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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(7): 1021-1025, July 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346962


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-platelet ratio, system inflammation response index, and systemic immune inflammation index are three systemic immune and inflammation indexes that were investigated for their diagnostic and prognostic proficiencies in cardiovascular diseases and cancers. However, their predictive values for invasive aspergillosis have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-platelet ratio, system inflammation response index, and systemic immune inflammation index levels and their diagnostic values in invasive aspergillosis. METHODS: A total of 23 patients with invasive aspergillosis and 23 sex- and age-matched healthy participants were included in this study. Complete blood count parameters and liver function tests were studied. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-platelet ratio, system inflammation response index, and systemic immune inflammation index were calculated. RESULTS: Leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte levels were statistically significantly higher in IA group (p=0.031, p=0.027, p=0.033, and p=0.001, respectively). In invasive aspergillosis group, platelets were numerically lower; Aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactic dehydrogenase levels were numerically higher than those in control group but differences between levels were not statistically significant (p>0.05). The γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels of patients were statistically significantly higher (p=0.007), and in addition, statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-platelet ratio, system inflammation response index, and systemic immune inflammation index (p<0.001, p=0.037, p=0.001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed, and areas under the curves were evaluated. gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-platelet ratio had the higher area under the curve than systemic immune inflammation index and system inflammation response index (AUC 0.849, 0.798, 0.693, respectively). The results from receiver operating characteristic analysis of the data suggested that the use of a cutoff value of 0.15 for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-platelet ratio would be optimum for clinical use to confirm independent predictors of patients with invasive aspergillosis. CONCLUSIONS: Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-platelet ratio is an independent, a useful predictor, and is superior to other evaluated markers in the diagnosis of inflammation in invasive aspergillosis. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-platelet ratio may also be a helpful biomarker for clinicians to follow-up the inflammatory process of these patients.

Humans , Aspergillosis/pathology , gamma-Glutamyltransferase , Platelet Count , Blood Platelets , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Inflammation/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 537-541, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249964


Resumen Introducción: Existen índices hematológicos que correlacionan la severidad y predicen la mortalidad, principalmente en estados sépticos y de inflamación. Objetivo: Correlacionar los índices neutrófilo/linfocito (INL), plaqueta/linfocito (IPL) e inmunidad/inflamación sistémica (IIIS) con la severidad de COVID-19. Método: Estudio descriptivo, analítico y retrospectivo de pacientes con neumonía por COVID-19, en quienes se analizaron INL, IPL e IIIS. Resultados: Se incluyeron 100 pacientes, 54 hombres y 46 mujeres, con una media de 49.4 ± 19.3 años. Las medias de INL, IPL e IIIS fueron 10.7 ± 10.9, 290.1 ± 229.2 y 2.6 ± 3.4 × 109, respectivamente. En 54 %, la neumonía fue leve y en 46 %, grave. En cuanto a los desenlaces hospitalarios, 75 % egresó por mejoría y 25 % falleció. Las medias de INL, IPL e IIIS de los pacientes que fallecieron versus las de los pacientes que mejoraron fueron 20.4 ± 16.9 versus 7.5 ± 4.9 (p = 0.001), 417.1 ± 379.7 versus 247.7 ± 127.4 (p = 0.038) y 4.8 ± 6.1 versus 1.9 ± 1.2 × 109 (p = 0.030), respectivamente. Conclusión: Los índices hematológicos en pacientes con neumonía por COVID-19 pueden ser empleados como predictores de severidad y pronóstico.

Abstract Introduction: There are hematological parameters that correlate severity and predict mortality mainly in septic and inflammatory states. Objective: To correlate the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) with COVID-19 severity. Method: Descriptive, analytical, retrospective study of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, in which NLR, PLR and SII were analyzed. Results: One-hundred patients were included, 54 men and 46 women, with a mean age of 49.4 ± 19.3 years. NLR, PLR and SII means were 10.7 ± 10.9, 290.1 ± 229.2, and 2.6 ± 3.4 × 109, respectively. In 54 %, pneumonia was mild, and in 46 %, severe. Regarding hospital outcomes, 75 % were discharged due to improvement and 25 % died. NLR, PLR and SII means of the patients who died versus the patients who improved were 20.4 ± 16.9 versus 7.5 ± 4.9 (p = 0.001), 417.1 ± 379.7 versus 247.7 ± 127.4 (p = 0.038) and 4.8 ± 6.1 versus 1.9 ± 1.2 × 109 (p = 0.030), respectively. Conclusion: Hematological parameters can be used in patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia as predictors of severity and prognosis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/physiopathology , Inflammation/pathology , Neutrophils/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(6): e9031, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132523


