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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200571, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154878

ABSTRACT

Leishmania infantum chagasi is the causative agent and Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. We investigated the expression of Leishmania genes within L. longipalpis after artificial infection. mRNAs from genes involved in sugar and amino acid metabolism were upregulated at times of high parasite proliferation inside the insect. mRNAs from genes involved in metacyclogenesis had higher expression in late stages of infection. Other modulated genes of interest were involved in immunomodulation, purine salvage pathway and protein recycling. These data reveal aspects of the adaptation of the parasite to the microenvironment of the vector gut and reflect the preparation for infection in the vertebrate.


Subject(s)
Animals , Psychodidae/parasitology , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Psychodidae/genetics , Brazil , Gene Expression , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Life Cycle Stages
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200528, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154881

ABSTRACT

Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811) is the triatomine with the largest geographic distribution in Latin America. It has been reported in 18 countries from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, including the Caribbean islands. Although most reports indicate that P. geniculatus has wild habitats, this species has intrusive habits regarding human dwellings mainly located in intermediate deforested areas. It is attracted by artificial light from urban and rural buildings, raising the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Despite the wide body of published information on P. geniculatus, many knowledge gaps exist about its biology and epidemiological potential. For this reason, we analysed the literature for P. geniculatus in Scopus, PubMed, Scielo, Google Scholar and the BibTriv3.0 databases to update existing knowledge and provide better information on its geographic distribution, life cycle, genetic diversity, evidence of intrusion and domiciliation, vector-related circulating discrete taxonomic units, possible role in oral T. cruzi transmission, and the effect of climate change on its biology and epidemiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Panstrongylus/genetics , Panstrongylus/parasitology , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Panstrongylus/physiology , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Biology , Genes, Insect , Ecology , Genotype , Geography , Insect Vectors/genetics , Latin America
3.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(2): e2020877, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279004

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade da identificação de triatomíneos na rede de laboratórios do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Métodos: Os nove laboratórios participantes receberam material de apoio com as chaves dicotômicas e um painel composto por sete insetos triatomíneos conhecidos no estado, para identificação da situação do espécime no recebimento (estrutura completa ou danificada), espécie e sexo. Resultados: Nove laboratórios de 12 aderiram ao estudo. A proporção de acerto para identificação do sexo foi de 56/63, e para espécie, 45/63, não apresentando relação direta com a ocorrência de danos nas estruturas morfológicas durante o transporte dos insetos. Para Panstrongylus megistus, houve acerto em todos os espécimes (9/9), enquanto para espécies do gênero Rhodnius a proporção foi menor (3/9). Conclusão: Apesar do bom desempenho na identificação entomológica, as fragilidades observadas poderão orientar ações para melhoria na rede de laboratórios e serão essenciais para os programas de controle vetorial da doença de Chagas.


Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de la identificación de triatominos en la red de laboratorios del estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Métodos: Los nueve laboratorios participantes recibieron material de apoyo con claves dicotómicas y un panel conformado por siete insectos triatominos conocidas en el estado, para identificar la situación del espécimen al recibirlo (estructura completa o dañada), especie y sexo. Resultados: La adherencia al laboratorio fue del 9/12. La proporción de aciertos para la identificación del sexo fue del 56/63, y para las especies 45/63, no mostraron relación directa con la ocurrencia de daños en las estructuras morfológicas durante el transporte de insectos. Solo Panstrongylus megistus logró el 9/9 de precisión, mientras que para las especies del género Rhodnius fue el más pequeño (3/9). Conclusión: A pesar del buen desempeño en identificación entomológica, la evaluación indicó debilidades que permitirán implementar acciones correctivas para mejorar la red de laboratorios, esenciales para los programas de control vectorial de la enfermedad de Chagas.


