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1.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1050-1055, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007441

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of electro-scalp acupuncture (ESA) on the expression of microglial markers CD206 and CD32, as well as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and IL-10 in the ischemic cortex of rats with ischemic stroke, and to explore the mechanisms of ESA on alleviating inflammatory damage of ischemic stroke.@*METHODS@#Sixty 7-week-old male SD rats were randomly selected, with 15 rats assigned to a sham surgery group. The remaining rats were treated with suture method to establish rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The rats with successful model were randomly divided into a model group, a VitD3 group, and an ESA group, with 15 rats in each group. In the ESA group, ESA was performed bilaterally at the "top-temporal anterior oblique line" with disperse-dense wave, a frequency of 2 Hz/100 Hz, and an intensity of 1 mA. Each session lasted for 30 min, once daily, for a total of 7 days. The VitD3 group were treated with intragastric administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-VitD3) solution (3 ng/100 g), once daily for 7 days. The neurological deficit scores and neurobehavioral scores were assessed before and after the intervention. After the intervention, the brain infarct volume was evaluated using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Immunofluorescence double staining was performed to detect the protein expression of CD32 and CD206 in the ischemic cortex. Western blot analysis was conducted to measure the protein expression of IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10 in the ischemic cortex.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham surgery group, the model group showed increased neurological deficit scores and neurobehavioral scores (P<0.01), increased brain infarct volume (P<0.01), increased protein expression of CD32, IL-6, and IL-1β in the ischemic cortex (P<0.01), and decreased protein expression of CD206 and IL-10 in the ischemic cortex (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, both the ESA group and the VitD3 group showed decreased neurological deficit scores and neurobehavioral scores (P<0.01), reduced brain infarct volume (P<0.01), decreased protein expression of CD32, IL-6, and IL-1β in the ischemic cortex (P<0.01), and increased protein expression of CD206 and IL-10 in the ischemic cortex (P<0.01). Compared with the VitD3 group, the ESA group had lower neurological deficit score (P<0.05), larger brain infarct volume (P< 0.05), and lower protein expression of CD32, CD206, IL-1β, and IL-10 in the ischemic cortex (P<0.01, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#ESA could improve neurological function in MCAO rats, and its mechanism may be related to promoting microglial M1-to-M2 polarization and alleviating inflammatory damage.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ischemic Stroke , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6/genetics , Microglia , Scalp , Acupuncture Therapy , Vitamins , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6107-6114, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008810

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the mechanism of acacetin in protecting rats from cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via the Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)/NOD-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3) signaling pathway. Wistar rats were randomized into sham, model, low-and high-dose acacetin, and nimodipine groups, with 10 rats in each group. The rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO) was established with the improved suture method in other groups except the sham group. The neurological deficit score and cerebral infarction volume of each group were evaluated 24 h after modeling. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was employed to measure the levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), malondialdehyde(MDA), supe-roxide dismutase(SOD), and glutathione(GSH). Western blot was employed to determine the expression levels of B-cell lymphonoma-2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax), and TLR4/NLRP3 signaling pathway-related proteins(TLR4, p-NF-κB/NF-κB, NLRP3, pro-caspase-1, cleaved caspase-1, pro-IL-1β, and cleaved IL-1β) in the rat brain tissue. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was employed to reveal the histopathological changes in the ischemic area. Compared with the sham group, the modeling of MCAO increased the neurological deficit score and cerebral infarction volume, elevated the IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MDA levels and lowered the SOD and GSH levels in the brain tissue(P<0.05). Compared with the MCAO model group, low-and high-dose acacetin and nimodipine decreased the neurological deficit score and cerebral infarction volume, lowered the IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MDA levels and elevated the SOD and GSH levels in the brain tissue(P<0.05). Compared with the sham group, the model group showed up-regulated protein levels of Bax, TLR4, p-NF-κB/NF-κB, NLRP3, pro-caspase-1, cleaved caspase-1, pro-IL-1β, and cleaved IL-1β and down-regulated protein level of Bcl-2 in the brain tissue(P<0.05). Compared with the MCAO model group, the acacetin and nimodipine groups showed down-regulated protein levels of Bax, TLR4, p-NF-κB/NF-κB, NLRP3, pro-caspase-1, cleaved caspase-1, pro-IL-1β, and cleaved IL-1β and up-regulated protein level of Bcl-2 in the brain tissue(P<0.05). In conclusion, acacetin regulates the TLR4/NLRP3 signaling pathway to inhibit neuroinflammatory response and oxidative stress, thus exerting the protective effect on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Caspase 1/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Nimodipine/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Rats, Wistar , Signal Transduction , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5830-5837, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008781