Malnutrition is still considered endemic in many developing countries. Malnutrition-enteric infections may cause lasting deleterious effects on lipid metabolism, especially in children living in poor settings. The regional basic diet (RBD), produced to mimic the Brazilian northeastern dietary characteristics (rich in carbohydrate and low in protein) has been used in experimental malnutrition models, but few studies have explored the effect of chronic RBD on liver function, a central organ involved in cholesterol metabolism. This study aimed to investigate whether RBD leads to liver inflammatory changes and altered reverse cholesterol metabolism in C57BL6/J mice compared to the control group, receiving a standard chow diet. To evaluate liver inflammation, ionized calcium-binding adapter protein-1 (IBA-1) positive cell counting, interleukin (IL)-1β immunohistochemistry, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10 transcription levels were analyzed. In addition, we assessed reverse cholesterol transport by measuring liver apolipoprotein (Apo)E, ApoA-I, and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) by RT-PCR. Furthermore, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was measured to assess liver function. RBD markedly impaired body weight gain compared with the control group (P<0.05). Higher hepatic TNF-α (P<0.0001) and IL-10 (P=0.001) mRNA levels were found in RBD-challenged mice, although without detectable non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Marked IBA-1 immunolabeling and increased number of positive-IBA-1 cells were found in the undernourished group. No statistical difference in serum ALT was found. There was also a significant increase in ApoA mRNA expression in the undernourished group, but not ApoE and LCAT, compared with the control. Altogether our findings suggested that chronic RBD-induced malnutrition leads to liver inflammation with increased ApoA-I activity.

Humans , Animals , Male , Rabbits , Rats , Apolipoprotein A-I/blood , Malnutrition/metabolism , Diet/adverse effects , Inflammation/metabolism , Brazil , Chronic Disease , Apolipoprotein A-I/metabolism , Malnutrition/pathology , Malnutrition/blood , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/blood , Liver/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18629, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249158


Few topical products have been developed specifically to treat acute and chronic arthritis and inflammation, using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The lack of dosing accuracy commonly found in locally applied semisolid products for cutaneous use is a critical issue that leads to treatment failure. The aim of the present work is to develop a differentiated and innovative topical patch based on a monolithic hydrogel for ibuprofen skin delivery, in order to provide a safer and accurate way of drug administration along with improved treatment compliance. Topical patches based on hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) were optimized in composition, in terms of enhancer and adhesive, supported on a systematic assessment of in vitro release and permeation behavior and adhesion properties. Several mathematical models were used to scrutinize the release mechanisms from the patches. In vitro release kinetics was shown to be mainly driven by diffusion. However, other mechanisms seemed to be also present, supporting the feasibility of using patches for sustained drug delivery. PEG 200 provided the best permeation rate, with a permeation enhancement ratio of ca. 3 times higher, than the commercial reference. The addition of Eudragit L30D 55 to the formulation led to the best adhesion profile, thus achieving a successful development based on a safe-by-design concept.

Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Adhesives/analysis , Drawing , Arthritis/pathology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Ibuprofen/agonists , Patient Compliance , Hydrogels/analysis , Inflammation/pathology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18414, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249155


Tolmetin sodium (TS) is a powerful non-steroidal mitigating drug for the treatment of rheumatoid joint inflammation, osteoarthritis, and adolescent rheumatoid joint pain. In addition to its gastrointestinal (GIT) problems, TS has a short biological half-life (1 hr). In a trial to overcome these side effects and control the rate of (TS) release, chitosan coated alginate microspheres are recommended. A Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to produce controlled release microspheres of TS in the sodium alginate and chitosan copolymers (Alg-Ch) by emulsification internal gelation methodology. The effect of critical formulation variables namely, drug to polymer ratio (D:P ratio), speed of rotation and span 80% on drug encapsulation efficiency (% EE), drug release at the end of 2 hours (Rel2) and drug release at the end of 8 hours (Rel8) were analyzed using response surface modeling. The parameters were assessed using the F test and mathematical models containing only the significant terms were generated for each parameter using multiple linear regression analysis. The produced microspheres were spherical in shape with extensive pores at D:P ratio 1:1 and small pores at a drug to polymer ratio (D:P ratio) 1:3. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) affirmed the steady character of TS in microspheres and revealed their crystalline form. All formulation variables examined exerted a significant influence on the drug release, whereas the speed emerged as a lone factor significantly influencing % EE. Increasing the D: P ratio decreases the release of the drug after two and 8 hours. The increase in speed results in an increase in drug release after two and eight hours. The drug release from the microspheres followed zero order kinetics. TS Alg-Ch microspheres exhibited a significant anti-inflammatory effect on incited rat paw edema after eight hours. These results revealed that the internal gelation technique is a promising method to control TS release and eradicate GIT side effects using Alg-Ch copolymers.