Objective: To assess the quality of triatomine identification in the laboratory network of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Methods: The participating laboratories received support material with dichotomous keys and a panel made up of seven triatomine insects known in the Pernambuco, in order to identify specimen status on receipt (intact or damaged structure), as well as species and sex. Results: Nine out of 12 laboratories took part of the study. The proportion of correct answers was 56/63 for sex identification, and 45/63, for species. The answers did not present a direct relationship with occurrence of damage to morphological structures during insect transportation. Panstrongylus megistus identification was correct for all specimens (9/9 laboratories), while correct identification of species of the Rhodnius genus was the lowest (3/9 laboratories). Conclusion: Despite the good performance in entomological identification, the weaknesses observed may guide improvements in the laboratory network and will be essential for Chagas disease vector control programs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Triatominae/parasitology , Entomology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Laboratories/statistics & numerical data
4.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 118-125, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1353017

ABSTRACT

En Guatemala en el 2015, el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social (MSPAS) reportó nuevos casos de la enfermedad de Chagas en la región suroriental del país, siendo Santa Rosa uno de los departamentos endémicos en donde Triatoma dimidiata es el principal transmisor. Se estimó la infestación de T. dimidiata en la aldea Chuchuapa, municipio de Santa María Ixhuatán, de abril a junio de 2019, se calcularon los índices en-tomológicos y se caracterizaron intra y peridomiciliar 149 viviendas (79.67% de las viviendas habitadas). Los datos se obtuvieron mediante un cuestionario mixto, en entrevista cara a cara y evaluación de las viviendas, por un equipo profesional experimentado, mediante el método y protocolo estándar hombre-hora. Se capturaron 20 triatominos en 10 viviendas, con un índice de infestación de 6.71% (10/149), un índice de densidad de 13.42% (20/149), 19 triatominos intradomiciliares y uno peridomiciliar, con un índice de infección natural por Tr y pano-soma cruzi intradomiciliar de 26.3% (5/19), índice de infección natural por T. cr u z i peridomiciliar de 100.0% (1/1) e índice de infección natural por T. c r u z i en los triatominos capturados de 30.0 % (6/20). Las viviendas infestadas presentaron techo de lámina, pared de bajareque con grietas y sin repello, piso de tierra y afiches en la pared, acumulación de leña u otros materiales tanto intra como peridomiciliar, convivencia con animales domésticos y tenencia de animales de corral. Los resultados representan un alto riesgo para la transmisión de la enfermedad de Chagas entre los habitantes de la aldea.


In Guatemala in 2015, the Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance reported new cases of Chagas disease in the southeastern region of the country, with Santa Rosa being one of the endemic departments where Tr ia-toma dimidiata is the main transmitter. The infestation of T. dimidiata was estimated in the Chuchuapa village, municipality of Santa María Ixhuatán, from April to June 2019, the entomological indices were calculated and 149 dwellings were characterized intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary (79.67% of the inhabited dwellings). The data were obtained through a mixed questionnaire, in a face-to-face interview and evaluation of the dwellings, by an experienced professional team, using the standard man-hour method and protocol. 20 triatomines were captured in 10 homes, with an infestation index of 6.71% (10/149), a density index of 13.42% (20/149), 19 intradomiciliary triatomines and one peridomiciliary, with a natural infection index by intradomiciliary Trypanosomacruzi of 26.3% (5/19), natural infection index by peridomiciliary T. c r u z i of 100.0% (1/1) and natural infection index by T. c r u z i in captured triatomines of 30.0% (6/20). The infested dwellings have a sheet roof, awattle and daub wall with cracks and no wall plaster, dirt and posters on the wall, accumulation of firewood and other materials in both intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary, living with domestic animals and keeping poultry animals. The results represent a high risk for the transmission of Chagas disease among the villager.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Adult , Young Adult , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Chagas Disease/transmission , Housing , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Poultry , Rural Population , Health Surveys , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Guatemala/epidemiology , Animals, Domestic
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e017820, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144228

