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1.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550899

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las infecciones intestinales se relacionan con trastornos del sistema inmune y de la microbiota intestinal. Pueden ser recurrentes y producir otras alteraciones intestinales y sistémicas, que empeoran con la terapia antimicrobiana. La ozonoterapia ha sido usada en el tratamiento de infecciones intestinales. Objetivos: Recopilar información sobre los efectos biológicos, terapéuticos y la seguridad de la administración del ozono por insuflación rectal en el tratamiento de las infecciones intestinales. Métodos: Para la búsqueda de información se empleó el motor de búsqueda Google Académico. Se consultaron artículos en las bases de datos PubMed y SciELO de la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud. Además, se realizó una búsqueda general en los idiomas español e inglés, a partir de los artículos más relevantes acerca del estudio. Se utilizaron como palabras clave: infecciones, insuflación, microbioma gastrointestinal, ozono como términos más concretos. En el estudio no se aplicó ninguna restricción acerca del ámbito geográfico ni de la edad. Conclusiones: La aplicación rectal de ozono es segura, tiene acciones biológicas y terapéuticas útiles para tratar las infecciones intestinales. Actúa como inmunomodulador y protector de la microbiota intestinal, lo que permite enfrentar esta problemática de salud desde el punto de vista preventivo, curativo y de rehabilitación de los daños causados, tanto por los gérmenes como por los efectos de los antibióticos(AU)


Introduction: Intestinal infections are related to disorders of the immune system and intestinal microbiota. They can be recurrent and produce other intestinal and systemic alterations, which worsen with antimicrobial therapy. Ozone therapy has been used in the treatment of intestinal infections. Objectives: To compile information on the biological, therapeutic effects and safety of the administration of ozone by rectal insufflation in the treatment of intestinal infections. Methods: Google Scholar search engine was used for searching information. Articles were consulted in PubMed and SciELO databases of the Virtual Health Library. In addition, a general search was carried out in Spanish and English, based on the most relevant articles about the study. The keywords used were infections, insufflation, gastrointestinal microbiome, ozone as more specific terms. No restrictions on geographic area or age were applied in the study. Conclusions: The rectal application of ozone is safe, it has useful biological and therapeutic actions to treat intestinal infections, acting as an immunomodulator and protector of the intestinal microbiota, which allows us to face this health problem from a preventive, curative and rehabilitation point of view of the damage caused, both by germs and by the effects of antibiotics(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Ozone/therapeutic use , Insufflation/methods , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Infections/drug therapy
2.
In. Pradines Terra, Laura; García Parodi, Lucía; Bruno, Lorena; Filomeno Andriolo, Paola Antonella. La Unidad de Pie Diabético del Hospital Pasteur: modelo de atención y pautas de actuación: importancia del abordaje interdisciplinario. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2023. p.270-286, ilus, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1418742
4.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 12(2): 55-60, abr.-jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417318

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Bloodstream infection (BSI) by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a severe infection. This study aimed to evaluate and identify the predictors of mortality in patients who had bloodstream infection by carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study, approved by Committee of Ethics in Research with Human Participants, which included 87 consecutive patients hospitalized in a referral hospital in Brazil. Clinical and demographic information about each patient were obtained from hospital records. The Student's T-test was used to compare continuous variables and x2 or Fisher's exact tests to compare categorical variables. To determine independent risk factors for 30-day mortality, a multiple logistic regression model was used. A survival curve was constructed using the Kaplan­Meier method. Results: Among the patients, 87.3% use antibiotics previously, 60.9% received inadequate empirical treatment, and the 30-day mortality rate was 57.5%. Inappropriate antibiotic empirical therapy was independently associated with a 30-days death and mortality rate. Conclusion: These findings can show some insights about the relationship between higher mortality and inappropriate empirical therapy for patients with BSI by P. aeruginosa. There is a need for better diagnostic tests and infection control programs should focus on de-escalation the antibiotic inappropriate therapy, mainly in BSI caused by carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa.(AU)