Tolmetin/analysis , Chitosan/analysis , Alginates/analysis , Microspheres , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Arthralgia/pathology , Drug Liberation , Inflammation/pathology , Joints/pathology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200016, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101450


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is an important cause of mortality and morbidity, and inflammatory response and oxidative stress play major roles underlying its pathophysiology. Here, we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal etanercept administration on oxidative stress and inflammation indicators in the kidney and blood of experimental sepsis-induced rats. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult Sprague Dawley rats were classified into Control (Group 1), Sepsis (Group 2), Sepsis+Cefazolin (Group 3), and Sepsis+Cefazolin+Etanercept (Group 4) groups. Kidney tissue and serum samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigations and examined for the C reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. RESULTS: The levels of TNF-α, TREM, and MDA in serum and kidney samples were significantly higher in rats from sepsis group than in rats from control group (p < 0.05). Group 3 showed a significant reduction in serum levels of TNF-α, CRP, and TREM as compared with Group 2 (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-α, CRP, TREM, and MDA levels and kidney TNF-α and TREM levels were significantly lower in Group 4 than in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-α and TREM levels in Group 4 were significantly lower than those in Group 3, and histopathological scores were significantly lower in Group 3 and Group 4 than in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Histopathological scores of Group 4 were significantly lower than those of Group 3 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Etanercept, a TNF-α inhibitor, may ameliorate sepsis-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and histopathological damage.

Animals , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Sepsis/pathology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Etanercept/administration & dosage , Inflammation/prevention & control , Kidney/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sepsis/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Etanercept/pharmacology , Inflammation/pathology , Injections, Intraperitoneal
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(3): 328-335, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013841


INTRODUCCIÓN: El tumor miofibroblástico inflamatorio (TMI) es una neoplasia benigna infrecuente, de comportamiento clínico impredecible. OBJETIVOS: describir 3 casos de TMI diagnosticados entre marzo 2014 y enero 2018 en Hospital Clinico San Borja Arriaran, y realizar una revisión actualizada de la literatura. CASO 1: Adolescente de género masculino de 14 años de edad, hospitalizado por dolor abdominal, diagnosticado de invaginación yeyunoyeyunal secundaria a un tumor de pared intestinal. La histología fue compatible con un tumor miofibroblástico inflamatorio. CASO 2: Adolescente de género femenino, edad 12 años, hospitalizada por neumonía y dolor lumbar en estudio asociado a pérdida de peso. Se diagnosticó una masa retroperitoneal que comprometía el músculo psoas derecho, músculos paravertebrales, vértebras, riñón derecho y diafragma ipsilateral. Se efectuó biopsia por punción cuyo resultado fue compatible con un tumor miofibroblástico inflamatorio. CASO 3: Preadolescente de género femenino de 11 años de edad, hospitalizada para estudio de infección del tracto urinario a repetición. Se identificó un tumor vesical y la biopsia mostró ser compatible con tumor miofibroblástico inflamatorio. CONCLUSIÓN: Debido al comportamiento variable del tumor miofibroblástico inflamatorio, el manejo de este dependerá de la localización, la expresión del anaplasic like lymphoma (ALK), el comportamiento del tumor y la posibilidad de resección.

INTRODUCTION: The inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an infrequent benign neoplasm with unpredictable cli nical behavior. OBJECTIVES: to describe three clinical cases at the San Borja Arriarán Clinical Hospital between March 2014 and January 2018 and to carry out an updated review of the literature. CASE 1: 14-year-old male adolescent, hospitalized due to abdominal pain, diagnosed with jejunojejunal intus susception secondary to an intestinal wall tumor. The histology was compatible with an inflamma tory myofibroblastic tumor. CASE 2: 12-year-old female adolescent, hospitalized due to pneumonia and low-back pain under study associated with weight loss. A retroperitoneal mass was diagnosed involving the right psoas muscle, paravertebral muscles, vertebrae, right kidney, and ipsilateral dia phragm. A puncture biopsy was performed and the result was compatible with an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. CASE 3: 11-year-old female pre-adolescent, hospitalized to study recurrent urinary tract infection. A bladder tumor was identified, and the biopsy showed compatibility with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. CONCLUSION: Due to the variable behavior of the inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, its management will depend on the location, expression of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), tumor behavior, and the resection possibility.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Retroperitoneal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnosis , Intestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Retroperitoneal Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Myofibroblasts/pathology , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/pathology , Intestinal Neoplasms/pathology
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 164-171, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001151


Abstract BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus, for its activity on modulation of collagen production and fibroblast activity, may have a role in the prevention of hypertrophic scars. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate macroscopic, microscopic, metabolic, laboratory effects and side effects of the use of topical tacrolimus ointment, in different concentrations, in the prevention of hypertrophic scars. METHODS: Twenty-two rabbits were submitted to the excision of 2 fragments of 1 cm of each ear, 4 cm apart, down to cartilage. The left ear of the animals was standardized as control and Vaseline applied twice a day. The right ear received tacrolimus ointment, at concentrations of 0.1% on the upper wound and 0.03% on the lower wound, also applied twice a day. Macroscopic, microscopic, laboratory criteria and the animals' weight were evaluated after 30 days of the experiment. RESULTS: Wounds treated with tacrolimus, at concentrations of 0.1% and 0.03%, when compared to control, showed a lower average degree of thickening (p = 0.048 and p <0.001, respectively). The average of scar thickness and lymphocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil concentrations are lower in the treated wounds compared to the control (p <0.001, p=0.022, p=0.007, p=0.044, respectively). The mean concentration of lymphocytes is lower in wounds treated with a higher concentration of the drug (p=0.01). STUDY LIMITATIONS: experiment lasted only 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Tacrolimus at the 2 concentrations evaluated reduced the severity of inflammatory changes and positively altered the macroscopic aspect of the scar in the short term. Its use was shown to be safe, with no evidence of systemic or local adverse effects.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Calcineurin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ointments , Urea/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Serum Albumin/drug effects , Administration, Topical , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Tacrolimus/pharmacology , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/pathology , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/prevention & control , Lymphocyte Count , Creatinine/blood , Alanine Transaminase/drug effects , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Ear, External/pathology , Erythema/pathology , Calcineurin Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Calcineurin Inhibitors/pharmacology , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/prevention & control
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(1): 134-137, jan.-mar. 2019. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-994618


