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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 82: e0062, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529925

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A coriorretinopatia de Birdshot é uma uveíte posterior bilateral crônica rara que acomete, preferencialmente, mulheres de meia-idade. O quadro clínico é composto de pouco ou nenhum processo inflamatório de segmento anterior, associado a vitreíte e lesões coriorretinianas ovoides branco-amareladas de característica hiperfluorescente na angiofluoresceinografia e hipofluorescente na angiografia com indocianina verde. O tratamento se dá por meio de corticoides e outras drogas imunossupressoras. Todavia, em alguns casos, a doença é refratária a tal terapêutica, sendo necessário lançar mão de outras drogas, como os agentes biológicos. O presente artigo busca relatar um caso de coriorretinopatia de Birdshot em ajuste de terapia imunossupressora que evoluiu com má resposta às drogas iniciais e bom controle após uso de imunobiológico e discutir as opções terapêuticas disponíveis atualmente.


ABSTRACT Birdshot chorioretinopathy is a rare chronic bilateral posterior uveitis that preferentially affects middle-aged women. The clinical picture is composed of little or no anterior segment inflammatory process, associated with vitritis and yellowish-white ovoid chorioretinal lesions with hyperfluorescent characteristics on fluorescein angiography and hypofluorescent characteristics on green indocyanine green angiography. Treatment is with corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive drugs. However, in some cases, the disease is refractory to such therapy, making it necessary to resort to other drugs such as biological agents. The present article seeks to report a case of Birdshot chorioretinopathy in an adjustment of immunosuppressive therapy that evolved with poor response to the initial drugs and good control after the use of immunobiologicals and discuss the currently available therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Birdshot Chorioretinopathy/diagnosis , Birdshot Chorioretinopathy/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Fluorescein Angiography , HLA-A Antigens/analysis , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Adalimumab/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20089, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403760

ABSTRACT

Abstract Regeneration of damaged kidney cells using stem cells is the current research approach in the treatment of chronic renal failure (CRF). In the present study, the histopathological and biochemical techniques were used to evaluate stem cells' (SCs) role in treatment of CRF. Sixty-four rats were divided into eight groups. Group I (GI): rats were injected with doxorubicin (15 mg/kg) to initiate CRF. GII-GVII: rats were injected with doxorubicin and treated with SCs (1x106 MSCs or/and 2x104 HSCs/rat) with/without growth factors extract (200 µL/rat) and/or immunosuppressor (cyclosporine A, 5 mg/kg/day). GVIII: rats treated with PBS (100 µL/kg/day). Levels of creatinine, urea and uric acid were increased in rats sera after injection with doxorubicin, while blood electrolyte levels of Na, K, P and Mg were decreased. Also, histopathological abnormalities such as hyalinized blood vessels, degenerated hyalinized glomerulus tubules and cell debris in the lumen and degeneration of renal tissues were observed in these rats. After treatment with SCs, all these parameters restore their normal values with regeneration of the damaged cells as demonstrated in histopathology of the treated groups. It can be concluded that, the use of SCs in treatment of kidney diseases is a promising approach and needs more efforts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Regeneration , Doxorubicin , Cyclosporine/administration & dosage , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Kidney Failure, Chronic/pathology
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 911-914, May-June, 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129593

ABSTRACT

O eritema multiforme é uma doença incomum em cães, que afeta pele e mucosas, cuja etiologia ainda não foi completamente elucidada. Contudo, o envolvimento exclusivo da cavidade oral é considerado raro, tendo sido descrito poucas vezes até o presente momento. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever um caso de eritema multiforme limitado à cavidade oral em um canino. Um cão, fêmea, Akita, com sete anos de idade, apresentou histórico de ulcerações na cavidade oral e nas laterais da língua, sem alterações cutâneas ou sistêmicas. O diagnóstico definitivo foi realizado por meio do exame histopatológico da mucosa oral, e a terapia imunossupressora empregada mostrou-se eficaz. Embora o eritema multiforme seja considerado incomum na espécie canina, este relato de caso apresenta a forma mais rara da doença, com poucos casos descritos em medicina veterinária.(AU)


Multiforme erythema is an uncommon disease in dogs that affects the skin and mucous membranes, the etiology of which has not yet been fully elucidated. However, the exclusive involvement of the oral cavity is considered rare, having been described few times until the present moment. The aim of this work is to describe a case of multiforme erythema limited to the oral cavity in a canine. A seven-year-old female dog, akita, presented a history of ulcerations in the oral cavity and on the sides of the tongue, with no cutaneous or systemic changes. The definitive diagnosis was made through the histopathological examination of the oral mucosa and the immunosuppressive therapy used proved to be effective. Although multiforme erythema is considered uncommon in the canine species, this case report presents the rarest form of the disease, with few cases described in veterinary medicine.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Stomatitis/veterinary , Erythema Multiforme/veterinary , Mouth/pathology , Tongue , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage
4.
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(1): 118-123, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098332

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Hemophagocytic syndrome or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an infrequent and underdiagnosed condition caused by an overactive immune response, resulting in blood cells phagocytosis. After kidney transplantation (KTx), HLH is usually secondary (or reactive) to infectious and neoplastic processes and has a high mortality rate. No effective treatment is available for this condition. Usual procedures include detecting and treating the pathology triggering the immune system dysregulation, other than administration of intravenous human immunoglobulin (IVIG) and high doses of steroids, and plasmapheresis. The best protocol for maintenance immunosuppressive therapy is also unknown. This article presents two cases of post-KTx reactive HLH that underwent adjuvant IVIG treatment and obtained good clinical results. Despite the high morbidity and mortality associated with reactive HLH after KTx, the early and precise diagnosis and the administration of IVIG therapy along with the treatment of the triggering disease, was an effective strategy to control HLH.


