordancia en: 45,24% de los casos de leucemia linfocítica crónica de células B/linfoma linfocítico de células B pequeñas; 14,29% casos de linfoma folicular; 4,76% casos de leucemia de células peludas; y 21,43% de los casos definidos como "otros ELPCB no clasificables por citometría de flujo". Sin embargo, la prueba de hipótesis de Hotelling (p=0,0409) mostró diferencia estadística para la definición de ELPCB según los criterios aplicados. Conclusión: Nuestros resultados enfatizan que si bien la citometría de flujo es importante para la caracterización de ELPCB, en ocasiones el citometrista necesita incluir en el informe la categoría "otras enfermedades linfoproliferativas crónicas de células B no clasificadas por citometría de flujo" para inducir al prescriptor a solicitar más exámenes complementarios.


Subject(s)
Immunophenotyping , Flow Cytometry , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/diagnosis
4.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(2): 176-181, Apr.-June 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448350

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The availability of a clinical decision algorithm for diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may greatly contribute to the diagnosis of CLL, particularly in cases with ambiguous immunophenotypes. Herein we propose a novel differential diagnosis algorithm for the CLL diagnosis using immunophenotyping with flow cytometry. Methods The hierarchical logistic regression model (Backward LR) was used to build a predictive algorithm for the diagnosis of CLL, differentiated from other lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). Results A total of 302 patients, of whom 220 (72.8%) had CLL and 82 (27.2%), B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders other than CLL, were included in the study. The Backward LR model comprised the variables CD5, CD43, CD81, ROR1, CD23, CD79b, FMC7, sIg and CD200 in the model development process. The weak expression of CD81 and increased intensity of expression in markers CD5, CD23 and CD200 increased the probability of CLL diagnosis, (p < 0.05). The odd ratio for CD5, C23, CD200 and CD81 was 1.088 (1.050 - 1.126), 1.044 (1.012 - 1.077), 1.039 (1.007 - 1.072) and 0.946 (0.921 - 0.970) [95% C.I.], respectively. Our model provided a novel diagnostic algorithm with 95.27% of sensitivity and 91.46% of specificity. The model prediction for 97.3% (214) of 220 patients diagnosed with CLL, was CLL and for 91.5% (75) of 82 patients diagnosed with an LPD other than CLL, was others. The cases were correctly classified as CLL and others with a 95.7% correctness rate. Conclusions Our model highlighting 4 markers (CD81, CD5, CD23 and CD200) provided high sensitivity and specificity in the CLL diagnosis and in distinguishing of CLL among other LPDs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Flow Cytometry , Algorithms , Linear Models , Immunophenotyping , Diagnosis, Differential
5.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(2): 245-252, Apr.-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448343

ABSTRACT

Asbtract Introduction This study aimed to determine whether cytokine receptor-like factor 2 (CRLF2) antigen expression evaluated using multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) could predict the genotype of CRLF2 and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) status for application in the diagnosis of pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). Methods A total of 321 BCP-ALL bone marrow samples were collected, 291 at diagnosis and 13 at first relapse, while 17 samples were excluded due to low cellular viability. The CRLF2 antigen expression was evaluated using flow cytometry (percentage of positivity and median fluorescence intensity [MFI]). The CRLF2 transcript levels were assessed via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using SYBR Green. The CRLF2 rearrangements (CRLF2-r) were identified using the CRLF2 break-apart probe via fluorescence in situ hybridization. Sanger sequencing was performed to identify the JAK2 exon 16 mutations. Results We observed that 60 of the 291 cases (20.6%) presented CRLF2 antigen positivity, whereas the CRLF2 transcript overexpression was found in 19 of 113 cases (16.8%). The JAK2 mutation was found in four out of 116 cases (3.4%), all of which had CRLF2 ≥10% of positive cells and intermediate or high MFI (p < 0.0001). In addition, in the 13 cases with the CRLF2-r, a positive correlation was found with the CRLF2 antigen intermediate (61.5%) MFI (p= 0.017). Finally, the CRLF2-positive antigen was identified in the BCP-ALL subclones. Conclusion The identification of the CRLF2 antigen using the MFC, based on the percentage of positivity and MFI values, is a useful tool for predicting JAK2 mutations and CRLF2-r.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Immunophenotyping , Cytogenetic Analysis , Flow Cytometry
6.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 32(3): 320-333, 2 de diciembre del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411156