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of Xiaoxuming Decoction(XXMD) on the activation of astrocytes after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) injury. The model of cerebral IR injury was established using the middle cerebral artery occlusion method. Fluorocitrate(FC), an inhibitor of astrocyte activation, was applied to inhibit astrocyte activation. Rats were randomly divided into a sham group, a model group, a XXMD group, a XXMD+FC group, and a XXMD+Vehicle group. Neurobehavioral changes at 24 hours after cerebral IR injury, cerebral infarction, histopathological changes observed through HE staining, submicroscopic structure of astrocytes observed through transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence intensity of glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP) and thrombospondin 1(TSP1) measured through immunofluorescence, and expression of GFAP and TSP1 in brain tissue measured through Western blot were evaluated in rats from each group. The experimental results showed that neurobehavioral scores and cerebral infarct area significantly increased in the model group. The XXMD group, the XXMD+FC group, and the XXMD+Vehicle group all alleviated neurobehavioral changes in rats. The pathological changes in the brain were evident in the model group, while the XXMD group, the XXMD+FC group, and the XXMD+Vehicle group exhibited milder cerebral IR injury in rats. The submicroscopic structure of astrocytes in the model group showed significant swelling, whereas the XXMD group, the XXMD+FC group, and XXMD+Vehicle group protected the submicroscopic structure of astrocytes. The fluorescence intensity and protein expression of GFAP and TSP1 increased in the model group compared with those in the sham group. However, the XXMD group, the XXMD+FC group, and XXMD+Vehicle group all down-regulated the expression of GFAP and TSP1. The combination of XXMD and FC showed a more pronounced effect. These results indicate that XXMD can improve cerebral IR injury, possibly by inhibiting astrocyte activation and down-regulating the expression of GFAP and TSP1.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Astrocytes , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Brain , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery
4.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 648-662, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982334

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Restoration of blood circulation within "time window" is the principal treating goal for treating acute ischemic stroke. Previous studies revealed that delayed recanalization might cause serious ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, plenty of evidences showed delayed recanalization improved neurological outcomes in acute ischemic stroke. This study aims to explore the role of delayed recanalization on blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the penumbra (surrounding ischemic core) and neurological outcomes after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).@*METHODS@#Recanalization was performed on the 3rd day after MCAO. BBB disruption was tested by Western blotting, Evans blue dye, and immunofluorescence staining. Infarct volume and neurological outcomes were evaluated on the 7th day after MCAO. The expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), and serine/threonine kinase (Akt) in the penumbra were observed by immunofluorescence staining and/or Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The extraversion of Evans blue, IgG, and albumin increased surrounding ischemic core after MCAO, but significantly decreased after recanalization. The expression of Claudin-5, Occludin, and zona occludens 1 (ZO-1) decreased surrounding ischemic core after MCAO, but significantly increased after recanalization. Infarct volume reduced and neurological outcomes improved following recanalization (on the 7th day after MCAO). The expressions of Claudin-5, Occludin, and ZO-1 decreased surrounding ischemic core following MCAO, which were up-regulated corresponding to the increases of FGF21, p-FGFR1, PI3K, and p-Akt after recanalization. Intra-cerebroventricular injection of FGFR1 inhibitor SU5402 down-regulated the expression of PI3K, p-Akt, Occludin, Claudin-5, and ZO-1 in the penumbra, which weakened the beneficial effects of recanalization on neurological outcomes after MCAO.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Delayed recanalization on the 3rd day after MCAO increases endogenous FGF21 in the penumbra and activates FGFR1/PI3K/Akt pathway, which attenuates BBB disruption in the penumbra and improves neurobehavior in MCAO rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain Ischemia , Claudin-5/metabolism , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/metabolism , Occludin/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3882-3889, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981521