RESUMO A síndrome hemofagocítica (SHF) ou linfo-histiocitose hemofagocítica é uma condição infrequente e subdiagnosticada que tem por base a ativação excessiva da resposta imune, resultando em fagocitose das células do sangue. Após o transplante renal (TxR), a SHF é habitualmente secundária (ou reativa) a processos infecciosos e neoplásicos, culminando em elevadas taxas de mortalidade. Não há evidências quanto ao tratamento ideal dessa condição. Além de investigação e tratamento da patologia desencadeante do processo de desregulação do sistema imune, há descrições do uso de imunoglobulina humana (IVIG), esteroides em altas doses e plasmaférese. Não há evidências quanto à melhor forma de delinear a imunossupressão de manutenção. Este artigo apresenta dois casos de SHF reativa pós-TxR que realizaram tratamento adjuvante com IVIG, obtendo bons resultados clínicos. Apesar da elevada morbimortalidade associada à SHF reativa após o TxR, o diagnóstico ágil e preciso, associado à instituição de terapia com IVIG adjuvante ao tratamento da doença desencadeante, foi uma estratégia eficaz em conter o processo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Fatal Outcome , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery
5.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(5): 372-376, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019436

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: We evaluated the role of the conjunctival flap rotation technique using 5-fluorouracil and adjuvant therapy with topical cyclosporine A at 0.05% during short pre- and postoperative periods for the prevention of primary pterygium recurrence. Methods: In this prospective study, 76 patients with primary pterygium (76 eyes) were categorized into two groups: the control group with 31 patients who did not receive cyclosporine treatment, and the cyclosporine group with 45 patients who received topical cyclosporine A (0.05%) twice a day, for 10 days before and 10 days after the pterygium excision operations. Patients were examined for disease recurrence, side effects, and complications at 10 and 21 days, and at 2 and 6 months after the operation. Data on demography, systemic diseases, and ophthalmologic histories were obtained from all patients, and these data were analyzed using descriptive statistics involving the absolute and relative percentages of frequency distribution. Goodman test was used for contrasts among multinomial populations to study the association between cyclosporine A and recurrence. Results: Most patients were between 30 and 60 years of age, and 67.1% were women. We confirmed a higher recurrence in patients with occupational sunlight exposure. The cyclosporine A used topically 10 days before and 10 days after the pterygium removal did not significantly reduce the recurrence of the pterygium. Conclusion: Topical 0.05% cyclosporine A when used for 10 days before and 10 days after the pterygium removal does not prevent or reduce the recurrence of primary pterygium.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliamos os resultados da técnica de rotação de retalho conjuntival com uso de 5-fluorouracil e terapia adjuvante com ciclosporina A tópica a 0,05%, usada no pré e pós-operatório por curto período, quanto à prevenção da recidiva do pterígio primário Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, com 76 pacientes portadores de pterígio primário (76 olhos), divididos em dois grupos: controle com 31 pacientes que não receberam tratamento com ciclosporina e grupo ciclosporina com 45 pacientes que receberam ciclosporina tópica A (0,05%) duas vezes ao dia, por 10 dias antes e 10 dias após a cirurgia de excisão do pterígio. Os pacientes foram avaliados quanto à recorrência, efeitos colaterais e complicações com 10, 21 dias, 2 e 6 meses de pós-operatório. Dados demográficos, doenças sistêmicas e histórico oftalmológico foram coletados de todos os pacientes e esses dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva envolvendo o percentual absoluto e relativo de distribuição de frequência. O teste de Goodman para contrastes entre populações multinomiais foi utilizado para o estudo da associação entre a ciclosporina A e a recorrência Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes tinha entre 30 e 60 anos e 67,1% eram mulheres. Confirmamos uma maior recorrência em pacientes com exposição ocupacional ao sol. A ciclosporina A tópica utilizada 10 dias antes e 10 dias após a remoção do pterígio não reduziu significativamente a sua recorrência Conclusão: A ciclosporina A tópica a 0,05% quando utilizada por 10 dias no pré e 10 dias no pós-operatório, não previne ou reduz a recidiva do pterígio primário significativamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Pterygium/prevention & control , Cyclosporine/administration & dosage , Conjunctiva/abnormalities , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Ophthalmic Solutions/administration & dosage , Postoperative Care , Recurrence , Surgical Flaps , Preoperative Care , Pterygium/surgery , Pterygium/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Combined Modality Therapy , Conjunctiva/surgery , Corneal Diseases/drug therapy , Fluorouracil/therapeutic use
6.
Rev. invest. clín ; 71(4): 265-274, Jul.-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289695

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background There is no specific antiviral treatment for parvovirus B19 (PVB19) infection. Objective The objective of this study was to study the treatment and outcome of PVB19 infection in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) at our institution, and cases published in the medical literature. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of PVB19 infection in KTR at an academic medical center over a 16-year period and summarized the data on its treatment and outcome in 120 KTR in the medical literature. Results In our cohort of eight patients, the median time to the onset of PVB19 disease was 7.2 weeks after transplantation. All patients had severe aregenerative anemia (mean hemoglobin (Hb) of 6.2 ± 1.0 g/dl); all were treated with a reduction in their immunosuppressive regimen and the administration of single-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (mean total dosage of 0.87 ± 0.38 g/kg). The median time to anemia improvement (Hb >10 g/dl) was 3-week post-treatment. No recurrences were documented during follow-up (median 25 months). Among 128 patients (including our cohort of 8 and 120 reported in literature), therapeutic strategies included: 43% IVIG alone, 39% IVIG and reduced immunosuppression, 9% reduction of immunosuppression, and 9% conservative therapy. Clinical relapses were observed in 35% of 71 reported cases. Conclusions In KTR, decreasing immunosuppression and the administration of low-dose immunoglobulin seem to be not worse than the standard dose in PVB19 infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Erythema Infectiosum/therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Erythema Infectiosum/etiology , Academic Medical Centers
7.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 293-295, Apr.-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012528

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Pauci-immune glomerulonephritis (GN) is more common in elderly people compared to children and the etiology is not completely understood yet. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positivity occurs in 80% of the patients. We report a case of a 7-year-old girl who presented with malaise and mildly elevated creatinine diagnosed as ANCA-associated pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis with crescents in 20 of 25 glomeruli (80%). Of these 20 crescents, 12 were cellular, 4 fibrocellular, and 4 globally sclerotic. She did not have purpura, arthritis, or systemic symptoms and she responded well to initial immunosuppressive treatment despite relatively severe histopathology. The patient was given three pulses of intravenous methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg on alternate days) initially and continued with cyclophosphamide (CYC; 2 mg/kg per day) orally for 3 months with prednisone (1 mg/kg per day). In one month, remission was achieved with normal serum creatinine and prednisone was gradually tapered. The case of this child with a relatively rare pediatric disease emphasizes the importance of early and aggressive immunosuppressive treatment in patients with renal-limited ANCA-associated pauci-immune crescentic GN even if with a mild clinical presentation. As in our patient, clinical and laboratory findings might not always exactly reflect the severity of renal histopathology and thus kidney biopsy is mandatory in such children to guide the clinical management and predict prognosis.