Justificativa e objetivos: Infecção da corrente sanguínea (ICS) por Pseudomonas aeruginosa multirresistente é grave. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar e identificar os preditores de mortalidade em pacientes admitidos em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva que apresentaram infecção da corrente sanguínea por P. aeruginosa resistente aos carbapenêmicos. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo de coorte retrospectivo, aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa com Seres Humanos, que incluiu 87 pacientes consecutivos internados em um hospital de referência no Brasil. As informações clínicas e demográficas de cada paciente foram obtidas através de análise dos prontuários dos pacientes. O teste T de Student foi usado para comparar variáveis contínuas e o teste x2 ou exato de Fisher para comparar variáveis categóricas. Para determinar fatores de risco independentes para mortalidade em 30 dias, foi utilizado um modelo de regressão logística múltipla. Uma curva de sobrevida foi construída pelo método de Kaplan-Meier. Resultados: Do total de pacientes, 87,3% faziam uso prévio de antibióticos, 60,9% receberam tratamento empírico inadequado e a mortalidade em 30 dias foi de 57,5%. A terapia empírica inadequada foi fator de risco independente para mortalidade. Conclusão: Esses achados revelam alguns insights sobre a relação entre maior mortalidade e terapia empírica inadequada para pacientes com ICS por P. aeruginosa. Além disso, destacam a necessidade de melhores testes diagnósticos e os programas de controle de infecção devem se concentrar na redução da terapia inadequada com antibióticos, principalmente na ICS causada por P. aeruginosa resistente a carbapenêmicos.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: La infección del torrente sanguíneo por Pseudomonas aeruginosa multirresistente es grave. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar e identificar predictores de mortalidad en pacientes ingresados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos que presentaban infección del torrente sanguíneo por P. aeruginosa resistente a carbapenémicos. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo, aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación con Participantes Humanos, que incluyó 87 pacientes consecutivos ingresados en un hospital de referencia en Brasil. La información clínica y demográfica de cada paciente se obtuvo mediante el análisis de las historias clínicas de los pacientes. Se utilizó la prueba t de Student para comparar variables continuas y x2 o prueba exacta de Fisher para comparar variables categóricas. Para determinar los factores de riesgo independientes para la mortalidad a los 30 días, se utilizó un modelo de regresión logística múltiple. Se construyó una curva de supervivencia utilizando el método de Kaplan-Meier. Resultados: Del total de pacientes, el 87,3% utilizaba antibióticos previamente, el 60,9% recibió tratamiento empírico inadecuado y la tasa de mortalidad a los 30 días fue del 57,5%. La terapia empírica inadecuada fue un factor de riesgo independiente de mortalidad. Conclusión: Estos hallazgos revelan algunos conocimientos sobre la relación entre el aumento de la mortalidad y la terapia empírica inadecuada para los pacientes con infección del torrente sanguíneo por P. aeruginosa. Además, destacan la necesidad de mejores pruebas de diagnóstico y los programas de control de infecciones deben centrarse en reducir la terapia con antibióticos inapropiados, particularmente en infección del torrente sanguíneo causados por P. aeruginosa resistente a carbapenémicos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas , Carbapenems , Sepsis/mortality , Infections/drug therapy
5.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 107 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416541

ABSTRACT

A conjuntivite bacteriana tem significante impacto na Saúde Pública. Essa infecção representa mais de um terço das doenças oculares relatadas em âmbito global. É uma doença altamente contagiosa causada por variedade de bactérias aeróbias e anaeróbias. Diferentes antibióticos empregados no tratamento dessa doença têm apresentado elevada incidência de resistência bacteriana. Dentre os antibióticos de última geração, destaca-se o besifloxacino, antibiótico de quarta geração da classe das fluoroquinolonas, indicado exclusivamente para uso oftálmico tópico. Entretanto, esse fármaco possui baixa solubilidade em água, diminuindo sua biodisponibilidade. Tendo em vista superar esse desafio, foi proposta abordagem nanotecnológica para o desenvolvimento de nanocristais desse fármaco. A preparação de nanocristais de besifloxacino empregando moagem via úmida em escala reduzida foi promissora empregando tensoativo Povacoat®. O Diâmetro hidrodinâmico médio (DHM) da partícula foi de aproximadamente 550 nm, com índice de polidispersão (IP) menor que 0,2. Esse resultado permitiu aumentar a solubilidade de saturação em aproximadamente duas vezes em relação a matéria-prima, possibilitando aumentar a velocidade de dissolução desse fármaco e melhorar sua biodisponibilidade e segurança. Além disso, foi validado o método para quantificação do besifloxacino por CLAE, apresentando especificidade, linearidade no intervalo de 20 a 80µg/mL (r= 0,9996), precisão por repetibilidade (DPR= 1,20%, 0,84% e 0,39%), precisão intermediária (DPR= 0,94%) e exatidão 99,03%. Estudo de estabilidade acelerado (90 dias) na condição 40°C±2°C/75%UR±5%UR e estudo de estabilidade de acompanhamento (150 dias) na condição: 25°C ± 2°C / 60% UR ± 5% UR evidenciaram a estabilidade do teor no período avaliado. Ainda, a nanossuspensão de besifloxacino 0,6% m/m (nanocristais) na dose máxima (500 mg/kg) e o estabilizante Povacoat® (750 mg/kg) não apresentaram toxicidade em larvas de G. mellonella. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) para a formulação inovadora foi de 0,0960 µg/mL e 1,60 µg/mL frente a Staphylococcus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectivamente, confirmando eficácia in vitro