Introdução: A esclerose sistêmica é uma doença rara, autoimune, com evolução progressiva, que afeta os tecidos conectivos e órgãos internos por inflamação, podendo causar calcinose de subcutâneo. Podem evoluir para quadros dolorosos e incapacitantes, podendo tornar-se infectados, principalmente quando ulceram pela pele. Objetivo: Apresentar caso de calcinose em região inguinal e sua evolução cirúrgica. Relato de Caso: Paciente feminina portadora de calcinoses em região inguinal bilateral, apresentando algia moderada/grave com falha de tratamento clínico. Realizada ressecção cirúrgica das calcinoses, que formavam cordões de fibrose com aderência na fáscia do músculo oblíquo externo. Realizado fechamento primário com nylon 2.0 pontos simples subdérmicos e ponto intradérmico continuo nylon 3.0 para fechamento estético e menor reação inflamatória. Boa evolução pós- operatório. Conclusão: O melhor tratamento da calcinoses ainda não é claro. O tratamento das complicações se torna essencial para reduzir a morbidade e aumentar a qualidade de vida do paciente.

Introduction: Systemic sclerosis is a rare, autoimmune, progressive disease that affects connective tissues and internal organs by inflammation, which can cause calcinosis cutis. It can progress to painful and disabling conditions, and can become infected, especially when skin ulceration is present. Objective: To present a case of calcinosis in the inguinal region and its surgical recovery. Case Report: A female patient with calcinosis in the bilateral inguinal region presenting with moderate/severe pain had a failed clinical treatment. We performed surgical resection of the calcinosis cutis, which had formed clusters of fibrosis with adhesion to the fascia of the external oblique muscle. We used simple nylon 2.0 sutures along the subdermal plane to perform primary closure and continuous nylon 3.0 sutures along the intradermal plane for aesthetic closure and minimal inflammatory reaction. Her postoperative recovery was positive. Conclusion: The best treatment for calcinosis cutis is still unclear. Treating complications becomes essential for reducing patients' morbidity and increasing their quality of life.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Rheumatology/methods , Sclerosis/surgery , Sclerosis/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Calcinosis/diagnosis , Calcinosis/pathology , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , /methods , Inflammation/pathology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(3): 388-393, Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003032


SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: We examined the effects of tadalafil, one of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, in a rat model of with partial and complete unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). METHODS: The rats were divided into 5 groups: sham (n=6), partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO, n=6), PUUO with tadalafil treatment (PUUO+T; Cialis, 10 mg/72 h, intragastric; Lilly, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA), complete unilateral ureteral obstruction (CUUO, n=6), and CUUO with tadalafil treatment (CUUO+T). RESULTS: Fifteen days after the UUO, the ureter presented changes in the layers of urothelium and significant infiltration of inflammatory cells in the PUUO and CUUO groups. Compared with the sham, PUUO and CUUO groups had severe increased inflammatory cell infiltration. The urothelial epithelium exhibited cell degeneration and loss because of the swollen, atrophic, and denuded epithelial cells in the PUUO and CUUO groups. In the PUUO+T and CUUO+T groups, the urothelium revealed less epithelial cell degeneration and loss. The expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) exhibited up-regulation in the PUUO and CUUO groups. The expression of TGF-β decreased positively correlated with that of α-SMA in the tadalafil therapy groups, PUUO+T and CUUO+T. CONCLUSION: The phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor's tadalafil reduced expressions of α-SMA and TGF-β in the obstructed ureters, measured by biochemical examinations. In addition, tadalafil decreased urothelium degeneration due to the decreased epithelial cell loss and inflammatory cell infiltration. Our results show that tadalafil prevents or slows down the onset of ureter inflammation and urothelial degeneration in rats with UUO.