RESUMO A glomerulonefrite (GN) pauci-imune é mais comum em idosos em comparação com crianças, e a etiologia ainda não é completamente compreendida. A positividade do anticorpo citoplasmático antineutrófilo (ANCA) ocorre em 80% dos pacientes. Relatamos o caso de uma menina de 7 anos de idade que apresentou mal-estar e creatinina discretamente elevada, diagnosticada como glomerulonefrite rapidamente progressiva pauci-imune associada a ANCA com crescentes em 20 dos 25 glomérulos (80%). Destes 20 crescentes, 12 eram celulares, 4 fibrocelulares e 4 globalmente escleróticos. Ela não apresentava púrpura, artrite ou sintomas sistêmicos e respondeu bem ao tratamento imunossupressor inicial, apesar da histopatologia relativamente grave. A paciente recebeu três pulsos de metilprednisolona intravenosa (30 mg/kg em dias alternados) inicialmente e continuou com ciclofosfamida (2 mg/kg por dia) por via oral durante 3 meses com prednisona (1 mg/kg por dia). Em um mês, a remissão foi alcançada com creatinina sérica normal e a prednisona foi gradualmente reduzida. O caso desta criança com uma doença pediátrica relativamente rara enfatiza a importância do tratamento imunossupressor precoce e agressivo em pacientes com GN rapidamente progressiva renal associada à ANCA, mesmo com uma apresentação clínica leve. Como em nossa paciente, os achados clínicos e laboratoriais podem nem sempre refletir exatamente a gravidade da histopatologia renal e, assim, a biópsia renal é obrigatória nessas crianças para orientar a conduta clínica e auxiliar no prognóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/blood , Glomerulonephritis/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis/blood , Kidney/pathology , Biopsy , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Creatinine/blood , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Glomerulonephritis/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(2): 252-256, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013282

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To highlight the importance of the new classification criteria for the macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in order to reduce morbidity and mortality outcome related to this disease. Case description: A 12-year-old female patient with diagnosis of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis under immunosuppression therapy for two years developed cough, acute precordial chest pain, tachypnea, tachycardia and hypoxemia for two days. Chest tomography showed bilateral laminar pleural effusion with bibasilar consolidation. The electrocardiogram was consistent with acute pericarditis and the echocardiogram showed no abnormalities. Laboratory exams revealed anemia, leukocytosis and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, as well as C-reactive protein rate and serum biomarkers indicative of myocardial injury. Systemic infection and/or active systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis were considered. She was treated with antibiotics and glucocorticoids. However, 10 days later she developed active systemic disease (fever, evanescent rash and myopericarditis with signs of heart failure) associated with macrophage activation syndrome, according to the 2016 Classification Criteria for Macrophage Activation Syndrome in Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. She was treated for five days with pulse therapy, using glucocorticoids, immunoglobulin and cyclosporine A, with improvement of all clinical signs and laboratory tests. Comments: Myopericarditis with signs of heart failure associated with MAS is a rare clinical presentation of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Macrophage activation syndrome occurs mainly during periods of active systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and may be triggered by infection. Knowledge about this syndrome is crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality.


RESUMO Objetivo: Destacar a importância do conhecimento sobre os novos critérios de classificação para síndrome de ativação macrofágica (SAM) na artrite idiopática juvenil sistêmica para reduzir a morbidade e mortalidade desse desfecho. Descrição do caso: Adolescente do sexo feminino de 12 anos de idade, em terapia imunossupressora por diagnóstico de artrite idiopática juvenil sistêmica há 2 anos, com quadro de tosse, dor precordial aguda, taquipneia, taquicardia e hipoxemia há 2 dias. A tomografia de tórax evidenciou efusão pleural laminar bilateral com consolidação bibasal. O eletrocardiograma foi compatível com pericardite aguda, e o ecocardiograma foi normal. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram anemia, leucocitose e aumento da velocidade de hemossedimentação, proteína C-reativa e marcadores séricos de lesão miocárdica. Infecção sistêmica e/ou doença sistêmica em atividade foram consideradas. A paciente foi tratada com antibióticos e glicocorticoide. Entretanto, dez dias depois, evoluiu com doença sistêmica em atividade (febre, exantema e miopericardite com insuficiência cardíaca) associada à SAM, de acordo com o 2016 Classification Criteria for Macrophage Activation Syndrome in Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, e necessitou de cinco dias de pulsoterapia com glicocorticoide, imunoglobulina e ciclosporina A, com melhora de todos os parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais. Comentários: A miopericardite com sinais de insuficiência cardíaca associada à SAM é uma apresentação clínica rara da artrite idiopática juvenil sistêmica, que ocorre principalmente em períodos de atividade sistêmica da doença e pode ser deflagrada por infecções. O conhecimento sobre essa síndrome é fundamental para reduzir morbidade e mortalidade desse grave desfecho.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Cyclosporine/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Arthritis, Juvenile/complications , Arthritis, Juvenile/diagnosis , Arthritis, Juvenile/physiopathology , Arthritis, Juvenile/immunology , Chest Pain/diagnosis , Chest Pain/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Pulse Therapy, Drug/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/physiopathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Leukocytosis/diagnosis , Leukocytosis/etiology
9.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(4): 530-534, Apr. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003055

