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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200528, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154881

ABSTRACT

Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811) is the triatomine with the largest geographic distribution in Latin America. It has been reported in 18 countries from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, including the Caribbean islands. Although most reports indicate that P. geniculatus has wild habitats, this species has intrusive habits regarding human dwellings mainly located in intermediate deforested areas. It is attracted by artificial light from urban and rural buildings, raising the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Despite the wide body of published information on P. geniculatus, many knowledge gaps exist about its biology and epidemiological potential. For this reason, we analysed the literature for P. geniculatus in Scopus, PubMed, Scielo, Google Scholar and the BibTriv3.0 databases to update existing knowledge and provide better information on its geographic distribution, life cycle, genetic diversity, evidence of intrusion and domiciliation, vector-related circulating discrete taxonomic units, possible role in oral T. cruzi transmission, and the effect of climate change on its biology and epidemiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Panstrongylus/genetics , Panstrongylus/parasitology , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Panstrongylus/physiology , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Biology , Genes, Insect , Ecology , Genotype , Geography , Insect Vectors/genetics , Latin America
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200571, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154878

ABSTRACT

Leishmania infantum chagasi is the causative agent and Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. We investigated the expression of Leishmania genes within L. longipalpis after artificial infection. mRNAs from genes involved in sugar and amino acid metabolism were upregulated at times of high parasite proliferation inside the insect. mRNAs from genes involved in metacyclogenesis had higher expression in late stages of infection. Other modulated genes of interest were involved in immunomodulation, purine salvage pathway and protein recycling. These data reveal aspects of the adaptation of the parasite to the microenvironment of the vector gut and reflect the preparation for infection in the vertebrate.


Subject(s)
Animals , Psychodidae/parasitology , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Psychodidae/genetics , Brazil , Gene Expression , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Life Cycle Stages
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200157, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND In Acre state, Brazil, the dissemination of cutaneous leishmaniasis has increased in recent years, with limited knowledge of the potential Leishmania spp. vectors involved. OBJECTIVES Here, data concerning the sandfly fauna of Brasiléia municipality, Leishmania DNA-detection rates and the identification of blood meal sources of insects captured in 2013-2015 are presented. METHODS Parasite detection in female sandflies was performed individually by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Leishmania kDNA/sandfly cacophony-gene), with the identification of Leishmania spp. by hsp70-PCR and sequencing. The identification of blood gut-content from fed females was performed by cyt b-PCR and sequencing. FINDINGS A total of 4,473 sandflies were captured. A subgroup of 864 non-blood-fed females evaluated for the presence of Leishmania DNA showed 2.9% positivity for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis. The identification of blood meal sources was performed in 96 blood-fed females, allowing the identification of 13 vertebrate species. In nine/96 fed females, DNA from L. (V.) shawi, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis and Endotrypanum sp. was detected. MAIN CONCLUSIONS In Brumptomyia sp. and Evandromyia termitophila, the first report of Leishmania DNA-detection is provided in Acre; Nyssomyia shawi is implicated as potential vector of L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis for the first time in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Psychodidae/parasitology , DNA/analysis , Insect Vectors/genetics , Leishmania/genetics , Psychodidae/classification , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190284, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056772

ABSTRACT

Despite some phlebotomines being well recognised as vectors of leishmaniasis agents, vector importance of those belonging to the genus Trichophoromyia has not been extensively studied. The present study provides evidence regarding the putative vector role played by some species of Trichophoromyia on leishmanine enzootics, based on literature reports and findings obtained from field experiments conducted in the ecotopes of Pará State, Brazil. The species Th. ubiquitalis, Th. velascoi, Th. auraensis, Th. ininii and Th. brachipyga possess minimal criteria to be included in the list of suspected leishmanine vectors. However, knowledge on man-biting behavior, substantiation of vector competence and determination of epidemiological implications are limited for all of the above mentioned species. Published studies together with present data draw attention to prioritize these phlebotomine species in entomological surveillance programs and studies on experimental susceptibility to Leishmania spp. infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Psychodidae/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/classification , Leishmaniasis/transmission , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Leishmania/genetics
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190320, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057289

