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1.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-9, jun. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284417

ABSTRACT

Background:Lumbar sympathectomy through radio ablation is a useful treatment of peripheral ischemia. However, clinical efficacy with respect to lower limb ulcers is not adequately established in the Indian population. The study was conducted to evaluate the role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the lumbar sympathetic ganglia in healing of ischemic ulcers of the lower limb.Method:The prospective study with 63 patients registered in the General surgery department with lower limb ischemic ulcers between December 2017­ July2019 were treated with RFA. Patients with cardiopulmonary disease, pregnant, congenital malformation, or skin infection at the site of intervention, or suffering from bleeding disorders, were excluded from the study. Clinical investigation of the wound was performed, and demographic data was collected. Comparative reduction in wound size was assessed through Friedman`s ANOVA (P<0.001). Difference in pain score, hospital stay, and walking distance were evaluated using Wilcoxon matched pair test (P<0.001), Unpaired t-test, and Paired t-test (P<0.05).Result:Majority of the patients were male (n=40) with a mean age of 60.93 SD14.34 years. Significant reduction in wound size, pain scores and hospital stay were observed post procedure(P<0.001). Number of RFA sessions was significantly associated with the size of the ulcer and Fontaine's classification 2 and 3 (P<0.0001).Conclusion:RFA of lumbar sympathetic ganglia is a potential treatment modality for lower limb ischemic ulcers.


Antecedentes: La simpatectomía lumbar a través de la ablación por radiofrecuencia es un tratamiento útil de la isquemia periférica. Sin embargo, la eficacia clínica con respecto a las úlceras en las extremidades inferiores no está adecuadamente establecida en la población india. El estudio se llevó a cabo para evaluar el papel de la ablación por radiofrecuencia (RFA) de los ganglios simpáticos lumbares en la curación de las úlceras isquémicas de la extremidad inferior. Método: El estudio prospectivo con 63 pacientes registrados en el departamento de cirugía general con úlceras isquémicas de las extremidades inferiores entre diciembre de 2017 y julio de 2019 fueron tratados con RFA. Los pacientes con enfermedad cardiopulmonar, malformación embarazada, congénita o infección de la piel en el lugar de la intervención, o que sufren de trastornos hemorrágicos, fueron excluidos del estudio. Se realizó una investigación clínica de la herida y se recopilaron datos demográficos. La reducción comparativa en el tamaño de la herida se evaluó a través del ANOVA de Friedman (P<0.001).Resultado: La diferencia en la puntuación del dolor, la estancia en el hospital y la distancia a pie se evaluaron mediante la prueba de par coincidente de Wilcoxon (P<0.001), la prueba t no emparejada y la prueba t emparejada (P<0.05). La mayoría de los pacientes eran varones (n-40) con una edad media de 60,93 SD14,34 años. Se observó una reducción significativa en el tamaño de la herida, las puntuaciones de dolor y la estancia hospitalaria (P<0.001). El número de sesiones de RFA se asoció significativamente con el tamaño de la úlcera y las clasificaciones 2 y 3 de Fontaine (P<0.0001).Conclusión: LA RFA de los ganglios simpáticos lumbares puede constituir una opción terapéutica para las úlceras isquémicas de las extremidades inferiores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Ulcer/therapy , Lower Extremity , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Ischemia/therapy , Prospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , India
2.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 39(2): [e12], 15 junio 2021. table 1, table 2, table 3, table 4
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1254721

ABSTRACT

Objective. This study was carried out to examine professional and ethical values related to the profession from nurses' perspectives. Methods. This was a cross-sectional survey carried out among 124 randomly selected nurses working at a tertiary care hospital in South India. The data was collected using Nursing Professional Values scale (NPVS-3). This tool consisted of 28 items to assess nurses' professional values in three domains namely; Caring (10 items), activism(10items), and professionalism (8items). The maximum range of scores is 28­140. The higher the score, the stronger the nurse's professional value orientation. Results. The mean total score of the Professional Value scale was high (121.07±15.32). The mean score of the participants was higher in the caring domain (44.02±5.75) than activism (42.19±6.33) and professionalism domains (34.86±4.27). Pearson correlational analysis revealed that nurses with less experience had greater mean professional values score than nurses with higher experience (p<0.01). Conclusion. The present study showed that nurses have high professional and ethical values, although they perceive that the most important values are those related to direct patient care. Continuing education programs should be designed so that nurses understand that nonclinical professional values are also equally important in promoting the nursing profession


Objetivo. Este estudio se llevó a cabo para evaluar los valores profesionales y éticos relacionados con la profesión desde la perspectiva de los enfermeros. Métodos. Se trata de un estudio transversal realizado entre 124 enfermeras seleccionadas aleatoriamente quienes trabajan en un hospital de atención terciaria del sur de la India. Los datos se recogieron utilizando la escala de valores profesionales de enfermería (NPVS-3). Este instrumento consta de 28 ítems con respuesta tipo Likert de 1-5 que evalúa los valores profesionales de los enfermeros en tres dominios: cuidado (10 ítems), activismo (10 ítems) y profesionalismo (8 ítems). El rango máximo de las puntuaciones es de 28 a 140, cuanto mayor sea la puntuación, mayor será la orientación hacia los valores profesionales de enfermería. Resultados. La puntuación media total de la escala de valores profesionales fue alta (121.07±15.32). La puntuación media de los participantes fue más alta en el dominio de cuidado (44.02±5.75) que en el del activismo (42.19±6.33) y en el de profesionalismo (34.86±4.27). El análisis correlacional de Pearson reveló que las enfermeras con menos experiencia tenían una mayor puntuación media en valores profesionales que las enfermeras con mayor experiencia (p<0.01). Conclusión. El presente estudio mostró que las enfermeras tienen altos valores profesionales y éticos, aunque perciben que los valores más importantes son los relacionados con el cuidado directo al paciente. Deben diseñarse programas de formación continua para que las enfermeras comprendan que los valores profesionales no clínicos también son igualmente importantes para promover la profesión de enfermería


Objetivo. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os valores profissionais e éticos relacionados à profissão na perspectiva dos enfermeiros. Métodos. Este é um estudo transversal de 124 enfermeiras selecionadas aleatoriamente que trabalham em um hospital terciário no sul da Índia. Os dados foram coletados por meio da Nursing Professional Values Scale (NPVS-3). Esse instrumento é composto por 28 itens com resposta do tipo Likert de 1 a 5 que avaliam os valores profissionais do enfermeiro em três domínios: cuidado (10 itens), ativismo (10 itens) e profissionalismo (8 itens). A faixa máxima de pontuação é de 28 a 140, quanto maior a pontuação, maior a orientação para os valores do profissional de enfermagem. Resultados. A pontuação média total da escala de valores profissionais foi elevada (121.07±15.32). A pontuação média dos participantes foi maior no domínio cuidar (44.02±5.75) do que no ativismo (42.19±6.33) e no domínio profissionalismo (34.86±4.27). A análise correlacional de Pearson revelou que enfermeiras menos experientes tiveram uma pontuação média mais alta em valores profissionais do que enfermeiras mais experientes (p<0.01). Conclusão. O presente estudo mostrou que os enfermeiros possuem elevados valores profissionais e éticos, embora percebam que os valores mais importantes são aqueles relacionados ao cuidado direto ao paciente. Os programas de educação continuada devem ser planejados de forma que os enfermeiros entendam que os valores profissionais não clínicos também são igualmente importantes na promoção da profissão de enfermagem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Values , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethics, Nursing , Professionalism , India
3.
Rev. latinoam. bioét ; 21(1): 99-112, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341509

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The modern hospice movement, which is the origin of what is now known as palliative care, derived strong inspiration from Christianity. Given this original Christian inspiration, the global spread of palliative care even to countries where Christianity is only a minority religion may look surprising. In line with the theory of the "secularization of hospice," it could be argued that palliative care has spread globally because its underlying philosophy has become secular, allowing it to become universal. However, given the continuing importance of religion in many areas of palliative care, we could wonder how secular contemporary palliative care really is. This article argues that the universality of palliative care philosophy resides in its susceptibility to contextualization. Palliative care has become a global success story because people all over the world committed to palliative care's principles and ideas have contextualized these and developed models of palliative care delivery and even philosophy that are adapted to the local socio-economic and cultural-religious contexts. This article analyzes palliative care in India to illustrate this point, describing contextualized models of palliative care delivery and showing that palliative care physicians and nurses in India draw inspiration from their local context and religiosity.


