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China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 455-464, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970482


This study explores the effect of total flavonoids of Rhododendra simsii(TFR) on middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)-induced cerebral injury in rats and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation(OGD/R) injury in PC12 cells and the underlying mechanism. The MCAO method was used to induce focal ischemic cerebral injury in rats. Male SD rats were randomized into sham group, model group, and TFR group. After MCAO, TFR(60 mg·kg~(-1)) was administered for 3 days. The content of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1(IL-1), and interleukin-6(IL-6) in serum was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The pathological changes of brain tissue and cerebral infarction were observed based on hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride(TTC) staining. RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of calcium release-activated calcium channel modulator 1(ORAI1), stromal interaction molecule 1(STIM1), stromal intera-ction molecule 2(STIM2), protein kinase B(PKB), and cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 3(caspase-3) in brain tissues. The OGD/R method was employed to induce injury in PC12 cells. Cells were randomized into the normal group, model group, gene silencing group, TFR(30 μg·mL~(-1)) group, and TFR(30 μg·mL~(-1))+gene overexpression plasmid group. Intracellular Ca~(2+) concentration and apoptosis rate of PC12 cells were measured by laser scanning confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The effect of STIM-ORAI-regulated store-operated calcium entry(SOCE) pathway on TFR was explored based on gene silencing and gene overexpression techniques. The results showed that TFR significantly alleviated the histopathological damage of brains in MCAO rats after 3 days of admini-stration, reduced the contents of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 in the serum, down-regulated the expression of ORAI1, STIM1, STIM2, and caspase-3 genes, and up-regulated the expression of PKB gene in brain tissues of MCAO rats. TFR significantly decreased OGD/R induced Ca~(2+) overload and apoptosis in PC12 cells. However, it induced TFR-like effect by ORAI1, STIM1 and STIM2 genes silencing. However, overexpression of these genes significantly blocked the effect of TFR in reducing Ca~(2+) overload and apoptosis in PC12 cells. In summary, in the early stage of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and OGD/R-induced injury in PC12 cells TFR attenuates ischemic brain injury by inhibiting the STIM-ORAI-regulated SOCE pathway and reducing Ca~(2+) overload and inflammatory factor expression, and apoptosis.

Animals , Male , Rats , Apoptosis , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Caspase 3 , Interleukin-1 , Interleukin-6 , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Rhododendron/chemistry
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3786-3792, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981511


A fluorescence endoscopic laser confocal microscope(FELCM) was used to direct the injection of sinomenine solid lipid nanoparticles(Sin-SLN) into the joint, and the in vitro effectiveness of Sin-SLN in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis(RA) was evaluated. Sin-SLN was prepared with the emulsion evaporation-low temperature curing method. The Sin-SLN prepared under the optimal conditions showed the encapsulation efficiency of 64.79%±3.12%, the drug loading of 3.84%±0.28%, the average particle size of(215.27±4.21) nm, and the Zeta potential of(-32.67±0.84) mV. Moreover, the Sin-SLN demonstrated good stability after sto-rage for 30 days. The rabbit model of RA was established by the subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin and complete Freund's adjuvant. Five groups were designed, including a control group, a model group, a Sin(1.5 mg·kg~(-1)) group, a Sin-SLN(1.5 mg·kg~(-1)) group, and a dexamethasone(positive drug, 1.0 mg·kg~(-1), ig) group. The control group and the model group only received puncture treatment without drug injection. After drug administration, the local skin temperature and knee joint diameter were monitored every day. The knee joint diameter and the local skin temperature were lower in the drug administration groups than in the model group(P<0.05, P<0.01). FELCM recorded the morphological alterations of the cartilage of knee joint. The Sin-SLN group showed compact tissue structure and smooth surface of the cartilage. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was employed to determine the serum le-vels of interleukin-1(IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α). The findings revealed that the Sin-SLN group had lower IL-1 and TNF-α levels than the model group(P<0.05, P<0.01). Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was employed to reveal the pathological changes of the synovial tissue, which were significantly mitigated in the Sin-SLN group. The prepared Sin-SLN had uniform particle size and high stability. Through joint injection administration, a drug reservoir was formed. Sin-SLN effectively alleviate joint swelling and cartilage damage of rabbit, down-regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and inhibited the epithelial proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration of the synovial tissue, demonstrating the efficacy in treating RA.

Animals , Rabbits , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Fluorescence , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Interleukin-1 , Arthritis, Experimental/drug therapy
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 1-5, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927888