Bacterial conjunctivitis greatly impacts the population's health, presenting more than a third of eye diseases reported worldwide. It is an infection caused by various aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and is highly contagious. Therefore, it presents a high incidence of bacterial resistance to the antibiotics commonly used for treatment. Among the most recent antibiotics, besifloxacin is a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic indicated exclusively for topical ophthalmic use. Due to its importance in treating bacterial conjunctivitis and its low solubility in the water, a nanotechnological approach was proposed to develop besifloxacin nanocrystals. The preparation of besifloxacin nanocrystals using small-scale wet milling was promising using Povacoat® surfactant. The particle's average hydrodynamic diameter (DHM) was approximately 550 nm, with a polydispersity index (IP) of less than 0.2. This result increased the saturation solubility approximately two times concerning the raw material, making it possible to increase the dissolution rate of this drug and improve its bioavailability and safety. In addition, the method for quantification of besifloxacin by HPLC was validated, presenting specificity, linearity in the range of 20 to 80µg/mL (r= 0.9996), precision by repeatability (DPR= 1.20%, 0.84% and 0.39%), intermediate precision (DPR= 0.94%) and accuracy 99.03%. Accelerated stability study (90 days) at 40°C±2°C/75%RH±5%RH condition and follow-up stability study (150 days) at 25°C ± 2°C / 60% RH ± condition 5% RH showed the stability of content in the evaluated period. Furthermore, the 0.6% besifloxacin nanosuspension (nanocrystals) at the maximum dose (500 mg/kg) and the Povacoat® stabilizer (750 mg/kg) did not show toxicity in G. mellonella larvae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to innovative formulation was 0.0960 µg/mL and e 1.60 µg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, confirming in vitro efficacy


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Chemistry, Physical/instrumentation , Conjunctivitis, Bacterial/metabolism , Nanoparticles/analysis , Bacteria, Aerobic/classification , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Fluoroquinolones , Dissolution , Eye Diseases/pathology , Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification
6.
Infectio ; 24(4): 201-207, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114869

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir la respuesta clínica y mortalidad general de Colistina en infecciones por Pseudomonas XDR y Acinetobacter XDR en el Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza in Lima, Peru. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo. Se incluyeron los registros de pacientes > 18 años, desde junio del 2014 a junio del 2016, que tuvieron infección por Pseudomonas XDR o Acinetobacter XDR confirmada por cultivo, y que recibieron colistina. Se realizó análisis univariado de las características generales de los pacientes; un análisis bivariado con test de Chi2 , t-student o ANOVA según corresponda, y además se describió los factores asociados a mortalidad. Resultados. Se incluyeron 56 registros de pacientes, la mediana de la edad fue 46,5 [31,5 a 63,5]. El 48,2% tuvo un cultivo positivo para Pseudomonas XDR y el 51,8% para Acinetobacter XDR. La respuesta clínica favorable fue 85,7% a los 15 días y de 78,6% a los 30 días. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria a los 30 días fue 21,4%, la mortalidad en UCI fue de 30,8% y la nefrotoxicidad fue de 5,4%. Conclusiones. Colistina combinada con otro antimicrobiano tuvo una respuesta clínica favorable en infección por Pseudomonas XDR o Acinetobacter XDR.


Abstract Objective: To describe the clinical response and overall mortality of Colistin in infections by Pseudomonas XDR and Acinetobacter XDR at the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza in Lima, Peru. Methods: Observational, descriptive, retrospective study. Records of all patients > 18 years old, from June 2014 to June 2016, who had infection by Pseudomonas XDR or Acinetobacter XDR confirmed by culture, and who received colistin, were included. A univariate analysis of the general characteristics of the patients was performed; a bivariate analysis with a Chi2, t-student or ANOVA test as appropriate, and the factors associated with mortality were also determined. Results: 56 patient records were included; the median age was 46,5 [31,5 to 63,5]. The Culture was positive for Pseudomonas XDR in 48,2% and for Acinetobacter XDR in 51,8%. The favorable clinical response was 85,7% at 15 days and 78,6% at 30 days. In-hospital mortality at 30 days was 21,4%, ICU mortality was 30,8% and nephrotoxicity was 5,4%. Conclusions: Colistin combined with another antimicrobial had a favorable clinical response in infection with Pseudomonas XDR and Acinetobacter XDR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas Infections , Colistin , Pseudomonas , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Infections/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units
7.
s.l; RedARETS; feb. 2020.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1095221

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Se sugiere la utilización de gammaglobulinas endovenosa en infantes pretérmino (<1500gr con inmunodeficiencia) para profilaxis de infecciones graves. TECNOLOGÍA EVALUADA: Gammaglobulina endovenosa: La inmunoglobulina intravenosa (IGIV) contiene un conjunto inmunoglobulina G (IgG) extraída del plasma de más de 1000 donantes de sangre. La IGIV se administra con frecuencia a pacientes inmunodeficientes que tienen disminución de las capacidades de producción de anticuerpos. En pacientes inmunodeficientes se administra para mantener niveles adecuados de anticuerpos para prevenir infecciones y conferir inmunidad pasiva. MÉTODOS: Busqueda bibliográfica. Terminología: Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Estrategia epistemonikos. Estrategia Cochrane library. RESUMEN DE LOS RESULTADOS: Inmunoglobulina intravenosa comparado con no tratamiento para prevenir infecciones en infantes de bajo peso o pretérmino. 15 de los estudios tuvieron alto riesgo de sesgo debido a fallas en el cegamiento, falta de grupo control, attrtion bias, report bias y no usar intención de tratar. La heterogeneidad I2 54% y 50%. Funnel plot asimétrico. Sólo un estudio pequeño bien diseñado con resultados negativos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , gamma-Globulins/therapeutic use , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infections/drug therapy , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Cost-Benefit Analysis
9.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1380-1389, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880762

