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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243975, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285629


Abstract In South and South East Asia three genera of fish species i.e. Tor, Neolissochilus and Naziritor are commonly known as Mahseer with at least 47 species. Among these 23 belongs to genus Tor, 22 to Neolissochilus and one to Naziritor i.e. Naziritor zhobensis. Recently another species added to genus Naziritor is Naziritor chelynoides in India. Among Tor species Tor putitora (Hamilton) is the most widely distributed Mahseer in Pakistan and other countries of the Indian subcontinent. However, based alone on morphological characters some authors identify the Pakistani counterparts as Tor macrolepis (Heckel), (a species presumed to be found exclusively in the Indus River system) distinct from Tor putitora (a species found in Ganga Brahmaputra River system). In order to resolve this taxonomic ambiguity, present study carried out meristic and morphometric measurements of Mahseer collected from a total of 11 water bodies of Pakistan. Ratios between the morphometric characters were calculated and statistically analyzed using t-test and correlation coefficient. Two species identified as Tor putitora and Naziritor zhobensis were the sole Mahseer inhabitants of Indus system in Pakistan. Tor putitora occurred at all surveyed sites while Nazirtor zhobensis had a distribution range from river Zhob to tributaries of river Gomal the right bank tributaries of River Indus. The study corroborates that there are no unequivocal morphological synapomorphies in any existing populations of both species. The study further demonstrates that head length, a character frequently used in Mahseer taxonomy, is not a good measure for species identification. Finally the present study establishes that Naziritor zhobensis still exists in the water bodies of Pakistan and that golden Mahseer occurring in Indus riverine system of Pakistan is Tor putitora.

Resumo No sul e sudeste da Ásia, três gêneros de espécies de peixes, ou seja, Tor, Neolissochilus e Naziritor, são comumente conhecidos como Mahseer com pelo menos 47 espécies. Entre estas, 23 pertencem ao gênero Tor, 22 a Neolissochilus e um a Naziritor, ou seja, Naziritor zhobensis. Recentemente, outra espécie adicionada ao gênero Naziritor é Naziritor chelynoides na Índia. Entre as espécies de Tor, Tor putitora (Hamilton) é o Mahseer mais amplamente distribuído no Paquistão e em outros países do subcontinente indiano. No entanto, com base apenas em caracteres morfológicos, alguns autores identificam as contrapartes paquistanesas como Tor macrolepis (Heckel) (uma espécie que se presume ser encontrada exclusivamente no sistema do rio Indo), distinta de Tor putitora (uma espécie encontrada no sistema do rio Ganga Brahmaputra). A fim de resolver essas ambiguidades taxonômicas, o presente estudo realizou medidas merísticas e morfométricas de Mahseer coletadas em um total de 11 corpos d'água do Paquistão. As razões entre os caracteres morfométricos foram calculadas e analisadas estatisticamente usando o teste t e o coeficiente de correlação. Duas espécies identificadas como Tor putitora e Naziritor zhobensis foram os únicos habitantes Mahseer do sistema fluvial Indo no Paquistão. Tor putitora ocorreu em todos os locais pesquisados, enquanto Nazirtor zhobensis tinha uma faixa de distribuição do rio Zhob aos afluentes do rio Gomal, afluentes da margem direita do rio Indo. O estudo corrobora que não há sinapomorfias morfológicas inequívocas em nenhuma das populações existentes de ambas as espécies. O estudo demonstra ainda que o comprimento da cabeça, um caractere frequentemente usado na taxonomia de Mahseer, não é boa medida para identificação das espécies. Finalmente, o presente estudo estabelece que Naziritor zhobensis ainda existe nos corpos d'água do Paquistão e que o Mahseer dourado ocorrendo no sistema fluvial Indo do Paquistão é Tor putitora.

