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1.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 38(2): e1575, abr.-jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408447

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La brucelosis es la zoonosis más frecuente, producida por el género brucella, que afecta a varias especies de mamíferos y dentro de ellos a los humanos. Se transmite al hombre por contacto directo con los animales infectados, por sus excretas o por la ingestión de productos no pasteurizados. En los últimos años se ha descrito un incremento de la enfermedad en los pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Objetivo: Describir la reactivación de la brucelosis en paciente receptor de un trasplante hematopoyético, su curso y manejo. Presentación de caso: Se presenta una paciente con linfoma de Hodgkin y antecedentes de brucelosis que recibió un trasplante hematopoyético autólogo mieloablativo. Después de la recuperación hematológica, inició con cuadro de fiebre, diaforesis, dolores articulares y hepato-esplenomegalia. Se le diagnosticó brucelosis, por lo que se inició tratamiento con doxiciclina y rifampicina, con lo que se logró la eliminación de los síntomas y la negativización de las pruebas evolutivas. Conclusiones: La brucelosis puede mantenerse meses o años asintomática y reactivarse después de la inmunosupresión en los pacientes trasplantados. Su sospecha y rápido tratamiento puede lograr la curación y evitar complicaciones(AU)


Introduction: Brucellosis is the most frequent zoonosis, produced by the genus brucella, which affects several species of mammals, including human beings. It is transmitted to persons by direct contact with infected animals, by their excreta or by ingestion of unpasteurized products. In recent years, an increase has been described in immunocompromised patients. Objectives: To describe the reactivation of brucellosis in a hematopoietic transplant recipient patient, its course and management. Case presentation: A patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma and a history of brucellosis is presented; that she received a myeloablative autologous hematopoietic transplant. After haematological recovery, she started with symptoms of fever, diaphoresis, joint pain and hepato-splenomegaly. She was diagnosed with brucellosis, so treatment with doxycycline and rifampin was started, which eliminated the symptoms and made the evolutionary tests negative. Conclusions: Brucellosis can be asymptomatic for months or years and after immunosuppression it can be reactivated in transplanted patients. Suspicion and prompt treatment can bring about a cure and avoid complications(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Splenomegaly , Brucellosis , Hodgkin Disease , Immunosuppression Therapy , Immunocompromised Host , Transplant Recipients
2.
Rev. argent. reumatolg. (En línea) ; 33(2): 97-100, abr. - jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1395244

ABSTRACT

La vasculitis reumatoidea es un proceso inflamatorio poco frecuente que confiere una morbilidad y mortalidad significativa en pacientes con artritis reumatoidea (AR). Presenta una incidencia de 0,7 a 5,4% de los casos de AR y hasta un 40% de mortalidad a 5 años, siendo la manifestación extraarticular de mayor gravedad1,2. Se caracteriza por el desarrollo de vasculitis necrotizante; ocurre típicamente en pacientes masculinos con AR seropositiva de larga data, nodular y erosiva, tabaquistas y, en general, tiene mal pronóstico. Se presenta una serie de casos, paciente masculino y femenino con AR y manifestaciones extraarticulares, necrosis digital y compromiso multiorgánico, interpretados como cuadros de vasculitis reumatoidea, realizando tratamiento de referencia con inmunosupresores.


Rheumatoid vasculitis is a rare inflammatory process that confers significant morbidity and mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); it has an incidence of 0.7 to 5.4% of RA cases and up to 40% mortality at five years, making it the most serious of all the extra-articular manifestations of RA1,2. It is characterized by the development of necrotizing vasculitis, it typically occurs in male patients with long-standing seropositive RA, erosive nodular, smokers and generally has a poor prognosis. A series of cases is presented, male and female with RA and extra-articular manifestations, digital necrosis and multiorgan system involvement, interpreted as rheumatoid vasculitis, undergoing treatment with immunosuppressants.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Vasculitis , Immunosuppression Therapy , Mononeuropathies
3.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022204, 06 abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363533

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation (KT) is the renal replacement therapy (RRT) of choice for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, not every KT is successful and some patients persist on RRT. OBJECTIVE: To model a logistic regression with pre- and post-KT risk covariates capable of predicting secondary allograft dysfunction in need of RRT or reaching stage V of CKD until the first six months post-KT. METHODS: Cohort with KT recipients from Northeastern Brazil. Medical records of KT performed between 2011-2018 were analyzed. KT-recipients with insufficient data or who abandoned follow-up were excluded. The covariables analyzed were: demographic; infectious; pre- and post-KT comorbidities; panel reactive-antibodies; number of HLA mismatches; acute rejection episodes mediated by T-cell (ACR) or antibodies (AAR) six months after KT; and laboratory tests six months after KT. RESULTS: Covariates with higher risk for the analyzed outcomes six months after KT were: elderly KT recipients (OR:1.41; CI95%:1.01-1.99), time between onset of RRT and KT (ΔT-RRT&KT)>10years (OR:3.54; CI95%:1.27-9.87), diabetes mellitus (DM) pre-KT (OR:3.35; CI95%:1.51-7.46), pyelonephritis (OR:2.45; CI95%:1.24-4.84), polyomavirus nephropathy (OR:4.99; CI95%:1.87-13.3), AAS (OR:4.82; CI95%:1.35-17.2), 24h-proteinuria ≥300mg/24h (OR:5.05; CI95%:2.00-12.7) and serum calcium (Ca) <8.5mg/dL (OR:4.72; CI95%:2.00-11.1). The multivariate model presented an accuracy of 88.1% and the mean variance inflation factor is 1.81. CONCLUSION: Elderly-recipients, ΔT-RRT&KT>10 years, pre-KT DM, and post-KT aggressions until six months (pyelonephritis, polyomavirus nephropathy, ABMR, 24h-proteinuria≥300mg/24h, and Ca<8.5mg/dL) are associated with high predictive power for secondary allograft dysfunction in need of RRT or reaching CKD stage V until the first six months post-KT.