ABSTRACT

The Guidelines Project, an initiative of the Brazilian Medical Association, aims to combine information from the medical field in order to standardize producers to assist the reasoning and decision-making of doctors. The information provided through this project must be assessed and criticized by the physician responsible for the conduct that will be adopted, depending on the conditions and the clinical status of each patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Dermatologic Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Psoriasis/pathology , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Cyclosporine/administration & dosage , Cyclosporine/adverse effects , Acitretin/administration & dosage , Acitretin/adverse effects , Dermatologic Agents/adverse effects , Clinical Decision-Making , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects
10.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 145-151, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002413

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Anemia is a frequent multifactorial complication of CKD seen in patients on dialysis derived mainly from impaired erythropoietin (EPO) production. A less common cause of anemia in individuals with CKD is pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) secondary to the production of anti-EPO antibodies. Objective: This paper aimed two describe two cases of PRCA secondary to the production of anti-EPO antibodies including choice of treatment, patient progression, and a literature review. Materials: This study included the cases of two patients with CKD on hemodialysis with severe anemia in need of specific investigation and management. Results: Patient 1 with CKD secondary to hypertension treated with EPO for 7 months showed persistent decreases in hemoglobin (Hb) levels despite the subcutaneous administration of increasing doses of EPO; the patient required recurring blood transfusions. Workup and imaging tests were negative for the main causes of anemia in individuals with CKD on dialysis. Patient 2 with CKD secondary to adult polycystic kidney disease had been taking EPO for 2 years. The patient developed severe abrupt anemia the month he was started on HD, and required recurring transfusions to treat the symptoms of anemia. Workup and imaging findings were inconclusive. Specific laboratory tests confirmed the patients had anti-EPO antibodies. After six months of immunosuppressant therapy (corticosteroids + cyclosporine) the patients were stable with Hb > 9.0 g/dl. Conclusion: PRCA is a rare condition among patients on dialysis treated with rhEPO and should be considered as a possible cause of refractory anemia. Treating patients with PRCA may be challenging, since the specific management and diagnostic procedures needed in this condition are not always readily available.


RESUMO Introdução: Anemia é complicação frequente da Doença Renal Crônica (DRC) em pacientes dialíticos. Apresenta caráter multifatorial principalmente pela insuficiente produção de eritropoietina (EPO). Situação rara causadora de anemia na DRC é Aplasia Pura de Células Vermelhas (APCV), em decorrência da produção de anticorpos anti-EPO. Objetivo: Descrever 2 casos de APCV com formação de anticorpos anti-EPO, sua abordagem clínica, evolução e revisão de literatura. Métodos: Dois pacientes em hemodiálise que desenvolveram anemia grave, necessitando investigação e manejo específico. Resultados: Paciente nº 1: feminina, 75 anos, DRC secundária à hipertensão arterial. Após 7 meses com EPO desenvolveu queda persistente em valores de hemoglobina (Hb) mesmo com incremento em doses EPO SC, necessitando transfusões de sangue recorrentes. Extensa investigação laboratorial e de imagem resultou negativa para principais causas de anemia. Paciente nº 2: masculino, 66 anos, DRC secundária à DRPA, há 2 anos em uso de EPO. No mês de entrada em HD desenvolveu anemia severa, também exigindo transfusões recorrentes para tratamento da anemia sintomática. Extensa investigação laboratorial e por imagem, sem chegar a uma conclusão definitiva. Em ambos os casos a presença de anticorpos anti-EPO foi confirmada por exames laboratoriais específicos. Terapia imunossupressora resultou em estabilização do quadro e Hb > 9,0 g/dl em ambos os pacientes, 6 meses após início do tratamento. Conclusão: APCV é condição rara entre pacientes dialíticos que recebem EPOHuR e deve ser lembrada como causa de anemia refratária. Seu manejo específico e diagnóstico laboratorial nem sempre acessível, tornando desafiadora a condução dos casos para o nefrologista.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Erythropoietin/immunology , Erythropoietin/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure/etiology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/drug therapy , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Erythropoietin/biosynthesis , Erythropoietin/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation , Treatment Outcome , Cyclosporine/administration & dosage , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(2): 119-123, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989390

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the compliance, efficacy, and safety of the long-term use of topical tacrolimus for the clinical management of vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Methods: The medical records of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis undergoing long-term treatment with 0.03% topical tacrolimus were retrospectively reviewed. The duration of tacrolimus use and the causes for drug discontinuation were used to assess treatment compliance. To assess drug efficacy, the need for and the number of times that topical corticosteroids were used to control symptoms were registered. Side effects related to tacrolimus use were monitored to determine drug safety. Results: The study cohort consisted of 21 patients who met the eligibility criteria. The mean duration of tacrolimus use was 41.3 ± 18.5 months. Fourteen patients (66.7%) continuously used tacrolimus, and three (14.3%) discontinued treatment following complete remission. Four patients (19%) did not use tacrolimus as prescribed or interrupted tacrolimus use on their own: two (9.5%) because of discomfort upon application and two (9.5%) because of the lack of improvement. Ten patients (47.6%) maintained disease control without the use of corticosteroids, whereas 11 (52.4%) required an average of 2.70 ± 1.35 corticosteroid cycles to control symptoms. The only reported side effect was discomfort upon application. Conclusions: Despite the small sample size and study design limitations, these results support the long-term use of topical tacrolimus as an effective and safe option for the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, with good compliance of patients to the treatment.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a aderência, a eficácia e segurança do uso prolongado de tacrolimus tópico no controle clínico da ceratoconjuntivite vernal. Métodos: Um estudo retrospectivo foi desenvolvido através da análise de prontuários de pacientes com ceratoconjuntivite vernal em tratamento prolongado com tacrolimus tópico 0,03%. A duração do tempo de uso do ta­crolimus e as causas de descontinuação da medicação foram usadas para avaliar a adesão ao tratamento. Para avaliar a eficácia da droga, a necessidade e o número de vezes em que corticoides tópicos foram utilizados para controlar os sintomas foram registrados. Os efeitos colaterais relacionados ao uso do tacrolimus foram monitorados para determinar a segurança da droga. Resultados: Vinte e um pacientes preencheram os critérios de eleição e foram incluídos no estudo. A duração média do uso de tacrolimus foi de 41,3 ± 18,5 meses. Quatorze pacientes (66,7%) usaram continuamente o tacrolimus e 3 (14,3%) descontinuaram o tratamento após a remissão completa. Quatro pacientes (19%) não usaram o tacrolimus conforme prescrito ou interromperam o uso da droga isoladamente: 2 (9,5%) por desconforto na aplicação e 2 (9,5%) pela falta de melhora. Dez pacientes (47,6%) mantiveram a doença sob controle sem o uso de corticoides, enquanto 11 (52,4%) necessitaram em média 2,70 ± 1,35 ciclos corticoides para controle dos sintomas. O único efeito adverso relatado foi desconforto na aplicação. Conclusões: Apesar do pequeno tamanho da amostra e das limitações do desenho do estudo, esses resultados suportam o uso prolongado do tacrolimus tópico como opção eficaz e segura para o tratamento da ceratoconjuntivite vernal, com boa adesão dos pacientes ao tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Conjunctivitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Administration, Ophthalmic , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Ointments/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(7): e8222, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011591