Animals , Cyprinidae , Pakistan , India
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225388, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1366211


Genetic and environmental factors are essential in occlusal variations and malocclusion and have been of considerable interest to orthodontists. Studies on twin pairs are one of the most effective methods for investigating genetically determined occlusal variables. Many studies have focused on distances between first molars or between canines but malocclusions can also occur in other regions of the dental arch. Aim: To evaluate the characteristics of the dental arch between pairs of Monozygotic (MZ) and Dizygotic (DZ) twins from Southern India. Methods: A random sample of 51 twin pairs (12­18years old) participated in this study. The zygosity of twin pairs was recorded by facial appearance. The occlusion of the first permanent molars was recorded according to Angle's classification. Study models were prepared to assess dental arch characteristics (i.e., arch form, arch perimeter, arch length; intercanine, intermolar width, and teeth size discrepancy). The obtained data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software 19.0. The student's t-test (two-tailed, independent) and Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of studied parameters. Results: Angle's Class I molar relation was more commonly observed followed by the Class II molar relationship among twins. The measured dental arch dimensions did not show a statistically significant difference among twin pairs. The ovoid arch form was commonly observed among Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins. There was a similarity among MZ and DZ twins in the anterior and overall Bolton's ratio. Conclusion: There were similar occurrences of measured parameters among twins, which showed genetic predominance in the expression of measured dental arch traits

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Twins, Dizygotic , Twins, Monozygotic , Dental Arch/anatomy & histology , India
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 212-216, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365352


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Neonates are more susceptible to drug interactions and adverse effects, and special care should be taken when prescribing medication to them. This study aimed to investigate drug usage in the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted on 98 patients at the Apollo tertiary care hospital (Bannerghatta, Bangalore, India) in a period of 6 months. The most common indications for neonatal intensive care unit admission, average number of drugs per patient, the most frequently used medication, distribution of patients based on the birth procedure, and possible drug interactions were collected from patient profiles. RESULTS: Among the patients, 52% were males and 48% were females. Notably, 38% of patients were preterm, 60% were term, and only 2% were post-term. Also, 80.6% were born by cesarean section and 19.4% were born by normal vaginal delivery. The highest mean of drug use was in the patient of 1,000-1,500 g (8.06 per patient). Preterm was the most frequent indication for admission in neonatal intensive care unit, followed by hyperbilirubinemia and then respiratory distress syndrome. The most frequently used medication was vitamin K (99%) and antibiotics followed by dextrose. In different types of antibiotics, amikacin (41%), cefoperazone+sulbactam (35%), cephalosporin (1%), ceftriaxone (0.7%), and amoxicillin (0.3%) were commonly administered. There were some possible interactions, such as aminoglycoside with furosemide and calcium gluconate. CONCLUSION: Premature birth and resulting low birth weight were the main reasons for drug prescription. High administration of antibiotics is probably an area of concern and should be seriously considered.

Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , India
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365223


Abstract Objective: To compare the Oncostatin M (OSM) concentrations in tissues of patients with chronic periodontitis with and without diabetes. Material and Methods: Sixty-four subjects visiting the dental outpatient department were categorized as "healthy" (Group 1), "periodontitis" (Group 2), and "diabetes with periodontitis" (Group 3) groups. The clinical oral examination included assessment of plaque, gingivitis, probing depth, clinical attachment level. Blood glucose was assessed for group 3 patients. OSM concentration in the tissues was assessed using ELISA in all groups. Results: The mean OSM was 0.02 ± 0.04 pg/mg in the healthy group, 0.12 ± 0.09 pg/mg in the chronic periodontitis group and 0.13 ± 0.10 pg/mg in the diabetes-periodontitis group. A significantly higher mean OSM was seen in Group 2 and Group 3 than Group 1. The amount of OSM positively correlated with probing depth and clinical attachment level. Conclusion: Periodontal disease causes a rise in Oncostatin M, independent of the diabetic status. Expression of OSM in the gingival tissues can serve as an inflammatory marker.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Dental Plaque Index , Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus , Oncostatin M/analysis , Chronic Periodontitis/pathology , Periodontal Diseases , Blood Glucose , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diagnosis, Oral , Gingiva , India/epidemiology , Inflammation
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210058, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365226