INTRODUÇÃO: Transplante renal (TR) é a terapia renal substitutiva (TRS) de escolha para pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC). Entretanto, nem todo TR é bem-sucedido e alguns pacientes persistem em TRS. OBJETIVO: Modelar uma regressão logística com covariáveis de risco pré e pós-TR preditora da disfunção secundária do aloenxerto com necessidade de TRS ou alcance ao estágio V da DRC até os primeiros seis meses pós-TR. MÉTODOS: Coorte com receptores transplantados realizado em hospital no Nordeste brasileiro. Analisou-se registros médicos dos TR realizados entre 2011-2018. Receptores com dados insuficientes ou que abandonaram seguimento foram excluídos. Foram analisadas covariáveis: demográficas; infecciosas; comorbidades pré e pós-TR; painel de reatividade; incompatibilidades de HLA; episódios de rejeições agudas mediadas por células-T ou por anticorpos; exames laboratoriais seis meses pós-TR. RESULTADOS: Receptores idosos (OR:1,41; IC95%:1,01-1,99), tempo entre início da TRS e TR (∆T-TRS&TR)>10 anos (OR:3,54; IC95%:1,27-9,87), diabetes mellitus (DM) pré-TR (OR:3,35; IC95%:1,51-7,46), pielonefrite (OR:2,45; IC95%:1,24-4,84), nefropatia por poliomavírus (OR:4,99; IC95%:1,87-13,3), RAMA (OR:4,82; IC95%:1,35-17,2), proteinúria de 24h (Pt24h) ≥300mg/24h (OR:5,05; IC95%:2,00-12,7) e cálcio sérico (Ca)<8,5mg/dL (OR:4,72; IC95%:2,00-11,1) foram identificadas como covariáveis de maior risco para os desfechos analisados até seis meses pós-TR. O modelo multivariado apresentou acurácia de 88,1% e fator de inflação da variância médio de 1,81. CONCLUSÃO: Receptores idosos, ∆T-TRS&TR>10anos, DM pré-TR e agressões até seis meses pós-TR (pielonefrite, nefropatia por poliomavírus, RAMA, Pt24h≥300mg/24h e Ca<8,5mg/dL), apresentam alto poder preditivo para disfunção secundária do aloenxerto com necessidade de TRS ou alcance ao estágio V da DRC até os primeiros seis meses pós-TR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Allografts , Proteinuria , Pyelonephritis , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , Immunosuppression Therapy , BK Virus , Disease Progression , Hypocalcemia
4.
Sudan j. med. sci ; 17(3): 313-329, 2022. tales, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398201

ABSTRACT

Background: Graft survival post-kidney transplantation is of paramount importance to patients and nephrologists. Nonadherence to immunosuppressive therapy can be associated with deterioration of renal function and graft rejection. This study aimed to evaluate the adherence to immunosuppressive medications in kidney transplant patients at three centers in Khartoum, Sudan. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based survey, 277 post-kidneytransplant patients were recruited. Data were collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using the SPSS v.23. Our scoring method was calculated based on Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) related to immunosuppressive medications and was expressed as questions in the questionnaire; every correct answer was given one mark, then the marks were gathered and their summation was expressed. Results: Overall, 33% ,45%, and 22% of the studied participants reported high, medium, and low adherence, respectively. The major factor for nonadherence was forgetfulness affecting 36.1% of those who did not adhere. The cost of the immunosuppressive medications did not negatively affect any of the participants' adherence (100%). However, a significant association was seen between adherence and occupational status, duration of transplantation, shortage of immunosuppressants, recognizing the name of immunosuppressant, side effect, and forgetfulness (P-values = 0.002, 0.01, 0.006 , 0.000, 0.022, and 0.000, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association with occupational status, side effects, and forgetfulness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Patient Compliance , Sudan , Immunosuppression Therapy
5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363389

ABSTRACT

Introducción: se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente con mucormicosis orbitorrinocerebral y revisión de la literatura. Caso clínico: se trata de hombre de 45 años que consultó por síntomas nasosinusales manejado ambulatoriamente con múltiples antibióticos sin mejoría, por lo cual se realizó manejo quirúrgico con toma de muestras que revelaron hifas compatibles con mucormicosis. Cuando acudió a la institución presentaba extensión de la infección a todas las cavidades nasales y parte de la base del cráneo. En la búsqueda de la inmunosupresión, se encontró una diabetes de novo de difícil control. Discusión: la mucormicosis orbitorrinocerebral es una enfermedad altamente invasiva que requiere un manejo multidisciplinario, cirugías seriadas y extendidas, antimicóticos tópicos y sistémicos. El pronóstico mejora y la evolución puede ser favorable cuando se logra controlar la causa de la inmunosupresión, en este caso la diabetes. Conclusiones: es requisito fundamental realizar un tratamiento multidisciplinario en el abordaje de estos pacientes, tanto en la especialidad clínica como en la quirúrgica, psicosocial, nutricional y de rehabilitación.