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leishmania infantum infection in cats has been reported in several countries, including Brazil. However, the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) from cats to another host has not been proven yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the possibility of L. infantum transmission from cats to dogs. In order to verify the possibility of VL transmission from the cat to the dog, xenodiagnosis was carried out in a VL-positive cat, using 55 female Lutzomyia longipalpis. Five days later, 40 insects were dissected to verify Leishmania infection. The remaining 15 females were fed in a healthy dog. The potential infection of the dog was verified through clinical, serological, parasitological examinations, and PCR, at three, six, and twelve months post-infection. All 55 L. longipalpis females became visibly engorged. Leishmania promastigotes were detected in 27.5% of the dissected insects. Leishmania infection in the dog was confirmed upon first evaluation. DNA sequencing of the parasite isolated from the cat confirmed L. infantum infection and showed 99% similarity with the L. infantum DNA sequences from the dogs. Through this study, it was possible to confirm the L. infantum experimental transmission from a domestic cat to a domestic dog through its biological vector L. longipalpis.


Resumo A infecção por Leishmania infantum em gatos tem sido relatada em vários países, incluindo o Brasil. No entanto, a transmissão da leishmaniose visceral (LV) de gatos para outro hospedeiro ainda não foi comprovada. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a possibilidade de transmissão de L. infantum de gatos para cães. Para verificar a possibilidade de transmissão da LV do gato para o cão, foi realizado xenodiagnóstico em um gato com LV, utilizando-se 55 fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis. Cinco dias depois, 40 insetos foram dissecados para verificar a infecção por Leishmania. As 15 fêmeas restantes foram alimentadas em um cão saudável. A possível infecção no cão foi verificada por meio de exames clínicos, sorológicos, parasitológicos e PCR, três, seis e doze meses após a infecção. Todas as 55 fêmeas de L. longipalpis ficaram visivelmente ingurgitadas. Promastigotas de Leishmania foram detectadas em 27,5% dos insetos dissecados. A infecção por Leishmania no cão foi confirmada na primeira avaliação. O sequenciamento do DNA do parasito isolado do gato confirmou a infecção por L. infantum e apresentou 99% de similaridade com sequências de DNA de L. infantum de cães. Através deste estudo, foi possível confirmar a transmissão experimental de L. infantum de um gato doméstico para um cão doméstico através do seu vetor biológico L. longipalpis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cats , Dogs , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Cat Diseases/transmission , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/transmission , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Psychodidae/parasitology , Brazil , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190284, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056772

ABSTRACT

Despite some phlebotomines being well recognised as vectors of leishmaniasis agents, vector importance of those belonging to the genus Trichophoromyia has not been extensively studied. The present study provides evidence regarding the putative vector role played by some species of Trichophoromyia on leishmanine enzootics, based on literature reports and findings obtained from field experiments conducted in the ecotopes of Pará State, Brazil. The species Th. ubiquitalis, Th. velascoi, Th. auraensis, Th. ininii and Th. brachipyga possess minimal criteria to be included in the list of suspected leishmanine vectors. However, knowledge on man-biting behavior, substantiation of vector competence and determination of epidemiological implications are limited for all of the above mentioned species. Published studies together with present data draw attention to prioritize these phlebotomine species in entomological surveillance programs and studies on experimental susceptibility to Leishmania spp. infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Psychodidae/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/classification , Leishmaniasis/transmission , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Leishmania/genetics
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190320, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057289

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate human exposure to Leishmania spp. infection and sandflies in an area endemic for the disease. METHODS: The presence of antibodies specific for Leishmania spp. and saliva of Lutzomyia spp. and that of L. infantum DNA in blood were evaluated. RESULTS: Antibodies against Leishmania spp. and sandfly saliva were observed in 20.8% and 37.7% of individuals, respectively. DNA of Leishmania spp. was amplified from the blood of one patient. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that Leishmania spp. infection may be underdiagnosed in this area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Psychodidae/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Leishmania/genetics , Leishmania/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Middle Aged
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200157, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND In Acre state, Brazil, the dissemination of cutaneous leishmaniasis has increased in recent years, with limited knowledge of the potential Leishmania spp. vectors involved. OBJECTIVES Here, data concerning the sandfly fauna of Brasiléia municipality, Leishmania DNA-detection rates and the identification of blood meal sources of insects captured in 2013-2015 are presented. METHODS Parasite detection in female sandflies was performed individually by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Leishmania kDNA/sandfly cacophony-gene), with the identification of Leishmania spp. by hsp70-PCR and sequencing. The identification of blood gut-content from fed females was performed by cyt b-PCR and sequencing. FINDINGS A total of 4,473 sandflies were captured. A subgroup of 864 non-blood-fed females evaluated for the presence of Leishmania DNA showed 2.9% positivity for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis. The identification of blood meal sources was performed in 96 blood-fed females, allowing the identification of 13 vertebrate species. In nine/96 fed females, DNA from L. (V.) shawi, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis and Endotrypanum sp. was detected. MAIN CONCLUSIONS In Brumptomyia sp. and Evandromyia termitophila, the first report of Leishmania DNA-detection is provided in Acre; Nyssomyia shawi is implicated as potential vector of L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis for the first time in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Psychodidae/parasitology , DNA/analysis , Insect Vectors/genetics , Leishmania/genetics , Psychodidae/classification , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 410-418, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089316