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of Xiaoxuming Decoction on synaptic plasticity in rats with acute cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. A rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO). Rats were randomly assigned into a sham group, a MCAO group, and a Xiaoxuming Decoction(60 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) group. The Longa score was rated to assess the neurological function of rats with cerebral ischemia for 1.5 h and reperfusion for 24 h. The 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride(TTC) staining and hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining were employed to observe the cerebral infarction and the pathological changes of brain tissue after cerebral ischemia, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy was employed to detect the structural changes of neurons and synapses in the ischemic penumbra, and immunofluorescence, Western blot to determine the expression of synaptophysin(SYN), neuronal nuclei(NEUN), and postsynaptic density 95(PSD95) in the ischemic penumbra. The experimental results showed that the modeling increased the Longa score and led to cerebral infarction after 24 h of ischemia-reperfusion. Compared with the model group, Xiaoxuming Decoction intervention significantly decreased the Longa score and reduced the formation of cerebral infarction area. The modeling led to the shrinking and vacuolar changes of nuclei in the brain tissue, disordered cell arrangement, and severe cortical ischemia-reperfusion injury, while the pathological damage in the Xiaoxuming Decoction group was mild. The modeling blurred the synaptic boundaries and broadened the synaptic gap, while such changes were recovered in the Xiaoxuming Decoction group. The modeling decreased the fluorescence intensity of NEUN and SYN, while the intensity in Xiaoxuming Decoction group was significantly higher than that in the model group. The expression of SYN and PSD95 in the ischemic penumbra was down-regulated in the model group, while such down-regulation can be alleviated by Xiaoxuming Decoction. In summary, Xiaoxuming Decoction may improve the synaptic plasticity of ischemic penumbra during acute cerebral ischemia-reperfusion by up-regulating the expression of SYN and PSD95.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Neuronal Plasticity , Reperfusion
6.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 323-330, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971532

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism that mediates the effect of soybean isoflavones (SI) against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in light of the regulation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), ferroptosis, inflammatory response and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability.@*METHODS@#A total of 120 male SD rats were equally randomized into sham-operated group (Sham group), cerebral I/R injury group and SI pretreatment group (SI group). Focal cerebral I/R injury was induced in the latter two groups using a modified monofilament occlusion technique, and the intraoperative changes of real-time cerebral cortex blood flow were monitored using a laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF). The postoperative changes of cerebral pathological morphology and the ultrastructure of the neurons and the BBB were observed with optical and transmission electron microscopy. The neurological deficits of the rats was assessed, and the severities of cerebral infarction, brain edema and BBB disruption were quantified. The contents of Fe2+, GSH, MDA and MPO in the ischemic penumbra were determined with spectrophotometric tests. Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1βwere analyzed using ELISA, and the expressions of GPX4, MMP-9 and occludin around the lesion were detected with Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#The rCBF was sharply reduced in the rats in I/R group and SI group after successful insertion of the monofilament. Compared with those in Sham group, the rats in I/R group showed significantly increased neurological deficit scores, cerebral infarction volume, brain water content and Evans blue permeability (P < 0.01), decreased Fe2+ level, increased MDA level, decreased GSH content and GPX4 expression (P < 0.01), increased MPO content and serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β (P < 0.01), increased MMP-9 expression and lowered occludin expression (P < 0.01). All these changes were significantly ameliorated in rats pretreated with IS prior to I/R injury (P < 0.05 or 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#SI preconditioning reduces cerebral I/R injury in rats possibly by improving rCBF, inhibiting ferroptosis and inflammatory response and protecting the BBB.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Glycine max/metabolism , Occludin/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Ferroptosis , Blood-Brain Barrier/ultrastructure , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Cerebral Infarction , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Isoflavones/therapeutic use , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery
7.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 199-205, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971515