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate human exposure to Leishmania spp. infection and sandflies in an area endemic for the disease. METHODS: The presence of antibodies specific for Leishmania spp. and saliva of Lutzomyia spp. and that of L. infantum DNA in blood were evaluated. RESULTS: Antibodies against Leishmania spp. and sandfly saliva were observed in 20.8% and 37.7% of individuals, respectively. DNA of Leishmania spp. was amplified from the blood of one patient. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that Leishmania spp. infection may be underdiagnosed in this area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Psychodidae/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Leishmania/genetics , Leishmania/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Middle Aged
6.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 410-418, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089316

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Studies related to infectivity status of insect vectors are seen as necessities in understanding the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases and planning effective control measures. This study assessed the infectivity ofSimulium damnosum s.l. around Owena River as well as evaluated therapeutic coverage of Ivermectin distribution in the area. Method: Human landing sampling method was used to collect adult flies on human attractants from 07:00 to 18:00 for two consecutive days a month for three months (July 2016 - September 2016). Parity assessment was conducted to determine the age of fly populations. Parous flies were further dissected to detect the presence or absence ofOnchocerca larvae. Biting rates and transmission potentials were calculated using standard methods. A quantitative survey was carried out to determine the therapeutic coverage and compliance to ivermectin treatment for the control of Onchocerciasis in the study area using standard household coverage questionnaires. Results: A total of 914 adult female flies were collected during the study period. The daily biting rate (DBR) varied from 146 fly per man day (FMD) in July to 162.5 FMD in August. The monthly biting rate (MBR) was lowest in September (2170 bites per man per month) but highest in August (3358.3 bites per man per month). MBD ranged from 13.23 fly per man hour (FMH) in July to 14.77 FMH in August. The results indicated that the majority of the flies collected at the sampling points were nulliparous [685 (74.95%)] while others were parous [229 (25.05%)]. The biting activity of the flies showed a marked decrease in population in August compared to July which later increased in September. Infection rates varied from 2 (0.7%) in July to 7 (2.2%) in August while the infectivity rate during the study ranged from zero (July and September) to 3 (1.0%) in August. Conclusion: Despite the years of treatment of onchocerciasis in Owena community, there were still some infective flies capable of transmitting O. volvolus. This could be due to the low rate of therapeutic coverage as a result of non-compliance in the community for various reasons earlier stated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Onchocerciasis/drug therapy , Onchocerciasis/transmission , Simuliidae/parasitology , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Insect Bites and Stings/drug therapy , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Onchocerciasis/parasitology , Rivers , Insect Bites and Stings/parasitology , Insect Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Nigeria/epidemiology
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180482, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040621

ABSTRACT

The leishmaniases are caused by Leishmania parasites and transmitted through the bites of phlebotomine sand flies. During parasite development inside the vector's midgut, promastigotes move towards the stomodeal valve, a mechanism that is crucial for transmission. It has been reported that the sugar meal acquired by sand flies during feeding between bloodmeals is essential for the development and migration of parasites. We demonstrated that the distribution of Leishmania mexicana parasites was affected by the sugar meals obtained by the sand flies. Promastigote migration towards the cardia region seems to be only partially based on the stimuli provided by sugar molecules. In the absence of sugars, significant amounts of parasites developed in the hindgut. In addition, sugar meals were important for the survival of sand flies, especially during blood digestion, presumably supporting their energy requirements.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Psychodidae/parasitology , Leishmania mexicana/physiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Sugars/metabolism , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Psychodidae/physiology , Leishmania mexicana/growth & development , Insect Vectors/physiology , Longevity
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190270, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057258

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Trypanosomes can infect humans and animals. This is the first record of the occurrence of Trypanosoma evansi in Rondônia. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 7 dogs and 22 humans. Furthermore, triatomines and tabanids were collected. RESULTS: It was observed that 42.8% of the dogs tested positive for T. evansi and 14.3% presented mixed infection; 15% of the triatomines tested positive for flagellates identified as T. cruzi TCI (3 specimens), T. cruzi TCI, and T. rangeli (1 specimen), and one with T. cruzi TCV. Two tabanids were infected with T. theileri. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may benefit vector control strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Rhodnius/parasitology , Trypanosoma/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Trypanosoma/classification , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/parasitology
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190061, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013319

