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1.
Biociencias ; 16(1): [87-104], 20210601.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1291182

ABSTRACT

Múltiples investigaciones evidencian una máxima incidencia del infarto agudo de miocardio en la mañana. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar la organización del sistema circadiano, su importancia en la fisiología del sistema cardiovascular y su relación con el desarrollo del infarto agudo de miocardio. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en diferentes bases de datos para identificar artículos publicados durante los últimos 20 años, centrados en la variación circadiana del infarto agudo de miocardio y en la cronoterapia cardiovascular. Se preseleccionaron 115 artículos, de los cuales se escogieron 60. Se concluyó que la mayor incidencia matutina del infarto agudo de miocardio se explica por la acción conjunta de factores endógenos (aumento matutino de cortisol, catecolaminas, presión arterial, frecuencia cardiaca, resistencias vasculares) y exógenos (alteración en el ciclo sueño-vigilia, bipedestación, e inicio de la actividad) que predispone a ruptura de la placa ateromatosa y aparición de episodios trombóticos durante la mañana.


Multiple investigations show a maximum incidence of acute myocardial infarction in the morning. The objective of this article is to review the organization of the circadian system, its importance in the physiology of the cardiovascular system and its relationship with the development of acute myocardial infarction. A bibliographic search was carried out in different databases to identify articles published during the last 20 years, focused on the circadian variation of acute myocardial infarction and on cardiovascular chronotherapy. 115 articles were preselected, of which 60 were chosen. It was concluded that the higher morning incidence of acute myocardial infarction is explained by the joint action of endogenous factors (morning increase in cortisol, catecholamines, blood pressure, heart rate, vascular resistance) and exogenous (alteration in the sleep-wake cycle, standing, and onset of activity) that predisposes to rupture of the atheromatous plaque and the appearance of thrombotic episodes during the morning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infarction , Myocardial Contraction
2.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(2): 216-222, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286205

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Various mechanisms contribute to dementia after first ischemic stroke as lesions on strategic areas of cognition and stroke premorbidity. Objectives: Assessing clinical and neuroimaging predictors of dementia after first ischemic stroke and its relation to stroke location, subtypes and severity. Methods: Eighty first ischemic stroke patients were included. Forty patients with dementia after first stroke and forty patients without dementia according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of vascular dementia. All patients were subjected to general and neurological assessment, National Institute Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) for stroke severity, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale for cognition assessment, MRI brain and Trial of Org 10172 in acute stroke treatment (TOAST) classification for stroke subtypes. Results: Left hemispheric ischemic stroke, strategic infarctions, diabetes mellitus and stroke of anterior circulation were found to be independent risk factors for dementia after first ischemic stroke (OR=3.09, 95%CI 1.67-10.3, OR=2.33, 95%CI 1.87-8.77, OR=1.88, 95%CI 1.44-4.55, OR=1.86, 95%CI 1.45-6.54, respectively). Hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, ischemic heart disease, high NIHSS score and large vessel infarction were significantly higher among post stroke dementia patients. However, on binary logistic regression, they did not reach to be independent risk factors. Conclusion: Stroke location (left stroke, strategic infarction, anterior circulation stroke) and diabetes mellitus could be predictors of dementia after first ischemic stroke, but stroke severity, stroke subtypes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and ischemic heart could not.