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) can present with different morphologic features and lead to kidney failure. The Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) that cannot be relieved by treatment with glucocorticoid and immunosuppressive agents suggests the presence of monoclonal gammopathy in adult patients. The present study reports on a single case of HSPN associated with IgA-κMGRS. The patient who suffered from recurrent skin purpura for 6 months and nephrotic syndrome for 2 months was admitted to our hospital. Bone marrow biopsy showed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Kidney biopsy indicated a Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN, ISKDC classified as type III) with positive staining with κ-light chain in the glomeruli and renal tubular epithelial cells. Furthermore, skin biopsy showed leukocytoclastic vasculitis and negative staining for Congo red and light chain. Given both the renal and cutaneous involvement, the patient was considered to have HSPN associated with IgA-κMGRS. The patient experienced an exacerbation in his purpura-like lesions and clinical status after treatment with glucocorticoid and immunosuppressive agents. Consequently, the patient was put on a regimen that included dexamethasone (20 mg on the 1st, 4th, 8th, and 11th days of each month, iv) and bortezomib (2.4 mg on the 1st, 4th, 8th, and 11th days of each month, iv). Eight weeks after treatment, he had complete resolution of his cutaneous purpura and his biochemical parameters improved. The latent presence of MGRS in cases of HSPN should be considered in adult patients. Increased cognizance and correct treatment options could improve patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paraproteinemias/etiology , IgA Vasculitis/complications , Nephritis/complications , Paraproteinemias/pathology , Paraproteinemias/drug therapy , IgA Vasculitis/pathology , IgA Vasculitis/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Nephritis/pathology , Nephritis/drug therapy
13.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(4): eRC4599, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012009

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Case report of a patient with severe atopic dermatitis who showed a good response to dupilumab. She had already used two immunosuppressive agents, cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil, for the treatment of atopic dermatitis with no proper control of the disease. She had also been taking all measures to control severe cases of the disease: bath and environmental controls, topical potent corticosteroids and emollients. She presented constant pruritus and skin lesions, frequent skin infections e poor quality of life. She also developed depression due to her disease. Recently, dupilumab, a new biological agent, was approved for the treatment of moderate/severe atopic dermatitis in many countries, including Brazil. Dupilumab is a monoclonal antibody with a common alpha chain of interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-13 receptors, two cytokines involved in the Th2 profile immune response that promote atopic inflammation. In a pioneer way in Brazil, the patient initiated the treatment with an attack dose of 600mg subcutaneous of dupilumab and 300mg subcutaneous every other week. Up to now, she has taken four applications, presenting a great improvement of the disease and her quality of life. There were no adverse effects, nor in the injection site nor of other kind. Patient and her family are very satisfied, and the medical team evaluates that the treatment is being well succeed. The case report described here subsidizes the use of dupilumab in the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis refractory to use of immunosuppressive agents.


RESUMO Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com dermatite atópica grave, que mostrou boa resposta ao dupilumabe. Ela já tinha usado dois agentes imunossupressores, a ciclosporina A e o micofenolato de mofetila, para o tratamento da dermatite atópica, sem obter o controle adequado da doença. Ela também vinha fazendo uso de todas as medidas de controle para casos graves da doença: cuidados com o banho, controle ambiental, corticosteroides potentes tópicos e emolientes. Apresentava prurido e lesões cutâneas constantes, infeções de pele frequentes e qualidade de vida ruim. Passou a apresentar depressão devido à sua doença. Recentemente, o dupilumabe, um agente biológico novo, foi aprovado para o tratamento de dermatite atópica moderada a severa em muitos países, incluindo o Brasil. Dupilumabe é um anticorpo monoclonal cujo alvo é a cadeia alfa comum aos receptores da interleucina (IL) 4 e IL-13, duas citocinas envolvidas no perfil de resposta imune Th2, que promove inflamação atópica. De modo pioneiro no Brasil, a paciente iniciou o tratamento, com dose de ataque de 600mg por via subcutânea de dupilumabe e 300mg também por via subcutânea a cada 2 semanas. Até o momento deste relato, ela realizou quatro aplicações, apresentando grande melhora da doença e da qualidade de vida. Não houve efeitos adversos, nem no local da injeção e nem de outro tipo. A paciente e sua família estão muito satisfeitas, e os médicos que a tratam avaliam que a terapia está sendo bem-sucedida. Este relato de caso subsidia o uso de dupilumabe no tratamento da dermatite atópica grave refratária ao uso de imunossupressores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Quality of Life , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Immunosuppression Therapy , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-13 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Injections, Subcutaneous
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(6): 749-752, dic. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973690

ABSTRACT

La miocardiopatía hipertrófica en el recién nacido es una entidad poco frecuente y de etiología heterogénea. Se han descrito formas transitorias en hijos de madres con diabetes gestacional y en recién nacidos pretérminos expuestos a corticoides tanto prenatal como posnatalmente. Se presenta un caso de un recién nacido pretérmino, hijo de madre trasplantada renal al que se le detectó una miocardiopatía hipertrófica y que había estado expuesto prenatalmente a corticoides y tacrolimus que recibía la madre como tratamiento inmunosupresor. Ambos fármacos cruzan la barrera placentaria y, al llegar al feto, podrían haber favorecido su desarrollo. La miocardiopatía hipertrófica puede ser un efecto secundario poco común del tratamiento con tacrolimus en adultos y niños, y es reversible al retirarlo. En nuestro conocimiento, es el primer caso publicado de miocardiopatía hipertrófica transitoria tras la exposición fetal tanto a corticoides como a tacrolimus en un hijo de madre trasplantada renal.