Objective: To investigate the effects of PM2.5 exposure at different stages of early life on the prefrontal cortex of offspring rats. Methods: Twelve pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group (CG), Maternal pregnancy exposure group (MG), Early postnatal exposure group (EP) and Perinatal period exposure group (PP), 3 rats in each group. The pregnant and offspring rats were exposed to clean air or 8-fold concentrated PM2.5. MG was exposed from gestational day (GD) 1 to GD21. EP was exposed from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND21, and PP was exposed from GD1 to PND21. After exposure, the prefrontal cortex of 6 offspring rats in each group was analyzed. HE staining was used to observe the pathological damage in the prefrontal cortex. ELISA was employed to detect neuroinflammatory factors, and HPLC/MSC was applied to determine neurotransmitter content. Western blot and colorimetry were applied for detecting astrocyte markers and oxidative stress markers, respectively. Results: Compared with MG and CG, the pathological changes of prefrontal cortex in PP and EP were more obvious. Compared with MG and CG, the neuroinflammatory factors (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α) in PP and EP were increased significantly (P<0.01), the level of MT were decreased significantly (P<0.05), and the level of oxytocin (OT) showed a downward trend; the level of neurotransmitter ACh was also increased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with MG and CG, the GFAP level of PP and EP showed an upward trend, the level of oxidative stress index SOD in PP and EP was decreased significantly (P<0.01), and the level of ROS was increased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with the offspring rats of CG and MG, the CAT level of PP was decreased significantly (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the offspring rats of CG, the CAT level of EP was decreased significantly (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, MT, OT, ACh, GFAP, SOD, ROS and CAT levels between PP and EP, or MG and CG. Conclusion: PM2.5 exposure in early life has adverse effects on the prefrontal cortex of offspring male rats, and early birth exposure may be more sensitive.

Animals , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Rats , Interleukin-1/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Neurotransmitter Agents , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Prefrontal Cortex , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxide Dismutase , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 337-341, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928319


OBJECTIVE@#To study the risk factors of stroke after of elderly patients with hip fracture after operation.@*METHODS@#From March 2012 to June 2017, 500 elderly patients with hip fracture who underwent hip replacement were selected, including 286 males and 214 females, aged from 60 to 76 years old with an average of (68.49±11.85) years. They were divided into stroke group with 30 cases and control group with 470 cases according to the occurrence of acute stroke within two weeks after operation. The general data and serum contents of cytokines IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α were compared between the two groups. The overall survival of the two groups were followed up.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in sex, age, anesthesia method, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, preoperative IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α contenta between stroke group and control group(P>0.05). The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, intraoperative hypotension, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α contenta 1 day and 3 days after operation of stroke group were significantly higher than control group(P<0.05);up to the date of follow-up, the cumulative survival rate of stroke patients were significantly lower than those of the control group(P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that intraoperative hypotension, elevated contents of serum IL-1 and TNF-α at 1 and 3 days after operation were risk factors for acute stroke.@*CONCLUSION@#Postoperative stroke in elderly patients with hip fracture affects the prognosis of the disease. The increase of inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF-α after operation is an independent risk factor for stroke.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cytokines , Hip Fractures/surgery , Hypotension , Interleukin-1 , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Risk Factors , Stroke/etiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 62 p. graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378655


As Células-Tronco Mesenquimais (CTMs), são células multipotentes, presentes em diversos tecidos, sendo bastante estudada devido sua capacidade imunorregulatória por meio da liberação de fatores solúveis. Fatores estes que atuam sobre as funções de células do sistema imunitário. Simultaneamente, estudos indicam que os compostos flavonoides, em destaque a Delfinidina, presente em alguns frutos e flores, possuem atuação anti-inflamatória e inibitória sobre células do sistema imunitário. Todavia, são escassos os estudos em relação entre a capacidade imunorregulatória da CTM e a influência da Delfinidina, sendo este o objetivo deste estudo. Inicialmente, a Delfinidina 3-O-ß-D-glicosídeo foi escolhido, devido a sua maior estabilidade e a dose de 50 µM foi selecionada após análise por citometria de fluxo que mostrou aumento da fase proliferativa do ciclo celular. Posteriormente ao realizar análise da produção de fatores solúveis pelas CTM, os resultados mostraram aumento da produção de IL-10, TGF-ß e Oxido nítrico pelas CTM tratadas com Delfinidina. Bem como, diminuição da expressão de p-NF-κB/NF-κB pelas CTMs tratadas com Delfinidina, quando avaliadas por Wersten Blot. Adicionalmente, para analisar a Delfinidina sobre os efeitos imunorregulatórios da CTM sob macrófagos (RAW 264.7), célula esta, importante no sistema imune inato. Foram realizadas culturas condicionadas, com posterior análise da produção de fatores solúveis, os resultados mostraram aumento da produção de IL-10, e diminuição da produção de TNF-α, IL-1α e IL-12 pelos macrófagos, nas culturas condicionadas. Assim como, diminuição da expressão do fator p-NF-κB/NF-κB pelos macrófagos nas culturas condicionadas, quando avaliadas por Wersten Blot. Ademais, ao analisar a atividade metabólica dos macrófagos por ensaio de MTT, os resultados mostraram que as culturas condicionadas e a Delfinidina per si foi capaz de diminuir a atividade metabólica, sem alterar os efeitos anti-inflamatórios sobre a célula. Em síntese, a Delfinidina mostrou acentuar a atuação imunorregulatória da CTM sobre a linhagem macrofágica, célula esta, de grande importância para o sistema imune inato

Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells present in various tissues, being widely studied due to their immunoregulatory capacity through the release of soluble factors. These factors act on the functions of cells of the immune system. Simultaneously, studies indicate that flavonoid compounds, especially Delphinidin, present in some fruits and flowers, have anti inflammatory and inhibitory effects on immune system cells. However, there are few studies on the relationship between the immunoregulatory capacity of MSC and the influence of Delphinidin, which is the objective of this study. Initially, Delphinidin 3-O-ß-D-glycoside was chosen due to its greater stability and the 50 µM dose was selected after analysis by flow cytometry which showed an increase in the proliferative phase of the cell cycle. Subsequently, when analyzing the production of soluble factors by MSCs, the results showed an increase in the production of IL-10, TGF-ß and nitric oxide by MSCs treated with Delphinidin. As well as decreased expression of p-NF-κB/NF-κB by MSCs treated with Delphinidin, when evaluated by Wersten Blot. Additionally, to analyze Delphinidin on the immunoregulatory effects of MSC on macrophages (RAW 264.7), this cell is important in the innate immune system. Conditioned cultures were performed, with subsequent analysis of the production of soluble factors, the results showed an increase in the production of IL-10, and a decrease in the production of TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-12 by macrophages, in the conditioned cultures. As well as decreased expression of p-NF-κB/NF-κB factor by macrophages in conditioned cultures, when evaluated by Wersten Blot. Furthermore, when analyzing the metabolic activity of macrophages by MTT assay, the results showed that conditioned cultures and Delphinidin itself was able to decrease the metabolic activity, without altering the anti-inflammatory effects on the cell. In summary, Delphinidin has shown to enhance the immunoregulatory action of MSC on the macrophage lineage, a cell that is of great importance for the innate immune system

Flavonoids/analysis , Immune System , Transforming Growth Factors , Interleukin-1/adverse effects , Interleukin-10/adverse effects , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/classification , Flow Cytometry/instrumentation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191132, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394049


Abstract To explore the effects and mechanisms of benzoylaconitine and paeoniflorin on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Weight, paw swelling, arthritis index and joint pathologic changes were examined in each group after CIA induction. PGE2, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, VEGF, MMP-3, IgG and anti-CII Ab were assessed by ELISA; STAT1 and STAT3 expressions were analyzed immunohistochemically, and the ultrastructure of synovial cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Therapeutic effects were determined in CIA rats via injecting benzoylaconitine and paeoniflorin, which could alleviate the degree of swelling and arthritis index (AI) and pathological lesions of the sacroiliac gland; decrease the levels of PGE2, IL-1ß, TNF-α, VEGF and IgG in serum; reduce STAT1 and STAT3 expression in the membrane tissue; and inhibit the secretion and proliferation of synovial cells. These results showed that benzoylaconitine and paeoniflorin could significantly palliate the arthritic symptoms of CIA rats, and better therapeutic effects could be achieved if the two components were used in combination

Animals , Male , Rats , Arthritis, Experimental/chemically induced , Therapeutic Uses , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Dinoprostone/adverse effects , Interleukin-6/pharmacology , Interleukin-1/pharmacology , Interleukin-10/pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/methods
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(3): 246-254, jul.set.2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399343


As síndromes autoinflamatórias associadas à criopirina (CAPS) compreendem um grupo espectral de doenças raras autoinflamatórias. Todas estas doenças estão relacionadas ao inflamassoma NLRP3, sendo que de 50-60% dos pacientes apresentam mutações ao longo do gene NLRP3. Clinicamente, febre recorrente associada à urticária neutrofílica e outros sintomas sistêmicos são o grande marco clínico, comum a todo o espectro. O bloqueio da interleucina-1 trouxe grande alívio ao tratamento destas desordens, mas variações na resposta clínica podem ser observadas, principalmente nos espectros mais graves. Neste trabalho os autores trazem uma revisão do estado da arte das doenças autoinflamatórias CAPS. Foi realizado levantamento de literatura e, ao final, 49 artigos restaram como base para construção do texto final. O trabalho traz de forma narrativa os principais pontos relacionados a imunofisiopatologia, manifestação clínica, diagnóstico, tratamento, complicações e novas armas diagnósticas, e terapia gênica.

Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) comprise a spectrum of rare autoinflammatory disorders. They are all related to the NLRP3 inflammasome, and 50-60% of the patients harbor mutations along the NLRP3 gene. Clinically, recurrent fever associated with neutrophilic urticaria and other systemic symptoms are a hallmark of all the disorders in the spectrum. Biologic drugs that can block interleukin-1 were a milestone for the treatment of such rare diseases, although variability in clinical response to this therapeutic intervention were observed, especially in those affected by severe phenotypes. In this paper, the authors provide a state-of-the-art review of CAPS. A literature search was performed and, finally, 49 articles remained for the construction of the final manuscript. The article presents a narrative review focused on the topics related to immune pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, complications and new therapeutic options, and gene therapy.

Humans , Genetic Therapy , Rare Diseases , Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes , Patients , Phenotype , Relapsing Fever , Signs and Symptoms , Therapeutics , Urticaria , Biological Products , Interleukin-1 , PubMed , Diagnosis
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 37(2): 139-148, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388143


Resumen Desde la notificación de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2, agente patógeno responsable del COVID-19, muchos de los tratamientos dirigidos a su manejo han estado sometidos a estudios de manera constante, con el fin de comprobar su eficacia y seguridad. El conocimiento de su virología y etiopatogenia posibilitaría objetivar los pasos moleculares específicos que puedan ser blancos terapéuticos de variados fármacos actualmente disponibles. Esta experiencia proviene principalmente de las infecciones por SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV, con resultados variados 'in vitro' en el SARS-CoV-2, sin evidencia clínica que demuestre efectividad y seguridad de dichos tratamientos. A la fecha, no se ha podido concretar con claridad un esquema de tratamiento específico, debido a que la evidencia surgida ha puesto en jaque cada uno de los fármacos propuestos. Esto ha motivado a continuar en la búsqueda de una estrategia efectiva que permita manejar esta pandemia con la seguridad y eficacia necesaria para que el beneficio terapéutico esté por sobre los posibles efectos adversos que estos esquemas farmacológicos pudiesen presentar. La siguiente revisión pretende mostrar la evidencia disponible a la fecha, definiendo la actividad de cada fármaco en función de su mecanismo de acción.