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the protective effect of forsythiaside B (FB) against cerebral oxidative stress injury induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in mice and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#Ninety C57BL/6 mice were randomized into sham-operated group, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model group, and low-, medium and highdose (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, respectively) FB groups. The expression levels of MDA, ROS, PCO, 8-OHdG, SOD, GSTα4, CAT and GPx in the brain tissue of the mice were detected using commercial kits, and those of AMPK, P-AMPK, DAF-16, FOXO3 and P-FOXO3 were detected with Western blotting. Compound C (CC), an AMPK inhibitor, was used to verify the role of the AMPK pathway in mediating the therapeutic effect of FB. In another 36 C57BL/6 mice randomized into 4 sham-operated group, MCAO model group, FB (40 mg/kg) treatment group, FB+CC (10 mg/kg) treatment group, TTC staining was used to examine the volume of cerebral infarcts, and the levels of ROS and SOD in the brain were detected; the changes in the protein expressions of AMPK, P-AMPK, DAF-16, FOXO3 and P-FOXO3 in the brain tissue were detected using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#In mice with cerebral IR injury, treatment with FB significantly reduced the levels of ROS, MDA, PCO and 8-OHdG, increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, GSTα4, CAT and GPx, and enhanced phosphorylation of AMPK and FOXO3 and DAF-16 protein expression in the brain tissue (P < 0.01). Compared with FB treatment alone, the combined treatment with FB and CC significantly reduced phosphorylation of AMPK and FOXO3, lowered expression of DAF-16 and SOD activity, and increased cerebral infarction volume and ROS level in the brain tissue of the mice (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#FB inhibits oxidative stress injury caused by cerebral I/R in mice possibly by enhancing AMPK phosphorylation, promoting the downstream DAF-16 protein expression and FOXO3 phosphorylation, increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes, and reducing ROS level in the brain tissue.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Brain Ischemia , Oxidative Stress , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Reperfusion Injury , Reperfusion , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1597-1605, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970632

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether chrysin reduces cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury(CIRI) by inhi-biting ferroptosis in rats. Male SD rats were randomly divided into a sham group, a model group, high-, medium-, and low-dose chrysin groups(200, 100, and 50 mg·kg~(-1)), and a positive drug group(Ginaton, 21.6 mg·kg~(-1)). The CIRI model was induced in rats by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion(tMCAO). The indexes were evaluated and the samples were taken 24 h after the operation. The neurological deficit score was used to detect neurological function. The 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride(TTC) staining was used to detect the cerebral infarction area. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and Nissl staining were used to observe the morphological structure of brain tissues. Prussian blue staining was used to observe the iron accumulation in the brain. Total iron, lipid pero-xide, and malondialdehyde in serum and brain tissues were detected by biochemical reagents. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR), immunohistochemistry, and Western blot were used to detect mRNA and protein expression of solute carrier fa-mily 7 member 11(SLC7A11), transferrin receptor 1(TFR1), glutathione peroxidase 4(GPX4), acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 4(ACSL4), and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2(PTGS2) in brain tissues. Compared with the model group, the groups with drug intervention showed restored neurological function, decreased cerebral infarction rate, and alleviated pathological changes. The low-dose chrysin group was selected as the optimal dosing group. Compared with the model group, the chrysin groups showed reduced content of total iron, lipid peroxide, and malondialdehyde in brain tissues and serum, increased mRNA and protein expression levels of SLC7A11 and GPX4, and decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of TFR1, PTGS2, and ACSL4. Chrysin may regulate iron metabolism via regulating the related targets of ferroptosis and inhibit neuronal ferroptosis induced by CIRI.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ferroptosis , Signal Transduction , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Cerebral Infarction , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Malondialdehyde , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery
9.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 809-816, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939794

