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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 21-33, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007647

ABSTRACT

γδ T cells are a kind of innate immune T cell. They have not attracted sufficient attention because they account for only a small proportion of all immune cells, and many basic factors related to these cells remain unclear. However, in recent years, with the rapid development of tumor immunotherapy, γδ T cells have attracted increasing attention because of their ability to exert cytotoxic effects on most tumor cells without major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction. An increasing number of basic studies have focused on the development, antigen recognition, activation, and antitumor immune response of γδ T cells. Additionally, γδ T cell-based immunotherapeutic strategies are being developed, and the number of clinical trials investigating such strategies is increasing. This review mainly summarizes the progress of basic research and the clinical application of γδ T cells in tumor immunotherapy to provide a theoretical basis for further the development of γδ T cell-based strategies in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , T-Lymphocytes , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms/therapy
2.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 832-837, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012240

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the characteristics of the evolution of liver indexes in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) treated with CAR-T-cells based on BCMA. Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed of patients with RRMM who received an infusion of anti-BCMA CAR-T-cells and anti-BCMA combined with anti-CD19 CAR-T-cells at our center between June 1, 2019, and February 28, 2023. Clinical data were collected to observe the characteristics of changes in liver indexes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), and direct bilirubin (DBIL) in patients, and its relationship with cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) . Results: Ninety-two patients were included in the analysis, including 41 patients (44.6%) in the group receiving a single infusion of anti-BCMA CAR-T-cells, and 51 patients (55.4%) in the group receiving an infusion of anti-BCMA combined with anti-CD19 CAR-T-cells. After infusing CAR-T-cells, 31 patients (33.7%) experienced changes in liver indexes at or above grade 2, which included 20 patients (21.7%) with changes in one index, five patients (5.4%) with changes in two indexes, and six patients (6.5%) with changes in three or more indexes. The median time of peak values of ALT and AST were d17 and d14, respectively, and the median duration of exceeding grade 2 was 5.0 and 3.5 days, respectively. The median time of peak values of TBIL and DBIL was on d19 and d21, respectively, and the median duration of exceeding grade 2 was 4.0 days, respectively. The median time of onset of CRS was d8, and the peak time of fever was d9. The ALT, AST, and TBIL of patients with CRS were higher than those of patients without CRS (P=0.011, 0.002, and 0.015, respectively). CRS is an independent factor that affects ALT and TBIL levels (OR=19.668, 95% CI 18.959-20.173, P=0.001). The evolution of liver indexes can be reversed through anti-CRS and liver-protection treatments, and no patient died of liver injury. Conclusions: In BCMA-based CAR-T-cell therapy for RRMM, CRS is an important factor causing the evolution of liver indexes. The evolution of liver indexes after CAR-T-cell infusion is transient and reversible after treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, CD19 , B-Cell Maturation Antigen/therapeutic use , Bilirubin , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Liver , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , T-Lymphocytes
3.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 820-824, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012238

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study systematically explore the efficacy and safety of fourth-generation chimeric antigen receptor T-cells (CAR-T), which express interleukin 7 (IL7) and chemokine C-C motif ligand 19 (CCL19) and target CD19, in relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma. Methods: Our center applied autologous 7×19 CAR-T combined with tirelizumab to treat 11 patients with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma. The efficacy and adverse effects were explored. Results: All 11 enrolled patients completed autologous 7×19 CAR-T preparation and infusion. Nine patients completed the scheduled six sessions of tirolizumab treatment, one completed four sessions, and one completed one session. Furthermore, five cases (45.5%) achieved complete remission, and three cases (27.3%) achieved partial remission with an objective remission rate of 72.7%. Two cases were evaluated for disease progression, and one died two months after reinfusion because of uncontrollable disease. The median follow-up time was 31 (2-34) months, with a median overall survival not achieved and a median progression-free survival of 28 (1-34) months. Two patients with partial remission achieved complete remission at the 9th and 12th months of follow-up. Therefore, the best complete remission rate was 63.6%. Cytokine-release syndrome and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome were controllable, and no immune-related adverse reactions occurred. Conclusion: Autologous 7×19 CAR-T combined with tirelizumab for treating relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma achieved good efficacy with controllable adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antigens, CD19 , Chemokine CCL19 , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Interleukin-7 , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/therapy , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen
4.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 813-819, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012237