Since the beginning of the pandemic by SARS-CoV-2, the pathogen responsible for COVID-19, many of the therapeutic options for its management have been under constant revision, in order to verify their safety and efficiency. Knowledge of the viral structure and pathogenesis make it possible to determine the molecular pathways that may be targeted with current available drugs. The experience with these drugs comes mainly from infections caused by SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, in vitro studies with SARS-CoV-2 that yield variable results, and clinical experience that does not ensure effectiveness and safety of such drugs. To date, it has not been possible to elucidate a specific treatment scheme, because of the constant release of evidence that challenges the usefulness of the proposed drugs. This has motived us to continue seeking for an effective strategy that allows to manage this pandemic in a safe and efficient manner, so that therapeutic benefit surpasses the related adverse drug reactions that can occur. The following review aims to showcase the evidence available to date by defining the activity of each drug based on its mechanism of action.

Humans , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plasma , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon-beta/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 781-786, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887482


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of long-term moxa smoke exposure of different concentrations on olfactory function in rats, and provide experimental basis of safety study of moxa smoke produced by moxibustion.@*METHODS@#Forty SD rats were randomly divided into a normal control group, a low-concentration moxa smoke group, a moderate-concentration moxa smoke group and a high-concentration moxa smoke group, 10 rats in each one. The rats in the moxa smoke groups were put into three plexiglass moxibustion boxes with different moxa smoke concentrations, 4 hours per times, twice a day for 90 days. The general state of rats was evaluated before and during the experiment. After the intervention, the olfactory function was evaluated by two-bottle experiment (TBE); the morphology of nasal mucosa was observed by HE staining; the apoptosis of olfactory epithelial cells in nasal mucosa was detected by TUNEL method; the serum levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected by ELISA method.@*RESULTS@#In the late stage of moxa smoke exposure (45-90 days into intervention), the behavioral activity of rats in the moderate-concentration moxa smoke group and the high-concentration moxa smoke group was weaker than that in the normal control group, and their response to stimulation was strong, and their mental state was worse. After intervention, the drinking rate of vinegar-water mixture in the moderate-concentration moxa smoke group and the high-concentration moxa smoke group was higher than that in the normal control group and the low-concentration moxa smoke group (@*CONCLUSION@#The long-term exposure to low, moderate and high concentrations of moxa smoke could cause pathological changes in nasal mucosa and increase the serum levels of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α; the moderate and high concentrations of moxa smoke exposure could cause a series of damage to olfactory function and reduce olfactory sensitivity in rats.

Animals , Rats , Interleukin-1 , Interleukin-6 , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Smoke/adverse effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Ciencia Tecnología y Salud ; 8(2): 166-183, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1353093


El cáncer gástrico (CG) es la neoplasia del tubo digestivo más prevalente en el mundo, asociada a factores genéticos del hospedero y externos, como infección por Helicobacter pylori. La patogénesis incluye inflamación crónica mediada por citocinas del microambiente tumoral, detectables sistémicamente. Estudios previos reportan niveles séricos de citocinas y su contribución al diagnóstico de CG. El presente estudio analiza el perfil de citocinas del tipo de Th1(IFNγ), Th2(IL-4 e IL-10), Th17(Th-17A) y otras pro inflamatorias: IL-1ß, IL-6 y TNF-α, en plasma de 70 casos de pacientes con CG comparándolos con 132 sujetos sanos equiparables en edad y sexo. Los casos provinieron del Hospital Roosevelt e Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de Guatemala (Incan) y formaron parte de un estudio previo. Se analizó la base de datos clínicos, patológicos y epidemiológicos. Se midieron los niveles de citocinas utilizando el sistema "MSD MULTI-SPOT Assay System". La edad promedio de los casos fue 59.5 años, (DE 13.0), 51%, eran positivos para IgG anti H. pylori. Un 71% presentó adenocarcinoma grado III (Borrman), según clasificación de Lauren 55% tenían tipo intestinal. Las siete citocinas cuantificadas se encontraron significativamente elevadas (p < .05) en el plasma de los casos respecto a sus controles. Los casos de CG tipo difuso presentaron niveles de IFNγ significativa-mente elevados. Por regresión logística, las citocinas IL-6 e IL-10, están asociadas significativamente a CG (p < .05) independientemente del estatus de infección por H. pylori. Se destacan la IL-6 e IL-10 como las principales citocinas asociadas a la presencia de CG.