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the clinical value of individualized pharmaceutical services for patients receiving vancomycin for severe infections and establish clinical monitoring procedures during vancomycin treatment.@*METHODS@#Data were collected from patients with severe infections who received vancomycin treatment with individualized pharmacy services (test group, 144 cases) or without such services (control group, 884 cases) between January, 2017 and December, 2018. Using propensity score matching, the patients in the two groups with comparable baseline data were selected for inclusion in the study (62 in each group), and the efficacy, safety and economic indicators were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The curative effects of the treatment did not differ significantly between the two groups, with the overall response rates of 95.16% in the test group and 91.94% in the control group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The participation of clinical pharmacists during the treatment can improve the clinical benefits of vancomycin in patients with severe infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Infections/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Services , Retrospective Studies , Vancomycin/therapeutic use
10.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 27(100): 39-44, 20190000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1354044

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La triquinosis es una infección parasitaria causada por nematodos del género Trichinella. El compromiso cardíaco no es habitual, pero representa la causa más frecuente de muerte por triquinosis, mientras que la afectación neurológica ocurre principalmente en pacientes severamente enfermos. Se sabe que a mayor cantidad de larvas ingeridas menor es el tiempo de incubación y mayor es la severidad de la enfermedad. Se presentan dos pacientes con compromiso del sistema nervioso central, uno de ellos cardiovascular, ambos pertenecientes a un brote de triquinosis ocurrido en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca.


Background: Trichinosis is a parasitic infection caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Cardiac involvement is not usual but represents the most frequent cause of death by trichinosis, while neurological affectation occurs mainly in severely ill patients. A greater number of larvae ingested, the shorter the incubation time and the greater the severity of the disease. We present two patients with compromise of the central nervous system and one of them cardiovascular, both belonging to an outbreak of trichinosis in the city of Bahía Blanca


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Trichinellosis/complications , Trichinellosis/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Infections/drug therapy , Mebendazole/therapeutic use , Neurologic Manifestations
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(2): 167-178, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003665

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este documento incluye los recursos terapéuticos antiinfecciosos necesarios para pacientes inmunocomprometidos por terapia de cáncer o receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos (TPH). Se aborda la terapia indicada para pacientes con las situaciones clínicas prevalentes en esta población y la terapia indicada para algunos microorganismos específicos. Según presentación clínica, se aborda el manejo de pacientes con: neutropenia febril sin foco, sepsis, infecciones del sistema nervioso central, neumonía, infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos, enterocolitis neutropénica e infección del tracto urinario. Se describe el arsenal terapéutico necesario, las dosis recomendadas y las precauciones especiales para el uso de antibacterianos, antivirales, antifúngicos y antiparasitarios en esta población, incluida la medición de concentraciones plasmáticas de ciertos fármacos en situaciones específicas.


This manuscript includes the antiinfective therapeutic resources for immunocompromised patients under chemotherapy by cancer or hematopoietic stem cells transplant (HSCT) receptors. The document presents the antimicrobial therapy indicated in the most prevalent clinical situations in this population and the primary and alternative therapy for some specific microorganisms. The clinical situations included in the analysis are: febrile neutropenia without focus, sepsis, infections of the central nervous system, pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections, neutropenic enterocolitis and urinary tract infection. The therapeutic resources, recommended doses and special precautions for the use of antimicrobial recommended in bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections in this population are described, including the measurement of plasma concentrations of certain drugs in specific situations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Febrile Neutropenia/drug therapy , Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Immunocompromised Host/drug effects , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Immunocompetence/drug effects
12.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 7(6): 250-253, ago. 1, 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120992

ABSTRACT

Odontogenic infections are associated with a variety of microorganisms. antibiotics are commonly used for the management of various dental infections and have a proven role in decreasing morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases. the frequent and over usage of antibiotics has been associated with a number of consequences such as the selection of drug resistant strains, and the formation of antibiomas. antibiomas are characterized by the formation of a localized pathology surrounded by thick fibrous tissues in response to long term antibiotics use. an established antibioma is characterized by a tough fibrous swelling accompanied by painful or painless swelling, intermittent fever and constitutional symptoms. in this article, we are reporting the case of a facial antibioma formed due to prolonged use of antibiotics prescribed for a residual periapical infection following endodontic treatment. in addition, the association of using antibiotics in this context is discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Tooth Diseases/drug therapy , Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Surgery, Oral , Chronic Periodontitis/drug therapy , Gingivitis/drug therapy
13.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 75(2): 79-88, mar.-abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-951294