ABSTRACT

Objective: To further elucidate the clinical efficacy and safety of a combination regimen based on the BTK inhibitor zebutanil bridging CD19 Chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells) in the treatment of relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (r/r DLBCL) . Methods: Twenty-one patients with high-risk r/r DLBCL were treated with a zanubrutinib-based regimen bridging CAR-T between June 2020 and June 2023 at the Department of Hematology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, and the efficacy and safety were retrospectively analyzed. Results: All 21 patients were enrolled, and the median age was 57 years (range: 38-76). Fourteen patients (66.7%) had an eastern cooperative oncology group performance status score (ECOG score) of ≥2. Eighteen patients (85.7%) had an international prognostic index (IPI) score of ≥3. Three patients (14.3%) had an IPI score of 2 but had extranodal infiltration. Fourteen patients (66.7%) had double-expression of DLBCL and seven (33.3%) had TP53 mutations. With a median follow-up of 24.8 (95% CI 17.0-31.6) months, the objective response rate was 81.0%, and 11 patients (52.4%) achieved complete remission. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 12.8 months, and the median overall survival (OS) was not reached. The 1-year PFS rate was 52.4% (95% CI 29.8% -74.3%), and the 1-year OS rate was 80.1% (95% CI 58.1% -94.6%). Moreover, 18 patients (85.7%) had grade 1-2 cytokine-release syndrome, and two patients (9.5%) had grade 1 immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome. Conclusion: Zanubrutinib-based combination bridging regimen of CAR-T therapy for r/r DLBCL has high efficacy and demonstrated a good safety profile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/drug therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Antigens, CD19/adverse effects
5.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 800-804, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012235

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the survival and influencing factors of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy in relapsed/refractory acute B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (R/R B-ALL) . Methods: Clinical information of patients who received CAR-T-cell therapy and achieved complete remission of R/R B-ALL between May 2015 and June 2018 at the Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital was obtained. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate the overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) times of patients, and Cox regression analysis was performed to analyze the prognostic factors that affect patient survival after CAR-T therapy. Results: Among the 38 patients with R/R B-ALL, 21 were men, with a median age of 25 (6-59) years and a median OS time of 18 (95% CI 3-33) months. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that positive MLL-AF4 fusion gene expression was an independent risk factor for OS and LFS (OS: HR=4.888, 95% CI 1.375-17.374, P=0.014; LFS: HR=6.683, 95% CI 1.815-24.608, P=0.004). Maintenance therapy was a protective factor for OS and LFS (OS: HR=0.153, 95% CI 0.054-0.432, P<0.001; LFS: HR=0.138, 95% CI 0.050-0.382, P<0.001). In patients with MRD negative conversion, LFS benefit (HR=0.209, 95% CI 0.055-0.797, P=0.022) and OS difference was statistically insignificant (P=0.111). Moreover, patients with high tumor burden were risk factors for OS and LFS at the level of 0.1 (OS: HR=2.662, 95% CI 0.987-7.184, P=0.053; LFS: HR=2.452, 95% CI 0.949-6.339, P=0.064) . Conclusion: High tumor burden and high-risk genetics may affect the long-term survival rate of patients with R/R B-ALL receiving CAR-T, and lenalidomide-based maintenance therapy may improve their prognosis.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Female , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy
6.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 793-799, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012234