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Studies related to infectivity status of insect vectors are seen as necessities in understanding the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases and planning effective control measures. This study assessed the infectivity ofSimulium damnosum s.l. around Owena River as well as evaluated therapeutic coverage of Ivermectin distribution in the area. Method: Human landing sampling method was used to collect adult flies on human attractants from 07:00 to 18:00 for two consecutive days a month for three months (July 2016 - September 2016). Parity assessment was conducted to determine the age of fly populations. Parous flies were further dissected to detect the presence or absence ofOnchocerca larvae. Biting rates and transmission potentials were calculated using standard methods. A quantitative survey was carried out to determine the therapeutic coverage and compliance to ivermectin treatment for the control of Onchocerciasis in the study area using standard household coverage questionnaires. Results: A total of 914 adult female flies were collected during the study period. The daily biting rate (DBR) varied from 146 fly per man day (FMD) in July to 162.5 FMD in August. The monthly biting rate (MBR) was lowest in September (2170 bites per man per month) but highest in August (3358.3 bites per man per month). MBD ranged from 13.23 fly per man hour (FMH) in July to 14.77 FMH in August. The results indicated that the majority of the flies collected at the sampling points were nulliparous [685 (74.95%)] while others were parous [229 (25.05%)]. The biting activity of the flies showed a marked decrease in population in August compared to July which later increased in September. Infection rates varied from 2 (0.7%) in July to 7 (2.2%) in August while the infectivity rate during the study ranged from zero (July and September) to 3 (1.0%) in August. Conclusion: Despite the years of treatment of onchocerciasis in Owena community, there were still some infective flies capable of transmitting O. volvolus. This could be due to the low rate of therapeutic coverage as a result of non-compliance in the community for various reasons earlier stated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Onchocerciasis/drug therapy , Onchocerciasis/transmission , Simuliidae/parasitology , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Insect Bites and Stings/drug therapy , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Onchocerciasis/parasitology , Rivers , Insect Bites and Stings/parasitology , Insect Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Nigeria/epidemiology
10.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(2): 252-264, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011438

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The study of the interaction between the parasite, the vector and the mammalian hosts, including man, allows to understand the behavior of the leishmaniases. Objective: To determine the presence of Lutzomyia species and to detect the Leishmania infection in Didelphis marsupialis in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis. Materials and methods: Phlebotomine fauna and individuals of D. marsupialis were collected with CDC and Tomahawk™ traps, respectively. The species of Lutzomyia were identified using the Young and Duncan key (1994). Ear and tail biopsies and blood samples from D. marsupialis were taken to identify the Leishmania species by amplifying a fragment of the gene associated with the 70 kD heat shock protein. Results: Seven Lutzomyia species were identified: Lu. evansi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. dubitans, Lu. cayennensis cayennensis, Lu. rangeliana and Lu. trinidadensis. The first three species have epidemiological importance in Colombia because of their implications in the transmission of the Leishmania parasite. Sixty-five tissue samples from 19 D. marsupialis individuals were negative for Leishmania spp. Conclusions: The presence of the Lutzomyia species that have been identified as vectors for Leishmania inside and around houses in the village of El Bledo, in El Carmen de Bolívar represents a risk of infection. Furthermore, the presence of Lu. panamensis is reported for first time in El Carmen de Bolívar in Colombia. Although the lack of detection of Leishmania spp. in D. marsupialis samples may suggest that D. marsupialis does not play an important role in the transmission cycle of Leishmania in this region, it is necessary to carry out further longitudinal studies to confirm this hypothesis.