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar las características clínicas y pronóstico de los pacientes con Leucemia/Linfoma de Células T del Adulto (ATL) en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN) de Perú. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio transversal, que incluyó por Se revisaron 188 historias clínicas y estudio patológico de pacientes con infección por HTLV-1 diagnosticados en el INEN durante 10 años, de quienes 150 tuvieron ATL. Resultados: 62% de los pacientes tuvieron el subtipo ATL linfoma, 37% subtipo agudo y 1% crónico. La mediana de edad fue 53 años (20-89); 51% fueron mujeres. Dentro de las características clínicas: ECOG ≥ 2 (56%); estadio clínico III-IV (80%), síntomas B (58%); incremento de la deshidrogenasa láctica, LDH, (74%); leucocitosis (50%); hipercalcemia (46%) y anemia (36%). 122 pacientes (81,3%) recibieron tratamiento, 79% con quimioterapia (QT) y 4,6% radioterapia complementaria (RT); CHOP fue el esquema de QT más frecuente (89%). De los pacientes con QT tuvieron 18% RC, 32% RP, 7% EE y 13% PE. Conclusión: En este reporte en pacientes con ATL, la forma linfoma es el subtipo más frecuente, existe alta prevalencia de inmunofenotipo atípico y pobre respuesta al CHOP.


Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and progno-sis of patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) at the National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases (INEN) of Peru. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out, which included 188 clinical histories and a pathological study of patients diagnosed with HTLV-1 infection diagnosed at the INEN for ten years, of whom 150 had ATL. Results: Sixty-two percent of the patients had the ATL lymphoma subtype, 37% had the acute sub-type, and 1% had the chronic subtype. The median age was 53 (20-89); 51% were women. Within the clinical characteristics: ECOG ≥ 2 (56%); clinical stage III-IV (80%), symptoms B (58%); increased lactic dehydrogenase, LDH, (74%); leukocytosis (50%); hypercalcemia (46%) and anemia (36%). A total of 122 patients (81.3%) received treatment, 79% with chemotherapy (CT) and 4.6% with complementary radiotherapy (RT); CHOP was the most frequent QT regimen (89%). Of the patients with QT, 18% had CR, 32% PR, 7% EE, and 13% PE. Conclusion: In this report, in patients with ATL, the lymphoma form was the most frequent subtype, and there was a high prevalence of atypical immunophenotype and poor response to CHOP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell , Tertiary Treatment , Immunophenotyping , Study Characteristics
7.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 38(2): e1646, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408460

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los cambios en el inmunofenotipo de los linfocitos en los pacientes con linfoma no Hodgkin están asociados con el pronóstico y las respuestas terapéuticas. Sin embargo, no se ha establecido sistemáticamente la asociación con la enfermedad y por tanto su contribución al diagnóstico. Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación del inmunofenotipo linfocitario en sangre periférica con la presencia del linfoma no Hodgkin. Métodos: Se analizaron 31 muestras de sangre periférica de pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado de linfoma no Hodgkin y de 68 individuos sanos como controles, durante el período de 2018 a 2020. Se empleó la citometría de flujo multiparamétrica para el inmunofenotipado. Se calculó el área bajo la curva y el índice de Youden para establecer puntos de corte en los porcentajes linfocitarios. La asociación de los cambios inmunofenotípicos con el linfoma no Hodgkin, se realizó mediante cálculos de Odd ratio. Resultados: El aumento de linfocitos TCD8+ y NKCD56opaco se asoció significativamente con la presencia de linfoma no Hodgkin (OR= 3,4 y 2,9; respectivamente). Por el contrario, la disminución de linfocitos TCD4+, T doble positivo, T doble negativo y NKCD56brillante también se asoció con la existencia de linfoma no Hodgkin (OR= 23,0; 10,7; 6,9 y 15,8; respectivamente). Además, la disminución del índice CD4/CD8 también fue asociada con la enfermedad. Conclusiones: Los cambios encontrados en los inmunofenotipos linfocitarios se asociaron de forma significativa con la presencia del linfoma no Hodgkin, lo cual representa una expresión sistémica de la enfermedad y sugiere su valor diagnóstico(AU)