RESUMO OBJETIVOS: Examinamos os efeitos do tadalafil em um dos inibidores da fosfodiesterase tipo 5 (PDE5) em um modelo de rato com obstrução ureteral unilateral parcial e completa (UUO). MÉTODOS: Os ratos foram divididos em cinco grupos: sham (n = 6), obstrução ureteral unilateral parcial (PUUO, n = 6), PUUO com tadalafil (PUUO T; Cialis, 10 mg/72 h, intragástrica; Lilly, Indianapolis, Indiana, EUA), completa obstrução ureteral unilateral (CUUO, n = 6) e CUUO com tratamento com tadalafil (CUUO T). RESULTADOS: Quinze dias após a UUO, o ureter apresentou alterações nas camadas de urotélio e infiltração significativa de células inflamatórias nos grupos PUUO e CUUO. Em comparação com os grupos sham, PUUO e CUUO, houve um aumento grave da infiltração de células inflamatórias. O epitélio urotelial exibiu degeneração e perda celular devido às células epiteliais inchadas, atróficas e desnudas nos grupos PUUO e CUUO. Nos grupos PUUO T e CUUO T, o urotélio revelou menor degeneração e perda de células epiteliais. Nós mostramos que a expressão da actina do músculo liso-α (α-SMA) e do fator de crescimento transformador-β (TGF-β) foram exibidas como sub-regulação nos grupos PUUO e CUUO. A expressão do TGF-β foi diminuída positivamente correlacionada com a da α-SMA nos grupos de terapia com tadalafil, PUUO T e CUUO T. CONCLUSÃO: O tadalafil do inibidor da fosfodiesterase tipo 5 reduziu as expressões α-SMA e TGF-β nos ureteres obstruídos, medidos por exames bioquímicos. Além disso, o tadalafil diminuiu a degeneração do urotélio devido à diminuição da perda de células epiteliais e da infiltração de células inflamatórias. Nossos resultados mostram que o tadalafil previne ou retarda o início da inflamação do ureter e degeneração urotelial em ratos com UUO.

Animals , Male , Ureteral Obstruction/pathology , Ureteral Obstruction/drug therapy , Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Tadalafil/pharmacology , Reference Values , Ureter/drug effects , Ureter/pathology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Up-Regulation , Reproducibility of Results , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis , Actins/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/prevention & control
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(1): 29-36, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983752


Abstract: Background: Diseases caused by melanized fungi include mycetoma, chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis. This broad clinical spectrum depends on the dynamic interactions between etiologic agent and host. The immune status of the host influences on the development of the disease, as, an exemple. phaeohyphomicosis is more frequently observed in immunocompromised patients. Objectives: Examine the histological inflammatory response induced by Fonsecaea pedrosoi in several different strains of mice (BALB/c, C57BL/6, Nude and SCID, and reconstituted Nude). Methods: Fonsecaea pedrosoi was cultivated on agar gel and a fragment of this gel was implanted subcutaneously in the abdominal region of female adult mice. After infection has been obtained, tissue fragment was studied histopathologically. Results: There were significant changes across the strains, with the nodular lesion more persistent in Nude and SCID mice, whereas in immunocompetent mice the lesion progressed to ulceration and healing. The histopathological analysis showed a significant acute inflammatory reaction which consisted mainly of neutrophils in the initial phase that was subsequently followed by a tuberculoid type granuloma in immunocompetent mice. Study limitations: There is no a suitable animal model for chromoblastomycosis. Conclusions: The neutrophilic infiltration had an important role in the containment of infection to prevent fungal spreading, including in immunodeficient mice. The fungal elimination was dependent on T lymphocytes. The re-exposure of C57BL/6 mice to Fonsecaea pedrosoi caused a delay in resolving the infection, and appearance of muriform cells, which may indicate that re-exposure to fungi, might lead to chronicity of infection.

Animals , Female , Ascomycota , Dermatomycoses/immunology , Immunocompetence , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/microbiology , Species Specificity , Time Factors , Blood Cell Count , Chronic Disease , Chromoblastomycosis/immunology , Chromoblastomycosis/pathology , Mice, SCID , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Nude , Neutrophils
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(3): e8251, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984035


Oral mucositis (OM) is a common and dose-limiting side effect of cancer treatment, including 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and radiotherapy. The efficacy of the therapeutic measures to prevent OM is limited and disease prevention is not fully observable. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent with a described anti-inflammatory potential. It is clinically used to reduce radiotherapy and chemotherapy-associated xerostomia. This study investigated the protective effect of amifostine on an experimental model of OM. Hamsters were divided into six groups: saline control group (5 mL/kg), mechanical trauma (scratches) of the right cheek pouch; 5-FU (60 and 40 mg/kg, ip, respectively, administered on days 1 and 2); amifostine (12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg) + 5-FU + scratches. Salivation rate was assessed and the animals were euthanized on day 10 for the analysis of macroscopic and microscopic injury by scores. Tissue samples were harvested for the measurement of neutrophil infiltration and detection of inflammatory markers by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. 5-FU induced pronounced hyposalivation, which was prevented by amifostine (P<0.05). In addition, 5-FU injection caused pronounced tissue injury accompanied by increased neutrophil accumulation, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) tissue levels, and positive immunostaining for TNF-α, IL-1β, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Interestingly, amifostine prevented the inflammatory reaction and consequently improved macroscopic and microscopic damage (P<0.05 vs 5-FU group). Amifostine reduced inflammation and protected against 5-FU-associated oral mucositis and hyposalivation.