Resumen Introducción. El estudio de la interacción entre el parásito, el vector y los huéspedes mamíferos, incluido el hombre, permite entender el comportamiento de la leishmaniasis. Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de especies del género Lutzomyia y detectar la infección por Leishmania spp. en Didelphis marsupialis en un área endémica de leishmaniasis visceral. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron flebotomíneos y D. marsupialis con trampas CDC y Tomahawk™, respectivamente. Las especies de Lutzomyia se identificaron usando la clave de Young y Duncan, 1994. Se tomaron biopsias de oreja, cola y muestras de sangre de D. marsupialis para diagnosticar Leishmania spp. mediante la amplificación de un fragmento del gen de la proteína de choque térmico de 70 kD. Resultados. Se identificaron siete especies de Lutzomyia: Lu. evansi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. dubitans, Lu. cayennensis cayennensis, Lu. rangeliana y Lu. trinidadensis. Las tres primeras especies son reconocidas como vectores en el país por estar implicadas en la transmisión de Leishmania spp. En total, 65 muestras de tejidos de oreja, cola y de sangre provenientes de 19 D. marsupialis fueron negativas para Leishmania spp. en la PCR-HSP70. Conclusiones. La presencia de flebotomíneos con importancia epidemiológica en la zona evaluada representa un riesgo de transmisión. Asimismo, Lu. panamensis es reportada por primera vez en El Bledo (Carmen de Bolívar). La ausencia de Leishmania spp. en D. marsupialis podría sugerir que esta especie no tiene un papel importante en el ciclo de transmisión de Leishmania en la vereda El Bledo, por lo que es necesario profundizar en estudios longitudinales para corroborar esta hipótesis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psychodidae , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Didelphis , Insect Vectors , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Psychodidae/parasitology , Rural Population , Species Specificity , Tail/parasitology , Blood/parasitology , Colombia/epidemiology , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Endemic Diseases , Didelphis/parasitology , Ear, External/parasitology , Housing , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Leishmania/classification , Leishmania/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission
11.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(2): 266-277, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011439

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: From 2011 to 2016, 24 cases of Chagas disease were reported in Córdoba according to the national public health surveillance system (Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia en Salud Pública, Sivigila), but the information regarding Trypanosoma cruzi circulating strains and infection rates are unknown. Objectives: To establish the triatomine species with which people come in contact and recognize as Chagas disease vectors, as well as to assess the infection with trypanosomes and make an exploratory approach to host feeding preferences with the participation of the local community. Materials and methods: Triatomines sampling was conducted in 12 municipalities between 2011 and 2016; T. cruzi infection was established by k-PCR, SAT-PCR, while strain genotyping was done by mini-exon and SL-IR (spliced-leader intergenic region) sequence characterization. We also screened for blood sources. Results: Local community members collected the majority of triatomines and we identified three species: Rhodnius pallescens, Panstrongylus geniculatus, and Eratyrus cuspidatus. The overall T. cruzi infection rate in collected triatomines was 66.6% and we detected the TcIDOM and TcI sylvatic strains. Community-based insect collection allowed reporting the presence of P. geniculatus in two new disperse rural settlements, T. cruzi infection of P. geniculatus in Córdoba, and the first report of triatomines infected with T. cruzi in Montería municipality. Conclusions: These results revealed the presence of triatomines infected with T. cruzi inside dwellings in five municipalities of Córdoba. The dominant circulating T. cruzi strain was TcIDOM, a genotype associated with human Chagas disease and cardiomyopathies in Colombia. Our results highlight the importance of local community participation in entomological surveillance tasks.