Introduction: Lymphocyte immunophenotype changes in non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients are associated with prognosis and therapeutic responses. However, its association with the disease has not been systematically established. Therefor its contribution to the diagnosis process. Objective: To assess the association of lymphocyte immunophenotype in peripheral blood with the presence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Methods: 31 peripheral blood samples were analyzed from patients with a confirmed diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and from 68 healthy individuals as controls, during the period 2018 to 2020. Multiparametric flow cytometry was used for immunophenotyping. The area under the curve and the Youden index were calculated to establish cut-off points in lymphocyte percentages. The association of immunophenotypic changes with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was made using Odd ratio calculations. Results: The increase in TCD8+ and NKCD56dim lymphocytes from peripheral blood was significantly associated with the presence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR= 3.4 and 2.9, respectively). Oppositely, the decrease in TCD4+, double positive T, double negative T and NKCD56bright lymphocytes was associated with the existence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR= 23.0, 10.7, 6.9 and 15.8, respectively). Therefore, the decrease in the CD4/CD8 rate was also associated with the disease. Conclusion: The changes found in these lymphocytic immunophenotypes were significantly associated with the presence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which represents a systemic expression of the disease and suggests its diagnostic value(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , CD4 Antigens , Immunophenotyping/methods , CD8 Antigens , Flow Cytometry/methods
8.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(2): 143-150, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385039

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) plays a major role in diagnosing hematologic malignancies. In patients diagnosed with precursor B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), expression of certain non-lineage/cross lineage antigens is of prognostic and cytogenetic relevance. There is a paucity of studies that have comprehensively analyzed the clinical and laboratory profiles of B-ALL patients showing aberrant T/natural killer (NK) cell antigen expression. Materials and methods This is a prospective study where 152 consecutive B-ALL patients were analyzed for aberrant expression of T/NK cell antigens (CD1a, CD5, CD4, CD7, CD8 and CD56) by FCI. The clinical and laboratory profile of these T/NK-cell antigen-expressing B-ALL patients was statistically analyzed against conventional B-ALL patients. Results In our B-ALL cohort, CD5, CD7 and CD56 expression were observed in one, six and nine patients, respectively. CD56-expressing B-ALL patients were predominantly children (89%) and presented as standard clinical risk (p = 0.010) disease with frequent ETV6-RUNX1 fusion (p = 0.021) positivity. On the contrary, CD7-expressing B-ALL patients were adolescent-young adult/adult-age skewed (83%) and had an adverse cytogenetic profile (p = 0.001), especially for the frequent presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion (p = 0.004) and KMT2A rearrangement (p = 0.045). CD7-expressing B-ALL patients had inferior event-free survival (p = 0.040) than their CD56-expressing counterparts, but there was no significant difference in the overall survival (p = 0.317). Conclusion In comparison to conventional B-ALL patients, there are significant differences in the age, cytogenetic profile and event-free survival of T/NK-cell antigen-expressing B-ALL patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Flow Cytometry , Immunophenotyping , Antigens, CD7 , CD56 Antigen
9.
Philippine Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 294-297, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-961143

ABSTRACT

@#Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare, chronic, mature B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder accounting for 2% of all leukemias. In this paper, we would like to present our experience in the management of HCL in a financially limited setting where other diagnostic tests and chemotherapy are unavailable. The case report aims to emphasize the recognition of the distinctive morphology of hairy cells in the peripheral blood in the consideration of the initial diagnosis. A 60-year-old Filipino male was incidentally found to have anemia, thrombocytopenia and an absolute neutrophilic count below 1,000 in a pre-operative clearance for elective herniorrhaphy. Blood smear revealed atypical lymphocytes with hair like cytoplasmic projections. CT-scan of the abdomen showed splenomegaly and prominent paraaortic nodes. Flow cytometry of the bone marrow aspirate was consistent with an involvement of a Mature B cell neoplasm markers CD19, CD20, CD22 and surface immunoglobulin lambda and hairy cell leukemia markers CD11c, CD103 and CD25. He responded to six-weekly sessions of Cladribine with remission of the bone marrow and hematologic parameters. HCL is a rare type of a mature B cell neoplasm characterized by pancytopenia, splenomegaly, bone marrow fibrosis and the presence of atypical lymphoid cells with hairy projections in blood, bone marrow and spleen. Immunophenotyping express CD11c, CD103, CD123, and CD25. BRAF V600E mutation is the disease defining genetic event. Cladribine and Pentostatin are the first line of treatment. Cases of leukemia can be easily overlooked because of the mild derangement in the complete blood count. A meticulous differential review of the atypical lymphocyte, is the first step in the diagnosis of this rare disease.