Introduction: It is the clinical case of a patient with rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis and the review of the literature. Clinical case: We present the case of a previously healthy young man who started with sinonasal symptoms and hyphae compatible with mucormycosis were found in the initial samples of outpatient care. When he came to the institution, the infection had spread to all the nasal cavities and part of the skull base. Discussion: Searching for baseline immunosuppression, only difficult-to-control diabetes and de novo diagnosis were found. It required multidisciplinary management, serial and extended surgeries, topical, venous and oral antifungals. The prognosis improved and the evolution became favorable when glycemic control was achieved. Conclusion: It is a fundamental requirement to carry out a multidisciplinary work for the approach to these patients, both in the clinical, surgical, psychosocial, nutritional and rehabilitation specialties.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mucormycosis , Immunosuppression Therapy
6.
Hepatología ; 3(1): 40-56, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396216

ABSTRACT

El trasplante de hígado es el último recurso para el tratamiento de hepatopatías. Para evitar el rechazo del injerto se requieren esquemas de inmunosupresión que han ido evolucionando a lo largo de los años. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en la base de datos PubMed sobre las terapias inmunosupresoras disponibles para evitar el rechazo del injerto en el trasplante hepático, los esquemas utilizados, efectos adversos, interacciones y sus modificaciones desde la fase de inducción hasta el seguimiento posterior. Se encontró que la inducción habitual es con esteroides o terapia inmunológica clonal. En el mantenimiento, los inhibidores de la calcineurina son los más utilizados, las dosis se deben ajustar según sus niveles séricos y la presencia de efectos adversos como nefrotoxicidad o diabetes. Por otra parte, los inhibidores del mTOR han sido considerados como agentes reductores del riesgo de recidiva de cáncer hepatocelular. Las características del paciente y sus comorbilidades (embarazo, insuficiencia renal, diabetes, sepsis, carcinoma hepatocelular) requieren modificar el tratamiento e individualizarlo


Liver transplantation is the last option for the treatment of liver disease. Immunosuppression schemes are required to avoid graft rejection, which have evolved over the years. A literature review was carried out in PubMed on the immunosuppressive therapies available to avoid graft rejection in liver transplantation, as well as on the schemes used, adverse effects, interactions and their modifications from the induction phase to subsequent follow-up. The usual induction was found to be with steroids or clonal immune therapy. In maintenance, calcineurin inhibitors are the most widely used, and their doses should be adjusted according to their serum levels and the presence of adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity or diabetes. On the other hand, mTOR inhibitors have been considered to reduce the risk of hepatocellular cancer recurrence. The characteristics of the patient and their comorbidities (pregnancy, kidney failure, diabetes, sepsis, hepatocellular carcinoma) require modification and individualization of the treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Liver Transplantation , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Calcineurin Inhibitors , Graft Rejection , Liver Diseases , Liver Neoplasms
7.
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(1): 1-6, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381407

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O uso de terapia imunossupressora é de extrema importância no transplante pulmonar, entretanto existem diversas reações adversas (RAMs) associadas ao seu uso. Neste trabalho buscamos descrever a incidência de perda de função renal (FR), diabetes mellitus (DM), hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) e hipercolesterolemia associadas ao uso de ICN na população de transplantados pulmonares do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre após 1 ano de transplante.Metodologia: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo, conduzido no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Foram incluídos os pacientes transplantados de pulmão no período de 2016 a 2018.Resultados: Após um ano do transplante 56,5% (13/23) tiveram uma perda de FR em comparação ao basal, mas com valores ainda dentro da normalidade e 30,4% (7/23) perderam FR. A diferença de FR antes e após o transplante foi estatisticamente significativa com p < 0,001, no entanto não foi observado diferença entre os ICN (p = 0,499). Entre as variáveis: DM, HAS e Hipercolesterolemia, apenas o desenvolvimento de HAS foi estaticamente significativo quando comparado ao período pré-transplante (p < 0,001).Conclusão: Nossos dados demonstraram importante perda de FR após uso de imunossupressores ICN, corroborando com dados já publicados, no entanto, não foi possível identificar associação com ICN específico, sugerindo que benefícios na intercambialidade de terapias entre os ICN na tentativa de preservação da FR devem ser melhor estudados. Diante da possibilidade de desenvolvimento de RAMs associadas ao uso de imunossupressores, destacamos a importância da inserção do farmacêutico clínico nas equipes de transplante.


Introduction: Immunosuppressive therapy is extremely important in lung transplantation, but there are several adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with its use.Objective: To report the incidence of loss of renal function (RF), diabetes mellitus (DM), systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), and hypercholesterolemia associated with the use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) in the population of lung transplant recipients at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre at 1 year after transplant. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing a lung transplant at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre from 2016 to 2018.Results: At 1 year after transplant, 56.5% (13/23) had loss of RF compared with baseline, but the values remained within the normal range, whereas 30.4% (7/23) had complete loss of RF. There was a statistically significant difference in RF before and after transplant (p < 0.001), but not in CNIs (p = 0.499). Among the variables DM, SAH, and hypercholesterolemia, only the development of SAH was statistically significant compared with the pre-transplant period (p < 0.001).Conclusion: Our data demonstrated an important loss of RF after the use of CNI immunosuppressants, which is consistent with published data. However, no association was identified with the type of CNI, suggesting that the benefits of the interchangeability of CNI therapies aimed at preserving RF should be further studied. Given the potential occurrence of ADRs associated with the use of immunosuppressants, we highlight the importance of the presence of a clinical pharmacist in the transplant team.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Immunosuppression Therapy/adverse effects , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Calcineurin Inhibitors/adverse effects , Cohort Studies
8.
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 31(4): 170-176, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1412093