Resumen Introducción. Entre el 2011 y el 2016, se reportaron 24 casos de enfermedad de Chagas en Córdoba, según el Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia en Salud Pública (Sivigila), pero la información sobre las unidades discretas de tipificación de Trypanosoma cruzi circulantes y las tasas de infección se desconoce. Objetivos. Identificar las especies de triatominos con las cuales las personas entran en contacto y que reconocen como vectores de la enfermedad de Chagas, así como establecer la infección por tripanosomas y explorar posibles fuentes de alimentación de los triatominos con la participación de la comunidad. Materiales y métodos. El muestreo de triatominos se hizo en 12 municipios entre el 2011 y el 2016. T. cruzi se detectó mediante las técnicas de kinetic-polymerase chain reaction (k-PCR) y serial amplification of targets-polymerase chain reaction (SAT-PCR), en tanto que la genotipificación de las cepas se logró mediante la caracterización de secuencias de genes miniexon y de la región intergénica SL-IR (Spliced-Leader Intergenic Region). Se evaluaron, asimismo, las fuentes de alimento. Resultados. La mayoría de los triatominos fue recolectada por miembros de la comunidad y se identificaron tres especies: Rhodnius pallescens, Panstrongylus geniculatus y Eratyrus cuspidatus. La tasa de infección general por T. cruzi fue de 66,6 % y se detectaron las cepas TcIDOM y TcI sylvatic. La participación de la comunidad permitió reportar la presencia de P. geniculatus en dos nuevas localidades, la infección con T. cruzi de P. geniculatus en Córdoba y reportar por primera vez triatominos infectados con T. cruzi en Montería. Conclusiones. Se demostró la presencia de triatominos infectados con T. cruzi dentro de las viviendas en cinco municipalidades. La cepa circulante dominante fue T. cruzi TcIDOM, asociada con la enfermedad de Chagas y con cardiomiopatías en Colombia. Los resultados resaltan la importancia de vincular a miembros de la comunidad en la vigilancia entomológica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Triatominae/parasitology , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Panstrongylus/parasitology , Rhodnius/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/classification , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Birds/blood , Blood/parasitology , Cities , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Colombia/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Genotype , Housing , Mammals/blood
12.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(2): 278-290, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011440

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Knowledge of the geographical distribution of Leishmania species allows guiding the sampling to little-studied areas and implementing strategies to define risk zones and priority areas for control. Objective: Given that there is no publication that collects this information, the search, review, and compilation of the available scientific literature that has identified species in Colombia is presented in this paper. Materials and methods: A bibliographic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, SciELO and LILACS with the terms "(Leishmania OR Leishmaniasis) AND species AND Colombia", without restrictions on publication year, language or infected organism; records of national scientific events and repositories of theses from Colombian universities were also included. Results: Eighty-six scientific documents published between 1985 and 2017 were found in which the species of Leishmania and their geographical origin were indicated. The species reported, in descending order of frequency, were: Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (Leishmania) infantum, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) mexicana, L. (V.) colombiensis, L. (V.) lainsoni and L. (V.) equatorensis; the last three were found with the same frequency. Leishmania species were reported from 29 departments. Conclusion: Information on the distribution of Leishmania species in Colombia is limited; therefore, it is necessary to gather existing data and propose studies that consolidate the distribution maps of Leishmania species in Colombia. This would allow the detection of areas where species have not been identified as well as the comparison of existing parasite and vector distributions.