Resumen: el movimiento moderno hospitalario, que es el origen de lo que ahora se conoce como cuidados paliativos, obtuvo una fuerte inspiración del cristianismo. Dada esta inspiración cristiana original, la propagación global de los cuidados paliativos incluso a países donde el cristianismo es sólo una religión minoritaria puede parecer sorprendente. En consonancia con la teoría de la "secularización de la hospitalización", se podría argumentar que los cuidados paliativos se han extendido globalmente puesto que su filosofía subyacente se ha vuelto secular, lo que le permite convertirse en universal. Sin embargo, dada la importancia continua de la religión en muchas áreas de los cuidados paliativos, podríamos preguntarnos cuán seculares son realmente los cuidados paliativos contemporáneos. Este artículo argumenta que la universalidad de la filosofía de cuidados paliativos reside en su susceptibilidad a la contextualización. Los cuidados paliativos se han convertido en una historia de éxito mundial, ya que personas de todo el mundo comprometidas con los principios e ideas de los cuidados paliativos los han contextualizado y han desarrollado modelos de prestación de cuidados paliativos e incluso una filosofía que se adapta al contexto socioeconómico y cultural-religioso local. Este artículo analiza los cuidados paliativos en la India para ilustrar este punto a través de modelos contextualizados de prestación de cuidados paliativos, y muestra que los médicos y enfermeras de cuidados paliativos en la India se inspiran en su contexto local y religiosidad.


Resumo: O movimento moderno hospitalar, que é a origem do que agora é conhecido como "cuidados paliativos", derivou de uma forte inspiragao do cristianismo. Tendo em vista essa inspiração cristã original, a propagação global dos cuidados paliativos, inclusive a países onde o cristianismo é somente uma religião minoritária, pode parecer surpreendente. Em consonância com a teoria da secularização da hospitalização, poderia argumentar-se que os cuidados paliativos vêm se estendendo globalmente, visto que sua filosofia subjacente vem se tornado secular, o que lhe permite converter-se em universal. Contudo, considerando a importância contínua da religião em muitas áreas dos cuidados paliativos, poderíamos perguntar-nos quão seculares são realmente os cuidados paliativos contemporáneos. Neste artigo, argumenta-se que a universalidade da filosofía de cuidados paliativos reside em sua suscetibilidade a contextualização. Os cuidados paliativos vêm se tornando uma história de sucesso mundial, já que pessoas de todo o mundo comprometidas com os princípios e as ideias dos cuidados paliativos os têm contextualizado e tem desenvolvido modelos de prestação de cuidados paliativos e inclusive uma filosofía que é adaptada ao contexto socioeconômico e cultural-religioso local. No texto, são analisados os cuidados paliativos na Índia para ilustrar esse ponto por meio de modelos contextualizados de prestação de cuidados paliativos e é mostrado que os médicos e os enfermeiros de cuidados paliativos na Índia se inspiram em seu contexto local e em sua religiosidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Palliative Care , Religion , Bioethics , Christianity , India
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e05192020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155590

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Dengue presents with a variable clinical course, ranging from mild illness to potentially fatal hemorrhage and shock. We aimed to evaluate the capabilities of various hematological parameters observed early in the course of illness for predicting the clinical outcomes of illness. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of children admitted in the pediatric inpatient services of the institute with dengue between 2017 and 2019. We determined the relationships between the hematological parameters observed during the first evaluation and the various clinical outcomes. RESULTS: We evaluated data from 613 patients (age range, 26 days to 17 years). Of these, 29.85% exhibited fever with warning signs, and 8.97% had severe dengue. Lower values of hemoglobin, platelet count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and mean platelet volume, and higher values of total leukocyte count (TLC), hematocrit, and red cell distribution width variably correlated with numerous clinical outcomes-duration of hospital stay, development of complications, requirement of blood component transfusion, inotropic support, and mortality. Among the parameters, TLC ≥20,000/mL and initial platelet count ≤20,000/mL significantly associated with mortality, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 11.81 (4.21-33.80) and 5.53 (1.90-16.09), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Hematological parameters observed early during dengue infection may predict its clinical outcomes in infected children. Initial high TLC and low platelet count are potential predictors of fatal outcomes in the course of disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Severe Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Hematocrit , India/epidemiology , Leukocyte Count
5.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(4): e00061820, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249421

ABSTRACT

A legislação brasileira não prevê revisão periódica do registro dos agrotóxicos e, ainda hoje, são utilizados produtos proibidos em outros países. Partindo dos ingredientes ativos de agrotóxicos registrados no país, o presente estudo investigou a situação regulatória internacional nos países-membros da Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico (OCDE), da Comunidade Europeia e BRICS. Também se buscou relacionar os principais efeitos crônicos à saúde humana e ao meio ambiente dos ingredientes ativos de agrotóxicos mais comercializados no Brasil, em listas de classificação de potencial cancerígeno (Agência de Proteção Ambiental dos Estados Unidos - USEPA e Agência Internacional de Pesquisa em Câncer - IARC), desregulação endócrina e candidatos para substituição (estes dois últimos da Comunidade Europeia). Foram identificados 399 ingredientes ativos de agrotóxicos registrados no Brasil para uso agrícola, excluindo-se os microbiológicos e agentes biológicos de controle. Destes, não têm autorização 85,7% na Islândia, 84,7% na Noruega, 54,5% na Suíça, 52,6% na Índia, 45,6% na Turquia, 44,4% em Israel, 43,4% na Nova Zelândia, 42,4% no Japão, 41,5% na Comunidade Europeia, 39,6% no Canadá, 38,6% na China, 35,8% no Chile, 31,6% no México, 28,6% na Austrália e 25,6% nos Estados Unidos. Foram relacionados a danos à saúde e ao ambiente 120 ingredientes ativos de agrotóxicos. Considerando os ingredientes ativos de agrotóxicos para os quais estão disponíveis dados de comercialização no país, 67,2% deste volume está associado a pelo menos um dano crônico grave avaliado neste estudo. Os resultados do presente estudo indicam a necessidade de promover a transparência das bases de dados internacionais, no que tange às motivações para as respectivas decisões regulatórias e os órgãos reguladores brasileiros reavaliarem o registro de produtos obsoletos, fortalecendo políticas públicas relacionadas à redução do uso de agrotóxicos.