ABSTRACT

Objective: Murine CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) products have been approved for the treatment of refractory/relapsed (R/R) B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL) ; moreover, humanized products are also undergoing clinical trials. This study aimed to explore the differences in safety and short- and long-term follow-up efficacy between humanized and murine CD19 CAR-T-cells for treating relapsed and refractory B-ALL. Methods: Clinical data of 80 patients with R/R B-ALL treated with CD19-targeted CAR-T-cells at the Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology between May 2016 and March 2023 were analyzed, which included 31 patients with murine CAR-T and 49 with humanized products. Results: The proportion of patients with cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) in the murine and humanized groups was 63.1% and 65.3%, respectively. Moreover, a higher proportion of patients suffered from severe CRS in the murine group than in the humanized CAR-T group (19.4% vs 8.2%, P=0.174). Furthermore, one patient per group died of grade 5 CRS. The incidence of grade 1-2 immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) was 12.9% and 6.1%, respectively; severe ICANS were not observed. Among patients receiving murine CAR-T-cells, an overall response (OR) was observed in 74.2%. Conversely, the OR rate of patients receiving humanized CAR-T-cells was 87.8%. During the median follow-up time of 10.5 months, the median recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients with murine CAR-T-cells was 12 months, which was as long as that of patients with humanized CAR-T-cells. The median overall survival (OS) were not reached in both groups. Of the 45 patients with a bone marrow burden over 20% at baseline, humanized CAR-T therapy was associated with a significantly improved RFS (43.25% vs 33.33%, P=0.027). Bridging transplantation was an independent factor in prolonging OS (χ(2)=8.017, P=0.005) and PFS (χ(2)=6.584, P=0.010). Common risk factors, such as age, high proportion of bone marrow blasts, and BCR-ABL fusion gene expression, had no significant effect on patients' long-term follow-up outcomes. Three patients reached complete remission after reinfusion of humanized CAR-T-cells. However, one patient relapsed one month after his second infusion of murine CAR-T-cells. Conclusions: The results indicate that humanized CAR-T therapy showed durable efficacy in patients with a higher tumor burden in the bone marrow without any influence on safety. Moreover, it could overcome immunogenicity-induced CAR-T resistance, providing treatment options for patients who were not treated successfully with CAR-T therapies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antigens, CD19 , Burkitt Lymphoma/drug therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen
7.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 967-972, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008154

ABSTRACT

Autologous chimeric antigen receptor(CAR)T-cell therapy has improved the prognosis of hematological malignancies.Nevertheless,allogeneic CAR-T cells have potential advantages over the autologous approach available on the market.However,allogeneic CAR-T cells may cause life-threatening graft-versus-host disease(GVHD)or be rapidly eliminated by the host immune system.In this review,we analyze the different sources of T cells for optimal allogeneic CAR-T cell therapy,describe the different approaches,and introduce the gene editing measures to produce allogeneic CAR-T cells with limited potential for GVHD and improved anti-tumor effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , T-Lymphocytes , Neoplasms , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Graft vs Host Disease/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2658-2667, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007711

ABSTRACT

Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce the viral load in the plasma to undetectable levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, ART alone cannot completely eliminate HIV due to its integration into the host cell genome to form viral reservoirs. To achieve a functional cure for HIV infection, numerous preclinical and clinical studies are underway to develop innovative immunotherapies to eliminate HIV reservoirs in the absence of ART. Early studies have tested adoptive T-cell therapies in HIV-infected individuals, but their effectiveness was limited. In recent years, with the technological progress and great success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy in the treatment of hematological malignancies, CAR therapy has gradually shown its advantages in the field of HIV infection. Many studies have identified a variety of HIV-specific CAR structures and types of cytolytic effector cells. Therefore, CAR therapy may be beneficial for enhancing HIV immunity, achieving HIV control, and eliminating HIV reservoirs, gradually becoming a promising strategy for achieving a functional HIV cure. In this review, we provide an overview of the design of anti-HIV CAR proteins, the cell types of anti-HIV CAR (including CAR T cells, CAR natural killer cells, and CAR-encoding hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells), the clinical application of CAR therapy in HIV infection, and the prospects and challenges in anti-HIV CAR therapy for maintaining viral suppression and eliminating HIV reservoirs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , HIV Infections/therapy , HIV-1
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2285-2296, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007595