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the effect of echinacoside (ECH) on cognitive dysfunction in post cerebral stroke model rats.@*METHODS@#The post stroke cognitive impairment rat model was created by occlusion of the transient middle cerebral artery (MCAO). The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups by a random number table: the sham group (sham operation), the MCAO group (received operation for focal cerebral ischemia), and the ECH group (received operation for focal cerebral ischemia and ECH 50 mg/kg per day), with 6 rats in each group. The infarct volume and spatial learning were evaluated by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining and Morris water maze. The expression of α7nAChR in the hippocampus was detected by immunohistochemistry. The contents of acetylcholine (ACh), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), activities of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and catalase (CAT) were evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The neural apoptosis and autophagy were determined by TUNEL staining and LC3 staining, respectively.@*RESULTS@#ECH significantly lessened the brain infarct volume and ameliorated neurological deficit in infarct volume and water content (both P<0.01). Compared with MCAO rats, administration of ECH revealed shorter escape latency and long retention time at 7, 14 and 28 days (all P<0.01), increased the α7nAChR protein expression, ACh content, and ChAT activity, and decreased AChE activity in MCAO rats (all P<0.01). ECH significantly decreased MDA content and increased the GSH content, SOD, and CAT activities compared with MCAO rats (all P<0.05). ECH suppressed neuronal apoptosis by reducing TUNEL-positive cells and also enhanced autophagy in MCAO rats (all P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#ECH treatment helped improve cognitive impairment by attenuating neurological damage and enhancing autophagy in MCAO rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Acetylcholinesterase , Autophagy , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Cerebral Infarction , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Glutathione/metabolism , Glycosides , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Stroke/drug therapy , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor
10.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 410-418, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To reveal the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of a mixture of the main components of Panax notoginseng saponins (TSPN) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) of cultured cortical neurons.@*METHODS@#The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays. The morphology of dendrites was detected by immunofluorescence. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was developed in rats as a model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by neurological scoring, tail suspension test, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Nissl stainings. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to measure the changes in the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.@*RESULTS@#MTT showed that TSPN (50, 25 and 12.5 µ g/mL) protected cortical neurons after OGD/R treatment (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays indicated that 25 µ g/mL TSPN decreased neuronal apoptosis (P<0.05), and immunofluorescence showed that 25 µ g/mL TSPN restored the dendritic morphology of damaged neurons (P<0.05). Moreover, 12.5 µ g/mL TSPN downregulated the expression of Beclin-1, Cleaved-caspase 3 and LC3B-II/LC3B-I, and upregulated the levels of phosphorylated (p)-Akt and p-mTOR (P<0.01 or P<0.05). In the MCAO model, 50 µ g/mL TSPN improved defective neurological behavior and reduced infarct volume (P<0.05). Moreover, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B in cerebral ischemic penumbra was downregulated after 50 µ g/mL TSPN treatment, whereas the p-mTOR level was upregulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#TSPN promoted neuronal survival and protected dendrite integrity after OGD/R and had a potential therapeutic effect by alleviating neurological deficits and reversing neuronal loss. TSPN promoted p-mTOR and inhibited Beclin-1 to alleviate ischemic damage, which may be the mechanism that underlies the neuroprotective activity of TSPN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Beclin-1 , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Glucose , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Mammals/metabolism , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Oxygen , Panax notoginseng , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Saponins/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2064-2073, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928146

ABSTRACT

To study the protective effect of Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills on ischemic stroke rats. Ninety 4-weeks-old SPF male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups(n=15):sham operation group, model group, nimodipine group(12 mg·kg~(-1)), Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills high-dose group(400 mg·kg~(-1)), Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills medium-dose group(200 mg·kg~(-1)), Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills low-dose group(100 mg·kg~(-1)).The permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model(PMCAO) was established in the model group, nimodipine group, and Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills groups by the improved thread plug method, while the sham operation group did not insert the thread plug.Nimodipine group and Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills groups were given intragastric administration once a day for 24 days before the modeling operation, and once 1 hour before the modeling operation, while sham operation group and model group were given equal volumes of distilled water.The neuroethology of the surviving rats was measured; The volume of cerebral infarction in rats was measured by TTC method; The histopathology of rat brain was observed by HE method; The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α),interleukin-1β(IL-1β),interleukin-6(IL-6),malondialdehyde(MDA),superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) in serum were detected by ELISA;The mRNA expressions of Notch 1,Jagged 1,Hes 1 and Bcl-2 in rat brain were detected by RT-PCR;Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of caspase-3 protein in rat brain; the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and CD34 positive cells in rat brain were detected by immunofluorescence.The low, medium and high dose groups of Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills and nimodipine group could significantly reduce the neurobehavioral score and cerebral infarction volume of rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, reduce the morphological changes of nerve cells, decrease the expression of TNF-α,IL-1β and IL-6 in rat serum, increase the activity of SOD and CAT,and reduce the level of MDA.Furthermore, the expression levels of Notch l, Jagged l, Hes l and Bcl-2 mRNA were significantly increased, and the expression level of caspase-3 protein was decreased.Meanwhile, the number of VEGF and CD34 positive cells increased in the treatment group.The differences were statistically significant. Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills has a protective effect on ischemic stroke rats, and its mechanism may be related to anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, promotion of nerve cell proliferation, inhibition nerve cell apoptosis and promotion of angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Caspase 3/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Nimodipine/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1031-1038, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928023