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Describir la tasa de mortalidad de infección por coronavirus de tipo 2 causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2, en inglés) y los factores de riesgo asociados a la severidad de la enfermedad en pacientes con trasplante renal de un centro del nordeste colombiano. Materiales y Métodos Estudio descriptivo de una cohorte de pacientes en seguimiento postrasplante renal, en el que se hizo una búsqueda retrospectiva de los que presentaron infección por SARS-CoV-2 entre marzo del 2020 y mayo del 2021. Para el análisis, se incluyeron los pacientes con infección confirmada mediante pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (polymerase chain reaction, PCR, en inglés), de antígenos, o de anticuerpos. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas, y un análisis bivariado de los posibles factores asociados con el riesgo de mortalidad. Resultados Con un total de 307 individuos en seguimiento, se encontró una prevalencia del 14,3% (n = 44) de infección por enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19, en inglés). La media de edad fue de 56 años, con predominio del género masculino. El esquema de inmunosupresión más frecuente fue micofenolato­tacrolimus­prednisona. Entre los pacientes infectados, la mortalidad fue del 34,1% (15/44), lo que representa el 4,8% de toda la población a estudio. Maás de la mitad de los pacientes requirieron hemodiálisis, y en el 86,7% fue necesario hacer ajustes en el esquema de inmunosupresión. Conclusión La prevalencia de infección por SARS-CoV-2 en nuestro grupo de trasplantes fue similar a la reportada por otros grupos de trasplante del país, y mayor a la de la población no trasplantada. El valor de creatinina previo a la infección, la edad y las comorbilidades se asociaron con un mayor riesgo de mortalidad.


Objective To describe the mortality related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the risk factors associated with disease severity in patients submitted to a kidney transplant from a center in northeastern Colombia. Materials and Methods The present is a descriptive study of a cohort of patients in follow-up care after kidney transplant, with a retrospective search for those who presented SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 2020 and May 2021. Patients with confirmed infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), antigens or antibodies tests were included for analysis. We performed a descriptive analysis of the sociodemographic and clinical variables as well as a bivariate analysis to evaluate the possible factors associated with the risk of mortality. Results With a total of 307 individuals in follow-up care, a prevalence of 14.3% (n = 44) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection was found. The mean age of the sample was of 56 years, with a male predominance. The most frequent immunosuppression regimen was mycophenolate-tacrolimus-prednisone. Among the infected patients, the mortality rate was of 34.1% (15/44), representing 4.8% of the entire study population. More than half of the patients required hemodialysis, and 86.7% required adjustments to the immunosuppression regimen. Conclusion The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in our transplant group was similar to that reported by other transplant groups in the country and higher than among the non-transplanted population. The preinfection creatinine value, age, and comorbidities were associated with a higher risk of mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , Kidney Transplantation , Coronavirus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Severity of Illness Index , Adaptation, Psychological , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Immunosuppression Therapy , Antigens
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the association between paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) clone and immunosuppressive therapy (IST) in children with severe aplastic anemia (SAA).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 151 children with SAA who were admitted and received IST from January 2012 to May 2020. According to the status of PNH clone, these children were divided into a negative PNH clone group (n=135) and a positive PNH clone group (n=16). Propensity score matching was used to balance the confounding factors, and the impact of PNH clone on the therapeutic effect of IST was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The children with positive PNH clone accounted for 10.6% (16/151), and the median granulocyte clone size was 1.8%. The children with positive PNH clone had an older age and a higher reticulocyte count at diagnosis (P<0.05). After propensity score matching, there were no significant differences in baseline features between the negative PNH clone and positive PNH clone groups (P>0.05). The positive PNH clone group had a significantly lower overall response rate than the negative PNH clone group at 6, 12, and 24 months after IST (P<0.05). The evolution of PNH clone was heterogeneous after IST, and the children with PNH clone showed an increase in the 3-year cumulative incidence rate of aplastic anemia-PNH syndrome (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#SAA children with positive PNH clone at diagnosis tend to have poor response to IST and are more likely to develop aplastic anemia-PNH syndrome.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic/drug therapy , Child , Clone Cells , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/etiology , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Retrospective Studies
10.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 300-304, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929639

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the metabolic characteristics of anti-human T-cell porcine immunoglobulin (p-ATG) in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) . Methods: For patients with SAA treated with p-ATG combined cyclosporine A (CsA) immunosuppressants between February 2017 and December 2017, the p-ATG dose was 20 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) over 12 h of intravenous administration for 5 consecutive days. The blood concentration of p-ATG was detected by the three-antibody sandwich ELISA method, the pharmacokinetic analysis software was fitted, and the second-chamber model method was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters and plot the pharmacokinetic curve. Adverse events were recorded and the hematologic reactions were determined at 6 months after treatment. Results: Sixteen patients with SAA treated with p-ATG were enrolled, including 8 females and 8 males, with a median age of 22 years (range, 12 to 49 years) and a median weight of 62.5 kg (range, 37.5 to 82.0 kg) . The pharmacokinetics of p-ATG could be evaluated in 14 cases. p-ATG is distributed in vivo as a two-chamber model, with an average drug concentration peak (T(max)) of (5.786±2.486) days, a peak concentration (C(max)) of (616±452) mg/L, and a half-life of (10.479±8.242) days. The area under the drug time curve (AUC) was (5.807±3.236) mg/L·d. Six months after treatment, 8 of 14 patients received a hematologic response; the AUC (0-t) of the effective group and ineffective groups was (7.50±3.26) mg/L·d vs (4.50±2.18) mg/L·d, and the C(max) was (627±476) mg/L vs (584±382) mg/L, respectively. Conclusion: The plasma concentration of p-ATG reached a peak after 5 days of continuous infusion, and then decreased slowly, with a half-life of 10.479 days, and the residual drug concentration was detected in the body 60 days after administration. A relationship between drug metabolism and efficacy and adverse reactions could not be determined.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic/drug therapy , Animals , Antilymphocyte Serum/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Immunosuppression Therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Swine , T-Lymphocytes , Treatment Outcome
11.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 393-399, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929574