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate and compare the effect of 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA), 9% Etidronic acid (HEDP), and 7% Maleic acid (MA) on the push-out bond strength of NeoMTA Plus sealer to the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of root canal dentin. Material and Methods Forty single-rooted human maxillary central incisors were selected and decoronated to 12 mm long root fragments. Working length was established and root canals were then enlarged up to rotary Protaper F3. After each instrumentation, the root canal was irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl. For the final irrigation regimen, the specimens were divided into 4 groups (n=10) and treated with EDTA, HEDP, MA or Saline. Root canals were coated with NeoMTA Plus sealer, and obturation was done with single cone obturation technique. Subsequently, three horizontal sections were taken from the coronal, middle and apical thirds of each specimen, and POBS was measured using a universal testing machine. The type of bond failures was assessed under a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis was done with One-way ANOVA with Tukey's Post hoc analysis. Results MA and EDTA showed the highest POBS. There was no significant difference in bond strength between MA and EDTA (p>0.05). HEDP and Saline showed lower POBS. Among all the four groups, the coronal third showed the highest values, followed by middle and apical thirds. Conclusion The type of chelating agent used during the root canal treatment significantly affects the bond strength of NeoMTA Plus to the root canal dentin.

Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials , Tensile Strength , Chelating Agents/chemistry , Dental Cements , Endodontics , Analysis of Variance , Edetic Acid , Etidronic Acid , Dental Materials/chemistry , Incisor , India , Maleic Hydrazide
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365230


ABSTRACT Over the past year and a half dental education has been conducted primarily online due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. During the pandemic, we have spent many hours a day on our computers, mobile phones, and tablets to gather information and participate in online seminars and classrooms. Health consequences resulting from the overuse of these devices include carpal tunnel syndrome as well as computer vision syndrome (CVS). Computer vision syndrome, also known as digital eye strain, has several associated features such as eye burning, strained vision, dry eye, blurred vision, and associated neck and shoulder pain. Several predisposing factors have been linked with CVS, but often this problem gets ignored. The management of this syndrome is aimed at educating dentists on computer use, position, and the surrounding environment. Considering all this, we must ensure that we spend some time away from these devices every day to avoid any significant vision problems. The objective of preparing this manuscript was to provide a brief overview of the increased prevalence of computer vision syndrome and its associated features.

Vision Disorders/prevention & control , Artificial Intelligence , Dentists , Eye Diseases/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Microcomputers , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Education, Dental , Screen Time , India
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365234


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the marginal adaptation of computer-aided designing and computer-aided machining (CAD/CAM) fabricated cobalt-chromium and zirconium-oxide-based ceramic crowns compared to those produced by a conventional method. Material and Methods The study consists of three groups; 45 crowns fabricated from cobalt-chromium (CAD-CoCr) and 45 crowns manufactured from zirconium CAD/CAM technology (CAD-Z), and 45 control (C) which consists of conventional metal-ceramic crowns. The marginal discrepancies in vertical dimensions were assessed utilizing a microscope in four surfaces (mesial, distal, vestibular, and oral) for each crown. On completion of the microscopic evaluation, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to study the difference in the four surfaces, considered altogether. Two-way ANOVA revealed the effect of three systems used for gap measurements of each landmark. The differences observed were considered significant at p<0.05. Results There were no differences in the four surfaces revealed by АNOVА in the three groups when considered altogether. Two-way ANOVA of each surface discovered no differences among all groups as well. Conclusion The CAD/CAM crowns revealed a comparable and satisfactory marginal adaptation compared to conventional metal-ceramic crowns.

Zirconium , Chromium Alloys , Dental Prosthesis/instrumentation , Crowns , Dental Porcelain , In Vitro Techniques , Analysis of Variance , Metal Ceramic Alloys , Computer-Aided Design , Dental Marginal Adaptation , India
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1386818