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the pharmacodynamic effect of baicalin on rat brain edema induced by cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury and discuss the mechanism from the perspective of inhibiting astrocyte swelling, which is expected to serve as a refe-rence for the treatment of cerebral ischemia with Chinese medicine. To be specific, middle cerebral artery occlusion(suture method) was used to induce cerebral ischemia in rats. Rats were randomized into normal group, model group, high-dose baicalin(20 mg·kg~(-1)) group, and low-dose baicalin(10 mg·kg~(-1)) group. The neurobehavior, brain index, brain water content, and cerebral infarction area of rats were measured 6 h and 24 h after cerebral ischemia. Brain slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin(HE) for the observation of pathological morphology of cerebral cortex after baicalin treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was employed to determine the content of total L-glutathione(GSH) and glutamic acid(Glu) in brain tissue, Western blot to measure the content of glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP), aquaporin-4(AQP4), and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4(TRPV4), and immunohistochemical staining to observe the expression of GFAP. The low-dose baicalin was used for exploring the mechanism. The experimental results showed that the neurobehavioral scores(6 h and 24 h of cerebral ischemia), brain water content, and cerebral infarction area of the model group were increased, and both high-dose and low-dose baicalin can lower the above three indexes. The content of GSH dropped but the content of Glu raised in brain tissue of rats in the model group. Low-dose baicalin can elevate the content of GSH and lower the content of Glu. According to the immunohistochemical staining result, the model group demonstrated the increase in GFAP expression, and swelling and proliferation of astrocytes, and the low-dose baicalin can significantly improve this situation. The results of Western blot showed that the expression of GFAP, TRPV4, and AQP4 in the cerebral cortex of the model group increased, and the low-dose baicalin reduce their expression. The cerebral cortex of rats in the model group was severely damaged, and the low-dose baicalin can significantly alleviate the damage. The above results indicate that baicalin can effectively relieve the brain edema caused by cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in rats, possibly by suppressing astrocyte swelling and TRPV4 and AQP4.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aquaporin 4/genetics , Astrocytes , Brain Edema/drug therapy , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Flavonoids , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion , TRPV Cation Channels/therapeutic use
13.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 17-25, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878231

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to determine the effect of acute cerebral ischemia on the protein expression level of silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 3 (Sirt3) in the neurons and clarify the pathological role of Sirt3 in acute cerebral ischemia. The mice with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons with oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) were used as acute cerebral ischemia models in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Sirt3 overexpression was induced in rat hippocampal neurons by lentivirus transfection. Western blot was utilized to measure the changes in Sirt3 protein expression level. CCK8 assay was used to detect cell viability. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect mitochondrial function. Transmission electron microscope was used to detect mitochondrial autophagy. The results showed that, compared with the normoxia group, hippocampal neurons from OGD1 h/reoxygenation 2 h (R2 h) and OGD1 h/R12 h groups exhibited down-regulated Sirt3 protein expression levels. Compared with contralateral normal brain tissue, the ipsilateral penumbra region from MCAO1 h/reperfusion 24 h (R24 h) and MCAO1 h/R72 h groups exhibited down-regulated Sirt3 protein expression levels, while there was no significant difference between the Sirt3 protein levels on both sides of sham group. OGD1 h/R12 h treatment damaged mitochondrial function, activated mitochondrial autophagy and reduced cell viability in hippocampal neurons, whereas Sirt3 over-expression attenuated the above damage effects of OGD1 h/R12 h treatment. These results suggest that acute cerebral ischemia results in a decrease in Sirt3 protein level. Sirt3 overexpression can alleviate acute cerebral ischemia-induced neural injuries by improving the mitochondrial function. The current study sheds light on a novel strategy against neural injuries caused by acute cerebral ischemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Brain Ischemia , Down-Regulation , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Mitochondria , Neurons/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury , Sirtuin 3/metabolism , Sirtuins
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e10498, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153543

ABSTRACT

It is known that neuronal apoptosis contributes to pathology of cerebral ischemia injury. Zonisamide (ZNS) has shown anti-apoptosis effects in recent studies. The present study investigated whether the anti-apoptotic effect can account for the neuroprotective action of ZNS on cerebral ischemia. Neuronal cells were maintained under oxygen-glucose deprivation conditions to simulate cerebral ischemia and treated with ZNS simultaneously. The apoptosis of the cells and expression of apoptosis-related proteins were investigated by flow cytometry and western blot analysis, respectively. A cerebral ischemia mouse model was created via middle cerebral artery occlusion, and the mice were treated with ZNS. Neurological deficit scores and infarct volumes of the cerebral ischemia mice were measured. The apoptosis status of the neuronal cells was evaluated by TUNEL staining. In vitro, the ZNS treatment inhibited both the apoptosis of the neuronal cells and apoptosis-related protein expression (caspase-3, caspase-8, and calpain-1) induced by the oxygen-glucose deprivation. The anti-apoptosis effect of ZNS could occur through the blocking of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, ZNS treatment significantly ameliorated neurological deficits and reduced infarct volumes in the cerebral ischemia mice model. In this study, ZNS exerted neuroprotective effects by inhibition of apoptosis in neuronal cells in cerebral ischemia. Therefore, ZNS might be a promising therapy for cerebral ischemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Zonisamide/pharmacology
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e11028, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285653