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The ecoepidemiological situation in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil is characterized by frequent invasion and colonization of domiciliary units (DUs) by several triatomine species, with high rates of natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. METHODS: We evaluated the possibility of vector transmission of T. cruzi based on records of the occurrence of domiciled triatomines collected by the Secretariat of State for Public Health from 2005 to 2015. During this period, 67.7% (113/167) of municipalities conducted at least one active search and 110 recorded the presence of insects in DUs. These activities were more frequent in municipalities considered to have a high and medium-level risk of T. cruzi transmission. RESULTS Of 51,569 captured triatomines, the most common species were Triatoma brasiliensis (47.2%) and T. pseudomaculata (40.2%). Colonies of T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, T. petrocchiae, Panstrongylus lutzi, and Rhodnius nasutus were also recorded in the intradomicile and peridomicile. Natural infection by trypanosomatids was detected in 1,153 specimens; the highest rate was found in R. nasutus (3.5%), followed by T. brasiliensis (2.5%) and T. pseudomaculata (2.4%). There have been high levels of colonization over the years; however, not all infested DUs have been sprayed. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of intradomicile and peridomicile colonization by P. lutzi. These results demonstrate the risk of new cases of infection by T. cruzi and reinforce the need for continuous entomological surveillance in the State of Rio Grande do Norte.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Triatominae/parasitology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Brazil , Triatominae/classification , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Entomology , Spatial Analysis , Insect Vectors/classification
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(9): e8224, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019569

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease that affects a large part of the world population. Knowing the sand fly fauna of a region is of fundamental importance for guiding health surveillance actions related to the prevention and control of leishmaniasis. A total of 86 specimens of sand flies (60 females and 26 males) were collected. Using the classification proposed by Galati (2003), the following species were identified: Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912), Migonemyia migonei (França, 1920), Evandromyia cortelezzi (Brethes, 1923), Ev. sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho, 1939), Nyssomyia whitmani (Atunes & Coutinho, 1939), Psathyromyia lutziana (Costa Lima, 1932), Ev. lenti (Mangabeira, 1938), Brumptomyia sp. (França and Parrot, 1921), and Pressatia sp. (Mangabeira, 1942). Using PCR with internal transcribed spacer target to identify infected sand flies, five Lu. longipalpis females were infected with Leishmania spp. Despite the small number of specimens collected, considerable species diversity was found in the study area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Psychodidae/classification , Psychodidae/parasitology , RNA, Protozoan/genetics , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Brazil , Leishmaniasis/transmission , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Leishmania/genetics
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180177, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041597

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study describes the occurrence of triatomines, and their positivity for trypanosomatids, in a residential complex in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. METHODS: Triatomines were collected through direct capture in a home environment. Positivity analysis for trypanosomatids was performed by PCR assays. RESULTS Collected insects consisted of 31 Rhodnius robustus, 4 Rhodnius montenegrensis, and 1 Panstrongylus geniculatus specimens. All were adults, with no presence of domiciliation, and with an infection rate of 30.6%. CONCLUSIONS Future studies are recommended in other locations of Rio Branco in order to develop a georeference database of the occurrence of triatomines in urban areas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Panstrongylus/classification , Rhodnius/classification , Trypanosoma/isolation & purification , Insect Vectors/classification , Panstrongylus/parasitology , Rhodnius/parasitology , Trypanosoma/classification , Urban Population , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190063, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041569

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The present study reports the presence of triatomines in natural, peridomestic, and intradomicile environments in Itacoatiara municipality, state of Amazonas, a non-endemic region for Chagas disease. METHODS Active search was performed inside tree trunks, and palm trees, residences, and peridomiciles localized near the forest area. RESULTS: Twenty adults and ten triatomines nymphs were collected, fifteen of which were from natural forests, thirteen from intradomiciles, and two from peridomicile areas. CONCLUSIONS: The new records of adults and nymphs of triatomines in the intra- and peridomiciles suggest the adoption of prophylactic measures for vector surveillance in the study area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Triatominae/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Brazil , Forests , Triatominae/classification , Population Density , Chagas Disease/transmission , Animal Distribution , Housing , Insect Vectors/classification
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 174-182, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897071