Gastric cancer (GC) is the most prevalent gastrointestinal neoplasm in the world, associated with host and external genetic factors, such as Helicobacter pylori infection. The pathogenesis includes chronic inflammation mediated by cytokines of the tumor microenvironment, systemically detectable. Previous studies report serum levels of cyto-kines and their contribution to the diagnosis of GC. The present study analyzes the profile of cytokines of the type Th1 (IFNγ), Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10), Th17 (Th-17A) and other pro-inflammatory: IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α, in plasma of 70 cases of patients with GC compared with 132 healthy subjects comparable in age and sex. The cases came from the Roosevelt Hospital and the National Cancer Institute of Guatemala -Incan- and were part of a previous study. The clinical, pathological and epidemiological databases were analyzed. Cytokine levels were measured using the "MSD MULTI-SPOT Assay System". The average age of the cases was 59.5 years, (SD 13.0), 51% were positive for IgG anti H. pylori, 71% had grade III adenocarcinoma (Borrman), according to Laurenís classification, 55% had intestinal type. The seven cytokines quantified were found to be significantly elevated (p < .05) in the plasma of the cases compared to their controls. The diffuse GC cases presented significantly elevated IFNγ levels. By logistic regression, the cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 are significantly associated with GC (p < .05) regardless of the H. pylori infection status. IL-6 and IL-10 stand out as the main cytokines associated with the presence of GC.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Plasma/chemistry , Stomach Neoplasms/complications , Cytokines/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Interleukin-1/analysis , Interleukin-10/analysis , Th2 Cells , Th17 Cells , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Th1 Cells , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment , Neoplasms/complications
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1250442


ABSTRACT Objective: To reconnoiter the IL-1A (-889) and IL-1RN (+2018) gene polymorphisms and their association with EARR. Material and Methods: The Science Direct, PubMed and Scopus databases were comprehensively searched by two independent reviewers. In addition, the bibliographies of all relevant publications and textbooks were searched manually. A meta-analysis was performed using data available up to May 9, 2020. Results: A total of 13 and 9 publications were selected for the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively for both IL-1A and IL-1RN genes. Odds ratio (OR) was used to evaluate the association of the gene polymorphism and the risk of EARR. The risk of EARR was estimated using the overall OR from the published studies. No association was found for IL-1A gene for the risk of EARR. However, the dominant and co-dominant models of IL-1RN gene polymorphism were associated with the risk of EARR. Conclusion: More studies are warranted to determine the relationship between IL-1A and IL-1RN gene polymorphisms and EARR for a clearer understanding of their interactions.

Orthodontics , Polymorphism, Genetic/immunology , Root Resorption , Genetic Heterogeneity , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Odds Ratio , Prospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Interleukin-1 , Malaysia
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 4(3): 325-331, jul.set.2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1382003


A deficiência de mevalonato quinase (MVK; MIM #142680; ORPHA #343) é uma doença genética, espectral, rara, associadas a mutações ao longo do gene MVK causando distúrbios na síntese do colesterol, que culminam em: inflamação sistêmica com febre, adenopatia, sintomas abdominais e outros achados clínicos. Enquanto no polo leve da doença os achados mais comuns são febres recorrentes com linfadenopatia, no polo mais grave adiciona-se o acometimento do sistema nervoso central (meningites assépticas, vasculites e atraso do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor) e do sistema hematopoiético (síndrome de ativação macrofágica). Apesar de inúmeras terapêuticas, os bloqueadores da interleucina-1 ainda são os únicos medicamentos capazes de controlar a doença e de impedir a evolução para amiloidose. Os estudos atuais visam tentar novos tratamentos, como o transplante de células-tronco hematopoiéticas, ou mesmo a terapia gênica.

Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MVK; MIM #142680; ORPHA #343) is a rare spectral genetic disorder linked to mutations along the MVK gene leading to impaired cholesterol synthesis, clinically observed as systemic inflammation with fever, adenopathy, abdominal manifestations, and other clinical findings. While on mild forms recurrent fever with lymphadenopathy is commonly observed, severe forms add to that neurological (aseptic meningitis, vasculitis, and neuropsychomotor developmental delay) and hematopoietic involvement (macrophage activation syndrome). Despite of several therapeutic approaches, blocking interleukin-1 is the only effective method to control the disease and prevent the development of systemic amyloidosis. Ongoing studies aim to test new treatments, such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy.

Humans , Immunoglobulin D , Homeopathic Therapeutic Approaches , Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency , Signs and Symptoms , Therapeutics , Vasculitis , Genetic Therapy , Central Nervous System , Interleukin-1 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , PubMed , Fever , Lymphadenopathy , Hematopoietic System , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Amyloidosis , Inflammation , Meningitis, Aseptic
Brasília; s.n; 27 abr. 2020. 15 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1097410


Essa é uma produção do Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia (Decit) da Secretaria de Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação e Insumos Estratégicos em Saúde (SCTIE) do Ministério da Saúde (Decit/SCTIE/MS), que tem como missão promover a ciência e tecnologia e o uso de evidências científicas para a tomada de decisão do SUS, tendo como principal atribuição o incentivo ao desenvolvimento de pesquisas em saúde no Brasil, de modo a direcionar os investimentos realizados em pesquisa pelo Governo Federal às necessidades de saúde pública. Informar sobre as principais evidências científicas descritas na literatura internacional sobre tratamento farmacológico para a COVID-19. Além de resumir cada estudo identificado, o informe apresenta também uma avaliação da qualidade metodológica e a quantidade de artigos publicados, de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, entre outros). Foram encontrados 9 artigos.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/therapeutic use , Interleukin-1/therapeutic use , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Obesity Management/organization & administration , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(3): 181-187, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135607