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las biopelículas son comunidades de microorganismos que crecen agregados y rodeados por una matriz extracelular que ellos mismos producen, la cual favorece la adhesión covalente sobre superficies inertes y vivas; además, les ayuda a desarrollar alta tolerancia a las moléculas con actividad antimicrobiana. Por otra parte, las biopelículas se asocian con infecciones crónicas y persistentes que impactan de manera negativa en distintas áreas médicas. Además, generan altos costos a los sistemas de salud y a los pacientes cada año, porque son difíciles de tratar con antimicrobianos convencionales; adicionalmente, generan altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad. El objetivo de esta revisión es presentar información extensa y actualizada sobre el origen, la biosíntesis y la fisiopatología de las biopelículas, así como sobre su relación con infecciones crónicas, el diagnóstico, los tratamientos antimicrobianos actuales con actividad antibiopelícula y las perspectivas sobre la búsqueda de nuevos tratamientos. Estos últimos aún representan una importante área de investigación.


Abstract Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that grow aggregated and surrounded by an extracellular matrix, which they produce and favors them to adhere covalently to inert and living surfaces; it also helps them to develop high tolerance to molecules with antimicrobial activity. Moreover, biofilms are associated with chronic and persistent infections, which negatively impact different medical areas since they generate high costs to health care systems and patients every year because they are difficult to treat with conventional antimicrobial drugs. Additionally, they generate high rates of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this review was to present extensive and up-to-date information on the origin, biosynthesis, and pathophysiology of biofilms. Also, its relationship with chronic infections, diagnosis, current antimicrobial treatments with antibiotic activity, and perspectives on the search for new treatments, since the latter still represent an important area of research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biofilms/drug effects , Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Chronic Disease , Health Care Costs , Biofilms/growth & development , Drug Development/methods , Infections/diagnosis , Infections/microbiology
14.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(supl.6): 2792-2799, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-977679

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation as protection factor against infection of patients with chronic kidney disease on conservative treatment. Method: Retrospective cohort study carried out between 2013 and 2016 in the Conservative Treatment Outpatient Clinics (Ambulatório de Tratamento Conservador) of the Hypertension and Kidney Hospital (Hospital do Rim e Hipertensão) of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Data on sociodemographic factors, comorbidity, infection episodes and use or nonuse of vitamin D supplementation for at least 6 months were collected from medical records. The primary outcomes considered in both groups were: presence or absence of infection anywhere on the body (bloodstream, urinary, respiratory and surgical sites). Results: A total of 263 patients were included and those who received (n=43) vitamin D had 59% less chance of developing infections (OR=0.41; 95%CI; 0.15-0.99), when compared to those who did not receive. Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation was a protective factor against infections of all causes.


RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar la efectividad de la suplementación de vitamina D en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica en tratamiento conservador como factor de protección contra infecciones. Método: Estudio de Cohorte retrospectiva realizado entre 2013 y 2016 en el Ambulatorio de Tratamiento Conservador del Hospital do Rim e Hipertensão da Universidade Federal São Paulo. Se recogieron de los prontuarios los datos sociodemográficos, de comorbilidad, episodios de infección, en uso o no de suplementación de vitamina D por lo menos 6 meses. Los resultados primarios considerados en los dos grupos fueron: la presencia o no de infección en cualquier sitio: urinario, respiratorio, corriente sanguínea y sitio quirúrgico. Resultados: Se incluyeron 263 pacientes y los que recibieron (n = 43) vitamina D tenían un 59% menos de posibilidades de desarrollar infección (OR = 0,41, IC95% 0,15-0,99), en comparación con los que no recibieron. Conclusión: La suplementación de vitamina D fue factor de protección contra infecciones de todas las causas.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a efetividade da suplementação de vitamina D em pacientes com doença renal crônica em tratamento conservador como fator de proteção contra infecções. Método: Estudo de Coorte retrospectiva realizado entre 2013 e 2016 no Ambulatório de Tratamento Conservador do Hospital do Rim e Hipertensão da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Foram coletados dos prontuários os dados sociodemográficos, de comorbidade, episódios de infecção, em uso ou não de suplementação de vitamina D por no mínimo 6 meses. Os desfechos primários considerados nos dois grupos foram: a presença ou não de infecção em qualquer sítio: urinário, respiratório, corrente sanguínea e sítio cirúrgico. Resultados: Foram incluídos 263 pacientes e os que receberam (n=43) vitamina D tiveram 59% menos chance de desenvolver infecção (OR=0,41; IC95% 0,15-0,99), quando comparados aos que não receberam. Conclusão: A suplementação de vitamina D foi fator de proteção contra infecções de todas as causas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Infections/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Dietary Supplements/standards , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Conservative Treatment/methods , Middle Aged
15.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e124, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974443