ABSTRACT

Engeletin is a natural derivative of Smilax glabra rhizomilax that exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and suppresses lipid peroxidation. In the present study, we sought to elucidate the mechanistic basis for the neuroprotective and pro-angiogenic activity of engeltin in a human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) model system and a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. These analyses revealed that engeletin (10, 20, or 40 mg/kg) was able to reduce the infarct volume, increase cerebral blood flow, improve neurological function, and bolster the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vasohibin-2 (Vash-2), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), phosphorylated human angiopoietin receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (p-Tie2), and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) in MCAO rats. Similarly, engeletin (100, 200, or 400 nM) markedly enhanced the migration, tube formation, and VEGF expression of HUVECs in an OGD/R model system, while the VEGF receptor (R) inhibitor axitinib reversed the observed changes in HUVEC tube formation activity and Vash-2, VEGF, and CD31 expression. These data suggested that engeletin exhibited significant neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats, and improved cerebrovascular angiogenesis by modulating the VEGF/vasohibin and Ang-1/Tie-2 pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Endothelial Cells , Flavonols , Angiopoietin-1 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Glycosides
16.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 651-656, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877674

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment on inflammatory reaction, apoptosis and expression of Yes-associated protein (YAP) of ischemic penumbra of cerebral cortex in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury rats, and to explore the possible mechanism of its neuroprotection effect.@*METHODS@#A total of 84 SD rats were randomized into a sham operation group (12 rats), a model group (18 rats), an EA group (18 rats), an EA+YAP virus transfection group (18 rats) and an EA+virus control group (18 rats). Except for the sham operation group, thread embolization method was adopted to establish the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats of the other groups. EA was applied at "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Dazhui" (GV 14) for 30 min in the 3 EA intervention groups 2 h before model establishment, disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/15 Hz in frequency and 1 mA in intensity. Adenovirus transfection technique was used to induce gene silencing of YAP in the EA+YAP virus transfection group, and adenovirus vectors was injected as negative control in the EA+virus control group 4 d before model establishment. Twenty-four hours after model establishment, neurological function score was evaluated, the relative cerebral infarction area was observed by TTC staining, the apoptosis in the ischemic penumbra of cerebral cortex was detected by TUNEL staining, the levels of inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the ischemic penumbra of cerebral cortex was detected by ELISA method, the expression of YAP was detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham operation group, the expression of YAP was increased in the model group (@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture pretreatment can effectively improve the ischemia reperfusion injury, its mechanism may be related to up-regulating the expression of YAP in the ischemic penumbra of cerebral cortex and relieving the apoptosis and inflammatory reaction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury/therapy
17.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 352-360, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888498

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) on energy metabolism in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Adult SD male rats were divided into 5 groups: sham group, ischemia group, reperfusion group, adenovirus no-load group, and SIK2 overexpression group with 5 animals in each group. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced with the modified Zea-Longa line thrombus method to establish the cerebral ischemia reperfusion model. Eight days before the MCAO, SIK2 overexpression was induced by injecting 7 μL adenovirus in the right ventricle, then MCAO was performed for followed by reperfusion HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of cerebral tissue in rats; TTC staining was used to observe the volume of cerebral infarct. The levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in rat brain tissue were detected by ELISA; the levels of SIK2 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in the rat brain tissues were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Compared with the sham group, SIK2 level was decreased in the ischemia group, and it was further declined in the reperfusion group (<0.05). Compared with the sham group and ischemic group, the pathological injury in reperfusion group were more severe, and the infarct size was larger; compared with the reperfusion group and adenovirus no-load group, the pathological injury of the SIK2 overexpression group was milder, and the infarct size is less. Compared with the sharn group, HIF-1α was increased in both ischemia group and reperfusion group, especially in ischemia group (all <0.05); HIF-1α level in the SIK2 overexpression group was higher than that in the reperfusion group and adenovirus no-load group (all <0.05). ATP level in ischemia group and reperfusion group was lower than that in the sham group, and the reperfusion group decreased more significantly than the ischemia group (<0.05); ADP content was increased in the ischemia and reperfusion group, and the ADP content in reperfusion group was significantly higher than that in the ischemia group (<0.05). ATP level in the SIK2 overexpression group was higher than that in the reperfusion group and adenovirus no-load group (all <0.05), and ADP was decreased in the SIK2 overexpression group (all <0.05). SIK2 can up-regulate the ATP level and down-regulate the ADP level in rat brain tissue and alleviate cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by increase the level of HIF-1α.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Brain Ischemia , Energy Metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury
18.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 772-783, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922760