We aimed to determine the concentration of MMP-2 and IL-1ß in the aqueous humor of dogs with healthy eyes (n=8) and in those with mature (n=8) and hyper mature cataracts (n=8). Correlations between cytokines, cytokines, and intraocular pressure (IOP), as well as cytokines with ages of patients of each group, were also assessed. In patients with cataract, aqueous humor was collected at the end of the electroretinographic procedure. In healthy dogs, aqueous humor was collected before elective surgeries. Cytokine levels were determined using ELISA. IOP was assessed by applanation tonometry. IOP of patients with mature and hyper mature cataracts were lower than the ones measured in normal eyes (P=0.158). MMP-2 aqueous humor concentration was higher in patients with hyper mature cataracts, in comparisons with healthy patients (P=0.04). Average IL-1 ß aqueous concentration was higher in patients with cataracts (P<0.0001). Significant higher values of IL-1 ß were observed in patients with hyper mature, than in the ones with mature cataracts (P=0.0085). Correlations between MMP-2 and IL-1 ß (r=-0.38, P=0.06), MMP-2 and IOP (r=-0.149, P=0.484), and IL-1 ß and the ages of patients were not observed (P>0.05). IL-1 ß and IOP correlated negatively (r=-0.42, P=0.04). MMP-2 and the ages of patients correlated only in dogs with mature cataracts (r=0.772, P=0.02). It can be concluded that the increment in the aqueous humor concentration of IL-1 ß found in dogs with mature and hyper mature cataracts, in addition to the negative relationship of this cytokine with IOP, suggests that IL-1 ß is involved in the pathogenesis of LIU. Despite dogs with hypermature cataracts presented significant higher concentrations of MMP-2 in the aqueous humor, such cytokine did not correlate with IL-1 ß and IOP. In our study, a relationship between aqueous humor cytokines and the ages of patients was only confirmed between MMP-2 and the ages of dogs with mature cataracts.(AU)

Objetivou-se determinar as concentrações da metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) e de interleucina-1 ß (IL-1 ß) em cães com olhos saudáveis (n=8) e naqueles com catarata madura (n=8) e hipermatura (n=8). Correlações entre ambas as citocinas, entre as citocinas e a pressão intraocular (PIO), assim como entre as citocinas e a idade dos pacientes dentro de cada grupo foram averiguadas. Nos pacientes com catarata, o humor aquoso foi colhido ao final da eletrorretinografia. Nos cães saudáveis, o humor aquoso foi colhido antes do início de cirurgias eletivas. Os níveis das citocinas foram determinados por ELISA e a PIO por tonometria de aplanação. A PIO dos pacientes com catarata madura e hipermadura foram mais baixas que aquelas dos pacientes controle (P=0.158). A concentração de MMP-2 no humor aquoso foi maior nos pacientes com catarata hipermtura, comparativamente aos pacientes saudáveis (P=0.04). A concentração de IL-1 ß no humor aquoso foi mais elevada nos cães com catarata (P<0.0001). Nos pacientes com catarata hipermatura, os valores de IL-1 ß foram significativamente mais altos que aqueles dosados nos pacientes com catarata madura (P=0.0085). Correlações entre MMP-2 e IL-1 ß (r=-0.38, P=0.06), MMP-2 e PIO (r=-0.149, P=0.484) e IL-1 ß e as idades dos pacientes não foram observadas (P>0.05). A IL-1 ß se correlacionou negativamente com a PIO (r=-0.42, P=0.04). Correlação entre MMP-2 e a idades dos pacientes foi observada apenas nos cães com catarata madura (r=0.772, P=0.02). Conclui-se que o aumento na concentração de IL-1 ß no humor aquoso de cães com catarata madura e hipermatura, associado à correlação negativa entre essa citocina e a PIO, sugerem que a mesma está envolvida na patogênese da uveíte induzida pela lente. Apesar dos cães com catarata hipermadura apresentarem concentrações significativamente maiores de MMP-2 no humor aquoso, essa citocina não se correlacionou com a IL-1 ß e a PIO. Em nosso estudo, correlação entre as citocinas dosadas no humor aquoso e a idade dos pacientes foi confirmada apenas entre MMP-2 e a idade dos cães com catarata madura.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Uveitis/veterinary , Cataract/veterinary , Interleukin-1/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/analysis , Intraocular Pressure
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 83-90, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056402


We sought to determine whether the combined polyphenolic compounds, resveratrol and quercetin can substantially protect against modulation of hepatic biomarkers of apoptosis and survival, p53-Bax axis and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in an animal model of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury via the association of oxidative stress and interleukin-11 (IL-11). The model group of rats received a single dose of acetaminophen (2 g/kg), whereas the protective group of rats was pre-treated for 7 days with combined doses of resveratrol (30 mg/kg) and quercetin (50 mg/kg) before being given a single dose of acetaminophen. All rats were then sacrificed 24 hours post acetaminophen ingestion. Acetaminophen overdose induced acute liver injury as demonstrated by profound liver parenchymal damage and increased levels of the liver injury enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Acetaminophen significantly (p<0.05) modulated malondialdehyde (MDA), p53, apoptosis regulator Bax, Bcl-2, IL-11, interleukin-6 (IL-6), ALT, AST, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which were significantly protected by resveratrol plus quercetin. We further demonstrated a significant (p<0.01) correlation between IL-11 scoring and the levels of p53, Bax, Bcl-2, and MDA. Thus, resveratrol plus quercetin effectively protect against acetaminophen-induced apoptosis, which is associated with the inhibition of oxidative stress and IL-11.