ABSTRACT

Cellular therapies have revolutionized the treatment of hematological malignancies since their conception and rapid development. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy is the most widely applied cellular therapy. Since the Food and Drug Administration approved two CD19-CAR-T products for clinical treatment of relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia and diffuse large B cell lymphoma in 2017, five more CAR-T cell products were subsequently approved for treating multiple myeloma or B cell malignancies. Moreover, clinical trials of CAR-T cell therapy for treating other hematological malignancies are ongoing. Both China and the United States have contributed significantly to the development of clinical trials. However, CAR-T cell therapy has many limitations such as a high relapse rate, adverse side effects, and restricted availability. Various methods are being implemented in clinical trials to address these issues, some of which have demonstrated promising breakthroughs. This review summarizes developments in CAR-T cell trials and advances in CAR-T cell therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Multiple Myeloma/etiology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy
10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1905-1909, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010058

ABSTRACT

Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) is a research hotspot in the field of cellular immunotherapy in recent years, and CAR-T cells therapy are developing rapidly in hematological malignant tumors, but their clinical application is still limited by related risks. It is particularly important to find more optimized immunoreactive cells. Natural killer (NK) cells, as key effector cells of innate immunity, can kill tumor or infected cells quickly without prior sensitization. Autologous or allogeneic NK cell infusion has become an effective cell therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). CAR-NK cells combine the advantages of CAR targeting tumor specific antigens and enhancing immune cells activity with the innate antitumor function of NK cells to enhance the targeting and lytic activity of NK cells to AML primordial cells. At present, most of the CAR-NK treatments for AML are still in the stage of specific target screening and verification. This article reviews the latest research progress of CAR-NK cell therapy in the field of AML therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Killer Cells, Natural , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Immunotherapy
11.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1894-1898, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010056

ABSTRACT

T-lymphocyte tumors are a group of diseases containing various types of lymphatic system tumors, with strong heterogeneity and poor clinical outcomes. Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy, as a new immune cell therapy, has made a breakthrough in the field of B-lymphocyte tumors. People are interested in the application prospect of this technique in the field of T-lymphocyte tumors. Some studies have shown that CAR-T cell therapy has made some progress in the treatment of T-lymphocyte tumors, and CAR-T for some targets has entered the stage of clinical trials. However, due to the characteristics of T cells, there are also many challenges. This article reviews the research and application of CAR-T cell therapy in T-lymphocyte tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , T-Lymphocytes , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy
12.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1860-1865, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010050

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the safety and efficacy of novel CD19-KIRS2/Dap12-BB chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells) in the treatment of relapsed/refractory B-cell malignancy (R/R BCM).@*METHODS@#Three patients with R/R BCM treated with novel CD19-KIRS2/Dap12-BB CAR-T cells from June 2020 to November 2020 were enrolled, including 1 case of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) and 2 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and the efficacy and adverse reactions were observed.@*RESULTS@#After CAR-T cells infusion, patient with B-ALL achieved complete remission (CR) and minimal residual disease (MRD) turned negative, and 2 patients with NHL achieved partial remission (PR). Grade 2 cytokine release syndrome (CRS) occurred in B-ALL patient, grade 1 CRS occurred in 2 NHL patients, and grade II to IV hematologic adverse reactions occurred in 3 patients, all of which were controllable and reversible. The progression-free survival (PFS) of the 3 patients was 143, 199, and 91 days, and overall survival (OS) was 282, 430, and 338 days, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The novel CD19-KIRS2/Dap12-BB CAR-T cells in treatment of 3 patients with R/R BCM have significant short-term efficacy and controllable adverse reactions, but the long-term efficacy needs to be further improved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Burkitt Lymphoma , Antigens, CD19 , Neoplasm, Residual , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
13.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1252-1256, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009982