ABSTRACT

Objective: To reassess the predictors for response at 6 months in patients with severe or very severe aplastic anemia (SAA/VSAA) who failed to respond to immunosuppressive therapy (IST) at 3 months. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 173 patients with SAA/VSAA from 2017 to 2018 who received IST and were classified as nonresponders at 3 months. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate factors that could predict the response at 6 months. Results: Univariate analysis showed that the 3-month hemoglobin (HGB) level (P=0.017) , platelet (PLT) level (P=0.005) , absolute reticulocyte count (ARC) (P<0.001) , trough cyclosporine concentration (CsA-C0) (P=0.042) , soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) level (P=0.003) , improved value of reticulocyte count (ARC(△)) (P<0.001) , and improved value of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR(△)) level (P<0.001) were related to the 6-month response. The results of the multivariate analysis showed that the PLT level (P=0.020) and ARC(△) (P<0.001) were independent prognostic factors for response at 6 months. If the ARC(△) was less than 6.9×10(9)/L, the 6-month hematological response rate was low, regardless of the patient's PLT count. Survival analysis showed that both the 3-year overall survival (OS) [ (80.1±3.9) % vs (97.6±2.6) %, P=0.002] and 3-year event-free survival (EFS) [ (31.4±4.5) % vs (86.5±5.3) %, P<0.001] of the nonresponders at 6 months were significantly lower than those of the response group. Conclusion: Residual hematopoietic indicators at 3 months after IST are prognostic parameters. The improved value of the reticulocyte count could reflect whether the bone marrow hematopoiesis is recovering and the degree of recovery. A second treatment could be performed sooner for patients with a very low ARC(△).


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic/drug therapy , Antilymphocyte Serum/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Receptors, Transferrin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 32: 32402, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1373282

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A associação de leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC) e melanoma tem sido estudada nos últimos anos. Acredita-se que a imunossupressão causada pelo tratamento da doença seja o fator de risco mais importante para o aumento da susceptibilidade ao desenvolvimento e disseminação do câncer de pele. Relato de Caso: Este relato de caso descreve homem de 53 anos, em tratamento de leucemia linfocítica crônica desde 2018, já submetido a diversos ciclos de quimioterapia com fludarabina. Apresentou histórico de exérese de melanoma nodular epitelioide no couro cabeludo em 2019, removido com margens livres. Um ano após a cirurgia, paciente evoluiu com piora do estado geral com necessidade de hospitalização. Investigação adicional revelou focos de metástase em pulmões, fígado, rins, estômago, sistema nervoso central e linfonodos. Análise histopatológica foi positiva para melanoma. A possibilidade de tratamento foi descartada pela equipe de oncologia, que sugeriu cuidados paliativos. Discussão: Um dos mecanismos mais discutidos para explicar esta associação de neoplasias é a imunossupressão resultante do tratamento da LLC, que deixa o paciente suscetível ao desenvolvimento e à disseminação do melanoma. Além disso, a fludarabina, quimioterápico geralmente usado para remissão da LLC, é conhecida por depletar células T-helper e tem sido descrita como cofator deste processo. A associação de leucemia e melanoma cutâneo têm sido descrita nos últimos anos, porém não há nenhum protocolo de tratamento para esta condição.


BACKGROUND: The association of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and melanoma have been studied in the last years. The immunosuppression caused by the treatment of CLL seems to be the major factor of increasing patients' susceptibility to the development and spread of skin cancer. CASE REPORT: This case report describes a 53-year-old male patient, in CLL treatment since 2018, already submitted to many cycles of chemotherapy with fludarabine. History of an exeresis of epithelioid nodular melanoma of the scalp in 2019, which was removed with a clear margin. One year later, he presented with a poor general condition with hospitalization indication. Additional investigation revealed metastatic lesions in lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, central nervous system, and lymph nodes. Histopathologic analysis positive for melanoma. The possibility of treatment was discarded by the Oncology team, which suggested palliative care. DISCUSSION: One of the most discussed mechanisms to explain this cancer association is the immunosuppression developed during the treatment of CLL, increasing patients' susceptibility to the development and spread of melanoma. In addition, the use of fludarabine, a chemotherapy commonly used in relapsed CLL, is known to deplete T-helper cells and has been described as a cofactor of this process. The association of leukemia and cutaneous melanoma has been reported in the last years, yet there is no surveillance protocol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Melanoma , Skin Neoplasms , Immunosuppression Therapy , Medical Oncology
13.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(4): 525-528, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360979

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los linfomas primarios del tracto gastrointestinal son infrecuentes; sin embargo, son la presentación extranodal más común de los linfomas no Hodgkin. El 30 % de los linfomas no Hodgkin corresponde a linfomas foliculares y, a su vez, cerca del 10 % de los linfomas foliculares se origina en el tracto gastrointestinal. Se han descrito factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de linfomas gastrointestinales como infección por Helicobacter pylori, inmunosupresión posterior a trasplante de órganos sólidos, enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal e infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). El linfoma duodenal folicular se reconoció como una variante del linfoma folicular en 2016 según la clasificación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), al considerar que se trata de una condición con características biológicas y clínicas particulares. Su diagnóstico suele ser incidental o se pueden presentar síntomas leves e inespecíficos. El grado histológico suele ser bajo y el curso clínico, benigno; por lo que en gran parte de los casos se ha adoptado el manejo expectante como una opción. Otras terapias con similar efectividad son la radioterapia, el uso de rituximab y la inmunoquimioterapia. No existe a la fecha suficiente evidencia para generar un protocolo único de manejo para esta patología.