RESUMO. Vários mecanismos contribuem para a demência após o primeiro acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) isquêmico como lesões em áreas estratégicas da cognição e morbidades pré-AVC. Objetivos: Avaliar os preditores clínicos e de neuroimagem de demência após o primeiro AVC isquêmico e sua relação com a localização, subtipos e gravidade do AVC. Métodos: Oitenta pacientes com primeiro AVC isquêmico foram incluídos. Quarenta pacientes com demência após o primeiro AVC e quarenta pacientes sem demência de acordo com os critérios diagnósticos do DSM-IV para demência vascular. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à avaliação geral e neurológica, o National Institute Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) para gravidade de AVC, a escala de Avaliação Cognitiva de Montreal (Montreal Cognitive Assessment - MoCA) para avaliação de cognição, ressonância magnética cerebral e classificação pelo Trial of Org 10172 in acute stroke treatment (TOAST) para subtipos de AVC. Resultados: AVC isquêmico do hemisfério esquerdo, infartos estratégicos, diabetes mellitus e AVC da circulação anterior foram considerados fatores de risco independentes para demência após o primeiro AVC isquêmico. (OR=3,09, IC95% 1,67-10,3, OR=2,33, IC95% 1,87-8,77, OR=1,88, IC95% 1,44-4,55, OR=1,86, IC95% 1,45-6,54, respectivamente). Hipertensão, dislipidemia, tabagismo, cardiopatia isquêmica, escore NIHSS alto e infarto de grandes vasos foram significativamente altos entre pacientes com demência pós-AVC. No entanto, na regressão logística binária, não chegaram a ser fatores de risco independentes. Conclusão: A localização do AVC (AVC esquerdo, infarto estratégico, AVC da circulação anterior) e diabetes mellitus podem ser preditores de demência após o primeiro AVC isquêmico, mas a gravidade do AVC, subtipos de AVC, hipertensão, dislipidemia, tabagismo e coração isquêmico podem não ser de risco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke , Dementia , Infarction
3.
S. Afr. med. j. (Online) ; 111(11): 1046-1049, 2021. figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1344518

ABSTRACT

South Africa has experienced three deadly waves of the COVID-19 pandemic with devastating consequences, but little is known about the experiences in small-town hospitals in the country. Between May 2020 and June 2021, author GC treated ~100 confirmed COVID-19 cases. This retrospective case series report describes 10 of these cases, 7 with unusual complications and 3 with sudden death.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Hospitals, Urban , Comorbidity , COVID-19 , Neurologic Manifestations , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dyspnea , Infarction
5.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(6): 511-515, dic. 31, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178949

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Atherosclerosis is a progressive inflammatory disease that can trigger serious medical consequences like acute myocardial infarction or stroke. Case Report: The purpose of this study is to report an unusual case of finding calcified atheromatous plaques in the carotid arteries bilaterally using a panoramic radiography (PR). A 75-year-old female with a morbid history, attends the Teaching Dental Clinic of the Pontifical Catholic University with complementary exams. PR showed well-defined radiopaque structures adjacent to C4. Using a Doppler ultrasound, the presence of calcified atheromas in the right and left carotid arteries were confirmed. The patient was informed of these findings and is currently under medical follow-up. Conclusion: PR is a useful complementary resource in the detection of atherosclerotic plaques of the upper carotid region.


Introducción: La aterosclerosis es una enfermedad inflamatoria progresiva que puede desencadenar graves consecuencias médicas como infarto agudo de miocardio o accidente cerebrovascular. Case Report: El propósito de este estudio es reportar un caso inusual de hallazgo de placas ateromatosas calcificadas en las arterias carótidas de forma bilateral mediante una radiografía panorámica. Mujer de 75 años con antecedentes mórbidos, acude a la Clínica Odontológica Docente de la Pontificia Universidad Católica con exámenes complementarios. La radiografía panorámica mostró estructuras radiopacas bien definidas adyacentes a C4. Mediante ecografía Doppler se confirmó la presencia de ateromas calcificados en las arterias carótidas derecha e izquierda. El paciente fue informado de estos hallazgos y actualmente se encuentra en seguimiento médico. Conclusión: La radiografía panorámica es un recurso complementario útil en la detección de placas ateroscleróticas de la región carotídea superior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Radiography, Panoramic , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Stroke , Atherosclerosis/complications , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Infarction
7.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(10): 1351-1354, Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136158