Animals , Male , Stomatitis/prevention & control , Xerostomia/prevention & control , Amifostine/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Fluorouracil/adverse effects , Inflammation/prevention & control , Stomatitis/chemically induced , Stomatitis/pathology , Xerostomia/chemically induced , Xerostomia/pathology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/pathology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(2): e7773, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984030


The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of ultrasound (US)-mediated phonophoresis alone or in association with diclofenac diethylammonium (DCF) administered topically in animal models of inflammation. A pre-clinical, prospective, and randomized experimental study of quantitative and qualitative nature was carried out. Phonophoresis was performed using a therapeutic ultrasound apparatus in two distinct models of acute inflammation. Edema was induced by an intraplantar injection of carrageenan and measured by plethysmography. The Hargreaves test was used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity and investigate the action of phonophoresis on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production. A histological analysis with hematoxylin-eosin was used to evaluate tissue repair, and the expression of COX-2 was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. At the peak of inflammatory activity (3 h), treatment with US, US+DCF, and DCF significantly reduced edema formation compared to the control group. Treatment with US+DCF was more effective than treatment with US alone at both analyzed times. In the analysis of the antinociceptive activity, the treatments significantly increased the latency time in response to the thermal stimulus. Histopathological analysis revealed a reduction of the inflammatory infiltrates and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the association was effective in reducing COX-2 expression compared to the control group. The association of DCF with US produced anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in rat models of inflammation, which may be associated with inhibition of COX-2 and TNF-α production.

Animals , Male , Rats , Phonophoresis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Diclofenac/administration & dosage , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Random Allocation , Prospective Studies , Administration, Topical , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/pathology
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e085, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019611


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) in actinic cheilitis (AC) and lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (LLSCC), and to correlate the findings with clinical (tumor size/extent, regional lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage) and histopathological (grade of epithelial dysplasia and inflammatory infiltrate for AC and histopathological grade of malignancy for LLSCC) parameters. Twenty-four AC and 48 LLSCC cases (24 with regional nodal metastasis and 24 without regional nodal metastasis) were selected. The scores of immunopositive cells for HLA-DR in the epithelial component of the lesions were assessed and the results were analyzed statistically using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Epithelial expression of HLA-DR was observed in only five (20.8%) cases of AC (two low-grade and three high-grade lesions), with a very low median score of immunopositivity. By contrast, expression of HLA-DR was found in most LLSCC (97.9%), with a relatively high median score of positive cells. The score of HLA-DR-positive cells tended to be higher in tumors with regional lymph node metastasis, tumors in advanced clinical stages, and low-grade tumors, but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In addition, there was a tendency towards higher expression of HLA-DR in highly/moderately keratinized tumors, and tumors with little/moderate nuclear pleomorphism (p > 0.05). The results suggest a potential role of HLA-DR in lip carcinogenesis, particularly in the development and progression of LLSCC. The expression of this protein can be related to the degree of cell differentiation in these tumors.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Lip Neoplasms/immunology , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Cheilitis/immunology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/immunology , Lip Neoplasms/pathology , Lip Neoplasms/secondary , Cheilitis/pathology , Neoplasm Grading , Carcinogenesis/immunology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/secondary , Inflammation/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e060, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011656


Abstract This study evaluated the effect of hypertension on tissue response and biomineralization capacity of white Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), High-plasticity MTA (MTA HP), and Biodentine® (BDT) in rats. Polyethylene tubes filled with MTA, MTA HP, BDT, and the control group (empty tubes) were placed into the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of 32 male rats (16 normotensive (NT) and 16 hypertensive rats - 8 per group). After 7 and 30 days, the polyethylene tubes surrounded by connective tissue were removed, fixed, and embedded in histological resin. The mean number of inflammatory cells was estimated in HE-stained sections, biomineralization was quantified as area (µm2) by Kossa (VK) staining, and examination by polarized light (LP) microscopy was performed. The differences amongst the groups were analyzed statistically by the Mann-Whitney or Student's t test, according to Shapiro-Wilk test of normality (p < 0.05). The inflammatory responses to all materials were greater in hypertensive rats than in NT rats (p < 0.05). Positive VK staining in MTA and BDT were more pronounced in NT rats at 7 and 30 days (p < 0.05). Birefringent structures in LP for MTA, MTA HP, and BDT were more pronounced in NT rats at 7 days (p<0.05). In rats, hypertension was able to increase inflammatory infiltrate and decrease biomineralization of the tested materials.