Abstract Objective: To translate Oral Health Literacy - Adult Questionnaire from English to Odia language and test its psychometric properties and assess its influence on oral health status of school teachers. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed among 400; 116 (29%) males and 284 (71%) female school teachers of Bhubaneswar. OHL-AQ questionnaire subsequent to being translated to Odia language utilizing World Health Organization recommended translation back translation protocol was then tested for the establishment of its psychometric properties with assistance from the selected expert panel of academicians. The oral health status of participants was assessed using the WHO oral health assessment form-2013. Chi-square, t-tests, one-way ANOVA, and linear regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: Internal consistency of OHL-AQ-O was acceptable with an alpha value of 0.70. Test-retest reliability showed almost perfect agreement (ICC=0.90, CI=0.85-0.93) indicating highly reliable translated scale (p=0.001). Overall mean oral health literacy scores were 13.02±1.86, with about 80% belonging to the high oral health literacy level group. Caries prevalence was 78%, with a mean DMFT of 3.04±2.55. Shallow pockets were absent majorly in teachers belonging to the high oral health literacy group (p=0.01). The multiple linear regression model depicted that only the teaching experience variable added significantly to the prediction (p=0.008). Conclusion: OHL-AQ-O questionnaire was found valid and reliable to measure OHL. Further application of the instrument in other communities and populations will support establishing the external validity of the OHL-AQ-O.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Psychometrics/methods , Oral Health , Health Education, Dental , Health Literacy , Translating , Chi-Square Distribution , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , India/epidemiology
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(3): 280-286, July-Sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346270


Abstract Introduction: Transfusion in cirrhotic patients remains a challenge due to the absence of evidence-based guidelines. Our study aimed to determine the indication of transfusion and the associated transfusion thresholds in cirrhotic patients. Methods: This retrospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Transfusion Medicine at a tertiary care liver center from October 2018 to March 2019. The blood bank and patient records of cirrhotic patients admitted during the study period were retrieved and analyzed to determine the current transfusion practice. Results: A total of 992 cirrhotic patients were included in the study. Blood components were transfused to 402 (40.5%) patients. Sixty-nine (17.2%) patients were transfused to control/treat active bleeding, while 333 (82.8%) were transfused prophylactically. Packed red blood cells (65.4%) was the most commonly transfused blood component, followed by fresh frozen plasma (35.6%), among patients receiving transfusions (therapeutic & prophylactic). The mean pre-transfusion thresholds for: (i) packed red blood cell transfusion: hemoglobin less than 7 g/dL; (ii) fresh frozen plasma transfusion: international normalized ratio over 2.6; (iii) platelet concentrate transfusion: platelet count less than 40,700/µL, and; (iv) cryoprecipitate transfusion: fibrinogen less than 110 mg/dL. The average length of stay of the study population was 5 days (3-9. Conclusion: To conclude, 40.5% of our hospitalized cirrhotic patients were transfused, with the majority of the transfusions being prophylactic (82.8%). Separate guidelines are required for this patient population, as these patients have an altered hemostasis which responds differently to the transfusion of blood components.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders , Blood Transfusion , Liver Cirrhosis , India
Invest. educ. enferm ; 39(2): [e12], 15 junio 2021. table 1, table 2, table 3, table 4
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1254721


Objective. This study was carried out to examine professional and ethical values related to the profession from nurses' perspectives. Methods. This was a cross-sectional survey carried out among 124 randomly selected nurses working at a tertiary care hospital in South India. The data was collected using Nursing Professional Values scale (NPVS-3). This tool consisted of 28 items to assess nurses' professional values in three domains namely; Caring (10 items), activism(10items), and professionalism (8items). The maximum range of scores is 28­140. The higher the score, the stronger the nurse's professional value orientation. Results. The mean total score of the Professional Value scale was high (121.07±15.32). The mean score of the participants was higher in the caring domain (44.02±5.75) than activism (42.19±6.33) and professionalism domains (34.86±4.27). Pearson correlational analysis revealed that nurses with less experience had greater mean professional values score than nurses with higher experience (p<0.01). Conclusion. The present study showed that nurses have high professional and ethical values, although they perceive that the most important values are those related to direct patient care. Continuing education programs should be designed so that nurses understand that nonclinical professional values are also equally important in promoting the nursing profession