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Vertebral Artery Dissection (VAD) is a rare condition that can be caused by a wide amplitude of neck movement, which injures the vessel wall and can cause ischemia in the cerebellum. We present a 37-year-old man with herniated lumbar disc and allergic rhinosinusitis, which caused sneezing spells. After one of these bouts with a ricochet of the head, he presented C3 misalignment with local pain. Twenty-one days later, affected by a new crisis, he presented left temporal headache, nystagmus, and vertigo. After 3 days, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) identified 2 regions of cerebellar ischemia and filling failure of the right vertebral artery. After 2 days, Computed Angiotomography (CT Angiography) was performed and showed right VAD with a local thrombus, without aneurysmal signs. Transcranial Doppler did not indicate an increase in blood flow from this artery. The suggested treatment involved administration of anticoagulant Apixabana 5mg, 12/12h, for 3 months, until the condition was reevaluated with new Angio CT and MRI. It was recommended that the patient was released from work for 1 month and forbidden from doing intense physical exercises for 3 months; however, due to setbacks, these deadlines were extended until a new appointment, 4 months after the first visit. The new tests showed no changes, indicating that the condition was stable. This case aims to indicate the possible investigations of the diagnosis and therapeutic options of the rare association between VAD with cerebellar infarction in a well-documented case.


RESUMO A Dissecção da Artéria Vertebral (DAV) é quadro raro que pode ser causado por movimentação de grande amplitude do pescoço, que lesiona a parede desse vaso, podendo provocar isquemia no cerebelo. Apresentamos um homem de 37 anos, com hérnia de disco e rinossinusite alérgica que lhe causava crises de espirros em salva (CE). Após uma dessas crises com ricocheteamento da cabeça, apresentou desalinhamento de C3 com dor local. Vinte e um dias depois, acometido por nova crise, apresentou cefaleia temporal esquerda, nistagmo e vertigem. Decorridos 3 dias, o paciente foi submetido a Ressoânncia Magnética (RM), que identificou 2 regiões de isquemia cerebelar e enchimento comprometido da artéria vertebral direita. Após 2 dias, foram feitos Angiotomografia Computadorizada (Angio TC), que constatou DAV direita com trombo local, sem sinais aneurismáticos, e Doppler Transcraniano, que não indicou aumento do fluxo sanguíneo dessa artéria. O tratamento sugerido envolvia administração de anticoagulante Apixabana 5mg, 12/12h, por 3 meses, até que o quadro fosse reavaliado com novas Angio TC e RM. Foi recomendado que o paciente ficasse afastado do trabalho por 1 mês e de exercícios físicos intensos por 3 meses, porém devido a contratempos, esses prazos foram prorrogados até nova consulta, 4 meses após a primeira. Os novos exames não apresentaram alterações, indicando que o quadro estava estável. Esse caso tem como objetivo indicar as possíveis investigações do diagnóstico e opções terapêuticas da rara associação entre DAV com infarto cerebelar em caso bem documentado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Cerebellar Diseases , Vertebral Artery Dissection/etiology , Vertebral Artery Dissection/diagnostic imaging , Sneezing , Vertebral Artery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Infarction
8.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(5): 481-484, sep.-oct. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289260

ABSTRACT

Resumen La displasia fibromuscular es una enfermedad no inflamatoria y no aterosclerótica, que puede afectar cualquier lecho arterial; sin embargo, las arterias renales y la carótida interna son las más comprometidas. Se presenta el caso de un paciente que cursó con dolor abdominal y cefalea hemicraneana posterior, con síndrome de Horner incompleto. En arteriografía renal y panangiografía cerebral realizada por Cardiología intervencionista se observó infarto renal derecho y disección de la carótida interna derecha con formación de pseudoaneurisma. Se hizo terapia endovascular con angioplastia y se dio de alta con antiagregación dual. Es importante conocer este tipo de presentación clínica ya que el diagnóstico podría confundirse con otras enfermedades que generan signos y síntomas similares; por consiguiente, es ideal tener sospecha clínica alta para evitar retrasos en el manejo.