Oxides/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Silicates/pharmacology , Calcium Compounds/pharmacology , Aluminum Compounds/pharmacology , Subcutaneous Tissue/drug effects , Subcutaneous Tissue/physiopathology , Biomineralization/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Subcutaneous Tissue/pathology , Drug Combinations , Hypertension/complications , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/pathology , Microscopy, Polarization
Acta cir. bras ; 34(7): e201900703, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038114


Abstract Purpose: To compare four types of mesh regarding visceral adhesions, inflammatory response and incorporation. Methods: Sixty Wistar rats were divided into four groups, with different meshes implanted intraperitoneally: polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE group); polypropylene with polydioxanone and oxidized cellulose (PCD); polypropylene (PM) and polypropylene with silicone (PMS). The variables analyzed were: area covered by adhesions, incorporation of the mesh and inflammatory reaction (evaluated histologically and by COX2 immunochemistry). Results: The PMS group had the lowest adhesion area (63.1%) and grade 1 adhesions. The ePTFE and PM groups presented almost the total area of their surface covered by adherences (99.8% and 97.7% respectively) The group ePTFE had the highest percentage of area without incorporation (42%; p <0.001) with no difference between the other meshes. The PMS group had the best incorporation rate. And the histological analysis revealed that the inflammation scores were significantly different. Conclusions: The PM mesh had higher density of adherences, larger area of adherences, adherences to organs and percentage of incorporation. ePTFE had the higher area of adherences and lower incorporation. The PMS mesh performed best in the inflammation score, had a higher incorporation and lower area of adherences, and it was considered the best type of mesh.

Animals , Male , Rats , Prostheses and Implants/adverse effects , Surgical Mesh/standards , Tissue Adhesions/pathology , Incisional Hernia/surgery , Inflammation/pathology , Polypropylenes/adverse effects , Polytetrafluoroethylene/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Silicones/adverse effects , Surgical Mesh/adverse effects , Materials Testing , Viscera/physiology , Cellulose, Oxidized/adverse effects , Tissue Adhesions/prevention & control , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Abdominal Wall
Acta cir. bras ; 34(2): e201900202, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989055


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the hyaluronic acid (HA) inflammatory reaction, fibroblasts, fibrosis and duration of effect in the dorsal region of tobacco-exposed rats. Methods: Ten Wistar rats were divided into two groups: tobacco-exposed-group (TEG;n=5) and air-control-group (CG;n=5). The TEG animals were tobacco-exposed twice a day, 30-minutes/session, during 60 days. After this period, all animals received 0.1 mL HA subcutaneous injection in the dorsal area. The volume of HA was measured immediately after HA injection and weekly using a hand-caliper in nine weeks. After this period, all the animals were euthanized, and a specimen of was collected to evaluate inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and fibrosis by HE. Results: This study showed a higher inflammatory reaction in TEG than CG: inflammatory cell-count (CG: 1.07±0.9; TEG: 8.61±0.36, p<0.001); fibroblast count (CG: 2.92±0.17; TEG: 19.14±0.62, p<0.001), and fibrosis quantification (CG: 2.0; TEG: 3.75, p<0.001). The analysis of the HA volume in nine weeks in the dorsal region did not show a difference between groups (p=0.39). Conclusions: This study suggested that the HA injection in the TEG caused an increase in inflammatory cell count, fibroblast, and fibrosis quantification when compared to the CG. There was no difference in the duration of effect of HA between the groups.

Animals , Male , Rats , Tobacco/adverse effects , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Viscosupplements/adverse effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Hyaluronic Acid/adverse effects , Inflammation/pathology , Time Factors , Fibrosis , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Epidural Space/drug effects , Epidural Space/pathology , Fibroblasts/pathology , Inflammation/chemically induced
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(5): 679-683, oct. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973673


La osteomielitis crónica multifocal recurrente fue recientemente clasificada dentro de las enfermedades autoinflamatorias, caracterizadas por episodios de inflamación sistèmica, que incluyen indicadores serológicos de inflamación, en ausencia de autoanticuerpos o agentes patógenos. La característica clínica es la aparición insidiosa de dolor, tumefacción y sensibilidad localizada sobre el hueso afectado, principalmente, en la metáfisis y epífisis de los huesos largos, clavícula y también vértebras. Son episodios autolimitados y recurrentes. Se presenta a un paciente de 2 años y 2 meses con afectación ósea tipo osteolítica en dos focos aislados con un año de diferencia entre ambos episodios. La biopsia ósea fue compatible con osteomielitis crónica y se descartó patología de origen infeccioso, neoplásico y enfermedad proliferativa. Presentó buena respuesta al tratamiento con antiinflamatorios. El conocimiento de esta entidad como diagnóstico diferencial evita el tratamiento antibiótico prolongado, estudios complementarios y biopsias óseas, considerando los criterios diagnósticos y recurrencia de los episodios.

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis has recently been classified as an autoinflammatory disorder characterized by episodes of systemic inflammation including serological signs of inflammation occurring in the absence of autoantibodies or pathogen agents. The insidious onset of pain with swelling and tenderness localized over the affected bones are the main manifestations. The metaphysis and epiphyses of the long bones, clavicle and vertebrae are affected. We report a male patient aged 2 years and 2 months with osteomyelitis with lytic destruction in two different single sites with a year difference between the episodes. Histological examination of the bone showed inflammation and chronic osteomyelitis, excluding the existence of infectious osteomyelitis, neoplasm and myeloproliferative disease. Clinical symptoms improved under treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Considering chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis may shorten time to diagnosis in order to avoid potentially unnecessary prolonged courses of intravenous antibiotics, complementary studies and multiple biopsies.