La legislación brasileña no prevé una revisión periódica del registro de los pesticidas e incluso hoy se utilizan productos prohibidos en otros países. Partiendo de los ingredientes activos de pesticidas registrados en el país, el presente estudio investigó la situación regulatoria internacional en los siguientes países-miembros: Organización para la Cooperación y Desarrollo Económico (OCDE), Comunidad Europea, y BRICS. También se buscó relacionar los principales efectos crónicos para la salud humana y en el medio ambiente de los ingredientes activos de pesticidas más comercializados en Brasil en listas de clasificación con potencial cancerígeno (Agencia de Protección Ambiental de Estados Unidos - USEPA e Agencia Internacional de Investigación sobre el Cáncer - IARC), desregulación endocrina y candidatos para sustitución, ambos de la Comunidad Europea. Se identificaron 399 ingredientes activos de pesticidas registrados en Brasil para uso agrícola, excluyéndose los microbiológicos y agentes biológicos de control. De estos, no tienen autorización en Islandia 85,7%, Noruega 84,7%, Suiza 54,5%, India 52,6%, Turquía 45,6%, Israel 44,4%, Nueva Zelanda 43,4%, Japón 42,4%, Comunidad Europea 41,5%, Canadá 39,6%, China 38,6%, Chile 35,8%, México 31,6%, Australia 28,6% y Estados Unidos 25,6%. 120 ingredientes activos de pesticidas estuvieron relacionados con daños en la salud y medioambiente. Considerando los ingredientes activos de pesticidas para los cuales están disponibles datos de comercialización en el país, un 67,2% de este volumen está asociado a por lo menos una enfermedad crónica grave evaluada en ese estudio. Los resultados del presente estudio indican la necesidad de promover la transparencia de las bases de datos internacionales, en lo que respecta a las motivaciones de las respectivas decisiones regulatorias, con el fin de que los órganos reguladores brasileños reevalúen el registro de productos obsoletos, así como para fortalecer políticas públicas relacionadas con la reducción del uso de pesticidas.


The Brazilian legislation does not provide for a periodic review of the registration of pesticides and, even nowadays, products banned in other countries are still used. Based on the pesticide active substances registered in the country, the present study investigated the international regulatory situation in the following member countries: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), European Community, and the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa). Moreover, we sought to relate the main chronic effects to human health and the environment of the most commercialized pesticide active substances in Brazil in lists of classification of carcinogenic potential (US Environmental Protection Agency - USEPA and International Agency for Research on Cancer - IARC), endocrine disruption, and candidates for substitution, both from the European Community. A total of 399 pesticide active substances registered in Brazil for agricultural use were identified, excluding microbiological and biological control agents. Of these, the percentage of unauthorized pesticide active substances according to countries is as follows: 85.7% in Iceland; 84.7% in Norway; 54.5% in Switzerland; 52.6% in India; 45.6% in Turkey; 44.4% in Israel; 43.4% in New Zealand; 42.4% in Japan; 41.5% in the European Community; 39.6% in Canada; 38.6% in China; 35.8% in Chile; 31.6% in Mexico; 28.6% in Australia; and 25.6% in the United States. 120 pesticide active substances were related to damage to health and the environment. Considering the pesticide active substances for which commercialization data are available in the country, 67.2% of this volume is associated with at least one serious chronic damage assessed in this study. The results of the present study indicate the need for promoting transparency of international databases, regarding the motivations of the respective regulatory decisions and the Brazilian regulatory bodies to reevaluate the registration of obsolete products and to strengthen public policies related to the reduction of the use of pesticides.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pesticides/toxicity , United States , Brazil , Canada , Chile , China , Environment , India , Japan , Mexico
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1810-1817, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134515

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The pear-shaped bony orbit connects with intracranial cavity via foramina's and fissures. The Meningo-orbital Foramen (MOF) is usually present in greater wing of sphenoid close to lateral edge of Superior orbital fissure. It provides a route for an anastomosis between the orbital branch of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) and recurrent meningeal branch of Ophthalmic Artery (OA) and hence, risk of damage during surgeries can occur. To verify occurrence and location, with morphology of MOF in dry orbits and the impending clinical hazards in surgeries pertaining to the orbit, document and analysis it to determine a standardized guideline. The presence for MOF was studied in 446 dry orbits with its location from the supra orbital margin (SOM), front zygomatic suture (FZS), the lateral tubercle of Whitnall (WT)and the lateral end of superior orbital fissure (SOF) along with its patency, laterality and number of foramina's present. Nylon probes, long divider/pins, compass and Vernier callipers was used to check the patency and various parameters. The study noted the percentage prevalence of MOF as 69 % with communication with middle cranial fossa (MCF) being 76 % of 69 % and the average distance from SOM, FZS, WT and lateral end of SOF being 35.58 mm, 24.9 mm, 26.6 mm and 0.92 mm. On comparison with various population studies, certain similarities and differences with regards to different parameters were noted. Prevalence of MOF was mostly unilateral and showed multiple foramina, that can act as channels for arteries, a variant of MMA or OA, that supply orbital structures or tumour growths. Thus, awareness of this variation is of prime importance to ophthalmologists and neurosurgeons as well as interventional radiologists, in preventing haemorrhagic condition which could further raise the difficulties in operative procedures and surgical outcomes.


RESUMEN: La órbita ósea en forma de pera se conecta con la cavidad intracraneal a través de forámenes y fisuras. El foramen meningoorbitario (MOF) suele estar presente en el ala mayor del esfenoides cerca del margen lateral de la fisura orbitaria superior. Proporciona una ruta para una anastomosis entre la rama orbitaria de la arteria meníngea media (MMA) y la rama meníngea recurrente de la arteria oftálmica (OA) y, por lo tanto, puede ocurrir riesgo de daño durante las cirugías. Para verificar la ocurrencia y ubicación, con la morfología de MOF en órbitas secas y los peligros clínicos inminentes en cirugías de la órbita, documentarlo y analizarlo para determinar una pauta estandarizada. Se estudió la presencia de MOF en 446 órbitas secas desde el margen supraorbitario (MOS), sutura cigomática frontal (FZS), el tubér- culo lateral de Whitnall (WT) y el extremo lateral de la fisura orbitaria superior (SOF) junto con su permeabilidad, lateralidad y número de forámenes presentes. Se utilizaron sondas de nailon, divisores / pasadores largos, brújula y calibradores Vernier para comprobar la permeabilidad. En el estudio se pudo observar que la prevalencia porcentual de MOF era del 69 %, siendo la comunica- ción con la fosa craneal media (MCF) del 76 % del 69 % y la distancia promedio desde SOM, FZS, WT y el extremo lateral de SOF era de 35,58 mm, 24,9 mm, 26,6 mm y 0,92 mm. En comparación con varios estudios de población, se observaron ciertas similitudes y diferencias con respecto a diferentes parámetros. La prevalencia de MOF fue mayoritariamente unilateral y mostró múltiples forámenes, que pueden actuar como canales para las arterias, una variante de MMA u OA, que irrigan estructuras orbitarias o crecimientos tumorales. Por lo tanto, la conciencia de esta variación es de primordial importancia para los oftalmólogos y neurocirujanos, así como para los radiólogos intervencionistas, en la prevención de una enfermedad hemorrágica que podría aumentar aún más las dificultades en los procedimientos y los resultados quirúrgicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orbit/anatomy & histology , Orbit/diagnostic imaging , Surgical Flaps , Meningeal Arteries/anatomy & histology , Meningeal Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Ophthalmic Artery/anatomy & histology , Ophthalmic Artery/diagnostic imaging , India
7.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(6): 500-510, dic. 31, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178947

ABSTRACT

Objetive: Home oral care practices in patients undergoing orthodontic therapy are often ineffective in maintaining optimal plaque control. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of periodontal maintenance program in subjects with established gingivitis undergoing fixed orthodontic appliance therapy for one year. Material and Methods: Forty patients undergoing fixed orthodontic appliance therapy with established chronic gingivitis were recruited for the study. As a part of a periodontal maintenance program, a pre-validated structured questionnaire evaluating oral hygiene and periodontal health was administered at the baseline as well as at the end of the study. At the baseline Gingival Bleeding Index, Gingival Index, and Bonded Bracket Plaque Index scores were recorded, Scaling and polishing procedure was performed followed by a customised Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA) session was conducted for all the study subjects. Clinical indices were assessed and OHA was conducted at the 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th months of orthodontic treatment visits. Results: There was significant improvement in the clinical indices and awareness regarding oral hygiene and periodontal health level in the patients at the end of the 12th month. Conclusion: The periodontal maintenance program appeared to be effective in improving the periodontal health and awareness health awareness level about oral hygiene among patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy at the end of 12 months in our study population.