Objetivo. Este estudio se llevó a cabo para evaluar los valores profesionales y éticos relacionados con la profesión desde la perspectiva de los enfermeros. Métodos. Se trata de un estudio transversal realizado entre 124 enfermeras seleccionadas aleatoriamente quienes trabajan en un hospital de atención terciaria del sur de la India. Los datos se recogieron utilizando la escala de valores profesionales de enfermería (NPVS-3). Este instrumento consta de 28 ítems con respuesta tipo Likert de 1-5 que evalúa los valores profesionales de los enfermeros en tres dominios: cuidado (10 ítems), activismo (10 ítems) y profesionalismo (8 ítems). El rango máximo de las puntuaciones es de 28 a 140, cuanto mayor sea la puntuación, mayor será la orientación hacia los valores profesionales de enfermería. Resultados. La puntuación media total de la escala de valores profesionales fue alta (121.07±15.32). La puntuación media de los participantes fue más alta en el dominio de cuidado (44.02±5.75) que en el del activismo (42.19±6.33) y en el de profesionalismo (34.86±4.27). El análisis correlacional de Pearson reveló que las enfermeras con menos experiencia tenían una mayor puntuación media en valores profesionales que las enfermeras con mayor experiencia (p<0.01). Conclusión. El presente estudio mostró que las enfermeras tienen altos valores profesionales y éticos, aunque perciben que los valores más importantes son los relacionados con el cuidado directo al paciente. Deben diseñarse programas de formación continua para que las enfermeras comprendan que los valores profesionales no clínicos también son igualmente importantes para promover la profesión de enfermería

Objetivo. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os valores profissionais e éticos relacionados à profissão na perspectiva dos enfermeiros. Métodos. Este é um estudo transversal de 124 enfermeiras selecionadas aleatoriamente que trabalham em um hospital terciário no sul da Índia. Os dados foram coletados por meio da Nursing Professional Values Scale (NPVS-3). Esse instrumento é composto por 28 itens com resposta do tipo Likert de 1 a 5 que avaliam os valores profissionais do enfermeiro em três domínios: cuidado (10 itens), ativismo (10 itens) e profissionalismo (8 itens). A faixa máxima de pontuação é de 28 a 140, quanto maior a pontuação, maior a orientação para os valores do profissional de enfermagem. Resultados. A pontuação média total da escala de valores profissionais foi elevada (121.07±15.32). A pontuação média dos participantes foi maior no domínio cuidar (44.02±5.75) do que no ativismo (42.19±6.33) e no domínio profissionalismo (34.86±4.27). A análise correlacional de Pearson revelou que enfermeiras menos experientes tiveram uma pontuação média mais alta em valores profissionais do que enfermeiras mais experientes (p<0.01). Conclusão. O presente estudo mostrou que os enfermeiros possuem elevados valores profissionais e éticos, embora percebam que os valores mais importantes são aqueles relacionados ao cuidado direto ao paciente. Os programas de educação continuada devem ser planejados de forma que os enfermeiros entendam que os valores profissionais não clínicos também são igualmente importantes na promoção da profissão de enfermagem.

Humans , Social Values , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethics, Nursing , Professionalism , India
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-9, jun. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284417


Background:Lumbar sympathectomy through radio ablation is a useful treatment of peripheral ischemia. However, clinical efficacy with respect to lower limb ulcers is not adequately established in the Indian population. The study was conducted to evaluate the role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the lumbar sympathetic ganglia in healing of ischemic ulcers of the lower limb.Method:The prospective study with 63 patients registered in the General surgery department with lower limb ischemic ulcers between December 2017­ July2019 were treated with RFA. Patients with cardiopulmonary disease, pregnant, congenital malformation, or skin infection at the site of intervention, or suffering from bleeding disorders, were excluded from the study. Clinical investigation of the wound was performed, and demographic data was collected. Comparative reduction in wound size was assessed through Friedman`s ANOVA (P<0.001). Difference in pain score, hospital stay, and walking distance were evaluated using Wilcoxon matched pair test (P<0.001), Unpaired t-test, and Paired t-test (P<0.05).Result:Majority of the patients were male (n=40) with a mean age of 60.93 SD14.34 years. Significant reduction in wound size, pain scores and hospital stay were observed post procedure(P<0.001). Number of RFA sessions was significantly associated with the size of the ulcer and Fontaine's classification 2 and 3 (P<0.0001).Conclusion:RFA of lumbar sympathetic ganglia is a potential treatment modality for lower limb ischemic ulcers.