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Not only laymen but also dentists generally believe that extraction of acutely infected teeth should be avoided until the infection subdues by using systemic antibiotics. The aim of this study was to compare perioperative complications in routine extractions of acutely infected teeth with extractions of asymptomatic teeth. This prospective study was performed with 82 patients. Severe pain on percussion of the relevant tooth was considered as basic criteria for acute infection. The acutely infected teeth were labeled as the study group (n = 35) and the asymptomatic teeth as the control group (n = 47). The extractions were done using standard procedures. The amount of anesthetic solution used and duration of extractions were recorded. Postoperative severe pain and exposed bone with no granulation tissue in the extraction socket were indications of alveolar osteitis (AO). The level of statistical significance was accepted as 0.05. Symptoms that could indicate systemic response, including fever, fatigue, and shivering were not found. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of AO, amount of anesthetic solution used, and duration of extraction. The presence of an acute infection characterized by severe percussion pain is not a contraindication for tooth extraction. Infected teeth should be extracted as soon as possible and the procedure should not be postponed by giving antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Tooth Diseases/surgery , Tooth Extraction/methods , Infections/surgery , Tooth Diseases/drug therapy , Tooth Extraction/adverse effects , Toothache/surgery , Acute Disease , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Dry Socket/etiology , Asymptomatic Infections/therapy , Infections/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
16.
SãoPaulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 127 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361485

ABSTRACT

Pacientes diabéticos apresentam alterações no sistema imunológico que promovem, em parte, maior suscetibilidade de infecções bacterianas. O tratamento com insulina melhora a sobrevida e reduz o número de infecções recidivas no paciente com diabetes mellitus do tipo 1 (DM1). Pouco se sabe sobre os efeitos do diabetes e a ação da insulina nos macrófagos. Neste trabalho, investigamos a proteína fosfatidilinositol-3-quinase (PI3K), proteína quinase B (Akt) e as quinases ativadas por mitógenos (MAPK) em macrófagos derivados de medula óssea (BMDM) e sua participação no estímulo por lipopolissacarídeo (LPS) na presença ou não do tratamento com insulina através da secreção dos mediadores inflamatórios fator de necrose tumoral (TNF)-α, interleucina (IL)-6 e IL-10. Observamos que os BMDM de animais com DM1 apresentam aumento da expressão da subunidade catalítica PI3K p110alpha com redução na subunidade reguladora PI3K p55 e maior expressão da fosforilação das proteínas Akt (Serina-473 e Treonina-308), quinase regulada por sinal extracelular (ERK) 1/2 e quinase ativada por estresse/quinase Jun-amino-terminal (SAPK/JNK) MAPK. Observou-se alteração na concentração das citocinas TNF-α, IL-6 e IL-10 no sobrenadante da cultura de BMDM dos animais diabéticos após estímulo com LPS, menor taxa de metabolismo mitocondrial, no entanto, sem resultar em morte celular, tampouco na expressão do receptor do tipo Toll 4 na membrana celular. Já o reestímulo destas células com LPS promoveu aumento na concentração de TNF-α sem alteração das demais citocinas. Além disto, o tratamento com insulina, simultaneamente ao estímulo com LPS, dos BMDM oriundos de animais diabéticos aumentou a concentração de TNF-α, IL-6, da fosforilação de p38, ERK 1/2 e SAPK/JNK MAPK, PI3K p55 e da Akt (Serina-473), o que não ocorreu nos BMDM dos animais não diabéticos sob a mesma condição. Este efeito foi abolido pela inibição farmacológica da PI3K e da ERK 1/2, resultando em novo aumento da concentração de TNF-α e IL-6. A análise conjunta destes resultados indica que a insulina, através da modulação das vias PI3K, Akt, ERK 1/2 e SAPK/JNK, amplifica o aumento da concentração de TNF-α e IL-6 sob estímulo com LPS