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease remains a public health problem in the rural and urban areas of 19 countries in the Americas. METHODS: The aim of the present study was to investigate the Trypanosoma cruzi infection rate of triatomines collected from both intra- and peridomiciliary areas in eleven municipalities of Southeastern Ceará, Brazil, from 2009 to 2015. RESULTS: A total of 32,364 triatomine specimens, including nymphs and adults, were collected, and 31,736 (98.06%) of these were examined. More nymphs were collected than adults, and the greatest number of triatomines (n = 8,548) was collected in 2010, for which the infection rate was 1.3%, with the highest rate of infections observed for specimens from Quixere. The species collected during the study were identified as Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma brasiliensis, Panstrongylus megistus, Panstrongylus lutzi, and Rhodnius nasutus, with T. pseudomaculata being the most abundant (n = 19,962). CONCLUSIONS: These results verify the presence of triatomines in both intra- and peridomiciliary areas, thereby ensuring persistence of the pathogen and consequently, the disease, as the presence of infected vectors in households is an important risk factor. According to these findings, the Chagas Disease Control Program should intensify its efforts in order to prevent the spread of the disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Panstrongylus/parasitology , Rhodnius/parasitology , Triatoma/parasitology , Insect Vectors/classification , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Population Density , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 190-197, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897070

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi. Its main reservoir is the domestic dog, especially in rural areas with favorable characteristics for vector establishment and proliferation. The aims of this study were to collect data, survey and map the fauna, and identify T. cruzi infection in triatomines, as well as to assess the presence of anti-T. cruzi antibodies in dogs in rural areas of the municipality of Mossoró, Brazil. METHODS: An active entomologic research was conducted to identify adult specimens through an external morphology dichotomous key. The analysis of natural infection by T. cruzi in the insects was performed by isolation in culture and polymerase chain reaction. The antibody testing for T. cruzi in dogs was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: A total of 68 triatomines were captured, predominantly the Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis (Neiva 1911) species. The vector mapping displayed areas with greater risk for parasite transmission. Of the examined triatomines (51 specimens), 41.2% (21/51) were positive on polymerase chain reaction, and all were negative on culture. In the serum testing, 11% (25/218) of dogs were seropositive, but no association was found between the serologic results and the presence and infection by T. cruzi in triatomines. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the movement of T. cruzi in the studied area, by the presence of vectors and naturally infected domestic reservoirs. The mapping of the studied rural area demonstrates the risk of disease transmission.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Triatominae/parasitology , Chagas Disease/veterinary , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Rural Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 77-79, Jan.-Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041443

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The occurrence of Triatoma sordida in the Brazilian Western Amazon is reported for the first time. METHODS Triatoma sordida specimens were collected from a Gallus gallus nest in a peridomiciliary area of Senador Guiomard municipality in the state of Acre. RESULTS The number of triatomine species in Acre increased from six to seven with this first report of T. sordida in the Brazilian Western Amazon. CONCLUSIONS The occurrence of T. sordida in Acre is of concern since it is among the most captured triatomines in peridomiciliary environments in Brazil, and carries a high potential for vector transmission.


Subject(s)
Animals , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Chickens/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Triatoma/classification , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/classification
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(1): 24-29, Jan. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi appears to be interrupted in Chile; however, data show increasing incidence of Chagas' disease, raising concerns that there may be a reemerging problem. OBJECTIVE To estimate the actual risk in a changing world it is necessary to consider the historical vector distribution and correlate this distribution with the presence of cases and climate change. METHODS Potential distribution models of Triatoma infestans and Chagas disease were performed using Maxent, a machine-learning method. FINDINGS Climate change appears to play a major role in the reemergence of Chagas' disease and T. infestans in Chile. The distribution of both T. infestans and Chagas' disease correlated with maximum temperature, and the precipitation during the driest month. The overlap of Chagas' disease and T. infestans distribution areas was high. The distribution of T. infestans, under two global change scenarios, showed a minimal reduction tendency in suitable areas. MAIN CONCLUSION The impact of temperature and precipitation on the distribution of T. infestans, as shown by the models, indicates the need for aggressive control efforts; the current control measures, including T. infestans control campaigns, should be maintained with the same intensity as they have at present, avoiding sylvatic foci, intrusions, and recolonisation of human dwellings.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Triatoma/parasitology , Climate Change
17.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(1): e00006517, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039367