Objetivo: Las prácticas de cuidado bucal en el hogar en pacientes sometidos a terapia de ortodoncia suelen ser ineficaces para mantener un control óptimo de la placa. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la efectividad del programa de mantenimiento periodontal en sujetos con gingivitis establecida sometidos a terapia con aparatos de ortodoncia fijos durante un año. Material y Métodos: Se reclutó para el estudio a 40 pacientes sometidos a terapia con aparatos de ortodoncia fijos y con gingivitis crónica establecida. Como parte de un programa de mantenimiento periodontal, se administró un cuestionario estructurado pre-validado que evaluaba la higiene bucal y la salud periodontal al inicio y al final del estudio. En la línea de base, se registraron las puntuaciones del índice de sangrado gingival, el índice gingival y el índice de placa de soporte adherido, se realizó el procedimiento de raspado y pulido seguido de una sesión personalizada de consejos de higiene oral (CHO) para todos los sujetos del estudio. Se evaluaron los índices clínicos y se llevó a cabo la CHO a los 3, 6, 9 y 12 meses durante las visitas de tratamiento de ortodoncia. Resultados: Hubo una mejora significativa en los índices clínicos y la conciencia sobre la higiene oral y el nivel de salud periodontal en los pacientes al final del 12º mes. Conclusión: El programa de mantenimiento periodontal pareció ser eficaz para mejorar la salud periodontal y el nivel de conciencia de la salud sobre la higiene bucal entre los pacientes sometidos a terapia de ortodoncia fija al final de los 12 meses en nuestra población de estudio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Oral Hygiene/psychology , Orthodontic Appliances, Fixed , Gingivitis , Surveys and Questionnaires , India/epidemiology
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1473-1478, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134464

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The present study was designed to elaborate on the morphometry of the skull of non-descript goats in Mizoram state of India. The study was conducted on the skull of twelve (n=12) adult goats of either sex (n=6 males and n=6 females) collected from the local slaughterhouses. Altogether, forty-one different measurements were taken morphologically. In the present study, the cranial and facial bones were the major components of the skull with a total of thirty-two bones. There were three single and four paired cranial bones with a total of eleven bones. There were one single and the rest were paired facial bones with a total of twenty-one bones. The cranial bones were occipital, parietal, interparietal, sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal and temporal. The facial bones were maxilla, premaxilla (incisive), palatine, pterygoid, nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic (malar), vomer, turbinate, mandible and hyoid. The skull measurements showed that the skull of the goat was elongated and dolichocephalic as per the cephalic index (47.82±0.05). The length and width of the skull was 19.28±0.03 cm and 9.22±0.04 cm, respectively. There were two supraorbital foramina on both sides of the frontal bone. The prominent facial tuberosity lies dorsally to the third superior premolar tooth. Single infraorbital foramen was located dorsally to the junction of the first and second superior premolar teeth on maxilla bone. The orbits were round and complete and situated on a frontolateral oblique plane. It can be concluded that the findings of this study would assist the comparative studies with other domesticated animals in the future and would be applicable in clinical veterinary practice and even in zooarchaeology.


RESUMEN: El estudio fue diseñado para elaborar la morfometría del cráneo de cabras no definidas en Mizoram. El estudio se realizó en el cráneo de 12 cabras adultas 6 machos y 6 hembras recolectadas de los mataderos locales. Se tomaron en total 41 medidas diferentes morfológicamente. Los huesos craneales y faciales fueron los componentes principales del cráneo con un total de 32 huesos. Se encontraron tres huesos craneales individuales y cuatro pares con un total de 11 huesos. Encontramos solo un hueso facial individual, los otros 22 eran pares de huesos faciales. Los huesos craneales comprendidos en el estudio fueron: occipital, parietal, interparietal, esfenoides, etmoides, frontal y temporal. Los huesos faciales estudiados fueron: maxilar, premaxilar (incisivo), palatino, pterigoideo, nasal, lagrimal, cigomático, vómer, conchas, mandíbula e hioides. Las medicio- nes mostraron que el cráneo de la cabra era alargado y dolicocefálico (47,82 ± 0,05). La longitud y el ancho del cráneo fueron 19,28 ± 0,03 cm y 9,22 ± 0,04 cm, respectivamente. Había dos forámenes supraorbitales a ambos lados del hueso frontal. La tuberosidad facial prominente se encontraba dorsalmente en el tercer diente premolar superior. El foramen infraorbitario único se localizó dorsalmente a la unión del primer y segundo dientes premolares superiores en el hueso maxilar. Las órbitas eran redondas y completas y situadas en un plano oblicuo frontolateral. En conclusión, los resultados de este estudio motivarán y ayudarán a otros estudios comparativos con otros animales domesticados o en la práctica clínica veterinaria e incluso en zooarqueología.


Subject(s)
Animals , Skull/anatomy & histology , Goats/anatomy & histology , Face/anatomy & histology , India
9.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(3): e3445, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126517

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La COVID-19 se propaga por vías respiratorias y aerosoles. La pandemia originada por esta enfermedad causa pánico, miedo y estrés en todos los estratos de la sociedad. Al igual que todas las demás profesiones médicas, los dentistas, particularmente los endodoncistas, que están muy expuestos a los aerosoles, pueden mostrar estrés. Objetivo: Encuestar a los endodoncistas indios para comprender mejor sus niveles de estrés psicológico durante el confinamiento de la India durante la pandemia de la COVID-19. Métodos: Del 8 de abril al 16 de abril de 2020 se realizó una encuesta cerrada en las redes sociales de endodoncia. Se utilizó la técnica de muestreo de bola de nieve. Asimismo, se recolectaron datos demográficos básicos, entorno de práctica y otras informaciones relevantes. El estrés psicológico y la angustia percibida se calcularon a través del índice de angustia peritraumática COVID-19 y la escala de estrés percibido. El análisis de regresión multinomial se realizó para estimar la tasa de riesgo relativo y p ≤ 0,05 se consideró significativo. Resultados: Este estudio tuvo 586 endodoncistas indios que completaron esta encuesta. De estos, 311 (53,07 por ciento) eran hombres, 325 (55 por ciento) en el grupo de edad de 25-35 años, 64 por ciento en áreas urbanas, 13,14 por ciento en prácticas individuales y un cuarto de ellos eran residentes. Las mujeres endodoncistas tenían un alto estrés percibido (RRR = 2,46, p = 0,01) en comparación con los hombres, medido por PSS. Los endodoncistas más jóvenes < 25 años (RRR = 9,75; p = 0,002) y 25-35 años (RRR = 4.60; p = 0,004) en comparación con el grupo de edad > 45 años tenían más angustia. Los consultores exclusivos tuvieron RRR = 2,90, p = 0,02, para la angustia leve a moderada en comparación con la normal. Se consideran los factores que impulsan este fenómeno. Conclusiones: Durante el cierre debido a la COVID-19, los endodoncistas indios 1-en-2 tuvieron angustia, según lo medido por CPDI y 4 de cada 5 percibieron estrés, según lo indicado por PSS. Nuestro modelo identificó ciertos factores que impulsan el (des)estrés, lo que ayudaría a los formuladores de políticas a iniciar una respuesta adecuada(AU)