En el estudio se intentó determinar si los compuestos polifenólicos combinados, el resveratrol y la quercetina pueden proteger sustancialmente contra la modulación de los biomarcadores hepáticos de apoptosis y supervivencia, el eje p53-Bax y el linfoma de células B 2 (Bcl-2) en un modelo animal de lesión hepática aguda inducida por acetaminofén, a través de la asociación del estrés oxidativo y la interleucina-11 (IL-11). El grupo modelo de ratas recibió una dosis única de acetaminofén (2 g / kg), mientras que el grupo protector de ratas fue tratado durante 7 días con dosis combinadas de resveratrol (30 mg / kg) y quercetina (50 mg / kg) antes de recibir una dosis única de acetaminofén. Todas los animales fueron sacrificados 24 horas después de la ingestión de acetaminofén. La sobredosis de acetaminofén indujo una lesión hepática aguda, como se observó en el daño profundo del parénquima hepático y el aumento de los niveles de las enzimas en la lesión hepática, alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST). Acetaminofén moduló significativamente (p <0.05) malondialdehído (MDA), p53, regulador de apoptosis Bax, Bcl2, IL-11, interleucina-6 (IL-6), ALT, AST, superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y glutatión peroxidasa ( GPx), los que se encontraron significativamente protegidos por el resveratrol y quercetina. Además se determinó una correlación significativa (p <0.01) entre la puntuación de IL-11 y los niveles de p53, Bax, Bcl-2 y MDA. En conclusión, el resveratrol más la quercetina protegen de manera efectiva contra la apoptosis inducida por acetaminofén, asociada con la inhibición del estrés oxidativo y la IL-11.

Animals , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Apoptosis/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/pathology , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Quercetin/pharmacology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Biomarkers , Interleukin-1 , Oxidative Stress , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/enzymology , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135504


Abstract Objective: To compare the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during early leveling stage of orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: This study was carried out on 20 orthodontic patients, including 10 teenagers and 10 adults. Before bonding, GCF was collected with a paper strip in gingival sulcus of maxillary right central incisor on the disto labial aspect for 60 seconds, followed by bonding and insertion of initial 14 NiTi archwire. GCF collection was repeated 24 hours, 7 days, and 28 days after bonding. Measurement of TNF-α and IL-1β levels was done utilizing Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed in SPSS using repeated measurement test. Results: Concentration of TNF-α and IL-1β increased after treatment. There was no significant relationship between TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations subsequent to bonding in comparison to the baseline. There was no significant relationship in TNF-α and IL-1β level changes in the two age groups and between males and females. Conclusion: Concentration of TNF-α and IL-1β increased after treatment. Age and sex had no statically significant effect on the concentration of TNF-α and IL-1β.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Orthodontics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gingival Crevicular Fluid , Adolescent , Interleukin-1 , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Iran/epidemiology
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(2): 236-250, 2020. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1348233


El cáncer gástrico (CG) es un problema prevalente a nivel mundial, presentándose aproximadamente 18 millones de casos nuevos en el año 2018, representa el 5.7% del total de cánceres, siendo la quinta neoplasia maligna más común en el mundo. En Guatemala se sitúa entre los primeros cinco cánceres respecto a morbilidad y mor-talidad. El CG se ha asociado de manera contundente a infección por Helicobacter pylori el cual desencadena un proceso inflamatorio crónico; adicionalmente algunas cepas de H. pylori producen toxinas bacterianas capaces de inducir cambios celulares que conllevan al desarrollo del proceso neoplásico. La alta mortalidad por CG en parte, se relaciona con la etapa tardía en la que se diagnostica ya que se requiere el uso de métodos invasivos, lo que dificulta su detección temprana. El objetivo de la presente revisión, fue realizar una narrativa de los estudios y las evidencias científicas, respecto de la identificación de biomarcadores séricos en la detección temprana del cáncer gástrico. Se revisaron dos tipos de biomarcadores, la proteína soluble uPAR (suPAR) que es el receptor del activador del plasminógeno (uroquinasa) y promotora de angiogénesis y por otro lado, la detección sérica de las citocinas IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα, IL-10, IFNγ, IL-4 e IL-17 en el CG así como su potencial utilidad en su detección temprana. Estos biomarcadores fueron seleccionados por la ventaja que tendrían de ser métodos no invasivos que podrían mejorar la detección, tratamiento y pronóstico de esta enfermedad.

Gastric cancer (GC) is a prevalent problem worldwide, presenting approximately 18 million new cases in 2018, representing 5.7% of all cancers, being the fifth most common malignancy in the world. In Guatemala it is among the first five cancers in terms of morbidity and mortality. CG has been strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, which triggers a chronic inflammatory process; additionally, some strains of H. pylori produce bacterial toxins capable of inducing cellular changes that lead to the development of cancer. The high mortality due to GC in part is related to the late stage in which it is diagnosed since the use of invasive methods is required, making it difficult to detect it early. The objective of this review was to make a narrative of the studies carried out and the scientific evidence regarding the identification of serum biomarkers in the early detection of gastric cancer. Two types of biomarkers were reviewed, the soluble protein uPAR (suPAR) which is the receptor for plasminogen activator (urokinase) and promoter of angiogenesis and, on the other hand, serum detection of cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα, IL-10, IFNγ, IL-4 and IL-17 in the CG as well as its potential usefulness in its early detection. These biomarkers were selected for the advantage they would have of being non-invasive methods that could improve the detection, treatment and prognosis of this disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Biomarkers , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Stomach Neoplasms/mortality , Mortality , Helicobacter pylori , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-1 , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-17
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18586, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132054