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the newborn is a rare entity with heterogeneous etiology. Transient forms have been described in children of mothers with gestational diabetes and in preterm infants exposed both to prenatal and postnatal corticosteroids. We report a case of a preterm infant son of a mother who received renal transplant in whom hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was detected. He had been prenatally exposed to corticosteroids and tacrolimus that received the mother as immunosuppressive therapy. Both drugs cross the placental barrier and, on reaching the fetus, could have favored its development. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may be an uncommon side effect of treatment with tacrolimus in adults and children and it is reversible upon withdrawal. To our knowledge, it is the first published case of transient hypertrophic cardiomyopathy after fetal exposure to both corticosteroids and tacrolimus in the son of a renal transplanted mother.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/chemically induced , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Placenta/metabolism , Infant, Premature , Pregnancy , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Tacrolimus/pharmacokinetics , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/pharmacokinetics , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacokinetics , Mothers
15.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(4): 293-301, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950477

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the efficacy of 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops diluted in two different vehicles (linseed oil and olive oil) for the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in dogs. Methods: This study included 60 dogs. Of this group, 20 were healthy and allocated to the control group, and 40 were diagnosed with bilateral KCS and randomly allocated to either the TO (tacrolimus in olive oil) or the TL (tacrolimus in linseed oil) groups. Ophthalmic examinations, Schirmer Tear Test-1 (STT-1), Tear Film Break-up Time (TBUT) and Fluorescein Test (FT) were carried out monthly, along with cytological and histopathological examinations at the beginning and end of the study. Results: The clinical signs, corneal ulcers, Schirmer Tear Test-1 values, and Tear Film Break-up Time values improved in both groups after one month of treatment. Cytological examination at the end of the study showed decreased lymphocytes, neutrophil, metaplastic, and squamous cell counts in both groups, while the histopathological analysis showed decreases in lymphocytes and neutrophils and an increase in goblet cell density (cells/mm2). The decreases in neutrophil count were more significant (p<0.05) in the TL group for both types of examination. Conclusion: In sum, 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops diluted in olive oil and linseed oil were effective in the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. None of the evaluated parameters differed significantly between the two groups, except for neutrophil count which was significantly lower in the TL group. Thus, linseed oil may be considered as an alternative diluent for tacrolimus eye drops.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia do tacrolimus 0,03% colírio, diluído em óleo de linhaça e óleo de oliva, no tratamento de ceratoconjuntivite seca em cães. Métodos: Foram utilizados 60 cães; 20 cães saudáveis como grupo controle, e 40 cães com diagnóstico de ceratoconjuntivite seca bilateral, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: Tacrolimus em óleo de oliva (TO) e Tacrolimus em óleo de semente de linhaça (TL). Os animais foram avaliados mensalmente com exames oftálmicos, Teste lacrimal de Schirmer-1 (TLS-1), Tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal (TRFL) e Teste de Fluoresceína (TF), e mensalmente com citologia conjuntival e com exame histopatológico no início e final do estudo. Resultados: Nos dois grupos de tratamento os sinais clínicos, Teste lacrimal de Schirmer-1, óleo de semente de linhaça e Tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal apresentaram melhora após um mês de tratamento. E no final do estudo, na análise citológica, ambos apresentaram diminuição de linfócitos, neutrófilos, células metaplásicas e células escamosas, e na análise histopatológica houve diminuição de linfócitos, neutrófilos e o aumento de células caliciformes. No grupo óleo de semente de linhaça, a diminuição de neutrófilos foi mais significativa (p<0,05) em ambas análises. Conclusão: Em suma, tacrolimus 0,03% colírio diluído em óleo de oliva e óleo de linhaça foram eficientes no tratamento de ceratoconjuntivite seca. Nenhum dos parâmetros avaliados diferiu significativamente entre os dois grupos, exceto a contagem de neutrófilos, que foi significativamente menor no grupo TL. Assim, o óleo de linhaça pode ser considerado como um diluente alternativo para o colírio tacrolimus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Linseed Oil/administration & dosage , Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca/veterinary , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Olive Oil/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Drug Therapy, Combination/veterinary , Administration, Ophthalmic/veterinary
16.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 5(1): 56-63, jun. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1088672

ABSTRACT

La vasculitis Primaria del Sistema Nervioso Central (VPSNC) se refiere a un grupo de enfermedades que resultan de la inflamación y destrucción de los vasos sanguíneos de la medula espinal, encéfalo y meninges, tanto en el sector venoso como arterial. La presentación es heterogénea y poco sistematizable. El diagnóstico se establece con un cuadro clínico compatible, una angiografía que evidencie vasculitis y/o biopsia del parénquima encefálico o meninges. Las alteraciones en los estudios de imagen son constantes pero inespecíficas para el diagnóstico y se acompañan habitualmente de alteraciones en el líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) y electroencefalograma (EEG) Presentamos un paciente con probable VPSNC basados en un cuadro clínico compatible, hallazgos imagenológicos sugestivos, junto con alteraciones en LCR y EEG. Se realizó tratamiento en base a corticoides e inmunosupresores con mala respuesta y evolución.