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Inflammation/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Diagnosis, Differential , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/drug therapy
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(2): 206-211, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889365


Abstract Introduction To manage the complications of irradiation of head and neck tissue is a challenging issue for the otolaryngologist. Definitive treatment of these complications is still controversial. Recently, hyperbaric oxygen therapy is promising option for these complications. Objective In this study, we used biochemical and histopathological methods to investigate the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen against the inflammatory effects of radiotherapy in blood and laryngeal tissues when radiotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen are administered on the same day. Methods Thirty-two Wistar Albino rats were divided into four groups. The control group was given no treatment, the hyperbaric oxygen group was given only hyperbaric oxygen therapy, the radiotherapy group was given only radiotherapy, and the radiotherapy plus hyperbaric oxygen group was given both treatments on the same day. Results Histopathological and biochemical evaluations of specimens were performed. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and tissue inflammation levels were significantly higher in the radiotherapy group than in the radiotherapy plus hyperbaric oxygen group, whereas interleukin-10 was higher in the radiotherapy plus hyperbaric oxygen group. Conclusion When radiotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen are administered on the same day, inflammatory cytokines and tissue inflammation can be reduced in an early period of radiation injury.

Resumo Introdução O manejo das complicações da irradiação do tecido da cabeça e pescoço é uma questão desafiadora para o otorrinolaringologista. O tratamento definitivo dessas complicações ainda é controverso. Recentemente, a oxigenoterapia hiperbárica tem sido uma opção promissora para essas complicações. Objetivo Nesse estudo foram usados métodos bioquímicos e histopatológicos para investigar a eficácia do oxigênio hiperbárico contra os efeitos inflamatórios da radioterapia no sangue e nos tecidos laríngeos, quando a radioterapia e oxigênio hiperbárico são administrados no mesmo dia. Métodos Trinta e dois ratos Wistar albinos foram divididos em quatro grupos. O grupo controle nao recebeu tratamento, o grupo de oxigenio hiperbarico recebeu apenas oxigenoterapia hiperbarica, o grupo de radioterapia recebeu apenas radioterapia e o grupo de radioterapia com oxigenio hiperbarico recebeu ambos os tratamentos no mesmo dia. Resultados Foram realizadas avaliaçoes histopatologicas e bioquimicas dos especimes. Os niveis sericos de fator de necrose tumoral-α, interleucina-1β e inflamaçao tecidual foram significativamente maiores no grupo de radioterapia do que no grupo de radioterapia mais oxigenio hiperbarico, enquanto que a interleucina-10 foi maior no grupo de radioterapia mais oxigenio hiperbarico. Conclusão Quando a radioterapia e o oxigênio hiperbárico são administrados no mesmo dia, as citocinas inflamatórias e a inflamação tecidual podem ser reduzidas no período inicial da radiação.

Animals , Female , Rats , Radiation Injuries, Experimental/prevention & control , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Inflammation/prevention & control , Radiation Injuries, Experimental/pathology , Radiation Injuries, Experimental/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/blood , Neck
Acta cir. bras ; 33(2): 134-143, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886257


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of pycnogenol on peritoneal adhesions and additionally to investigate the immunohistochemical effects of free oxygen radicals and reactive lymph nodes detected in the adhesive tissue that was sampled surrounding the cecum on intra-abdominal adhesions. Methods: Twenty-seven Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups. In group 1 (sham), laparotomy was performed and stitched up. In group 2 (control), after laparotomy was performed, punctate hemorrhage was induced by cecal abrasion in the cecum and each rat was intraperitoneally administered 2 cc of saline. In group 3 (experimental), after laparotomy was performed, punctate hemorrhage was induced by cecal abrasion in the cecum and each rat was intraperitoneally administered a sterile Pycnogenol derivative. The rats in all groups were re-laparotomized on postoperative day 7; samples were obtained from the peritoneal tissue surrounding the cecum, and the rats were sacrificed. Results: In group 3, there was a statistically significant difference in terms of inflammation, lymph node size, and free oxygen radicals; these parameters tended to increase. In terms of fibrosis evaluated using H&E and MT, there was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3. Conclusions: No positive outcomes indicating that pycnogenol reduces intra-abdominal adhesions were obtained. However, it caused severe inflammation in the tissue. Moreover, a significant increase in lymph node size was detected secondary to inflammation. Additionally, in immunohistochemical analyses conducted to detect oxidative stress, pycnogenol increased the production of free oxygen radicals in the tissue.

Animals , Rats , Peritoneal Diseases/prevention & control , Peritoneum/surgery , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Tissue Adhesions/prevention & control , Peritoneal Diseases/etiology , Peritoneum/pathology , Postoperative Complications , Flavonoids/adverse effects , Immunohistochemistry , Plant Extracts , Tissue Adhesions/etiology , Tissue Adhesions/pathology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Free Radicals/analysis , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/pathology , Laparotomy , Lymph Nodes/drug effects , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use