Abstract Fibromuscular dysplasia is a non-inflammatory and non-atherosclerotic disease that can affect any arterial bed, with the renal and the internal carotid arteries being the most compromised. A case is presented on a patient that had abdominal pain and pain in the back of the head, and an incomplete Horner syndrome. In the renal arteriography and cerebral pan-angiography carried out by interventionist Cardiology, a right renal infarction and dissection of the right internal carotid was observed with a pseudo-aneurysm formation. Intravenous treatment was performed with angioplasty, and the patient was discharged with dual antiplatelet therapy. It is important to be aware of this type of clinical presentation, since the diagnosis can be confused with other diseases that produce similar signs and symptoms. It would be ideal to have a high clinical suspicion in order to avoid delays in the management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Stroke , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection , Fibromuscular Dysplasia , Infarction
9.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(4): 344-350, jul.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289236

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar la factibilidad y los efectos sobre la capacidad funcional de un programa de entrenamiento físico supervisado, aplicado en pacientes con disfunción sistólica severa del ventrículo izquierdo después de infarto agudo de miocardio. Métodos: Se estudiaron 37 pacientes, de ambos sexos y sin límites de edad, con diagnóstico de disfunción sistólica severa del ventrículo izquierdo, después de haber sufrido un infarto agudo de miocardio, que consecutivamente se incorporaron al programa ambulatorio del Centro de Rehabilitación del Instituto de Cardiología. Se hicieron pruebas de esfuerzo máximas limitadas por síntomas con determinación de consumo de oxígeno, ecocardiogramas en reposo y ventriculografías isotópicas en reposo y esfuerzo a los 2, 8 y 18 meses de evolución, y un tiempo medio de seguimiento clínico de 4,1 años. A todos se les prescribió un régimen de entrenamiento físico moderado o intenso, durante un año como mínimo. Se consideró disfunción sistólica severa cuando la fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo fue menor de 35%. Resultados: Todos los parámetros ergométricos que expresaron capacidad funcional incrementaron significativamente en la evaluación del octavo mes (p< 0,0005), permaneciendo invariables a los 18. La fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo media en reposo inicial fue de 28,3 ± 5,3%, la cual no mostró variaciones significativas con el esfuerzo ni con otros estudios evolutivos. La mortalidad total y la morbilidad de la serie fueron de 10,5% y 47,3%, respectivamente. Conclusión: El entrenamiento físico supervisado en pacientes infartados con disfunción sistólica severa de ventrículo izquierdo fue seguro y efectivo, y mejoró su calidad de vida, sin causar efectos negativos sobre la función ventricular.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and effects on the functional capacity of a supervised physical training programme carried out on patients with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction after an acute myocardial infarction. Methods: The study included a total of 37 patients, males and females of any age, with a diagnosis of severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction after having suffered an acute myocardial infarction. They were consecutively included into the ambulatory programme of the Institute of Cardiology Rehabilitation Centre. Maximum effort tests, limited by symptoms, were performed to determine oxygen consumption. Echocardiograms were also performed at rest, with isotopic ventriculography at rest and then at 2, 8, and 18 months. The mean clinical follow-up was 4.1 years. They were all prescribed to a moderate or intense training programme for at least one year. Severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction was considered when the left ventricular ejection fraction was less than 35%. Results: All the ergometric parameters that expressed functional capacity increased significantly in the evaluation at 8 months (P< .0005), and remained at 18 months. The initial mean left ventricular ejection fraction at rest was 28.3 ± 5.3%, which showed no significant changes with effort or in the other evaluation times. The overall mortality and morbidity of the series was 10.5% and 47.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Supervised physical training in patients after an acute myocardial infarction and with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction was safe and effective, and improved the quality of life, without causing negative effects on ventricular function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Exercise , Heart Failure, Systolic , Evaluation Study , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Infarction
12.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 36(3): 322-324, 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1127111

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: el infarto segmentario idiopático de epiplón mayor es una excepcional causa de cuadro agudo de abdomen en el adulto. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de un adulto joven que se operó de urgencia con diagnóstico de apendicitis aguda y el abordo por vía laparoscópica, comprobándose en la exploración un infarto segmentario de epiplón mayor que se resolvió mediante la omentectomía parcial con buena evolución y alta precoz. Discusión: si bien el diagnóstico imagenológico de infarto de epiplón mayor es posible dada su baja incidencia y las características de presentación clínica, su diagnóstico habitualmente es intraoperatorio. Su tratamiento es la omentectomía laparoscópica del sector afectado. Con diagnóstico preoperatorio, puede admitirse una conducta expectante, aunque la persistencia de la sintomatología es causa de reingreso y prolongación del tratamiento definitivo.