Antecedentes: La simpatectomía lumbar a través de la ablación por radiofrecuencia es un tratamiento útil de la isquemia periférica. Sin embargo, la eficacia clínica con respecto a las úlceras en las extremidades inferiores no está adecuadamente establecida en la población india. El estudio se llevó a cabo para evaluar el papel de la ablación por radiofrecuencia (RFA) de los ganglios simpáticos lumbares en la curación de las úlceras isquémicas de la extremidad inferior. Método: El estudio prospectivo con 63 pacientes registrados en el departamento de cirugía general con úlceras isquémicas de las extremidades inferiores entre diciembre de 2017 y julio de 2019 fueron tratados con RFA. Los pacientes con enfermedad cardiopulmonar, malformación embarazada, congénita o infección de la piel en el lugar de la intervención, o que sufren de trastornos hemorrágicos, fueron excluidos del estudio. Se realizó una investigación clínica de la herida y se recopilaron datos demográficos. La reducción comparativa en el tamaño de la herida se evaluó a través del ANOVA de Friedman (P<0.001).Resultado: La diferencia en la puntuación del dolor, la estancia en el hospital y la distancia a pie se evaluaron mediante la prueba de par coincidente de Wilcoxon (P<0.001), la prueba t no emparejada y la prueba t emparejada (P<0.05). La mayoría de los pacientes eran varones (n-40) con una edad media de 60,93 SD14,34 años. Se observó una reducción significativa en el tamaño de la herida, las puntuaciones de dolor y la estancia hospitalaria (P<0.001). El número de sesiones de RFA se asoció significativamente con el tamaño de la úlcera y las clasificaciones 2 y 3 de Fontaine (P<0.0001).Conclusión: LA RFA de los ganglios simpáticos lumbares puede constituir una opción terapéutica para las úlceras isquémicas de las extremidades inferiores.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Ulcer/therapy , Lower Extremity , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Ischemia/therapy , Prospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , India
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(5): 1847-1852, maio 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249504


Resumo O texto apresenta e discute os principais aspectos relacionados à dinâmica atual da indústria de vacinas no mundo e no Brasil, com foco na demanda criada pela pandemia da COVID-19. No plano global, expõe brevemente o lugar ocupado atualmente pelo Brasil no âmbito dos BRICS e expõe e analisa as opções - identidades e diferenças - da política industrial de Brasil, China e Índia no campo das vacinas. A seguir, analisa o deslocamento da indústria de vacinas de uma situação de produção exclusiva de imunizantes para um controle majoritário da grande indústria farmacêutica. Mais adiante, recupera aspectos fundamentais recentes da indústria de vacinas no Brasil, com ênfase em Biomanguinhos/Fiocruz e no Instituto Butantan. Finalmente, discute os sucessos e limitações do mecanismo de transferência de tecnologia utilizado pelas duas instituições, bem como a relevância do compromisso historicamente assumido pelas mesmas com as políticas públicas de saúde.

Abstract The text presents and discusses the main aspects related to the current dynamics of the vaccine industry in the world and in Brazil, focusing on the demand created by the pandemic of COVID-19. At the global level, it briefly exposes the place currently occupied by Brazil within the scope of the BRICS and sets out and analyzes the options - identities and differences - of industrial policy in Brazil, China and India in the field of vaccines. Next, it analyzes the displacement of the vaccine industry, from a situation of exclusive production of immunizers to a majority control by the large pharmaceutical industry. Further on, it recovers recent fundamental aspects of the vaccine industry in Brazil, with an emphasis on Biomanguinhos / Fiocruz and the Butantan Institute. Finally, it discusses the successes and limitations of the technology transfer mechanism used by the two institutions, as well as the relevance of their historically assumed commitment to public health policies.

Humans , Vaccines , COVID-19 , Brazil , China , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , India
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(4): 1419-1428, abr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285924


Abstract The present study was an effort to assess the mitigation interventions carried out, so far, by the nations to fight the pandemic COVID-19. The novelty of the study was that it had considered the issue of pandemic mitigation strategy as a decision making problem. The performances of the twenty nations were to be ranked. The problem considered in the study was essentially a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) problem. The available alternatives were the 20 countries and the 8 traits were the criteria. The Technique of Order Preference Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was used in the present study. The study used Entropy method for assignment of weights to all the criteria. The performance score obtained in respect of the countries considered in the study and the corresponding ranks indicated the relative performances of the countries in their efforts to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. The results show that New Zealand is the best performing country and India is the worst one. Brazil ranked 17th, while the rank of UK was 15. The performance of the USA stood at 18th position.