Abstract Primary gastric lymphomas are rare diseases; however, they are the most common extranodal presentation of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. 30% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas correspond to follicular lymphomas and at the same time, nearly 10% of follicular lymphomas are produced in the gastrointestinal tract. Risk factors for gastric lymphomas such as Helicobacter pylori infection, immunosuppression after solid organ transplantation, inflammatory bowel disease, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were described. Follicular duodenal lymphoma was recognized as a variant of follicular lymphoma in 2016 according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, considering that it is a condition with special biological and clinical characteristics. Its diagnosis is usually incidental or mild and nonspecific symptoms may occur. The histological grade is usually low, and the clinical course is benign; Therefore, in most cases, expectant treatment has been adopted as an option. Other therapies with similar effectiveness are radiotherapy, the use of rituximab, and immunochemotherapy. There is not enough evidence to date to generate a single management protocol for this pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Lymphoma, Follicular , Gastrointestinal Tract , Lymphoma , Therapeutics , Helicobacter pylori , HIV , Immunosuppression Therapy , Rituximab
14.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(4): 426-432, out.dez.2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399808

ABSTRACT

Relatamos o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, que iniciou quadro de úlceras em trato gastrointestinal, associado a febre recorrente e diarreia com muco e sangue aos 10 meses de vida, suspeitado inicialmente de doença inflamatória intestinal, no entanto, não apresentou melhora do quadro com terapia imunossupressora, sendo realizada investigação para erro inato da imunidade. Nos exames laboratoriais, apresentou níveis baixos de IgG e IgA e níveis elevados de IgM e neutropenia persistente. Diante disso, foi realizado teste genético que confirmou diagnóstico de síndrome de hiper-IgM ligada ao X. Os erros inatos da imunidade podem se manifestar com doenças do trato gastrointestinal, de forma relativamente frequente, devendo entrar como diagnóstico diferencial de diarreia crônica. Inclusa nesse grupo de doenças, as síndromes de hiper-IgM constituem um grupo heterogêneo de doenças, possuindo em comum níveis significativamente baixos ou ausentes de IgG e IgA e níveis normais ou elevados de IgM, o que predispõe a infecções e febre recorrente; além de outras alterações laboratoriais, como neutropenia, que pode estar associada a úlceras no trato gastrointestinal e proctite, simulando apresentação clínica de doença inflamatória intestinal. Para o paciente relatado, foi iniciada terapia com imunoglobulinas de forma periódica, além de antibioticoprofilaxia para infecções, evoluindo com resposta clínica satisfatória. O artigo possui objetivo principal de alertar para o diagnóstico diferencial de erros inatos da imunidade diante do quadro apresentado, visando o diagnóstico precoce e a instituição da terapia adequada.


We report the case of a male patient, who started with ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract, associated with recurrent fever and diarrhea with mucus and blood at 10 months of life, initially suspected of inflammatory bowel disease, however, he did not improve the condition with immunosuppressive therapy, being investigated for inborn error of immunity. In laboratory tests, he had low levels of IgG and IgA and high levels of IgM and persistent neutropenia. Therefore, a genetic test was performed and confirmed the diagnosis of X-linked hyper IgM syndrome. Inborn errors of immunity can manifest relatively frequently with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and should be included as a differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhea. Included in this group of diseases, hyper-IgM syndromes constitute a heterogeneous group of diseases, having in common significantly low or absent levels of IgG and IgA and normal or high levels of IgM, which predispose to infections and recurrent fever; in addition to other laboratory alterations, such as neutropenia, which may be associated with ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract and proctitis, simulating the clinical presentation of inflammatory bowel disease. For the reported patient, therapy with immunoglobulins was started periodically, in addition to antibiotic prophylaxis for infections, evolving with a satisfactory clinical response. The main objective of the article is to alert to the differential diagnosis of inborn errors of immunity in view of the presented condition, aiming at early diagnosis and the institution of adequate therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Immunoglobulin M , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Diagnosis, Differential , Hyper-IgM Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Type 1 , Relapsing Fever , Ulcer , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunosuppression Therapy , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Early Diagnosis , Dihydrotachysterol , Infections
15.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(4): 657-665, 20210000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291220

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los pacientes con inmunosupresión llevados a cirugía abdominal convencional tienen un mayor riesgo de desarrollar hernias incisionales en el posoperatorio, y cuando ellas ocurren, es necesario individualizar el procedimiento quirúrgico de elección, según las características anatómicas, fisiológicas y clínicas de cada paciente. Este estudio describe las características demográficas y clínicas de los pacientes con inmunosupresión, llevados a reconstrucción de la pared abdominal, y sus desenlaces después de 30 días del procedimiento quirúrgico. Métodos. Serie de casos de pacientes con inmunosupresión llevados a reconstrucción de la pared abdominal, en un centro especializado de cuarto nivel de complejidad. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 18 años, operados en el período de enero de 2016 a diciembre de 2019. Resultados. Se presenta una serie de 18 pacientes, cinco (27,7 %) con algún tipo de inmunosupresión primaria y 13 (72,2 %) con algún tipo de inmunosupresión secundaria. La edad promedio fue de 56 años, 11 (61 %) fueron mujeres, el peso promedio de los participantes fue de 73,3 kg. Se encontraron complicaciones en ocho pacientes (44,4 %). Dos pacientes requirieron manejo en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, por un máximo de tres días. Ninguno de los pacientes presentó recidiva de la hernia ni mortalidad. Discusión. La reconstrucción de la pared abdominal en pacientes inmunosuprimidos representa un reto para cualquier equipo quirúrgico debido a las condiciones especiales de los pacientes y a las variables asociadas al procedimiento. Las tasas de recidiva y de complicaciones de este estudio, se asemejan a las descritas en la literatura