ABSTRACT Background: The novel 2019 COVID-19 spreads by respiratory and aerosols. COVID-19 driven pandemic causes panic, fear and stress among all strata of society. Like all other medical professions, dentists, particularly endodontists, who are highly exposed to aerosols would be exposed to stress. Objective: To survey the Indian endodontists to better understand their levels of psychological stress during the Indian lockdown COVID-19 Pandemic. Methods: From 8th April to 16th April 2020, we conducted an online survey in closed endodontic social media using snowball sampling technique, collecting basic demographic data, practice setting and relevant data. Psychological stress and perceived distress were collected through COVID-19 Peri-traumatic Distress Index and Perceived stress scale. Multinomial regression analysis was performed to estimate relative risk rate and p ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: This study had 586 Indian endodontists completing this survey across India. Of these, 311(53.07 percent) were males, 325(55 percent) in the age group of 25-35 years, 64 percent in urban areas, 13.14 percent in solo-practice and a fourth of them were residents. Female endodontists had high perceived stress (RRR = 2.46, p = 0.01) as compared to males, as measured by PSS. Younger endodontists < 25 years (RRR = 9.75; p = 0.002) and 25-35years (RRR = 4.60; p = 0.004) as compared with > 45 years age-group had more distress. Exclusive consultants had RRR = 2.90, p = 0.02, for mild-to-moderate distress as compared to normal. Factors driving this phenomenon are considered. Conclusions: During the lock down due to COVID-19, 1-in-2 Indian endodontists had distress, as measured by CPDI and 4-in-5 of them had perceived stress, as indicated by PSS. Our model identified certain factors driving the (dis)stress, which would help policy framers to initiate appropriate response(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Perception , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dental Staff , Involuntary Commitment , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , India
10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 30-37, May 15, 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traditionally, microbial genome sequencing has been restrained to the species grown in pure culture. The development of culture-independent techniques over the last decade allows scientists to sequence microbial communities directly from environmental samples. Metagenomics is the study of complex genome by the isolation of DNA of the whole community. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of metagenomic DNA gives information about the microbial and taxonomical characterization of a particular niche. The objective of the present research is to study the microbial and taxonomical characterization of the metagenomic DNA, isolated from the frozen soil sample of a glacier in the north western Himalayas through NGS. RESULTS: The glacier community comprised of 16 phyla with the representation of members belonging to Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The number of genes annotated through the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), GO, Pfam, Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs), and FIG databases were generated by COGNIZER. The annotation of genes assigned in each group from the metagenomics data through COG database and the number of genes annotated in different pathways through KEGG database were reported. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that the glacier soil taken in the present study, harbors taxonomically and metabolically diverse communities. The major bacterial group present in the niche is Proteobacteria followed by Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, etc. Different genes were annotated through COG and KEGG databases that integrate genomic, chemical, and systemic functional information.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/classification , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Microbiota/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Cold Climate , Computational Biology , Ice Cover , Metagenomics , Genome, Microbial , India
11.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(2): 104-110, abr. 30, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151903

ABSTRACT

Background: Micronucleus is a microscopically visible cyto-plasmic chromatin mass in the extranuclear vicinity, originating from aberrant mitosis, which consists of eccentric chromosomes that have failed to reach spindle poles during mitosis. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare cytogenetic changes in the buccal mucosa of smokers and non-smokers based on the occurrence of micronuclei. The study aimed to determine the correlation between the micronuclei count and the frequency and duration of smoking habit. Materials and Methods: Two groups (smokers and non-smokers) of 34 individuals each were examined. Cytological buccal smears were taken from participants using a moistened wooden spatula and stained with standard Papanicolaou stain. Presence of micronuclei was assessed at 40X magnification using a light microscope and a count per 500 cells was determined. The results of the study were analyzed statistically using Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and Student t-test. Result: Smears from smokers showed a significant increase in the total number of micronuclei per 500 cell count compared to non-smokers. There was a strong positive correlation between the occurrence of micronuclei and the frequency and duration of smoking. A age-related increase in older age groups was also observed. Conclusion: The study reveals a strong positive correlation between the occurrence of micronuclei and the frequency and duration of smoking. This observation is vital in the utilization of the micronuclei detection in smears as a prognostic, educational and interventional tool in the management of patients with smoking habits.


Antecedentes: El micronúcleo es una masa de cromatina citoplasmática microscópicamente visible en el área extranuclear, que se origina a partir de la mitosis aberrante, y que consiste en cromosomas excéntricos que no han podido alcanzar los polos del huso durante la mitosis. El presente estudio fue diseñado para evaluar y comparar los cambios citogenéticos en la mucosa bucal de fumadores y no fumadores en función de la aparición de micronúcleos. El estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la correlación entre el recuento de micronúcleos y la frecuencia y duración del hábito de fumar. Materiales and Métodos: Se examinaron dos grupos (fumadores y no fumadores) de 34 individuos cada uno. Se tomaron frotis bucales citológicos de todos los participantes con una espátula de madera humedecida y se tiñeron con la tinción estándar de Papanicolaou. La presencia de micronúcleos se evaluó al microscopio óptico con un aumento de 40X y se determinó un recuento por 500 células. Los resultados del estudio se analizaron estadísticamente utilizando la prueba U de Mann-Whitney, el coeficiente de correlación de rango de Spearman y la prueba t de Student. Resultados: Los frotis de fumadores mostraron un aumento significativo en el número total de micronúcleos por 500 células en comparación con los no fumadores. Hubo una fuerte correlación positiva entre la aparición de micronúcleos y la frecuencia y duración del tabaquismo. También se observó un aumento relacionado con la edad en los grupos de mayor edad. Conclusión: el estudio revela una fuerte correlación positiva entre la aparición de micronúcleos y la frecuencia y duración del tabaquismo. Esta observación es vital en la utilización de la detección de micronúcleos en frotis como una herramienta pronostica, educativa e intervencionista en el manejo de pacientes con hábitos de fumar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Micronucleus Tests , Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective , Tobacco Use/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects , Mouth Mucosa/cytology , In Vitro Techniques , Chromosome Aberrations , Non-Smokers , India
12.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(1): 17-24, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100762

ABSTRACT

Se estima que aproximadamente 100 trillones de microorganismos (incluidos bacterias, virus y hongos) residen en el intestino humano adulto y que el total del material genético del microbioma es 100 veces superior al del genoma humano. Esta comunidad, conocida como microbioma se adquiere al momento del nacimiento a través de la flora comensal de la piel, vagina y heces de la madre y se mantiene relativamente estable a partir de los dos años desempeñando un papel crítico tanto en el estado de salud como en la enfermedad. El desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías, como los secuenciadores de próxima generación (NGS), permiten actualmente realizar un estudio mucho más preciso de ella que en décadas pasadas cuando se limitaba a su cultivo. Si bien esto ha llevado a un crecimiento exponencial en las publicaciones, los datos sobre las poblaciones Latinoamérica son casi inexistentes. La investigación traslacional en microbioma (InTraMic) es una de las líneas que se desarrollan en el Instituto de Medicina Traslacional e Ingeniería Biomédica (IMTIB). Esta se inició en 2018 con la línea de cáncer colorrectal (CCR) en una colaboración con el Colorectal Cancer Research Group del Leeds Institute of Medical Research en el proyecto Large bowel microbiome disease network: Creation of a proof of principle exemplar in colorectal cancer across three continents. A fines de 2019 se cumplió el objetivo de comprobar la factibilidad de la recolección, envío y análisis de muestras de MBF en 5 continentes, incluyendo muestras provenientes de la Argentina, Chile, India y Vietnam. Luego de haber participado de capacitaciones en Inglaterra, se ha cumplido con el objetivo de la etapa piloto, logrando efectivizar la recolección, envío y análisis metagenómico a partir de la secuenciación de la región V4 del ARNr 16S. En 2019, la línea de enfermedad de hígado graso no alcohólico se sumó a la InTraMic iniciando una caracterización piloto en el marco de una colaboración con el laboratorio Novartis. Los resultados de ese estudio, así como el de cáncer colorrectal, están siendo enviados a publicación. En 2020, con la incorporación de la línea de trasplante alogénico de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas, fue presentado un proyecto para un subsidio del CONICET que ha superado la primera etapa de evaluación. En el presente artículo se brinda una actualización sobre la caracterización taxonómica de microbioma y se describen las líneas de investigación en curso. (AU)