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O objetivo do artigo foi confirmar e descrever um surto da doença de Chagas aguda por transmissão oral na mesorregião Oeste Potiguar, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo do tipo série de casos, tendo como fonte de dados os registros de atendimentos médicos e entrevistas com os casos suspeitos entre 16 de setembro e 19 de novembro de 2015. Realizou-se pesquisa entomológica nas prováveis localidades de infecção dos casos de doença de Chagas aguda. Foram confirmados 18 casos de doença de Chagas aguda em residentes de quatro municípios do Rio Grande do Norte. Os sinais e sintomas mais relatados foram febre e fraqueza (n = 18), seguidos de mialgia (n = 17), prostração, inapetência e edema de membros inferiores (n = 15). A mediana de duração da febre foi de 20 dias (intervalo: 6 a 45 dias). Quinze casos foram confirmados por critério laboratorial e três por vínculo epidemiológico com clínica compatível. Todos os casos confirmados relataram ter consumido caldo de cana da mesma procedência. Foram capturados 110 triatomíneos na fazenda onde ocorreu a moagem da cana consumida. Os insetos estavam no peridomicílio, em amontoados de lenha e próximos ao engenho. A maioria dos exemplares capturados era da espécie Triatoma brasiliensis, e apresentou um índice de infecção natural de 63%. Foi confirmado surto da doença de Chagas de transmissão oral por ingestão de caldo de cana contaminado por triatomíneo infectado, evidenciado pelo vínculo epidemiológico entre os casos investigados e a pesquisa entomológica no local provável de infecção.


Abstract: The aim of this article was to confirm and describe an outbreak of acute Chagas disease involving oral transmission in the western region of Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. This was a descriptive case series study in which the data sources were medical records and interviews with suspected cases from September 16 to November 19, 2015. An entomological investigation was conducted in the probable sites of infection for acute Chagas disease cases. Eighteen cases of acute Chagas disease were confirmed in residents of four municipalities (counties) in Rio Grande do Norte State. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were fever and weakness (n = 18), followed by myalgia (n = 17), prostration, loss of appetite, and edema of the lower limbs (n = 15). Median duration of fever was 20 days (range: 6 to 45 days). Fifteen cases were confirmed by the laboratory criterion and three by epidemiological link with consistent clinical characteristics. All confirmed cases reported having consumed sugar cane juice from the same mill. A total of 110 triatomines were captured on the plantation where the sugar cane had been crushed for juice. The insects were found in the peridomicile, in stacks of firewood and close to the sugar cane mill. The majority of the captured specimens were Triatoma brasiliensis and showed a natural infection rate of 63%. The Chagas disease outbreak was confirmed with oral transmission via ingestion of sugar cane juice contaminated with infected triatomines, as evidenced by the epidemiological link between the investigated cases and the entomological survey in the probable site where the infection occurred.


Resumen: El objetivo de este artículo fue confirmar y describir un brote de la enfermedad de Chagas aguda por transmisión oral en la mesorregión oeste de Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo del tipo serie de casos, contando como fuente de datos los registros de atención médica y entrevistas en los casos sospechosos entre el 16 de septiembre y el 19 de noviembre de 2015. Se realizó una investigación entomológica en las probables localidades de infección de los casos de enfermedad de Chagas aguda. Fueron confirmados 18 casos de enfermedad de Chagas aguda en residentes de cuatro municipios de Rio Grande do Norte. Los signos y síntomas más informados fueron fiebre y debilidad (n = 18), seguidos de mialgia (n = 17), postración, inapetencia y edema de miembros inferiores (n = 15). La media de duración de la fiebre fue de 20 días (intervalo: 6 a 45 días). Quince casos fueron confirmados por criterio de laboratorio y tres por vínculo epidemiológico con clínica compatible. Todos los casos confirmados informaron haber consumido caldo de caña de la misma procedencia. Fueron capturados 110 triatominos en la hacienda donde se produjo la molienda de la caña consumida. Los insectos estaban en el peridomicilio, en montones de leña y cerca del ingenio azucarero. La mayoría de los ejemplares capturados era de la especie Triatoma brasiliensis, y presentó un índice de infección natural de un 63%. Se confirmó un brote de la enfermedad de Chagas de transmisión oral por ingestión de caldo de caña contaminado por triatomino infectado, evidenciado por el vínculo epidemiológico entre los casos investigados y la investigación entomológica en el lugar probable de infección.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Triatoma/parasitology , Food Contamination/analysis , Disease Outbreaks , Chagas Disease/transmission , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Saccharum/parasitology , Entomology
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 824-828, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041433