Diabetic patients present alterations in the immune system that promote in part a greater susceptibility of bacterial infections. Insulin treatment improves survival and reduces the number of recurrent infections in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). Little is known about the effects of diabetes and the action of insulin on macrophages. In this work we investigated the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) / protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) proteins in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and their participation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or treatment with insulin through the secretion of inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α, interleukin (IL) -6 and IL-10. We observed that BMDM of animals with DM1 increased PI3K p110alpha catalytic subunit expression with a reduction in the PI3K p55 regulatory subunit and increased expression of the phosphorylation of the Akt (Serine-473 and Threonine-308), extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and Jun-amino-terminal stress-kinase / kinase (SAPK / JNK) MAPK. Changes in the concentration of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 cytokines in the supernatant of the BMDM culture of diabetic animals after stimulation with LPS were observed, possibly due to a lower rate of mitochondrial metabolism, however, without resulting in cell death , so little in the expression of the Toll 4 receptor on the cell membrane. The re-stimulation of these cells with LPS promoted an increase in TNF-α concentration without alteration of the other cytokines. In addition, insulin and simultaneously LPS stimulation of BMDM from diabetic animals increased the concentration of TNF-α, IL-6, phosphorylation of p38, ERK 1/2 and SAPK / JNK MAPK, PI3K p55 and Akt (Serine-473), which did not occur in the BMDM of non-diabetic animals under the same condition. This effect was abolished by pharmacological inhibition of PI3K and ERK 1/2, resulting in a further increase in the concentration of TNF-α and IL-6. The analysis of these results indicate that insulin by modulating the PI3K, Akt, ERK 1/2 and SAPK / JNK pathways amplifies the concentration levels of TNF-α and IL-6 under stimulation with LPS


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/classification , Macrophages , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Lipopolysaccharides/agonists , Cytokines/pharmacokinetics , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Alloxan/pharmacology , Infections/drug therapy , Insulin/administration & dosage
17.
Rev. clín. periodoncia implantol. rehabil. oral (Impr.) ; 10(3): 169-172, dic. 2017. graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900303

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Las infecciones en el territorio maxilofacial, son cuadros frecuentes, de origen polimicrobiano, con manifestaciones clínicas muy variables y que están asociadas a múltiples vías de ingreso de los microorganismos al territorio. Un gran porcentaje de estas infecciones se origina en la cavidad oral, principalmente en lesiones bacterianas que sufren los dientes. La compleja anatomía de la cabeza y el cuello, permiten que muchas de estas infecciones se diseminen por espacios profundos, llegando a comprometer órganos o regiones anatómicas adyacentes, que pueden llevar a cuadros clínicos de alto riesgo vital. Los casos clínicos presentados en este artículo corresponden a pacientes tratados en el hospital San Juan de Dios a causa de procesos infecciosos del territorio maxilofacial, por equipos multidisciplinarios.


ABSTRACT: Infections in the maxillofacial territory are frequent cases of polymicrobial origin, with very variable clinical manifestations and are associated with multiple entering pathways of microorganisms in the territory. A large percentage of these infections originate in the oral cavity, mainly in bacterial lesions that undergo experienced by the teeth. The complex anatomy of the head and neck allows many of these infections to spread through deep spaces, leading to compromising adjacent organs or anatomical regions, which can lead to high-risk clinical conditions. The clinical cases presented in this article correspond to patients treated at the San Juan de Dios hospital because of infectious processes of the maxillofacial territory, by multidisciplinary teams.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Maxillary Diseases/surgery , Maxillary Diseases/microbiology , Maxillary Diseases/drug therapy , Face/microbiology , Drainage , Fasciitis, Necrotizing/complications , Pott Puffy Tumor/complications , Infections/surgery , Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 56(2): 46-58, abr.-jun. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900973

ABSTRACT

La tasa de complicaciones infecciosas posoperatorias se eleva en el paciente quirúrgico, entre otras razones, debido a que resulta insuficiente el conocimiento sobre la génesis de los factores que las provocan. Esto incrementa significativamente su persistencia y las consecuencias negativas que inciden sobre el enfermo, la institución sanitaria y el sistema de salud. De ahí, la necesidad de profundizar en los diferentes aspectos cognoscitivos sobre el tema. Esta revisión actualizada pretende esclarecer los aspectos fundamentales concernientes a su génesis, diagnóstico y tratamiento preventivo y curativo con vistas a disminuir la morbilidad y mortalidad por esta lamentable complicación posquirúrgica(AU)


The rate of postoperative infective complications increases in the surgical patient due, among other reasons, to poor knowledge on the genesis of causative factors. This significantly raises their level of persistence and the negative consequences for the patient, the health institution and the health system; hence the need of delving into the different cognitive aspects of this topic. This updated review was intended to clarify the fundamental aspects of their genesis, diagnosis and preventive and curative treatment with a view to reducing morbidity and mortality from this terrible post surgical complication(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infections/drug therapy , Patient Care , Postoperative Complications , Risk Factors , Review Literature as Topic
19.
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 18(1): 43-54, ene.-jun. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-844805