The primary central nervous system vasculitis (VPSNC) refers to a group of diseases that result from inflammation and destruction of the blood vessels of the spinal cord, brain and meninges, both in the venous and arterial sector. The presentation is heterogeneous and unsystematized. The diagnosis is made based on compatible symptoms, supported by an angiography showing evidence of vasculitis and/or biopsy of the brain parenchyma or meninges. Alterations in imaging studies are consistent but nonspecific for diagnostic and are usually accompanied by alterations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We present a clinical case of probable VPSNC based on clinical presentation and findings on imagenological studies suggestive vasculitis, along with alterations in CSF and EEG. Treatment was based on Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents with poor response and evolution.


Vasculite Primária do Sistema Nervoso Central (VPSNC) refere-se a um grupo de doenças que resultam de inflamação e destruição dos vasos sanguíneos na medula espinal, o sector venosa arterial cerebral e meninges, ambos. A apresentação é heterogênea e não muito sistematizável. O diagnóstico é estabelecido com um quadro clínico compatível, uma angiografia que evidencia vasculite e / oubiópsia do parênquima cerebral ou meninges. Alterações nos estudos de imagemsão constantes, mas não específica para o diagnóstico e são normalmente acompanhadas por alterações no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) e eletroencefalograma (EEG) descrevem um paciente com VPSNC provável com base em um quadro clínico, achados de imagem sugestivos compatíveis, em conjunto com alterações no CSF e EEG. O tratamento foi realizado com base em corticosteróides e imunos supressores compouca resposta e evolução.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/drug therapy , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Constriction, Pathologic/diagnostic imaging , Anterior Cerebral Artery/pathology , Middle Cerebral Artery/pathology , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/diagnosis
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(2): 175-182, feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961375

ABSTRACT

Background: The first line treatment for patients < 40 years old with aplastic anemia (AA) is allogeneic HLA-identical sibling donor transplantation (SCT). Immunosuppressive therapy (IST) with a combination of Thymoglobuline (ATG) and cyclosporine is used for older patients or those without a donor. Five year overall survival (OS) for both therapies is > 70%. Aim: To report the experience with SCT and ATG for AA in a public hospital. Patients and Methods: AA was diagnosed in 42 patients between 1998 and 2016, according to Camitta criteria. Thirty eight (90%) received treatment, 7 (18%) under 40 years old received SCT, and 31 (82%) IST. The rest were not treated. OS was calculated from date of diagnosis until last control, death or loss from follow up. Results: Complete or partial hematologic response, was obtained in 71% and 58% of cases with SCT and IS, respectively. Five year OS was 71% and 55% with SCT and IST, respectively. No difference in response was observed between horse and rabbit ATG. Conclusions: SCT from an HLA-identical sibling donor had a high response rate and survival. IST instead, had a lower response and survival, due to an initial high mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Cyclosporine/administration & dosage , Stem Cell Transplantation , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Anemia, Aplastic/surgery , Anemia, Aplastic/mortality , Antilymphocyte Serum/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Combined Modality Therapy , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Hospitals, Public
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(9): 753-763, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896396

ABSTRACT

Summary Introduction: Recent animal studies demonstrated immunosuppressive effects of opioid withdrawal resulting in a higher risk of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of remifentanil discontinuation on Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU)-acquired infection after a schedule of sedoanalgesia of at least 6 days. Method: All patients over 18 years of age with a unit admission of more than 4 days were consecutively selected. The study population was the one affected by surgical pathology of any origin where sedation was based on any hypnotic and the opioid remifentanil was used as analgesic for at least 96 hours in continuous perfusion. Patients who died during admission to the unit and those with combined analgesia (peripheral or neuroaxial blocks) were excluded. Bivariate analysis was performed to determine risk factors for infection acquired in the unit. A comparative study between periods of 6 days before and after the cessation of remifentanil was performed. Paired samples test and McNemar test was used for quantitative and categorical variables, respectively. Results: There were 1,789 patients admitted to the PACU during the study and the population eligible was constituted for 102 patients. The incidence rate of PACU-acquired infection was 38 per 1,000 PACU days. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was the most frequently diagnosed PACU-acquired infection. Pseudomona aeruginosa was the most frequently isolated microorganism. Hospital mortality was 36.27%. No statistically significant differences were seen in the incidence of HAI in cancer patients in relation to discontinuation of remifentanil (p=0.068). Conclusion: The baseline state of immunosuppression of cancer patients does not imply a higher incidence of HAI in relation to the interruption of remifentanil. It would be of interest to carry out a multicenter PACU study that included immunological patterns.


Resumo Introdução: Recentes pesquisas utilizando animais demonstraram efeitos imunossupressores depois da suspensão de opiáceos, associados a um maior risco de infecção nosocomial. O objetivo desta investigação foi determinar o impacto da interrupção do opioide remifentanilo em uma Unidade de Reanimação Pós-cirúrgica (URP) nas infecções associadas aos cuidados da saúde depois de uma pauta de sedoanalgesia de ao menos 6 dias. Método: Foram relacionados de forma consecutiva todos os pacientes maiores de 18 anos com internação na unidade superior a 4 dias. A população investigada foi aquela afetada por patologia cirúrgica de qualquer origem, na qual a sedação esteve baseada em qualquer hipnótico e como analgésico, foi utilizado o opioide remifentanilo durante pelo menos 96 horas em perfusão contínua. Foram excluídos os pacientes que faleceram durante a internação na unidade e aqueles com analgesia combinada (bloqueios periféricos ou neuroaxiais). Foi realizada uma análise bivariante para determinar fatores de risco para a infecção adquirida na unidade. Foi realizada uma investigação comparativa entre períodos dos 6 dias anteriores e posteriores à interrupção de remifentanilo. Utilizamos o teste de amostras pareadas e a prova de McNemar para as variáveis quantitativas e categóricas, respectivamente. Resultados: O número de pacientes internados na URP durante o período de investigação foi de 1.789. Depois de aplicar os critérios de inclusão e exclusão, a população elegível ficou constituída por 102 pacientes. A densidade de incidência de infecção de forma global foi de 38 por cada 1.000 dias de internamento. A pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica foi a infecção adquirida mais frequente e Pseudomona aeruginosa, o micro-organismo mais frequentemente isolado. A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 36,27%. Não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas na incidência de IACS em pacientes oncológicos em relação à descontinuação de remifentanilo (p=0,068). Conclusão: O estado basal de imunossupressão dos pacientes oncológicos não implica uma maior incidência de IACS em relação à interrupção do remifentanilo. Seria interessante a realização de uma investigação multicêntrica de URP que incluísse padrões imunológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Cross Infection/etiology , Withholding Treatment , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Neoplasms/surgery , Piperidines/administration & dosage , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Propofol/administration & dosage , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Remifentanil , Middle Aged
19.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(4): 481-485, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891437