Resumen Introducción. El conocimiento de la distribución geográfica de las especies de Leishmania permite orientar el muestreo hacia áreas poco estudiadas e implementar estrategias para detectar zonas de riesgo y áreas prioritarias de control. Objetivo. Dado que no existe una publicación que reúna esta información, se planteó la revisión y compilación de la literatura científica disponible de estudios de identificación de especies del país. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica en PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Google Académico, SciELO y Lilacs con los términos "(Leishmania OR Leishmaniasis) AND especie AND Colombia", así como en memorias de eventos científicos nacionales y repositorios de tesis y trabajos de grado de universidades del país. Resultados. Se encontraron 86 documentos científicos publicados entre 1985 y 2017, en los cuales se informaron la especie de Leishmania y el origen geográfico. Las especies circulantes reportadas, en su orden de frecuencia, fueron: Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (Leishmania) infantum, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) mexicana, L. (V.) colombiensis, L. (V.) lainsoni y L. (V.) equatorensis, las últimas tres, con igual frecuencia. Los reportes proceden de 29 departamentos. Conclusión. La información de la distribución de las especies de Leishmania en Colombia es limitada. Por lo tanto, se necesita reunir los datos existentes y plantear trabajos que permitan consolidar el mapa de distribución de las especies en el país, lo cual permitiría detectar las zonas sin información de las especies circulantes y establecer la concordancia entre su distribución y la de los vectores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Leishmania , Parasitology/methods , Psychodidae/parasitology , Species Specificity , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Leishmaniasis/parasitology , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmaniasis/epidemiology , Colombia , Geography, Medical , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/classification , Mammals/parasitology
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180177, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041597

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study describes the occurrence of triatomines, and their positivity for trypanosomatids, in a residential complex in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. METHODS: Triatomines were collected through direct capture in a home environment. Positivity analysis for trypanosomatids was performed by PCR assays. RESULTS Collected insects consisted of 31 Rhodnius robustus, 4 Rhodnius montenegrensis, and 1 Panstrongylus geniculatus specimens. All were adults, with no presence of domiciliation, and with an infection rate of 30.6%. CONCLUSIONS Future studies are recommended in other locations of Rio Branco in order to develop a georeference database of the occurrence of triatomines in urban areas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Panstrongylus/classification , Rhodnius/classification , Trypanosoma/isolation & purification , Insect Vectors/classification , Panstrongylus/parasitology , Rhodnius/parasitology , Trypanosoma/classification , Urban Population , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190063, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041569

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The present study reports the presence of triatomines in natural, peridomestic, and intradomicile environments in Itacoatiara municipality, state of Amazonas, a non-endemic region for Chagas disease. METHODS Active search was performed inside tree trunks, and palm trees, residences, and peridomiciles localized near the forest area. RESULTS: Twenty adults and ten triatomines nymphs were collected, fifteen of which were from natural forests, thirteen from intradomiciles, and two from peridomicile areas. CONCLUSIONS: The new records of adults and nymphs of triatomines in the intra- and peridomiciles suggest the adoption of prophylactic measures for vector surveillance in the study area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Triatominae/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Brazil , Forests , Triatominae/classification , Population Density , Chagas Disease/transmission , Animal Distribution , Housing , Insect Vectors/classification
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190270, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057258

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Trypanosomes can infect humans and animals. This is the first record of the occurrence of Trypanosoma evansi in Rondônia. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 7 dogs and 22 humans. Furthermore, triatomines and tabanids were collected. RESULTS: It was observed that 42.8% of the dogs tested positive for T. evansi and 14.3% presented mixed infection; 15% of the triatomines tested positive for flagellates identified as T. cruzi TCI (3 specimens), T. cruzi TCI, and T. rangeli (1 specimen), and one with T. cruzi TCV. Two tabanids were infected with T. theileri. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may benefit vector control strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Rhodnius/parasitology , Trypanosoma/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Trypanosoma/classification , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/parasitology
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180482, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040621

ABSTRACT

The leishmaniases are caused by Leishmania parasites and transmitted through the bites of phlebotomine sand flies. During parasite development inside the vector's midgut, promastigotes move towards the stomodeal valve, a mechanism that is crucial for transmission. It has been reported that the sugar meal acquired by sand flies during feeding between bloodmeals is essential for the development and migration of parasites. We demonstrated that the distribution of Leishmania mexicana parasites was affected by the sugar meals obtained by the sand flies. Promastigote migration towards the cardia region seems to be only partially based on the stimuli provided by sugar molecules. In the absence of sugars, significant amounts of parasites developed in the hindgut. In addition, sugar meals were important for the survival of sand flies, especially during blood digestion, presumably supporting their energy requirements.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Psychodidae/parasitology , Leishmania mexicana/physiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Sugars/metabolism , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Psychodidae/physiology , Leishmania mexicana/growth & development , Insect Vectors/physiology , Longevity
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190061, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013319