Introduction. Immunosuppressed patients undergoing conventional abdominal surgery have a higher risk of developing incisional hernias postoperatively, and when they do occur, it is necessary to individualize the surgical procedure of choice, according to the anatomical, physiological and clinical characteristics of each patient. This study describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of immunosuppressed patients, who underwent abdominal wall reconstruction and their outcomes 30 days after the surgical procedure.Methods. Series of cases of patients with immunosuppression underwent abdominal wall reconstruction in a specialized center of fourth level of complexity. Patients older than 18 years, operated on from January 2016 to December 2019, were included. Results. A series of 18 patients is analyzed, five (27.7%) with some type of primary immunosuppression and 13 (72.2%) with some type of secondary immunosuppression. The average age was 56 years, 11 (61%) were women, the average weight of the participants was 73.3 kg. Complications were found in eight patients (44.4%). Two patients required management in the ICU, for a maximum of three days. None of the patients had hernia recurrence or mortality. Discussion. Reconstruction of the abdominal wall in immunosuppressed patients represents a challenge for any surgical team due to the special conditions of the patients and the variables associated with the procedure. The recurrence and complication rates in this study are similar to those described in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , General Surgery , Abdominal Wall , Immunosuppression Therapy , Methods
17.
Rev. argent. cir ; 113(2): 224-228, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1365477

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Antecedentes: los avances en cuidados perioperatorios e inmunosupresión permitieron que la su pervivencia de los pacientes trasplantados aumente significativamente, así observamos que la litiasis vesicular es más frecuente en este grupo de pacientes. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo es analizar y describir los resultados obtenidos en colecistecto mías en pacientes trasplantados cardíacos. Material y métodos: seleccionamos los pacientes mediante una búsqueda cruzada entre las bases de datos de Trasplante Cardíaco y Cirugía Biliar. Recopilamos información sobre sus antecedentes médi cos, parámetros clínicos y de laboratorio, entre otros. Resultados: entre enero 1994-diciembre 2017 se realizaron 154 trasplantes cardíacos con una edad media de 40 años; 16 pacientes fueron incluidos en este estudio y en los cuales fue realizada la cole cistectomía laparoscópica posterior al trasplante. No se registraron morbilidad, readmisiones ni mor talidad. Conclusión: la colecistectomía laparoscópica es segura y es el método de elección en pacientes tras plantados cardíacos. Se debe realizar colangiografía intraoperatoria, ya que los predictores de litiasis coledociana suelen estar alterados.


ABSTRACT Background: The advances in perioperative care and immunosuppressive treatment resulted in a significant increase in survival of transplant patients; as a result, cholelithiasis is more common in transplant patients. Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze and describe the results obtained in cholecystectomies in heart transplant patients. Material and methods: We selected patients by cross-referencing the databases of heart transplantation and scheduled biliary surgeries, and collected information on their medical history, clinical parameters and laboratory tests, among other data. Results: Between January 1994 and December 2017, 154 heart transplant procedures were performed; mean age was 40 years; 16 underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after heart transplantation and were included in this study. There were no complications, readmissions or deaths. Conclusion: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and is the method of choice for heart transplant patients with cholelithiasis. Intraoperative cholangiography should be performed as the predictors of choledocholithiasis are usually abnormal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Heart Transplantation , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic/methods , Perioperative Care/methods , Cystectomy , Immunosuppression Therapy , Transplants , Choledocholithiasis , Alkalies , Heart
18.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(3): e3647, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280441

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La identificación de los principales factores clínico-epidemiológicos que determinan causas de mortalidad en pacientes hospitalizados es una necesidad apremiante, principalmente cuando los esfuerzos realizados en la actualidad no permiten asumir acciones fundamentadas en la identificación de las causas de dicho evento. Objetivo: Establecer cuáles son los factores pronósticos de mortalidad por agente infeccioso en un hospital de alta complejidad de la ciudad de Cartagena- Colombia. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles retrospectivo, con muestra proyectada de 86 casos y 258 controles, en una relación 1:3, que cumplieron con los criterios de elegibilidad respectivos y en los que realizaron análisis bivariados y posteriormente un análisis multivariado que incluyó métodos de regresión logística binaria. Resultados: El riesgo de mortalidad en el análisis multivariado está determinado por variables como sexo masculino (ORa 1,695 IC 95 por ciento: 1,005-2,856); Cáncer (ORa 2,389 IC 95 por ciento 1,230-4,642); inmunosupresión (ORa 3,211 IC 95 por ciento 1,004-10,26); Ventilación mecánica (ORa 2,541 IC 95 por ciento 1,128-5,722); Estancia en la UCI (ORa 2,331 IC 95 por ciento1,227-4,425) e Infección por bacterias productoras de carbapenemasas (ORa 4,778 IC95 por ciento 1,313-17,38). Conclusiones: En pacientes masculinos con cáncer o cualquier otra forma de inmunosupresión, en los que se requiera el uso del ventilador mecánico o estancia en la unidad de cuidado intensivo y que además desarrollen infecciones por bacterias productoras de carbapenemasas existe mayor riesgo de muerte por agente infeccioso(AU)


Introduction: The identification of the main epidemiological clinical factors that determine the causes of mortality in hospitalized patients is a pressing need, mainly when the efforts made at present do not allow us to take actions based on the identification of the causes of the aforementioned event. Objective: To identify the prognostic factors for mortality caused by infectious agents in a high complexity hospital in the city of Cartagena, Colombia. Material and Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted in 86 cases and 258 control samples that met the eligibility criteria, at the 1: 3 ratio. Bivariate analyses and a subsequent multivariate analysis that included binary logistic regression methods were also performed. Results: In the multivariate analysis, the risk of mortality is determined by variables such as male sex (ORa 1,695 95 percent CI: 1.005-2.856); cancer (ORa 2,389 95 percent CI 1,230-4,642); immunosuppression (ORa 3.211 95 percent CI 1.004-10.26); mechanical ventilation (ORa 2.541 95 percent CI 1.128-5.722); stay in the ICU (ORa 2,331 95 percent CI 1,227-4,425) and infection caused by carbapenemase-producing bacteria (ORa 4,778 95 percent CI 1,313-17.38). Conclusions: Male patients with cancer or any other form of immunosuppression who require the use of a mechanical ventilator or admission to the intensive care unit who also develop infections caused by carbapenemase-producing bacteria, are at greater risk of death from an infectious agent(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Immunosuppression Therapy , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis , Case-Control Studies , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Colombia , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects
19.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 109(1): 59-63, ene.-abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281778