Subject(s)
Leukemia, Hairy Cell , Cladribine , Immunophenotyping
10.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 108-113, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935485

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the clinicopathological and genetic features of natural killer (NK)-cell enteropathy for better understanding of this rare disease and prevention of its misdiagnosis. Methods: Two cases of NK-cell enteropathy were diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China from October 2017 to February 2021. The clinical characteristics, morphology, immunohistochemistry, Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization and T cell receptor gene rearrangement were analyzed. The patients were followed up by a telephone interview. Results: The patients were both male, aged 40 and 28 years, respectively. Both patients were admitted to the hospital for an annual checkup without obvious gastrointestinal symptoms. The endoscopy showed that the gastric body of case 1 had a mucosal bulge, small area of congestion and erosion, while the rectum of case 2 had congestion and erosion. Microscopically, the lesions of the 2 cases were relatively limited. Many lymphoid cells infiltrated within the lamina propria of the mucosa and into the muscularis mucosa in case 2. In case 1, the glands were reduced in the lesion, and the glandular cavity was slightly compressed and deformed. There was no infiltration or destruction of the glands in either case. Lymphoid cells were atypical, with medium-to-large cell sizes. Their cytoplasm was medium-to-slightly abundant and appeared eosinophilic or translucent. In case 2, characteristic eosinophilic granules were seen in the cytoplasm of a few cells. The nuclei in both cases were round, oval and irregular, with fine chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and no mitotic figures were noted. Necrosis was seen in case 1 while both cases had no central growth or destruction of blood vessels. Immunophenotyping showed that CD56, granzyme B and TIA-1 were positive in both cases, part of the cells was CD3-positive, and some cells were weakly CD4-positive in case 2. The CD5, CD8, CD30, ALK and B-lineage markers (CD20, CD79α) were all negative. The Ki-67 proliferation index was about 60% and 30%, respectively. Both cases were EBER negative. TCR gene rearrangement was polyclonal. Follow-up showed that none of the 2 patients had any special treatments and stayed well. Conclusions: NK-cell enteropathy is rare, with biological behaviors similar to benign tumors, and occasional recurrence. Its histology and immunophenotype are easily confused with NK/T cell-derived lymphomas. Combination of its unique endoscopic features, EBER negativity, polyclonal TCR gene rearrangement and good prognosis can confirm the diagnosis and avoid misdiagnosis and overtreatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Immunophenotyping , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphoproliferative Disorders
11.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 341-345, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928717

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish 10-color fluorescent antibody combination panels for the detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in our laboratory and discuss the value of clinical application.@*METHODS@#According to the antigen expression characteristics of leukemia cells of incipient AML patients, MRD in bone marrow were detected by multiparameter flow cytometry, and the test results were compared with both bone marrow cell morphology and PCR results, then 10-color fluorescent antibody combination panels in our lab for MRD detection was determined.@*RESULTS@#The immunophenotypic characteristics of 392 incipient patients with AML in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were analyzed, among them 357 (91.07%) cases showed abnormal immunophenotypes, which mainly included cross-lineage expression, cross-stage expression, deficiency of antigen expression or abnormal antigen intensity and other abnormal expression. The 10-color fluorescent antibody combination panels established according to abnormal immunophenotypic characteristics of leukemia cells were applied for detecting MRD in 156 patients with AML, the positive rate (43.6%) was higher than 26.8% of morphology, and the results were highly consistent with PCR detection results (96.49%), moreover, the recurrence rate of MRD positive patients (86.96%) was significantly higher than 5.75% of MRD negative patients. Therefore, this method could truly reflect the load of leukemia cells and prompt change of disease condition.@*CONCLUSION@#Multiparameter flow cytometry can detect various abnormal immunophenotypes of AML. The 10-color fluorescent antibody combination panels in our lab based on the characteristics of antigens expression in leukemia cells can well detect MRD of leukemia cells, so as to predict relapse and provide basis for clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Marrow , Flow Cytometry/methods , Immunophenotyping , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Neoplasm, Residual/diagnosis
12.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 45(3,supl.n.esp): 141-150, 28 dec. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352346