It is estimated that approximately 100 trillion microorganisms (including bacteria, viruses, and fungi) reside in the adult human intestine, and that the total genetic material of the microbiome is 100 times greater than that of the human genome. This community, known as the microbiome, is acquired at birth through the commensal flora of the mother's skin, vagina, and feces and remains relatively stable after two years, playing a critical role in both the state of health and in disease. The development of new technologies, such as next-generation sequencers (NGS), currently allow for a much more precise study of it than in past decades when it was limited to cultivation. Although this has led to exponential growth in publications, data on Latin American populations is almost non-existent. Translational research in microbiome (InTraMic) is one of the lines developed at the Instituto de Medicina Traslacional e Ingeniería Biomédica (IMTIB). This started in 2018 with the Colorectal Cancer Line (CRC) in a collaboration with the Colorectal Cancer Research Group of the Leeds Institute of Medical Research in the project "Large bowel microbiome disease network: Creation of a proof of principle exemplar in colorectal cancer across three continents". At the end of 2019, the objective of verifying the feasibility of collecting, sending and analyzing MBF samples on 5 continents, including samples from Argentina, Chile, India and Vietnam, was met. After having participated in training in England, the objective of the pilot stage has been met, achieving the collection, delivery and metagenomic analysis from the sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA. In 2019, the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease line joined InTraMic, initiating a pilot characterization in the framework of a collaboration with the Novartis laboratory. The results of that study, as well as that of colorectal cancer, are being published. In 2020, with the incorporation of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation line, a project was presented for a grant from the CONICET that has passed the first stage of evaluation. This article provides an update on the taxonomic characterization of the microbiome and describes the lines of ongoing research. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Translational Medical Research/organization & administration , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Transplantation, Homologous , Vietnam , Aztreonam/therapeutic use , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/microbiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Classification/methods , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Metagenomics , Translational Medical Research/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/trends , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/microbiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , India , Latin America , Occult Blood
13.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(1): 12-19, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090846

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background This study defines the disease profile in south Indian population and determine the clinic-pathological aspects of Gastro-Intestinal Stromal Tumors. Method In this prospective study patients diagnosed of gastrointestinal stromal tumors were taken thorough clinical examination and a database of Anthropometric details and clinical details were analyzed. Pathological data included tumor size, presence or absence necrosis, mitotic counts, immunohistochemistry for CD-117, CD-34. Results There were 44 patients with confirmed diagnosis of gastro-intestinal stromal tumor. The highest incidence was found in the 6th decade. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain and gastrointestinal bleed. Stomach was most frequent site for gastro-intestinal stromal tumors. Immunochemistry for CD-117 was positive in 93.18% cases. Majority of tumors (79.5%) had pure spindle cell morphology and mitotic activity showed that 34% of the GISTs were of the high risk group. Forty two patients were suggestive of surgery as the primary treatment after presentation. Conclusion Abdominal pain was the most common presenting complaint. Majority of the tumors aroused from the stomach. The majority of the tumors had pure spindle cell morphology and 93% of the tumors were CD-117 positive. A significant relationship between tumor size, tumor necrosis and mitotic activity with large tumors having necrosis and high mitotic rate having high risk of malignancy, was observed. Surgical resection is considered mainstay of treatment of gastro-intestinal stromal tumor. Imatinib therapy should be given to patients in moderate to severe risk categories.


Resumo Justificativa Este estudo define o perfil da doença na população do sul da Índia e determina os aspectos clínicos e patológicos dos tumores estromais gastrointestinais. Método Neste estudo prospectivo, os pacientes diagnosticados com tumor estromal gastrointestinl foram submetidos a um exame clínico completo, e uma série de dados dos pacientes, incluindo detalhes antropométricos e clínicos, foram analisados. Os dados patológicos incluíram tamanho do tumor, presença ou ausência de necrose, contagem mitótica e imuno-histoquímica para CD-117, CD-34. Resultados Havia 44 pacientes com diagnóstico confirmado de tumor estromal gastrointestinal. A maior incidência foi encontrada na 6ª década de vida. Os sintomas mais comuns foram dor abdominal e sangramento gastrointestinal. O estômago foi o local mais frequente para tumores estromais gastrointestinais. A imuno-histoquímica para CD-117 foi positiva em 93,18% dos casos. A maioria dos tumores (79,5%) apresentava morfologia pura de células fusiformes e a atividade mitótica mostrou que 34% dos GISTs pertenciam ao grupo de alto risco. Quarenta e dois pacientes receberam indicação para cirurgia como tratamento primário após a apresentação. Conclusão A dor abdominal foi a queixa mais comum. A maioria dos tumores afetava o estômago, apresentava morfologia pura de células fusiformes e 93% eram CD-117 positivos. Foi observada uma relação significativa entre o tamanho do tumor, a necrose tumoral e a atividade mitótica, com os tumores grandes apresentando necrose e alta taxa mitótica com alto risco de malignidade. A ressecção cirúrgica é considerada o principal tratamento do tumor estromal gastrointestinal. A terapia com imatinibe deve ser administrada a pacientes em categoria de risco de moderadas a grave.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/pathology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/immunology , Antigens, CD34/immunology , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , India , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Infectio ; 24(1): 27-34, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1090540

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Carbapenem resistantAcinetobacter baumannii is an important therapeutic and infection control challenge worldwide. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and distribution of molecular mechanisms of resistance among carbapenem resistant A. baumannii species at a tertiary care setting in South India. Materials and Methods: A total of 89 non-duplicate clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistantA. baumannii were collected from critical care units of St. John's Medical College Hospital, Bengaluru, India. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect blaOXA type carbapenemase blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like and bla OXA-58-like, MBL genes blaNDM, blaIMP, and blaVIM genes. Molecular typing of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains was performed by using Rep-PCR. Results: Eighty-seven of the isolates were found to carry the blaOXA-51 gene and 81 (91%) isolates were found to have blaOXA-51-like gene and blaOXA-23, gene. The bla OXA-24 like gene was detected in two isolates of which one also carried blaOXA-51 like and one isolate carried blaVIM coding gene. The prevalence of blaNDM, blaIMP, bla VIM genes was 12(13%),14 (16%) and 57(64%) respectively. Cluster analyses revealed a 90% similarity and were divided into 5 clusters. Most of the isolates containing carbapenemases coding genes grouped under cluster A, C and UC. Considerable heterogeneity was observed within UC cluster indicating circulation of multiple strains of A. baumannii within our institution. Conclusions: Carbapenemase coding blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24 and blaOXA-51 -like were more common than blaVIM and blaNDM. The presence of blaNDM with other genes coding for carbapenemases indicate the ability of the strains to acquire novel genes despite having its share of the blaOXA like carbapenemase.