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir el diagnóstico y el tratamiento interdisciplinario de un caso clínico de histoplasmosis. Caso clínico: Un paciente masculino de 39 años, con antecedentes de consumo de drogas, alcohol, tabaquismo crónico y VIH+ sin adherencia al tratamiento, acudió al Servicio de Odontología por una interconsulta del Servicio de Clínica Médica para la evaluación de lesiones erosivas en paladar duro y blando, reborde alveolar anterior, dorso lingual y lesión tumoral en encía anterosuperior. El diagnóstico definitivo se obtuvo por medio del análisis de muestras de biopsia transbronquial, lavado broncoalveolar y biopsia de lesión en piel. El paciente recibió tratamiento sistémico con antimicóticos (anfotericina B e itraconazol según esquema) y tratamiento local con colutorio de clorhexidina al 0,12% y 100.000 UI de nistatina en suspensión. Al momento del alta, presentaba una considerable mejoría de su estado general y de las lesiones orales, con disminución de sintomatología dolorosa. Se indicó turno para control a los 7 días de forma ambulatoria, al cual el paciente no asistió. El abordaje interdisciplinario y el análisis de los diferentes aspectos socioeconómicos, culturales, ambientales y sistémicos del paciente facilitaron el diagnóstico temprano de la enfermedad (AU)


Aim: To describe the diagnosis and interdisciplinary treatment of a clinical case of histoplasmosis. Clinical case: 39-year-old male patient with a history of drug abuse, alcohol, and chronic smoking, HIV+ without treatment compliance, attends the dental department referred by the medical department for the diagnosis of erosive lesions in the hard and soft palate, anterior alveolar ridge, lingual dorsum and tumor lesion in the anterosuperior gingiva. The definitive diagnosis was obtained by the analysis of transbronchial biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage and skin lesion biopsy. The patient received systemic treatment with antifungals (amphotericin b, itraconazole according to protocol), and local treatment with 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash and 100,000 IU nystatin suspension. At the time of medical discharge, the patient presented a considerable improvement in his general condition and of the oral lesions with a reduced pain. A 7 days recall was prescribed, however the patient failed to attend. The interdisciplinary approach to the patient and the analysis of the different socio-economic, cultural, environmental and systemic aspects of the patient facilitates the early diagnosis of the disease (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Oral Manifestations , HIV , Dental Care for Chronically Ill , Histoplasmosis , Argentina , Biopsy , Amphotericin B , Nystatin , Immunosuppression Therapy/adverse effects , Itraconazole , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Dental Service, Hospital , Early Diagnosis , Mouth Mucosa/injuries , Antifungal Agents
20.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(1): e845, ene.-mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251751

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer pediátrico es un importante problema de salud pública y el más frecuente es la leucemia. En ocasiones, esta enfermedad puede generar depleción de las líneas celulares y es la transfusión de hemocomponentes un importante pilar de su tratamiento. Este procedimiento puede generar reacciones postransfusionales que pueden ser letales. Objetivo: Exponer las diferentes características clínicas y epidemiológicas de las reacciones postransfusionales en población pediátrica con leucemia. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en las principales bases de datos de literatura médica. Se incluyeron 46 artículos. Resultados: La complicación más frecuente es la reacción febril no hemolítica. También es frecuente la sobrecarga de hierro. El factor de riesgo más importante para presentar esta sobrecarga es el número de transfusiones. Es necesario monitorizar la cantidad de hierro hepático. La reacción pulmonar aguda relacionada con la transfusión es una condición potencialmente mortal. Las infecciones pueden presentarse y pueden ser mortales dada la inmunosupresión de este grupo de pacientes. Otras reacciones inmunológicas pueden ser raras, pero deben ser tenidas en cuenta. Consideraciones finales: Las reacciones postransfusionales pueden ser más graves en los pacientes con leucemia. Se requiere realizar estudios con modelos epidemiológicos adecuados para identificar las reacciones postransfusionales más frecuentes en población pediátrica con esta enfermedad(AU)


Introduction: Pediatric cancer is a major public health problem and leukemia is the most common. Sometimes this disease can lead to depletion of cell lines and the transfusion of blood components is an important pillar of their treatment. This procedure can generate post-transfusion reactions that can be lethal. Objective: Show the different clinical and epidemiological characteristics of post-transfusion reactions in pediatric population with leukemia. Methods: A systematic search was carried out in the main databases of medical literature. 46 items were included. Results: The most common complication is the non-hemolytic febrile reaction. Iron overloading is also common. The most important risk factor for this overload is the number of transfusions. It is necessary to monitor the amount of iron in the liver. Acute transfusion-related pulmonary reaction is a life-threatening condition. Infections can occur and can be fatal given the immunosuppression of this group of patients. Other immune reactions may be rare, but they should be taken into account. Final considerations: Post-transfusion reactions may be more severe in patients with leukemia. Studies with appropriate epidemiological models are required to identify the most common post-transfusion reactions in the pediatric population with this disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia , Immunosuppression Therapy , Transfusion Reaction , Neoplasms
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