Summary: Introduction: idiopathic segmental infarction of the greater omentum constitutes an exceptional cause of an acute condition in adults. Clinical case: study presents the clinical case of a young adult who underwent an emergency laparoscopic appendectomy for the treamtent of acute apenditicis. The exploration revealed a segmental infarction of the greater omentum that was resolved by partial omentectomy. Evolution was good and the patient was allowed an early discharge. Discussion: despite the fact an image diagnosis of infarction of the greater omentum is possible, its low incidence and the characteristics of its clinical presentation result in it usually being diagnosed during surgery. Treatment consists in laparoscopic omentenctomy of the affected area. Preoperative diagnosis may allow for watchful waiting, although persistence of symptoms requires readmission to hospital and extension of the definitive treatment.


Resumo: Introdução: o infarto segmentar idiopático do grande omento é uma causa excepcional de quadro agudo de abdômen no adulto. Caso clínico: apresenta-se um caso clínico de um adulto jovem operado de urgência por via laparoscópica com diagnóstico de apendicite aguda comprovando-se na exploração um infarto segmentar de grande omento solucionado por uma omentectomia parcial com boa evolução e alta precoce. Discussão: embora o diagnóstico por técnicas de imagem de infarto do grande omento seja possível, seu diagnóstico habitualmente es intraoperatório devido à sua baja incidência e as características da apresentação clínica. O tratamento é a omentectomia laparoscópica do segmento afetado. Com diagnóstico pré-operatório, pode-se admitir uma conduta expectante, embora a persistência de sintomatologia é causa de re-internação e prolongamento do tratamento definitivo.


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Omentum/surgery , Infarction , Laparoscopy , Abdomen, Acute
13.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 19: e47408, 20200000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1121682

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Having the profile of patients undergoing angioplasty helps to improve their quality of life and assist the health team. Objective: to analyze the epidemiological, clinical, and angiographic aspects and their relationship with the gender of patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Method: this is a descriptive and cross-sectional study carried out at a University Hospital in Rio Grande do Norte. Data collection took place between April and October 2017 from data found in the computerized and printed medical records of 93 patients undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Tests such as Kolmogorov-Sminorv, Mann-Whitney (U), and Pearson's chi-square (X2) evaluated the information evidenced by the research. Results: 64.5% of the 93 patients included in the study were men, with a mean age of 62.3 years old. Regarding the door-to-balloon time, 18.2% of women and 8.3% of men had time less than 90 minutes. The comorbidities of systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and alcoholism stand out. Conclusion: the results on the epidemiological, clinical, and angiographic aspects evidenced in this study favor greater knowledge, contributing to the generation of strategies for the prevention of diseases of patients submitted to primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.


Introdução: Dispor do perfil de pacientes submetidos à angioplastia colabora para a melhoria da qualidade de vida dos mesmos e trabalho assistencial da equipe de saúde. Objetivo: analisar os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e angiográficos e suas relações com o sexo dos pacientes submetidos à intervenção coronária percutânea primária. Método: estudo descritivo e transversal realizado em Hospital Universitário do Rio Grande do Norte. A coleta de dados ocorreu entre abril e outubro de 2017 a partir de dados encontrados no prontuário informatizado e impresso de 93 pacientes submetidos à Intervenção Coronária Percutânea Primária. Utilizaram-se testes como o Kolmogorov-Sminorv, Mann-Whitney (U) e Qui-quadrado de Pearson (X2) para a avaliação das informações evidenciadas pela pesquisa. Resultados: dos 93 pacientes inclusos no estudo, 64,5% eram homens, com média de idade de 62,3 anos. Sobre o tempo porta-balão,18,2% das mulheres e 8,3% dos homens conseguiram o tempo menor que 90 minutos. Quanto às comorbidades, destacam-se Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica, diabetes mellitus, além do hábito de vida etilismo. Conclusão: os resultados sobre os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e angiográficos evidenciados neste estudo favorecem um maior conhecimento, contribuindo para a geração de estratégias para a prevenção de agravos de pacientes submetidos à Intervenção Coronária Percutânea Primária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patients , Angioplasty , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Patient Care Team , Tobacco Use Disorder , Cardiovascular Diseases , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus , Emergencies , Sedentary Behavior , Health Promotion , Hypertension , Infarction
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826344