Resumen Objetivos: El Acinetobacter baumannii resistente a Carbapenem es un reto importante en todo el mundo para su tratamiento y para el control de infecciones hospitalarias. Nosotros estudiamos la prevalencia y los mecanismos de resistencia en aislados de un centro de atención terciario, en el sur de la India Materiales y Métodos: Se estudiaron 89 aislados clínicos de A. baumannii recolectados en unidades de cuidado crítico del Hospital St. John's Medical College en Bengaluru, India. Se realizó amplificación por PCR (Reacción en Cadena de Polimerasa) y luego tipificación molecular con la técnica Rep-PCR (PCR de elementos repetitivos palindromicos) para detectar los genes de carbapenemasa blaOXA, blaOXA-51, blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, MBL, blaNDM, blaIMP y blaVIM. Resultados: Se encontraron 87 aislados que llevaban el gen blaOXA-51 y de ellos en 81 (91%) se encontró blaOXA-51 y blaOXA-23. El blaOXA-24 se detectó en dos aislados de los cuales uno de ellos llevaba blaOXA-51 y otro blaVIM. Los genes blaNDM, blaIMP y blaVIM se encontraron en 12 (13%),14 (16%) y 57(64%) de los aislados, respectivamente. El análisis de agrupamiento reveló un 90% de similitud entre los aislados y que podían asignarse a 5 agrupamientos. La mayoría de aislados llevaban genes de carbapenemasas de los grupos A, C y UC. Se observó mucha heterogeneidad dentro del agrupamiento UC indicando que existe circulación de múltiples cepas de A. baumannii dentro de nuestra institución. Conclusiones: Las carbapenemasas que codifican para blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24 y blaOXA-51 son más comunes que blaVIM y blaNDM en nuestra institución. La presencia de NDM con otros genes codificando para carbapenemasas indica la capacidad que tienen este tipo de aislados para adquirir nuevos genes a pesar de contar con blaOXA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbapenems , Acinetobacter baumannii , Genetic Variation , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Cross Infection , India
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 158-166, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089281

ABSTRACT

Abstract Age and growth of two populations of Pugilina cochlidium were studied. to address the lack of basic information on the growth rates and the size at sexual maturity of organism in a commercially harvested area, which will be important in considering the size limits to conserve this resources in future. In the present study the results showed more or less similar growth patterns in the males and females of two populations of Pugilina cochlidium. The age and growth estimation of these two populations of Pugilina cochlidium were completed using several methods and the outcome of one method will act as a check and control over the other using the FISAT 1 software. The values of asymptotic length (Lα) values obtained in the present study using various methods did not vary greatly. Lα values obtained for the first population of Pugilina cochlidium was 95.55 mm for males and 106.05 mm for females and the growth rate (K) for males (0.588 yr-1) and females (0.620 yr-1) was given by k-scan routine in ELEFAN. Similarly, the values of asymptotic length (Lα), obtained for second population of Pugilina cochlidium, was 96.15 mm for males and 106.05 mm for females and the growth rate (K) for males (0.540 yr-1) and females (0.950 yr-1) was given by k-scan routine in ELEFAN.


Resumo A idade e o crescimento de duas populações de Pugilina cochlidium foram estudados. abordar a falta de informações básicas sobre as taxas de crescimento e o tamanho na maturidade sexual do organismo em uma área comercialmente colhida, o que será importante considerando os limites de tamanho para conservar esses recursos no futuro. No presente estudo os resultados mostraram padrões de crescimento mais ou menos semelhantes nos machos e fêmeas de duas populações de Pugilina cochlidium. A idade e a estimativa de crescimento destas duas populações de Pugilina cochlidium foram completadas usando vários métodos e o resultado de um método funcionará como uma verificação e controle sobre o outro usando o software FISAT 1. Os valores de comprimento assintótico (Lα) obtidos no presente estudo usando vários métodos não variaram muito. Os valores de Lα obtidos para a primeira população de Pugilina cochlidium foram de 95,55 mm para machos e 106,05 mm para fêmeas e a taxa de crescimento (K) para machos (0,588 yr-1) e fêmeas (0,620 yr-1) foi dada pela rotina k-scan na ELEFAN. Similarmente, os valores de comprimento assintótico (Lα), obtidos para a segunda população de Pugilina cochlidium, foram 96,15 mm para machos e 106,05 mm para fêmeas e a taxa de crescimento (K) para machos (0,540 anos) e fêmeas (0,950 anos). 1) foi dado pela rotina de k-scan na ELEFAN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Gastropoda , Bays , India
16.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 8(1): 1-9, 01/01/2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104330

ABSTRACT

Background: On January 30, 2020, India reported its first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) positive case that led to the national lockdown, health surveillance, and travel restrictions. The Government of India (GoI) is advising personal hygiene practices as prophylaxis, however, remains poorly understood by the people. Too, believing in social media-based misinformation leading to pseudoscientific practices suggesting all from giving up non-vegetarian food to eating garlic is afflicting. This review sheds light on pseudoscientific beliefs and practices of the Indian public to prevent COVID-19. Methods: This narrative review gathered scientific evidence to describe the facts against pseudoscientific beliefs and practices in the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined available evidence from relevant research articles to present the facts about pseudoscientific practices. In particular, regarding the use of complementary and alternative medicine and its practice to prevent COVID-19, we searched the high-quality literature in PubMed, PubMed Central, and Cochrane Library databases for the determined outcomes. Results: Based on scientific shreds of evidence, it is apparent that social media-based misinformation and its pseudoscientific practices severely affecting the public health in the COVID-19 pandemic. The public must look into the facts rigorously before performing pseudoscientific practices and need to follow GoI instructions perpetually. The findings of this review suggest a high level of public awareness of evidence-based prophylactic measures. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for public health promotion initiatives to bring up awareness of the COVID-19 spread and its preventive hygiene practices. The dissemination of health awareness to the public across the nation is warranted.


Antecedentes: em 30 de janeiro de 2020, a Índia relatou seu primeiro caso positivo da doença de coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) que levou ao bloqueio nacional, vigilância em saúde e restrições de viagem. O governo da Índia (GI) está aconselhando práticas de higiene pessoal, pois a profilaxia continua sendo pouco compreendida pelo povo. Também, acreditar na desinformação baseada nas mídias sociais, levando a práticas pseudocientíficas, sugerindo tudo, desde desistir de alimentos não vegetarianos até comer alho, é aflitivo. Esta revisão lança luz sobre crenças e práticas pseudocientíficas do público indiano para prevenir o COVID-19. Métodos: Esta revisão narrativa reuniu evidências científicas para descrever os fatos contra crenças e práticas pseudocientíficas na pandemia do COVID-19. Examinamos as evidências disponíveis de artigos de pesquisa relevantes para apresentar os fatos sobre práticas pseudocientíficas. Em particular, com relação ao uso de medicina complementar e alternativa e sua prática para prevenir o COVID-19, pesquisamos a literatura de alta qualidade nos bancos de dados PubMed, PubMed Central e Cochrane Library para os resultados determinados. Resultados: Com base em fragmentos científicos de evidência, é aparente que a desinformação baseada nas mídias sociais e suas práticas pseudocientíficas afetam gravemente a saúde pública na pandemia do COVID-19. O público deve analisar os fatos rigorosamente antes de executar práticas pseudocientíficas e precisa seguir as instruções do GI perpetuamente. Os resultados desta revisão sugerem um alto nível de conscientização pública sobre medidas profiláticas baseadas em evidências. Conclusão: Há uma necessidade urgente de iniciativas de promoção da saúde pública para conscientizar sobre a disseminação do COVID-19 e suas práticas preventivas de higiene. A disseminação da conscientização da saúde ao público em todo o país é justificada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Attitude to Health , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Communication , Social Media , Betacoronavirus , Complementary Therapies , Pandemics , India
17.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(1): 10-18, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089264