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease surveillance requires current knowledge on synanthropic triatomines. We analyzed the occurrence and Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates of triatomine bugs in central Brazil, during 2012-2014. METHODS: Triatomines were collected inside or around houses, and T. cruzi infection was determined by optical microscopy and conventional/quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Of the 2706 triatomines collected, Triatoma sordida was the most frequent species in Goiás State, whereas Panstrongylus megistus predominated in the Federal District. Parasites identified were T. cruzi, T. rangeli, and Blastocrithidia sp. CONCLUSIONS: P. megistus and T. sordida sustained the risk of T. cruzi transmission to humans in central Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Triatominae/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Triatominae/classification , Population Density , Insect Vectors/classification
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 829-832, Nov.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041432

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Rhodnius stali infection by Trypanosoma rangeli is reported in this study for the first time. METHODS The triatomines were collected from the campus of the Federal University of Acre in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. The identification of T. rangeli was confirmed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS The examinations of two specimens revealed R. stali infection by the epimastigote forms of T. rangeli. CONCLUSIONS The encounter of R. stali infected by T. rangeli generates an alert for the state of Acre, since the simultaneous presence with Trypanosoma cruzi can make the differential diagnosis of Chagas disease difficult.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rhodnius/parasitology , Trypanosoma rangeli/isolation & purification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Rhodnius/classification , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Insect Vectors/classification
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(10): 698-708, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The eco-epidemiological status of Chagas disease in the Monte Desert ecoregion of western Argentina is largely unknown. We investigated the environmental and socio-demographic determinants of house infestation with Triatoma infestans, bug abundance, vector infection with Trypanosoma cruzi and host-feeding sources in a well-defined rural area of Lavalle Department in the Mendoza province. METHODS Technical personnel inspected 198 houses for evidence of infestation with T. infestans, and the 76 houses included in the current study were re-inspected. In parallel with the vector survey, an environmental and socio-demographic survey was also conducted. Univariate risk factor analysis for domiciliary infestation was carried out using Firth penalised logistic regression. We fitted generalised linear models for house infestation and bug abundance. Blood meals were tested with a direct ELISA assay, and T. cruzi infection was determined using a hot-start polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the kinetoplast minicircle (kDNA-PCR). FINDINGS The households studied included an aged population living in precarious houses whose main economic activities included goat husbandry. T. infestans was found in 21.2% of 198 houses and in 55.3% of the 76 re-inspected houses. Peridomestic habitats exhibited higher infestation rates and bug abundances than did domiciles, and goat corrals showed high levels of infestation. The main host-feeding sources were goats. Vector infection was present in 10.2% of domiciles and 3.2% of peridomiciles. Generalised linear models showed that peridomestic infestation was positively and significantly associated with the presence of mud walls and the abundance of chickens and goats, and bug abundance increased with the number of all hosts except rabbits. MAIN CONCLUSIONS We highlight the relative importance of specific peridomestic structures (i.e., goat corrals and chicken coops) associated with construction materials and host abundance as sources of persistent bug infestation driving domestic colonisation. Environmental management strategies framed in a community-based programme combined with improved insecticide spraying and sustained vector surveillance are needed to effectively suppress local T. infestans populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Triatoma/physiology , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Chagas Disease/transmission , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Argentina , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Goats , Cats , Chickens , Risk Factors , Population Density , Dogs
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