ABSTRACT

Este relato aborda o caso de um homem de 52 anos, portador de neoplasia prostática (Gleason 3 + 3), que deu entrada no pronto-socorro com quadro de lesão renal aguda, anemia normocrômica e normocítica e relato de fratura patológica. Encaminhado para o hospital geral, foi iniciada a investigação do quadro. Alguns achados em exames laboratoriais, como inversão da relação albumina-globulina e lesões líticas em exame de imagem, fizeram os médicos levantarem um importante diagnóstico diferencial no contexto de metástase óssea e neoplasias: o mieloma múltiplo. Diante disso, foi indicado aspirado de medula óssea e imunofetipagem, que, surpreendentemente, teve como resultado principal a presença de 12% de células plasmocitárias com caraterísticas anômalas. O tratamento inicial foi estabelecido com dexametasona, ciclofosfamida e pamidronato com melhora progressiva dos parâmetros laboratoriais e clínicos, sendo encaminhado para acompanhamento ambulatorial em cidade de origem com onco-hematologista e urologista.


This study describes the case of a 52-year-old male patient with prostate cancer (Gleason 3+3) admitted to the emergency room with acute kidney injury, normochromic and normocytic anemia, and a pathological fracture report. The patient was referred to the General Hospital to investigate the condition. Laboratory tests indicated inversion of the albumin-globulin ratio and imaging exams evinced lytic lesions, leading physicians to raise an important differential diagnosis in the context of bone metastases and neoplasms: multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspirate and immunophetyping indicated the presence of 12% plasma cells with anomalous characteristics. After initial treatment with dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, and pamidronate, the patient showed progressive improvement in laboratory and clinical parameters, being referred for outpatient follow-up in the city of origin with an onco-hematologist and urologist.


Este es un reporte de caso de un varón de 52 años de edad, con cáncer de próstata (Gleason 3 +3) ingresado en urgencias por lesión renal aguda, anemia normocrómica y normocítica y reporte de fractura patológica. Derivado al Hospital General, se inició una investigación de la condición. Algunos hallazgos en las pruebas de laboratorio, como la inversión del cociente albúmina globulina y las lesiones líticas en los exámenes de imagen, llevaron a los médicos a plantear un importante diagnóstico diferencial, en el contexto de las metástasis óseas y las neoplasias: el mieloma múltiple. Por tanto, se indicó el aspirado de médula ósea y la inmunofenotipificación, que sorprendentemente tuvo como principal resultado la presencia de un 12% de células plasmáticas con características anómalas. Se estableció el tratamiento inicial con dexametasona, ciclofosfamida y pamidronato, con mejoría progresiva de los parámetros analíticos y clínicos, siendo remitido para seguimiento ambulatorio en su ciudad de origen con un oncohematólogo y un urólogo.


Subject(s)
Prostatic Neoplasms , Immunophenotyping , Diagnosis, Differential , Urologists , Multiple Myeloma
13.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 489-493, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350813

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Low levels of neutrophils can be an intrinsic condition, with no clinical consequences or immunity impairment. This condition is the benign constitutional neutropenia (BCN), defined as an absolute neutrophils count (ANC) ≤2000 cells/mm. Diagnosis of BCN is of exclusion where patients are submitted to blood tests and possibly to invasive diagnostic search until secondary causes of neutropenia are ruled out. The natural history of the disease suggests benign evolution and Brazilian study showed an overall frequency of 2.59%. The main mechanisms include reduced neutrophil production, increased marginalization, extravasation to the tissues and immune destruction. Genetic studies showed strong association between the single nucleotide variant rs2814778 located on chromosome 1q23.2 in the promoter region of the atypical chemokine receptor 1 (Duffy blood group system) gene (ACKR1, also termed DARC) and BCN. The aim of this study is to evaluate FY phenotypes and genotypes including the analysis of the rs2814778 SNP in Brazilian patients with BCN in order to determine an effective diagnostic tool, allowing reassurance of the patient and cost reduction in their care. Methods: Case control study, with 94 individuals (18 patients and 76 controls). Phenotyping was performed by gel test and genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. Results: White blood cell (WBC) and absolute neutrophils (AN) counts showed lower levels in patients compared to controls. In the patient group 83.3% were genotyped as FY*B/FY*B. The SNP rs2814778 (-67T > C) was identified in 77.8% of the patients genotyped as FY*B-67C/FY*B-67C. In the control group, 72.7% were homozygous for the wild type and 23.3% were heterozygous. Conclusion: This study reinforces that FY phenotyping and genotyping can be used to detect most people with BCN, avoiding excessive diagnostic investigation. Besides, this procedure may reduce health costs and be reproductible in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Duffy Blood-Group System , Genotyping Techniques , Neutropenia , Immunophenotyping , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Neutrophils
14.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 832-839, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880155