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The ecoepidemiological situation in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil is characterized by frequent invasion and colonization of domiciliary units (DUs) by several triatomine species, with high rates of natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. METHODS: We evaluated the possibility of vector transmission of T. cruzi based on records of the occurrence of domiciled triatomines collected by the Secretariat of State for Public Health from 2005 to 2015. During this period, 67.7% (113/167) of municipalities conducted at least one active search and 110 recorded the presence of insects in DUs. These activities were more frequent in municipalities considered to have a high and medium-level risk of T. cruzi transmission. RESULTS Of 51,569 captured triatomines, the most common species were Triatoma brasiliensis (47.2%) and T. pseudomaculata (40.2%). Colonies of T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, T. petrocchiae, Panstrongylus lutzi, and Rhodnius nasutus were also recorded in the intradomicile and peridomicile. Natural infection by trypanosomatids was detected in 1,153 specimens; the highest rate was found in R. nasutus (3.5%), followed by T. brasiliensis (2.5%) and T. pseudomaculata (2.4%). There have been high levels of colonization over the years; however, not all infested DUs have been sprayed. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of intradomicile and peridomicile colonization by P. lutzi. These results demonstrate the risk of new cases of infection by T. cruzi and reinforce the need for continuous entomological surveillance in the State of Rio Grande do Norte.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Triatominae/parasitology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Brazil , Triatominae/classification , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Entomology , Spatial Analysis , Insect Vectors/classification
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(9): e8224, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019569

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease that affects a large part of the world population. Knowing the sand fly fauna of a region is of fundamental importance for guiding health surveillance actions related to the prevention and control of leishmaniasis. A total of 86 specimens of sand flies (60 females and 26 males) were collected. Using the classification proposed by Galati (2003), the following species were identified: Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912), Migonemyia migonei (França, 1920), Evandromyia cortelezzi (Brethes, 1923), Ev. sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho, 1939), Nyssomyia whitmani (Atunes & Coutinho, 1939), Psathyromyia lutziana (Costa Lima, 1932), Ev. lenti (Mangabeira, 1938), Brumptomyia sp. (França and Parrot, 1921), and Pressatia sp. (Mangabeira, 1942). Using PCR with internal transcribed spacer target to identify infected sand flies, five Lu. longipalpis females were infected with Leishmania spp. Despite the small number of specimens collected, considerable species diversity was found in the study area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Psychodidae/classification , Psychodidae/parasitology , RNA, Protozoan/genetics , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Brazil , Leishmaniasis/transmission , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Leishmania/genetics
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 174-182, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897071

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease remains a public health problem in the rural and urban areas of 19 countries in the Americas. METHODS: The aim of the present study was to investigate the Trypanosoma cruzi infection rate of triatomines collected from both intra- and peridomiciliary areas in eleven municipalities of Southeastern Ceará, Brazil, from 2009 to 2015. RESULTS: A total of 32,364 triatomine specimens, including nymphs and adults, were collected, and 31,736 (98.06%) of these were examined. More nymphs were collected than adults, and the greatest number of triatomines (n = 8,548) was collected in 2010, for which the infection rate was 1.3%, with the highest rate of infections observed for specimens from Quixere. The species collected during the study were identified as Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma brasiliensis, Panstrongylus megistus, Panstrongylus lutzi, and Rhodnius nasutus, with T. pseudomaculata being the most abundant (n = 19,962). CONCLUSIONS: These results verify the presence of triatomines in both intra- and peridomiciliary areas, thereby ensuring persistence of the pathogen and consequently, the disease, as the presence of infected vectors in households is an important risk factor. According to these findings, the Chagas Disease Control Program should intensify its efforts in order to prevent the spread of the disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Panstrongylus/parasitology , Rhodnius/parasitology , Triatoma/parasitology , Insect Vectors/classification , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Population Density , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology
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