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study assessed bibliometric characteristics of all articles published in Brazilian Dental Journal (BDJ) in its 30 years of existence (1990-2019) and factors associated with citation rates. A document search was carried out in Scopus in December, 2019 and information about the articles were exported, including citations. Type of study and main subject in each article were categorized. Number of citations was categorized in tertiles. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between variables related to articles' characteristics and number of citations. In 30 years, 1705 articles were published and 18507 citations received, with average 57 articles and 334 pages published yearly and 10.9 cites/doc. The most frequent types of study were laboratorial (63%), clinical (18.5%), and case reports (11%); the main subjects were dental materials (21.6%), endodontics (19.3%), and oral pathology/stomatology (13.1%). Most articles had origin in Brazil (90%), followed by USA (4.6%) and UK (1.5%). Aside from BDJ, Journal of Endodontics (3.5%) and International Endodontic Journal (2.2%) were journals that most often cited BDJ. Main origins of citations were Brazil (36.7%), USA (10.6%), and India (9%). Older articles had higher odds to be highly cited (12% increase/year), longer articles had lower odds (9% decrease/page). Narrative reviews and epidemiological studies were associated with more citations and systematic reviews with less citations. In conclusion, BDJ covered many subjects and study types in 30 years, showing increased growth in international audience. The journal may be regarded as one of the leading Brazilian journals in dentistry published in English.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou as características bibliométricas de todos os artigos publicados no Brazilian Dental Journal (BDJ) em seus 30 anos de existência (1990-2019) e fatores associados com taxas de citação. Uma busca pelos documentos foi realizada no Scopus em Dezembro de 2019 e informações acerca dos artigos foram exportadas, incluindo citações. Tipo de estudo e principal assunto em cada artigo foram categorizados. Número de citações foi categorizado em tercis. Modelos de regressão logística foram usados para avaliar a associação entre as variáveis relacionadas às características dos artigos e o número de citações. Em 30 anos, 1705 artigos foram publicados e 18507 citações recebidas, com média de 57 artigos e 334 páginas publicadas ao ano e 10,9 citações/documento. Os tipos de estudo mais frequentes foram laboratorial (63%), clínico (18,5%) e relato de caso (11%); os principais assuntos foram materiais dentários (21,6%), endodontia (19,3%) e patologia oral/estomatologia (13,1%). A maioria doas artigos teve origem do Brasil (90%), seguido dos EUA (4,6%) e Reino Unido (1,5%). Além do BDJ, Journal of Endodontics (3,5%) e International Endodontic Journal (2,2%) foram os periódicos que mais citaram o BDJ. As principais origem das citações foram Brasil (36,7%), EUA (10,6%) e Índia (9%). Artigos mais antigos tiveram maiores chances de serem altamente citados (aumento de 12% ao ano), artigos mais longos tiveram menores chances (redução de 9% por página). Revisões narrativas e estudos epidemiológicos foram associados com mais citações e revisões sistemáticas com menos citações. Em conclusão, o BDJ cobriu diversos assuntos e tipos de estudo em 30 anos, mostrando contínuo crescimento na audiência internacional. O periódico pode ser considerado um dos líderes entre as revistas brasileiras de odontologia publicadas em inglês.


Subject(s)
Periodicals as Topic , Endodontics , Brazil , Bibliometrics , Dentistry , India
18.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(supl.2): 4225-4230, Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133185

ABSTRACT

Abstract There is credible evidence that the 1984-Bhopal-methyl isocyanate (MIC)-gas-exposed long-term survivors and their offspring born post-exposure are susceptible to infectious/communicable and non-communicable diseases. Bhopal's COVID-19 fatality rate suggests that the MIC-gas tragedy survivors are at higher risk, owing to a weakened immune system and co-morbidities. This situation emboldened us to ponder over what we know, what we don't, and what we should know about their susceptibility to COVID-19. This article aims at answering these three questions that emerge in the minds of public health officials concerning prevention strategies against COVID-19 and health promotion in the Bhopal MIC-affected population (BMAP). Our views and opinions presented in this article will draw attention to prevent and reduce the consequences of COVID-19 in BMAP. From the perspective of COVID-19 prophylaxis, the high-risk individuals from BMAP with co-morbidities need to be identified through a door-to-door visit to the severely gas-affected regions and advised to maintain good respiratory hygiene, regular intake of immune-boosting diet, and follow healthy lifestyle practices.


Resumo Há evidências plausíveis de que os sobreviventes a longo prazo da exposição a gás de 1984 e isocianato de metila (CIM), em Bhopal, e seus filhos nascidos após esse fato estão suscetíveis a doenças infecciosas/transmissíveis e não transmissíveis. A taxa de fatalidade COVID-19 de Bhopal sugere que os sobreviventes da tragédia do gás MIC estão em maior risco, devido a um sistema imunológico enfraquecido e comorbidades. Essa situação nos encorajou a refletir sobre o que sabemos, o que não sabemos e o que devemos saber sobre a suscetibilidade deles ao COVID-19. Este artigo objetiva responder a essas três perguntas que surgem na mente dos funcionários de saúde pública sobre estratégias de prevenção contra o COVID-19 e promoção da saúde na população afetada pelo Bhopal MIC (BMAP). Nossas visões e opiniões apresentadas neste artigo chamam a atenção para prevenir e reduzir as consequências do COVID-19 no BMAP. Da perspectiva da profilaxia com COVID-19, os indivíduos de alto risco do BMAP com condições comórbidas precisam ser identificados por meio de uma visita de porta em porta nas regiões severamente afetadas por gases e aconselhados a manter uma boa higiene respiratória, ingestão regular de dieta que estimule o sistema imunológico e seguir práticas de estilo de vida saudáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Survivors , Isocyanates/toxicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Susceptibility , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Self Care , Communicable Disease Control , Immunocompromised Host , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations , Disasters , Betacoronavirus , India/epidemiology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Tobacco consumption causes almost 638,000 premature deaths per year in India. This study sought to examine the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among men in India.@*METHODS@#We analyzed data from the fourth round of the National Family Health Survey in India. These nationally representative cross-sectional sample data were collected from January 20, 2015, to December 4, 2016. A total of 112,122 men aged 15-54 years were included in this study. Primary outcomes were tobacco use categorized into smoking, smokeless, any tobacco, and both smoked and smokeless tobacco use. Complex survey design and sampling weights were applied in both the descriptive analyses and logistic regression models. We present the findings using odds ratios.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of tobacco use among men in India for the studied period was 45.5% (95% CI 44.9-46.1), smoking was 24.6% (95% CI 24.1-25.1), smokeless tobacco use was 29.1% (95% CI 28.6-29.6), and both smoked and smokeless tobacco use was 8.4% (95% CI 8.1-8.7). The prevalence of tobacco use among men was higher among the elderly, separated/divorced/widowed individuals, those with lower education and wealth status, alcohol consumers, manual workers, and residents of the northeast region. Multivariate analysis showed that age, lower education, occupation, region, alcohol consumption, separated/divorced/widowed status, and economic status were substantially associated with tobacco use among Indian men.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Innovative and cost-effective strategies targeting high-risk groups are crucial to curbing the tobacco epidemic in India. Anti-smoking campaigns should also focus on mitigating alcohol abuse. Reducing tobacco marketing and implementing formal education about the dangers of tobacco use, progressive taxing, packaging, and labeling of tobacco products and price strategies should be harmonized in legal provisions.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Socioeconomic Factors , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827329

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread on an unprecedented scale from around the world, we described our experience in treating early COVID-19 cases in India.@*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#An observational study of COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary care centre in North India between 2 March-4 April 2020 was performed. The clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, treatment and outcome data of patients were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#A total of 75 patients were treated and 56 (74.66%) were men. The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 ranged from asymptomatic to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Fever (85.36%) was the most common symptom followed by cough (56.09%) and dyspnoea (19.51%). Findings from hemogram analysis showed that 32%, 21.33% and 18.67% of patients had lymphopaenia, eosinopenia and thrombocytopaenia, respectively. Inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein, D-dimer, ferritin, fibrin degradation product and interleukin-6 were significantly elevated ( <0.05) in patients who required oxygen therapy than those who did not require it, suggesting the potential role such markers could play in predicting prognosis in patients. Mean hospital stay was 9.2 days and 72 (96%) patients made a complete recovery, but 3 (4%) patients demised after progressing to ARDS.@*CONCLUSION@#The clinical and epidemiological spectrum of COVID-19 has jeopardised the health system in India. Without a proven therapy to combat this pandemic and with no sight of vaccines in the near future, a preventive strategy should be adopted to contain the spread of this infectious disease.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Therapeutics , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , India , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Therapeutics , Symptom Assessment , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
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