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the quantitative expression of immunophenotype of CD34@*METHODS@#Multi-parameter flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect the proportion and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of each antigen of bone marrow CD34@*RESULTS@#Bone marrow blast cell proportion (P<0.01), RBC level (P<0.01), and Hb level (P<0.05) of high-risk MDS patients were higher, while EPO level (P<0.05) was lower than those of low-risk patients. The proportion of CD34@*CONCLUSION@#The immunophenotype of CD34


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, CD34 , Bone Marrow , Bone Marrow Cells , Flow Cytometry , Immunophenotyping , Myelodysplastic Syndromes
15.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1831, 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363715

ABSTRACT

Lymphoma is a neoplasm of hematopoietic origin that affects canines. The proper establishment of prognosis and rapid institution of treatment are essential for a better quality of life, and immunophenotyping is one of the tools used for this purpose. The objective of this study was to perform a clonality test for immunophenotypic characterization of canine lymphomas using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for antigen receptor rearrangements (PARR) technique in real-time from samples fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. The 23 analyzed samples were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin canine lymphoma from the collection Laboratory of Histopathology of the Animal Pathology Area of the Departament of Veterinary Medicine - Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (UFRPE). Samples were processed, their DNA was extracted, quantified, diluted, and standardized at a concentration of 50 ng/µL. After extraction, all samples were subjected to conventional PCR for endogenous control (detection of the IgM target region), in which the extracted DNA was amplified in a final volume of 25 µL. The 128 bp amplified product was detected by 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. Of the 23 samples analyzed for the detection of the conserved region referring to the endogenous gene, 91.30% (21/23) amplified the conserved region Cµ by conventional PCR, and two samples 8.70% (2/23) were negative. Endogenous control positive samples were subjected to real-time PCR-PARR for detection of IgH Major and IgH Minor for B lymphocytes (LB), and TCRy for lymphocytes T (LT) target regions. All reactions were performed in duplicate to reduce the risk of false-positive or false-negative results due to technical errors. Samples previously confirmed by immunohistochemistry were used as positive controls for T cell and B cell lymphoma, and MilliQ water was used as a negative reaction control. After amplification, the melting curve gradually increased the temperature by 1o C/5 s to 95o C during continuous fluorescence monitoring. Of the 21 samples analyzed, 100.00% (21/21) demonstrated clonal amplification. Of these, 57.15% (12/21) were positive for phenotype B, and 42.85% (9/21) were positive for phenotype T. Due to the importance of researching and confirming samples from files fixed and embedded in paraffin samples in laboratories, PCR-PARR is a good tool for this purpose. In the present study, real-time PCR analysis demonstrated greater sensitivity in the characterization of the immunophenotype of lymphomas from old samples fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. The temperature of melting curve analysis may vary depending on the amount of DNA and its quality. In the present study, it was found that the average melting temperature in the samples varied between ± 3o C when compared to that in the control sample for LB and LT, 83.5o C and 80o C, respectively: in the literature, there is a relative difference in this temperature, which may vary up to 4o C. Real-time PCR-PARR was satisfactory in the characterization of the immunophenotype of canine lymphomas from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples; therefore, its use is recommended for both retrospective studies. The use of PCR-PARR associated with histopathological and/or cytopathological examination in cases of canine lymphomas strongly helps pathologists, provide a safe establishment of the immunophenotype, minimize errors, and optimize the diagnosis, thus directly contributing to the establishment of the prognosis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Immunophenotyping/veterinary , Dog Diseases/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Lymphoid Tissue , Lymphoma/veterinary , Dogs
16.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 608-620, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888743

ABSTRACT

t(8;21)(q22;q22) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly heterogeneous hematological malignancy with a high relapse rate in China. Two leukemic myeloblast populations (CD34


Subject(s)
Humans , Gene Expression , Granulocyte Precursor Cells , Immunophenotyping , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins , Prognosis , Proteins , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/genetics
17.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1195-1202, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888538