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the technique of uterine transplantation and the use of drugs used in the process of immunosuppression. Methods: We included 12 sows, and immunosuppression was performed with minimal doses of cyclosporine, and cross-match was done to exclude the possibility of blood incompatibility. Hysterectomy was performed in the donor under general anesthesia, with the removal of the aorta and inferior vena cava in monobloc, and anastomosis of these vessels was made in the recipient. Results: Six experiments were performed, and on the immediate postoperative period, five animals had good reperfusion. However, on the seventh postoperative day, histological analysis showed rejection in five animals. Conclusion: The experimental model of uterine transplantation is feasible, but monitoring doses of immunosuppressants is pivotal to prevent rejection episodes.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a técnica de transplante uterino e o uso de drogas no processo de imunossupressão. Métodos: Foram incluídas 12 porcas, sendo realizada imunossupressão com doses mínimas de ciclosporina, e prova cruzada para afastar a possibilidade de incompatibilidade sanguínea. Realizou-se, na doadora, histerectomia sob anestesia geral, com a retirada, em monobloco, da aorta e da veia cava inferior, de tal forma que, na receptora, fosse possível realizar a anastomose com estes vasos. Resultados: Foram realizados seis experimentos e, no pós-operatório imediato, houve boa reperfusão em cinco animais. Entretanto, no sétimo dia de pós-operatório, as análises histológicas demonstraram rejeição em cinco deles. Conclusão: O modelo experimental de transplante uterino é factível, mas a monitorização das doses de imunossupressores é importante, a fim de impedir os episódios de rejeição.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Uterus/transplantation , Immunosuppression Therapy , Cyclosporine/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Infertility, Female/surgery , Postoperative Period , Swine , Pregnancy, Animal , Disease Models, Animal , Graft Rejection/immunology
20.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 29(4): 436-443, out.-dez. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899534

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivos: Definir frequência de doença por citomegalovírus dentre pacientes transplantados renais na unidade de terapia intensiva nos quais houve a suspeita desta complicação; identificar fatores predisponentes e possível impacto na evolução clínica. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo observacional, no qual foram incluídos pacientes transplantados renais acima de 18 anos, internados por quaisquer motivos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva, com pelo menos uma coleta de antigenemia ou reação em cadeia da polimerase para citomegalovírus durante internação. Doença por citomegalovírus foi definida por antigenemia positiva ou reação em cadeia da polimerase acima de 500 cópias/mL, na presença de sintomas, no contexto clínico apropriado, conforme julgamento do médico assistente. Resultados: Foram incluídos 99 pacientes (idade: 53,4 ± 12,8 anos, 71,6% homens). A doença por citomegalovírus foi diagnosticada em 39 pacientes (39,4%). Sintomas respiratórios (51%), piora clínica inespecífica (20%) ou sintomas gastrintestinais (14%) foram os principais motivos para coleta de exames. O tempo de transplante foi menor naqueles com doença por citomegalovírus em relação àqueles sem este diagnóstico (6,5 meses e 31,2 meses; p = 0,001), bem como uso de pulsoterapia nos últimos 6 meses (41% e 16,9%; p = 0,008) e uso prévio de timoglobulina no último ano (35,9% e 6,8%; p < 0,001). No modelo de regressão logística, somente o tempo de transplante e o uso de timoglobulina associaram-se à maior frequência de citomegalovírus. Não houve diferença na evolução clínica entre pacientes com ou sem doença por citomegalovírus. Conclusão: Em pacientes transplantados renais com suspeita de doença por citomegalovírus, a prevalência foi alta. O tempo de transplante menor que 6 meses e o uso de timoglobulina no último ano devem aumentar a suspeita do intensivista para esta complicação.


ABSTRACT Objectives: To define the frequency of cytomegalovirus disease among kidney transplant patients in an intensive care unit in which this complication was suspected and to identify predisposing factors and their possible impact on clinical outcome. Methods: Retrospective observational study in which kidney transplant patients over the age of 18 years were hospitalized for any reason in an intensive care unit with at least one collection of samples to test for the presence of antigenemia or cytomegalovirus via polymerase chain reaction during hospitalization. Cytomegalovirus disease was defined as positive antigenemia or polymerase chain reaction above 500 copies/mL in the presence of symptoms and in the appropriate clinical setting, as judged by the attending physician. Results: A total of 99 patients were included (age: 53.4 ± 12.8 years, 71.6% male). Cytomegalovirus disease was diagnosed in 39 patients (39.4%). Respiratory symptoms (51%), non-specific clinical worsening (20%) or gastrointestinal symptoms (14%) were the main reasons for exam collection. Transplant time was lower in those with cytomegalovirus disease than in those without this diagnosis (6.5 months and 31.2 months, p = 0.001), along with pulse therapy in the last 6 months (41% and 16.9%, p = 0.008) and previous use of thymoglobulin in the last year (35.9% and 6.8%, p < 0.001). In the logistic regression model, only the transplant time and the use of thymoglobulin were associated with a higher frequency of cytomegalovirus. There was no difference in clinical evolution between patients with and without cytomegalovirus disease. Conclusion: In kidney transplant patients suspected of cytomegalovirus disease, the prevalence was high. Transplant time less than 6 months, and the use of thymoglobulin in the last year should increase the intensivist's suspicion for this complication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Antilymphocyte Serum/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Logistic Models , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Cytomegalovirus/isolation & purification , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
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