ABSTRACT

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has highly heterogeneous clinical manifestations and poor prognosis, and traditional chemotherapy is the main treatment. In recent years, with the in-depth development of next-generation sequencing technology, the treatment of AML is gradually exploring the precise targeted therapy in the direction of molecular biology and immunophenotype. The advent of various small-molecule inhibitors and immune-targeted drugs has brought hope to patients who cannot tolerate intensive chemotherapy or with relapsed/refractory AML. Compared with traditional chemotherapy, targeted therapy has the advantages of significant curative effect and fewer adverse effects. This article reviews the latest research progress of targeted drug therapy for AML.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Immunotherapy , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
14.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 387-396, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982379

ABSTRACT

Tumor recurrence is one of the major life-threatening complications after liver transplantation for liver cancer. In addition to the common mechanisms underlying tumor recurrence, another unavoidable problem is that the immunosuppressive therapeutic regimen after transplantation could promote tumor recurrence and metastasis. Transplant oncology is an emerging field that addresses oncological challenges in transplantation. In this context, a comprehensive therapeutic management approach is required to balance the anti-tumor treatment and immunosuppressive status of recipients. Double-negative T cells (DNTs) are a cluster of heterogeneous cells mainly consisting of two subsets stratified by T cell receptor (TCR) type. Among them, TCRαβ+ DNTs are considered to induce immune suppression in immune-mediated diseases, while TCRγδ+ DNTs are widely recognized as tumor killers. As a composite cell therapy, healthy donor-derived DNTs can be propagated to therapeutic numbers in vitro and applied for the treatment of several malignancies without impairing normal tissues or being rejected by the host. In this work, we summarized the biological characteristics and functions of DNTs in oncology, immunology, and transplantation. Based on the multiple roles of DNTs, we propose that a new balance could be achieved in liver transplant oncology using them as an off-the-shelf adoptive cell therapy (ACT).


Subject(s)
Humans , T-Lymphocytes , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Transplantation, Homologous , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy
15.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 783-787, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982130

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of hemoglobin (Hb) on the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy (CAR-T) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM).@*METHODS@#From June 2017 to December 2020, 76 MM patients who received CAR-T therapy in the Department of Hematology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, with complete clinical data and evaluable efficacy, were selected as the research objects. According to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the best cut-off value was obtained. The patients were divided into groups on the basis of Hb 105.5 g/L as the cut-off value. The age, sex, serum calcium, β2-microglobulin, serum creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the influencing factors of CAR-T treatment efficacy in MM patients were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Hb was an influencing factor of efficacy. Univariate analysis showed that Hb, LDH, and albumin affected the efficacy of CAR-T therapy. Multivariate analysis showed that Hb ( OR=1.039, 95% CI: 1.002-1.078) and LDH ( OR=1.014, 95% CI: 1.000-1.027) were the influencing factors for the efficacy of CAR-T therapy.@*CONCLUSION@#The efficacy of CAR-T therapy in MM patients with low Hb is poor, and Hb is a factor affecting the efficacy of CAR-T therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Treatment Outcome , Hematologic Diseases
16.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 397-403, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981879

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate a convenient and quantitative solution to activation levels and functional characterization of CAR-T cells by inserting T cell activity-responsive promoter (TARP) nanoluciferase reporter gene system into a lentiviral plasmid containing the gene encoding the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). Methods The recombinant plasmid was constructed by using whole gene synthesis and molecular cloning techniques. The lentivirus was packaged and was infected with human primary T lymphocytes. Flow cytometry was used to detected the positive rate of lentivirus-infected T cells. The functional characterization of CAR-T cells was identified by luciferase reporter gene system, Western blot, flow cytometry, and small animal live imaging techniques. Results The results of enzyme digestion identification and the plasmid sequencing showed that the recombinant plasmids were constructed, and flow cytometry displayed the normal preparation of CAR-T cells. This system could dynamically respond to the activation of CAR-T cells by luciferase reporter gene system. The functional assay in vitro confirmed that the system could reflect the exhaustion of CAR-T cells, and the small animal live imaging results demonstrated that the system can be used as a tracer of CAR-T cells in mice. Conclusion TARP nanoluciferase reporter gene system provides a more convenient, sensitive and quantitative method for evaluating CAR-T cells activation level, exhaustion phenotype and tracing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , T-Lymphocytes , Cell Line, Tumor , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 269-279, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970072