Resumo O presente estudo foi um esforço para avaliar as intervenções de mitigação realizadas, até o momento, pelas nações para combater a pandemia COVID-19. A novidade do estudo é que considerou a questão da estratégia de mitigação da pandemia como um problema de tomada de decisão. As performances das vinte nações deveriam ser classificadas. O problema considerado no estudo era essencialmente um problema de Análise de Decisão Multi-Critério (MCDA). As alternativas disponíveis eram os 20 países e as 8 características eram os critérios. A Técnica de Similaridade de Preferência de Pedido com a Solução Ideal (TOPSIS) foi utilizada no presente estudo. O estudo utilizou o método da Entropia para atribuição de pesos a todos os critérios. A pontuação de desempenho obtida em relação aos países considerados no estudo e as classificações correspondentes indicaram os desempenhos relativos dos países em seus esforços para mitigar a pandemia COVID-19. Os resultados mostram que a Nova Zelândia é o país com melhor desempenho e a Índia o pior. O Brasil ficou em 17º, enquanto o Reino Unido ficou em 15. O desempenho dos EUA ficou na 18ª posição.

Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Decision Support Techniques , Entropy , United Kingdom/epidemiology , India/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(3): 101597, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339427


ABSTRACT Mucormycosis or black fungus infection is a less common disease but highly fatal infection, infecting the immunocompromised individuals. The site of predilection of the fungus is found to be lungs and brain in addition to its sequestration in sinusoidal spaces. Presently with the ongoing COVID 19 pandemic, the prevalence of this infection is found to be high in the Indian population. The fungus establishes itself by affecting the compromised immune system of an individual and thereby making the individual susceptible to other diseases/ infection. The reasons attributed to the sudden upsurge are steroidal therapeutics abuse, tocilizumab therapy and diabetes mellitus.To avert the cytokine storm, the medical health workers are necessitated to include steroid drugs in COVID 19 treatment protocol however inclusion of these drugs in patients who do essentially require steroids can have their immune system debilitated and permit the invasion of this fungus. According to International Diabetes Federation (IDF), 77 million Indians are known to be diabetic, cautioning the physicians to be vigilante of the impending black fungus infection in the event of COVID19 affliction in such individuals. There is causal relationship between anti-hyperglycemic drugs and weakened immune system and opportunity for the fungus invasion. This review attempts to explain the inter-relatedness of COVID19 infection, its treatment and eventual black fungus infection risk.

Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , India/epidemiology
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1346679


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of oil pulling in the management of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). Material and Methods: A total of 62 patients clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as OSMF were incorporated in the present study. The subjects are randomly divided equally into two groups, Group A (oil pulling group) and Group B (placebo group). Subjects in Group A were asked to perform OP with sesame oil on an empty stomach in the morning for 3 months and Group B was given placebo capsules for 3 months. Assessment of various clinical parameters was done regularly, and data were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: Eighty-two percent had a habit of betel nut chewing, while 18% of the patients had tobacco chewing habits, which were among the main causative factors for OSMF. Clinical improvements in mouth opening, tongue protrusion, difficulty in speech and deglutition, and burning sensation were significant in the Group A. None of the patients reported any discomfort or side effects. The symptoms were not severe in nature and resolved in few days without stopping the therapy. Conclusion: Oil pulling can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like a mouth opening and tongue protrusion.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Oral Submucous Fibrosis/pathology , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Therapeutics , Effectiveness , Sesame Oil , Chi-Square Distribution , Visual Analog Scale , India/epidemiology
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143402