ABSTRACT

Infective endocarditis is a microbial infection of the endocardium and can easily affect heart valve.Its characteristic lesion is vegetation formation,and the shedding of vegetation results in arterial embolism and ischemic necrosis of corresponding tissues and organs.A case of infective endocarditis with multiple extracardiac complications was described in this article.The characteristic ultrasound finding was the vegetation formation in anterior mitral valve.CT and MRI scans revealed involvements in multiple organs and blood vessels,which were manifested as splenic infarction,renal infarction,cerebral infarction,splenic aneurysm,superior mesenteric artery aneurysms,renal artery aneurysms,and distal segment stenosis and occlusion of right middle cerebral artery.


Subject(s)
Embolism , Endocarditis , Endocarditis, Bacterial , Humans , Infarction , Mitral Valve
15.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 48(4): e421, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126643

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Numerosos factores están relacionados con las complicaciones intrahospitalarias en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio, la utilidad del volumen plaquetario medio como factor pronóstico es polémica actualmente. Objetivo: Describir la asociación entre el volumen plaquetario medio en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio, con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y la evolución clínica. Método: Estudio observacional en 188 pacientes con infarto agudo del miocardio, que ingresaron en el servicio de Cardiología del Hospital Militar Central "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay". Fueron vigiladas las siguientes complicaciones: muerte cardiaca, insuficiencia cardiaca, angina postinfarto, reinfarto y todas combinadas. Se determinó el volumen plaquetario mediante hemograma automatizado al ingreso y se utilizaron como valores de corte < 9 fL y ≥ 9 fL. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino (69,7 por ciento) y mayores de 50 años (91,5 por ciento). Los pacientes hipertensos, diabéticos y fumadores presentaron mayor volumen plaquetario (82,9 por ciento, p= 0,00; 90,4 por ciento, p= 0,03; 89,1 por ciento, p= 0,00 respectivamente). El 22,3 por ciento presentó complicaciones combinadas; la insuficiencia cardiaca (45,2 por ciento) y la angina postinfarto (3,3 por ciento) fueron las más frecuentes. La insuficiencia cardiaca constituyó la complicación asociada con volumen plaquetario elevado (p= 0,027). El volumen plaquetario ≥ 9 fL constituyó un predictor independiente de eventos adversos (p= 0,00; IC 95 por ciento: 3,89-112,908). Conclusiones: El volumen plaquetario medio elevado estuvo asociado a peor evolución clínica intrahospitalaria y la insuficiencia cardiaca la complicación más prevalente. Se asoció además a la hipertensión arterial, tabaquismo y diabetes mellitus(AU)


Introduction: Numerous factors are related to in-hospital complications in patients with acute myocardial infarction, the usefulness of the mean platelet volume as a prognostic factor is currently controversial. Objective: To describe the association between mean platelet volume in patients with acute myocardial infarction, with cardiovascular risk factors and clinical evolution. Method: Observational study in 188 patients with acute myocardial infarction, who were admitted to the Cardiology Department of the Central Military Hospital "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay ". The following complications were monitored: cardiac death, heart failure, post-infarction angina, reinfarction and all combined. Platelet volume was determined by automated blood count at admission and <9 fL and ≥ 9 fL were used as cut-off values. Results: The male sex (69.7 percent) and over 50 years (91.5 percent) predominated. Hypertensive, diabetic and smoking patients presented higher platelet volume (82.9 percent, p = 0.00; 90.4 percent, p = 0.03; 89.1 percent, p = 0.00 respectively). 22.3 percent presented combined complications; Heart failure (45.2 percent) and post-infarction angina (3.3 percent) were the most frequent. Heart failure was the complication associated with high platelet volume (p = 0.027). Platelet volume ≥ 9 fL was an independent predictor of adverse events (p = 0.00; 95 percent CI: 3.89-112.908). Conclusions: The high mean platelet volume was associated with worse intrahospital clinical evolution and heart failure the most prevalent complication. It was also associated with high blood pressure, smoking and diabetes mellitus(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Diabetes Mellitus , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction , Observational Study
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(7): 891-900, jul. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058619