Vanadyl sulfate (VS) is an ingredient in some food supplements and experimental drugs. This study was designed to assay the effects of VS on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in renal tissue of rats with diabetes type 2. 30 male Wistar rats were divided into three equal groups as follow: non-diabetics, non-treated diabetics and VS-treated diabetics. Diabetes type 2 has been induced through high fat diet and fructose in the animals. Diabetic rats were treated with 25 mg/kgBW of VS in water for 12 weeks. At the end of study, glucose and insulin were measured using commercially available kits in serum and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in renal homogenates of animals were measured by related methods. Compared to controls, glucose and insulin were increased significantly in non-treated diabetic rats (p-value <0.05) that showed the induction of diabetes type 2 in rats. The results showed that in VS-treated diabetic rats compared to the non-treated diabetic group, vanadyl sulfate significantly reduced the glucose and insulin secretion and changed renal inflammatory and oxidative markers, except protein carbonyl so that we couldn't find any significant changes. Our study showed that vanadyl supplementation had positive effects on oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers in kidney of diabetic rats

Animals , Male , Rats , Sulfates/analysis , Vanadates/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-10/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Insulin Secretion , Insulin/pharmacology
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180734, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132202


Abstract Fibromyalgia (FM) is a nonarticular rheumatic syndrome that leads to diffuse myalgia, sleep disturbances and morning stiffness. Balneotherapy has been shown an effective strategy to improve the health conditions of patients; however, the treatment follow-up is based on patient report due to the lack of biomarkers. Thus, this study evaluated the application of cytokines and phosphoglycerate mutase I (PGAM-I) to monitoring FM patient underwent to balneotherapy treatment. Eleven healthy and eleven women with FM were submitted to daily sessions of balneotherapy during 10 days. Clinical and quality of life parameters were assessed through a FIQ questionnaire. Blood levels of TNF-(, interleukins (IL-1, IL-2 and IL-10) and PGAM-I expression in patients' saliva were also evaluated. Patients with FM showed significant improvements in their clinical status after treatment. Also, FM patients has IL-10 levels lower than healthy women and the balneotherapy increased the expression of this cytokine in both groups, concomitantly to pain relief. Although inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-2 and TNF-() were more expressed in FM patients than healthy patients their levels did not reduce after treatment. A slight increase of PGAM-I expression was observed. In conclusion, IL-10 levels could be a useful biomarker to balneotherapy follow-up of FM patients. However, these findings must be analyzed in a larger number of patients in order to validate IL-10 as an effective biomarker.

Humans , Female , Biomarkers , Fibromyalgia/diagnosis , Interleukin-10/blood , Quality of Life , Saliva , Balneology , Fibromyalgia/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Interleukin-1/blood , Interleukin-2/blood , Phosphoglycerate Mutase/blood
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(3): 268-271, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023051


Os estudos com estatinas envolvendo desfechos clínicos mostraram que, mesmo atingindo as metas lipídicas, os pacientes que persistem com níveis aumentados de proteína C-reativa, têm maior risco de eventos cardiovasculares. A doença aterosclerótica das coronárias também apresentou maior regressão nos estudos com estatinas, quando ocorreu além de redução efetiva de LDL-colesterol, redução da proteína-C reativa. Nos últimos anos, dois importantes estudos com terapias anti-inflamatórias mostraram resultados divergentes. O estudo CANTOS, com o anticorpo monoclonal canaquinumabe, mostrou redução do eventocombinado de morte cardiovascular, infarto ou acidente vascular cerebral não fatais, e a magnitude do benefício foi associada ao grau de diminuição de marcadores inflamatórios, como proteína C-reativa ou interleucina 6. No estudo CIRT, os pacientes que receberam o anti-inflamatório metotrexato não tiveram redução de desfechos cardiovasculares, mas tampouco tiveram redução dos mencionados marcadores inflamatórios. Esses resultados, em conjunto, sugerem que o bloqueio específico de uma via inflamatória, como a citocina, pode ser mais relevante do que efeito anti-inflamatório per se e revela um caminho para diminuição do risco inflamatório residual

Studies with statins involving clinical endpoints have shown that, in spite of achieving lipid goals, patients with high levels of C-reactive protein are at higher risk for cardiovascular events. Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease has also presented greater regression in studies with statins when, in addition to an effective reduction in LDL cholesterol, a reduction in C-reactive protein was achieved. In recent years, two important studies involving anti-inflammatory therapies reported divergent results. The CANTOS study, with the human monoclonal antibody canakinumab, showed a decrease in combined cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke events and the magnitude of that benefit was associated with the degree of reduction in the inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. In the CIRT study, patients who received the anti-inflammatory methotrexate did not have a decrease in cardiovascular outcomes, but neither was there a reduction in the inflammatory markers mentioned. Taken together, these results suggest that the specific blockade of an inflammatory pathway, such as that of cytokine,may be more relevant than the antiinflammatory effect per se and reveal a promising way to reduce the residual inflammatory risk

Humans , Male , Female , Coronary Artery Disease , Evidence-Based Practice , Inflammation , Renin-Angiotensin System , Cardiovascular Diseases , Methotrexate , Risk Factors , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-1 , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Anti-Inflammatory Agents