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las úlceras del pie diabético son asiento de infecciones que pueden poner en peligro tanto la extremidad como la vida del paciente. Su adecuado diagnóstico es necesario para efectuar un tratamiento antimicrobiano apropiado. Objetivo: Evaluar la correlación entre el uso de un nuevo protocolo de antibiótico-terapia y la respuesta favorable de las infecciones del pie diabético, según procederes quirúrgicos y tiempo de estadía hospitalaria. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio experimental en el Hospital Provincial "Dr. Antonio Luaces Iraola", de Ciego de Ávila desde octubre de 2012 a septiembre de 2015. La muestra de 100 pacientes obtenida de forma aleatoria se dividió en dos grupos, uno control, al cual se le aplicó el esquema propuesto en el Programa de Atención Integral al paciente con ulcera de pie diabético, y otro experimental, al que se le aplicó un esquema basado en el mapa microbiológico local. Se caracterizó la muestra según edad, sexo, tiempo de evolución como diabético, clasificación según Wagner, y severidad de la infección. Se aplicaron las pruebas chi cuadrado, t de Student y de U de Mann-Whitney para demostrar igualdad entre los grupos. Resultados: Los procederes quirúrgicos requeridos en el grupo control, resultaron significativamente más invasivos que en el grupo experimental; y los pacientes del primero precisaron de más días de ingreso hospitalario que los del segundo. Conclusiones: La aplicación de un esquema antimicrobiano basado en las características microbiológicas locales propicia la realización de menos amputaciones y se acorta la estadía hospitalaria de los pacientes tratados por pie diabético(AU)


Introduction: The diabetic foot ulcers are common locations for serious infections that can affect both the limb and the patient´s life. Early appropriate diagnosis is necessary to establish a correct antibiotic treatment. Objective: To assess the correlation between the use of a new protocol for antibiotic treatment and the favorable response of the diabetic foot infections, depending on surgical procedures and length of stay at hospital. Methods: An experimental study has been conducted in "Dr. Antonio Luaces Iraola" hospital in Ciego de Ávila province from October 2012 to September 2015. A random sample of 100 patients was divided into two groups, one was treated with the comprehensive care program for patients with diabetic foot ulcers and the other with the new proposed protocol based on the local microbiological map. The sample was characterized by age, gender, length of time with diabetes, Wagner classification and severity of infection. Chi square, T student and U Mann-Whitney tests were applied to prove equality between groups. Results: Surgical procedures needed in the control group were more invasive than in the experimental group and patients from the former group had a longer stay at hospital than the latter. Conclusions: The use of an antibiotic protocol based on the local microbiological characteristics favor the reduction of the number of amputations and shorter stay at hospital in patients with diabetic foot(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology
20.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 45(4): 1-7, set.-dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-960571

ABSTRACT

La Espondilodiscitis es una de las formas de presentación de procesos infecciosos en el raquis. Se puede observar en pacientes inmunodeprimidos o secundaria a intervenciones locales como bloqueos o procederes de mínimo acceso sobre la columna. Teniendo en cuenta la inusual aparición de la espondilodiscitis secundaria a traumas punzantes, y a la presencia de signos imagenológicos tempranos capaces de mostrar la propagación de la infección desde el sitio de la lesión hasta el segmento vertebral, se presenta este caso de espondilodiscitis secundaria a herida por arma blanca. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 48 años de edad con antecedentes de salud anterior, que sufrió una herida por arma blanca en la región lumbar izquierda, posterior al trauma comenzó a presentar dolor en columna lumbar e impotencia funcional absoluta. Se le realizan estudios de laboratorio y de imágenes. Los parámetros hematológicos inclinaban al diagnóstico de un proceso infeccioso en la columna y la Resonancia Magnética Nuclear evidenció una espondilodiscitis lumbar, así como el trayecto fistuloso de la infección desde la piel hasta el segmento afectado. El tratamiento consistió en la administración de antibióticos e inmovilización con un corsé por 6 meses. El paciente presentó mejoría de los síntomas a las 3 semanas, con alivio total del dolor al mes. Los resultados hematológicos mejoraron paulatinamente hasta alcanzar la normalidad a los 6 meses. La Espondilodiscitis producida por herida de arma blanca constituye una condición infrecuente, pero debe ser sospechada en todo paciente que sufra este tipo de lesión(AU)


Spondylodiscitis is one of the forms of presentation of infectious processes in the rachis. It can be observed in immunocompromised patients or secondary to local interventions such as blockages or procedures of minimal access to the spine. Given the unusual occurrence of spondylodiscitis secondary to sharp trauma, and the presence of early imaging signs capable of showing the spread of the infection from the site of the lesion to the vertebral segment, a case of spondylodiscitis secondary to stab injury is presented. We report a 48-year-old male patient with previous health history, who suffered a stab wound in the left lumbar region. After trauma, he began to present pain in the lumbar spine and absolute functional impotence. Laboratory and imaging studies are performed. The hematological parameters inclined to the diagnosis of an infectious process in the column and the nuclear magnetic resonance evidenced lumbar spondylodiscitis, as well as the fistulous path of the infection from the skin to the affected segment. Treatment consisted of administration of antibiotics and immobilization with a corset during 6 months. The patient presented improvement of symptoms at 3 weeks, with total pain relief at one month. The hematological results gradually improved until reaching normality at 6 months. Spondylodiscitis produced by knife wounding is uncommon condition, but it should be suspected in any patient suffering from this type of injury(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Wounds, Stab/therapy , Discitis/diagnostic imaging , Infections/drug therapy , Weapons
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