ABSTRACT

Remarkable improvement relative to traditional approaches in the treatment of hematological malignancies by chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has promoted sequential approvals of eight commercial CAR T products within last 5 years. Although CAR T cells' productization is now rapidly boosting their extensive clinical application in real-world patients, the limitation of their clinical efficacy and related toxicities inspire further optimization of CAR structure and substantial development of innovative trials in various scenarios. Herein, we first summarized the current status and major progress in CAR T therapy for hematological malignancies, then described crucial factors which possibly compromise the clinical efficacies of CAR T cells, such as CAR T cell exhaustion and loss of antigen, and finally, we discussed the potential optimization strategies to tackle the challenges in the field of CAR T therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Treatment Outcome
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 127-137, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970062

ABSTRACT

Adoptive therapeutic immune cells, such as chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells and natural killer cells, have established a new generation of precision medicine based on which dramatic breakthroughs have been achieved in intractable lymphoma treatments. Currently, well-explored approaches focus on autologous cells due to their low immunogenicity, but they are highly restricted by the high costs, time consumption of processing, and the insufficiency of primary cells in some patients. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are cell sources that can theoretically produce indefinite well-differentiated immune cells. Based on the above facts, it may be reasonable to combine the iPSC technology and the CAR design to produce a series of highly controllable and economical "live" drugs. Manufacturing hypoimmunogenic iPSCs by inactivation or over-expression at the genetic level and then arming the derived cells with CAR have emerged as a form of "off-the-shelf" strategy to eliminate tumor cells efficiently and safely in a broader range of patients. This review describes the reasonability, feasibility, superiority, and drawbacks of such approaches, summarizes the current practices and relevant research progress, and provides insights into the possible new paths for personalized cell-based therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Killer Cells, Natural , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , T-Lymphocytes , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Neoplasms/genetics
19.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(2): 266-274, Apr.-June 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448345

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy is an emerging treatment option for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) that is a multi-step process involving various stakeholders. Appropriate education on the practical logistics is therefore paramount to ensure treatment success. Methods A group of key opinion leaders met to explore the key elements of setting up and running a CAR-T center in Brazil. For each step in the CAR-T cell therapy process, the experts agreed on basic requirements, gave their key recommendations from practical experience, and considered any remaining unanswered questions. Results This paper presents best-practice recommendations and advice on how to overcome common challenges for each step in the CAR-T cell therapy process, with a focus on the current situation in Brazil. Key themes throughout the process are collaboration within the multidisciplinary team and with the referring physician, along with communication and education for patients and their caregivers. Conclusion We believe that the expert insights presented in this paper, in particular on optimal patient selection and timing of CAR-T cell therapy, will deepen understanding of the CAR-T process and aid implementation of this novel therapy for patients with RRMM in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Multiple Myeloma , B-Cell Maturation Antigen , Immunotherapy
20.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 267-278, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982044

ABSTRACT

NK cell immunotherapy is a promising antitumor therapeutic modality after the development of T cell immunotherapy. Structural modification of NK cells with biomaterials may provide a precise, efficient, and low-cost strategy to enhance NK cell immunotherapy. The biomaterial modification of NK cells can be divided into two strategies: surface engineering with biomaterials and intracellular modification. The surface engineering strategies include hydrophobic interaction of lipids, receptor-ligand interaction between membrane proteins, covalent binding to amino acid residues, click reaction and electrostatic interaction. The intracellular modification strategies are based on manipulation by nanotechnology using membranous materials from various sources of NK cells (such as exosome, vesicle and cytomembranes). Finally, the biomaterials-based strategies regulate the recruitment, recognition and cytotoxicity of NK cells in the solid tumor site in situ to boost the activity of NK cells in the tumor. This article reviews the recent research progress in enhancing NK cell therapy based on biomaterial modification, to provide a reference for further researches on engineering NK cell therapy with biomaterials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biocompatible Materials/metabolism , Immunotherapy , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Neoplasms/therapy
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