ABSTRACT

Background: Renal infarction is a rare and usually underdiagnosed entity. Aim: To study the etiology of renal infarction in published series. Material and Methods: A systematic review was carried out selecting 28 series that included 1582 patients. Results: The proposed cause was cardiac or aortic embolism in 718 cases (45%), an arterial injury in 253 (16%), prothrombotic factors in 146 (9%) and other causes in 79 (5%). 291 cases were classified as idiopathic (18.4%). Atrial fibrillation was present in 542 of the 718 patients with cardiac or aortic embolism. Conclusions: The main cause of renal infarction is cardiac or aortic embolism and among this group, most cases are due to atrial fibrillation. One out of five cases is labeled as idiopathic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infarction/etiology , Kidney/blood supply , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney/pathology
17.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 48(2): e251, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126611

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La mayoría de los infartos cerebrales aterotrombóticos son debidos a aterosclerosis extracraneal y a los factores de riesgo que lo condicionan. Objetivo: Caracterizar a pacientes con ictus aterotrombótico de territorio anterior según tamaño, sexo y factores de riesgo aterotrombótico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal a 63 pacientes que acudieron al Hospital Militar Central "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay" con diagnóstico de infarto cerebral aterotrombótico reciente de territorio carotídeo, a los que se les realizó tomografía de cráneo simple, entre los años 2011 y 2013. Resultados: Predominaron los infartos grandes (57,1 por ciento) en hombres (80,6 por ciento) y de forma general también fue el sexo masculino el más afectado (68,3 por ciento). La mayoría de los pacientes que tuvieron tanto infartos medianos (59,3 por ciento) como infartos grandes (58,3 por ciento), refirieron de 3 a 4 factores de riesgo aterotrombótico (58,7 por ciento). Prevaleció la hipertensión arterial (82,5 por ciento), con mayor coincidencia con los infartos medianos (88,9 por ciento), que con los infartos grandes (77,8 por ciento). Conclusiones: El ictus aterotrombótico reciente de territorio de irrigación carotídeo se caracterizó en esta serie, por infartos grandes y mayor afectación de adultos mayores, hipertensos, del sexo masculino. La existencia de 3 a 4 factores de riesgo en cada paciente prevalece tanto en los que presentan infarto cerebral mediano como grande(AU)


Introduction: Most of atherothrombotic cerebral infarctions are due to extracranial atherosclerosis and the risk factors that condition it. Objective: To characterize patients with atherothrombotic stroke of the anterior territory according to size, sex and atherothrombotic risk factors. Method: A cross-sectional study was performed on 63 patients attended at the "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay" hospital with a diagnosis of recent atherothrombotic cerebral infarction of the carotid territory, who underwent simple skull tomography, between 2011 and 2013. Results: Large infarcts predominated (57.1 percent) in men (80.6 percent) and in general, male sex was also the most affected (68.3 percent). Most of patients who had both moderate infarcts (59.3 percent) and large infarcts (58.3 percent), reported 3 to 4 atherothrombotic risk factors (58.7 percent). Prevalence of arterial hypertension (82.5 percent), with greater coincidence with medium infarcts (88.9 percent), than with large infarcts (77.8 percent). Conclusions: The recent atherothrombotic stroke of the carotid irrigation area was characterized in this series, due to large infarcts and greater involvement of elderly, hypertensive males. The existence of 3 to 4 risk factors in each patient prevails both in those with medium cerebral infarction and large ones(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Tomography , Stroke , Atherosclerosis , Hypertension , Infarction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Methods
18.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 27(2): 80-88, Abr-Jun 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1015227