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the current level of oral health knowledge and identify information sources among adolescents in Bhubaneswar, India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional examination was conducted among 1330 adolescents aged 13 to 15 years enrolled in 24 randomly selected government and private schools in Bhubaneswar. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the responses. Chi-square test with a level of significance set at 5% was used for statistical analysis. Results: Parents (55%) followed by media (18%) were the major sources of oral health information among the study population, which was statistically not significant in relation to gender and school type. Many subjects (95.3%) perceived sweets could cause tooth decay; however, this was statistically significant only among school type (p<0.05). Around (45%) knew about fluoride and only 36% properly identified fluoride's action as preventing cavities. This was statistically significant among both gender and school type (p<0.05). Seventy-five percent of students effectively distinguished gum disease symptoms, which was significant only with gender (p<0.05). Around 55% identified that oral habits have an influence on oral health, which showed significance among gender (p<0.05). Conclusion: Children oral health knowledge was not satisfactory, highlighting the need to utilize parents, schoolteachers and media to provide oral health education. It's essential for designing and implementing a person-centered care model in dentistry.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Oral Health/education , Adolescent , Dental Care , India/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351218


ABSTRACT Objective: Tocompare the effect of tooth brushing on surface roughness of Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC; GC Gold label 2LC Light Cured Universal Restorative) and Glass Hybrid (GH; GC EQUIA SYSTEM- EQUIA Forte™ Fil and EQUIA Forte™ Coat) restorative material at 1- and 3-months interval simulated by tooth brushing. Material and Methods: RMGIC and GH material specimens (20 each) were prepared according to manufacturer instructions in 10mm × 2 mm dimensions using a mylar strip. A specially designed toothbrush simulator was used along with Oral B Pro 2 2000N powered toothbrush and Colgate Total dentifrice (Colgate-Palmolive India limited; Relative dentin abrasivity - RDA:70- Low abrasive) to perform brushing strokes. Specimens were subjected to surface roughness analysis before and after simulated tooth brushing at baseline, 1, and 3 months. Results: The intragroup comparison was done using repeated-measures ANOVA. Intergroup comparisons were done using an independent sample t-test and General Linear Model (ANCOVA). Surface roughness increased from baseline through 3 months in both RMGIC and GH groups. The mean surface roughness in RMGIC group was significantly higher than GH group at baseline 1 and 3-months, respectively (p<0.001, <0.001, and <0.001). Interaction between group and baseline surface roughness was not significant (p=0.466). The estimated marginal means were significantly higher in RMGIC than GH group (p=0.008). Conclusion: The surface roughness of both RMGIC and GH restorative increased from baseline to 1 month and 3 months after the simulated toothbrushing protocol. GH exhibited significantly lower surface roughness than RMGIC at all the tested intervals.

Surface Properties , Toothbrushing/instrumentation , Microscopy, Atomic Force/instrumentation , Dental Materials , Glass Ionomer Cements , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , India/epidemiology
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351217


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy on whole salivary flow in patients with xerostomia and healthy adults. Material and Methods: Thirty subjects with a history of xerostomia and subjects withunstimulated salivary flow equal to or less than 0.5 ml in 5 min were included in the study group, and 30 healthy subjects were included in the control group. Low forced spitting unstimulated saliva was collected for five minutes in a test tube fitted with a funnel. Then electrode pads of the TENS unit were applied bilaterally on skin overlying the parotid glands and at optimal intensity, stimulated saliva was collected for 5 minutes with the same method in a separate graduated test tube. The salivary flow rate (per minute) was calculated by dividing the amount of collected saliva (volume in mL) by the duration of collection period (5 minutes) and the salivary flow rates prior and after electrostimulation were compared for both groups. The Student's t-test (unpaired and paired) was performed for group-wise comparisons. Results: In study group, the mean unstimulated salivary flow rate was 0.07 ± 0.01 mL/min. There was an 85.71% increase in salivary flow (0.13 ± 0.03 mL/min) during the TENS application and the difference was highly significant (p<0.001). In control group, the mean unstimulated salivary flow rate was 0.37 ± 0.07 mL/min. There was a 21.62% increase in salivary flow (0.45 ± 0.07 mL/min) during the TENS application and the difference was highly significant (p<0.001). An increase in mean salivary flow rate both in males and females after TENS application in both groups (p<0.001) was noted. The difference between unstimulated, stimulated and mean difference in salivary flow rate between males and females was notstatistically significant in both groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: TENS can be an effective therapy in increasing whole salivary flow rates in patients with xerostomia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Saliva/immunology , Xerostomia/pathology , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation/instrumentation , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , India/epidemiology