ABSTRACT

Danshen-Chuanxiongqin Injection (DCI) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke in China. However, its underlying mechanisms remain completely understood. The current study was designed to explore the protective mechanisms of DCI against cerebral ischemic stroke through integrating whole-transcriptome sequencing coupled with network pharmacology analysis. First, using a mouse model of cerebral ischemic stroke by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), we found that DCI (4.10 mL·kg


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Ischemia/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/genetics , Ischemic Stroke , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Stroke/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 2 , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 211-218, jun. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125072

ABSTRACT

La terapia endovascular (TEV) es el tratamiento estándar del ataque cerebrovascular isquémico (ACVi) con oclusión de gran vaso (OGVC). Aún no se conoce si esos resultados pueden generalizarse a la práctica diaria. Se describen los resultados de la TEV en pacientes con ACVi por OGVC dentro de las 24 horas, en un análisis retrospectivo entre enero 2013 y diciembre 2017 que incluyó 139 casos consecutivos con ACVi y OGVC en arteria cerebral media (ACM), hasta 24 horas del inicio de los síntomas, que recibieron TEV en nuestra institución. El resultado primario medido fue la escala de Rankin modificada (mRS) ≤ 2 a 90 días. Se evaluaron también: reperfusión exitosa, según la escala modificada de trombólisis en infarto cerebral (mTICI) 2b/3, hemorragia intracraneal sintomática (HIS) y mortalidad a 90 días. La edad media: 67.5 ± 15.0, siendo el 51.8% mujeres. La mediana basal de National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) fue 14 (IIC 8-18); la mediana del tiempo desde inicio de síntomas hasta punción inguinal: 331 min (IIC 212-503). El 45.3%, 63 pacientes, fueron tratados > 6 horas después del inicio de síntomas. La tasa de mRS ≤ 2 fue 47.5%. Se logró una reperfusión exitosa en el 74.8%. La tasa de mortalidad a 90 días fue del 18.7% y la HIS del 7.9%. Nuestro registro de pacientes de la vida real con ACVi por OGVC tratados con TEV dentro de las 24 horas mostró altas tasas de reperfusión, buenos resultados funcionales y pocas complicaciones, acorde con las recomendaciones internacionales.


Endovascular treatment (EVT) has become the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with proximal large vessel occlusions (LVO). However, it is still unknown whether these results can be generalized to clinical practice. We aimed to perform a retrospective review of patients who received EVT up to 24 hours, and to assess safety and efficacy in everyday clinical practice. We performed a retrospective analysis, from January 2013 to December 2017, on 139 consecutive patients with AIS for anterior circulation LVO strokes up to 24 h from symptoms onset, who received EVT in our institution. The primary outcome measured was a modified Rankin scale (mRS) ≤ 2 at 90 days. Secondary outcomes included successful reperfusion, defined as a modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) scale 2b/3, mortality rate at 90 days and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH). The mean age was 67.5 ± 15.0, with 51.8% female patients. Median baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was 14 (IQR 8-18); median time from symptom onset to groin puncture was 331 min (IQR 212-503). Sixty-three patients (45.3%) were treated beyond 6 hours after symptoms onset. The rate of mRS ≤ 2 was 47.5%. Successful reperfusion was achieved in 74.8 %. Mortality rate at 90 days was 18.7 % and sICH was 7.9 %. Our registry of real-life patients with AIS due to LVO who received EVT within 24 hours showed high reperfusion rates, and good functional results with few complications, according to international recommendations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/surgery , Stroke/surgery , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Argentina , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brain Ischemia/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Stroke/mortality , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/mortality , Endovascular Procedures/mortality
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