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el personal de enfermería es esencial para la atención oportuna en el programa Código Infarto. La evaluación por competencias es la clave para garantizar la calidad de los servicios de salud. Objetivo: evaluar las dimensiones de la competencia clínica del personal de enfermería para el protocolo de Código Infarto en una unidad de tercer nivel de atención. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal, en el que se incluyeron 80 miembros del personal de enfermería de los servicios de Admisión y Hemodinamia. Se diseñó y validó un instrumento de 48 ítems mediante ronda de expertos 3/3; para determinar el nivel de competencia clínica, se utilizó la teoría de Patricia Benner. Resultados: el nivel de competencia clínica fue competente en 38.8%. En las dimensiones, el área de conocimiento obtuvo 83.4%, habilidad 86.7% y actitud 87.2%. Se asoció el nivel de competencia con capacitación, grado académico y categoría (p < 0.001). Conclusiones: se identificaron áreas de oportunidad respecto a la dimensión de conocimiento, lo cual permite redireccionar los procesos educativos dirigidos al personal de enfermería.


Introduction: Nursing staff is essential in providing timely care in Código Infarto (Infarction Code) program. Competency assessment is the key to guarantee the quality of health services. Objective: To assess the clinical competence of Código Infarto nursing staff in a third-level unit. Methods: Cross-sectional analytical study, which included 80 members of the nursing staff of Admission and Cardiac Care; a 48-item instrument was designed and validated by experts in three rounds; Patricia Benner's theory was used to determine the level of clinical competence. Results: The level of clinical competence was competent (38.8%). In the dimensions, the area of knowledge obtained 83.4%, ability 86.7%, and attitude 87.2%. The level of competence was associated with training, academic degree and category (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Opportunity areas regarding knowledge were identified, which allows redirecting the educational processes addressed to the nursing staff.


Subject(s)
Humans , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nursing , Clinical Competence , Hospital Rapid Response Team , Health Services , Hospitals, Special , Infarction , Nursing Staff , Mexico
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785933

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The authors applied maximum external decompression for malignant hemispheric infarction and investigated the functional outcome according to the patient age.METHODS: Twenty-five patients with malignant hemispheric infarction were treated using a hemicraniectomy with maximum external decompression, comprising a larger (>14cm) hemicraniectomy, resection of the temporalis muscle and its fascia, spaciously expansive duraplasty, and approximation of the skin flap. The medical and diagnostic imaging records for the patients were reviewed, and 1-year functional outcome data obtained for the younger group (aged ≤ 60 years) and elderly group (aged > 60 years).RESULTS: The patients (n=25) who underwent maximum surgical decompression revealed a minimal mortality rate (n=2, 8.0%). The patients (n=14) in the younger group all survived with mRS scores of 2 (n=1, 7.1%), 3 (n=7, 50.0%), 4 (n=3, 21.4%), or 5 (n=3, 21.4%). A majority of the younger patients (57.1% with mRS ≤3) lived with functional independence. When the 1-year mRS scores were dichotomized between favorable (mRS ≤3) and unfavorable (mRS ≥4) outcomes, the younger group had significantly more patients with a favorable outcome than the elderly group (57.1% versus 9.1%, p=0.033). In contrast, in the elderly group, most patients showed unfavorable outcomes with the mRS scores of 4 (n=5, 45.5%), 5 (n=3, 27.3%), or 6 (n=2, 18.2%), whereas only one patient showed favorable outcome (mRS 3). A majority of the elderly patients (45.5% with mRS 4) survived with moderately severe disability.CONCLUSION: For malignant hemispheric infarction, a hemicraniectomy with maximum external decompression was found to considerably increase survival with a favorable outcome in functional independence (mRS ≤3) for younger patients aged ≤60 years. It can be optimal surgical treatment for younger patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cerebral Infarction , Decompression , Decompression, Surgical , Diagnostic Imaging , Fascia , Humans , Infarction , Mortality , Skin , Treatment Outcome
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