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression of CD319 and CD269 in plasma cells of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and the feasibility of using CD319 instead of CD38 as a gating antigen in immunophenotyping and minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring.@*METHODS@#The expression levels of CD319 and CD269 antigens in clonal bone marrow plasma cells of 387 patients were detected by CD38/CD138 gating strategy with 8-color flow cytometry, and the stability of antigens was also analyzed, and the sensitivity and correlation of two different gating strategies employing CD319/CD138 and CD38/CD138 were compared as well. The control group consisted of 53 cases with non-malignant blood disease matched by age and sex.@*RESULTS@#Monoclonal plasma cells were detected in 303 of 387 MM patients, among which 277 cases (91.42%) were positive for CD269, and all cases were positive for CD319 (100%). In newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) and recurrent refractory MM (RRMM) patients, the expression levels of CD269 were 97.53% (0-99.92%) and 94.96% (0.22%-99.99%), respectively, while levels of CD319 were 99.90% (87.77%-100%) and 99.78% (63.12%-100%), respectively. The expression levels of CD269 and CD319 in the control group were 97.00% (77.00%-100%) and 100% (89.00%-100%), respectively. There were no significant differences in the expression levels of CD269 and CD319 among NDMM, RRMM and the control group. Patients acquiring therapeutic effects were divided into complete remission (CR) group, very good partial response (VGPR) group and partial response (PR) group. Gating with CD38/CD138, median MRD values were 0.76% (0-1.88%), 0.77% (0-4.96%) and 1.75% (0.09%-10.90%) in the three groups, respectively, while gating with CD319/CD138, median MRD values were 0.57% (0.18%-1.96%), 1.07% (0.12%-4.85%) and 1.77% (0.08%-8.22%), respectively. There was no significant difference in MRD level by the two gating strategies, but a good correlation between the two (r=0.808, P<0.05). In addition, in 4 patients treated by CD38 monoclonal antibody (DARA), the expression level of CD38 was observed to be down-regulated or even negative after treatment. When the MRD level was very low, CD38/CD138 gating resulted in false MRD@*CONCLUSION@#CD319 and CD269 express stably and continuously in plasma cells of MM patients at different disease stages. CD319 can be used as an alternative of CD38 for immunophenotyping and MRD detection, especially for MRD detection after DARA treatment, while CD269 is suitable for detection before BCMA-CAR-T treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Flow Cytometry , Immunophenotyping , Multiple Myeloma , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm, Residual , Plasma Cells
18.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1093-1100, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888523

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, diagnosis and therapy of aggressive natural killer cell leukemia (ANKL) patients.@*METHODS@#Clinical manifestations, cellular morphology, immunophenotypic analysis by flow cytometry (FCM), TCR gene rearrangement, pathology and Immunohistochemical analysis of bone marrow (BM) were combined to diagnose the six patients with ANKL.@*RESULTS@#The median age of the patients were 35.5 years old. All the patients with fever, cytopenia and liver dysfunction. Imageological examination presented hepatosplenomegaly (6/6), and PET/CT presented diffusely increased metabolism in liver, spleen and BM (3/3). BM cytologic examination presented increased hematophagocyte at the early stage and 1%-42% leukemic cell were detected in BM with the progression of diseases. FCM showed the leukemic cells were positive for CD2(6/6), CD56(5/6), CD16(2/6), CD94(3/6), CD38(3/6), cCD3(1/5), CD8(1/6), CD7(2/6), CD57(1/6) and negative for CD3, CD4, TdT, cMPO, TCR α/β, TCR γ/δ. The neoplastic cells were negative for TCR gene rearrangement. Five cases showed increased quantitation of whole blood Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA.@*CONCLUSION@#ANKL is a highly aggressive disease. Prompt and repeating BM examination is important to patient with fever, cytopenia and liver dysfunction. The diagnosis of ANKL relies mainly on the integration of clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic finding and EBV-DNA increasement.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Immunophenotyping , Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography
19.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1977-1981, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922235

ABSTRACT

T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare but highly aggressive and malignant mature T-lymphoid tumor. The diagnosis of T-PLL mainly depend on genetic characteristics, clinical manifestations, cell morphology and immunophenotype. At present, clinical treatment is mainly aimed at improving the response rate and prolonging the remission period. With the development of new molecular biology technologies, researchers have gained a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis and related genetics of T-PLL, targeted drugs, including HDAC inhibitors, JAK/STAT inhibitors, AKT inhibitors and BCL-2 inhibitors, are also under evolution and providing the new opportunities to improve the efficacy of therapy. In this review, the advances in genetics and treatment of T-PLL were summarized briefly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents , Immunophenotyping , Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, T-Cell/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors
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