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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922389

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the expression levels of microRNA-138 (miR-138) and Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) in peripheral blood of children with cough variant asthma (CVA) and their regulatory effects on Th1/Th2 balance.@*METHODS@#Sixty-five children with CVA (CVA group) and 30 healthy children (control group) were enrolled. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected for both groups, and CD4@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the CVA group showed significantly decreased levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 from CD4@*CONCLUSIONS@#MiR-138 regulates Th1/Th2 balance by targeting RUNX3 in children with CVA, providing a new direction for the treatment of CVA.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Child , Core Binding Factor Alpha 3 Subunit/genetics , Cough , Humans , Interleukin-13 , MicroRNAs/genetics , Th1 Cells , Th1-Th2 Balance , Th2 Cells
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811069

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Different characteristics of airway microbiome in asthmatics may lead to differential immune responses, which in turn cause eosinophilic or neutrophilic airway inflammation. However, the relationships among these factors have yet to be fully elucidated.METHODS: Microbes in induced sputum samples were subjected to sequence analysis of 16S rRNA. Airway inflammatory phenotypes were defined as neutrophils (>60%) and eosinophils (>3%), and inflammation endotypes were defined by levels of T helper (Th) 1 (interferon-γ), Th2 (interleukin [IL]-5 and IL-13), Th-17 (IL-17), and innate Th2 (IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin) cytokines, inflammasomes (IL-1β), epithelial activation markers (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-8), and Inflammation (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) cytokines in sputum supernatants was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS: The numbers of operational taxonomic units were significantly higher in the mixed (n = 21) and neutrophilic (n = 23) inflammation groups than in the paucigranulocytic inflammation group (n = 19; p < 0.05). At the species level, Granulicatella adiacens, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Veillonella rogosae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Neisseria perflava levels were significantly higher in the eosinophilic inflammation group (n = 20), whereas JYGU_s levels were significantly higher in the neutrophilic inflammation group compared to the other subtypes (P < 0.05). Additionally, IL-5 and IL-13 concentrations were correlated with the percentage of eosinophils (P < 0.05) and IL-13 levels were positively correlated with the read counts of Porphyromonas pasteri and V. rogosae (P < 0.05). IL-1β concentrations were correlated with the percentage of neutrophils (P < 0.05). had a tendency to be positively correlated with the read count of JYGU_s (P = 0.095), and was negatively correlated with that of S. pneumoniae (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Difference of microbial patterns in airways may induce distinctive endotypes of asthma, which is responsible for the neutrophilic or eosinophilic inflammation in asthma.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Colony-Stimulating Factors , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophils , Haemophilus parainfluenzae , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-33 , Interleukin-5 , Microbiota , Necrosis , Neisseria , Neutrophils , Phenotype , Pneumonia , Porphyromonas , Sequence Analysis , Sputum , Streptococcus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Veillonella
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811060

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Simple and reliable animal models of human diseases contribute to the understanding of disease pathogenesis as well as the development of therapeutic interventions. Although several murine models to mimic human asthma have been established, most of them require anesthesia, resulting in variability among test individuals, and do not mimic asthmatic responses accompanied by T-helper (Th) 17 and neutrophils. As dendritic cells (DCs) are known to play an important role in initiating and maintaining asthmatic inflammation, we developed an asthma model via adoptive transfer of allergen-loaded DCs.METHODS: Ovalbumin (OVA)-loaded bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) (OVA-BMDCs) were injected intravenously 3 times into non-anesthetized C57BL/6 mice after intraperitoneal OVA-sensitization.RESULTS: OVA-BMDC-transferred mice developed severe asthmatic immune responses when compared with mice receiving conventional OVA challenge intranasally. Notably, remarkable increases in systemic immunoglobulin (Ig) E and IgG1 responses, Th2/Th17-associated cytokines (interleukin [IL]-5, IL-13 and IL-17), Th2/Th17-skewed T-cell responses, and cellular components, including eosinophils, neutrophils, and goblet cells, were observed in the lungs of OVA-BMDC-transferred mice. Moreover, the asthmatic immune responses and severity of inflammation were correlated with the number of OVA-BMDCs transferred, indicating that the disease severity and asthma type may be adjusted according to the experimental purpose by this method. Furthermore, this model exhibited less variation among the test individuals than the conventional model. In addition, this DCs-based asthma model was partially resistant to steroid treatment.CONCLUSIONS: A reliable murine model of asthma by intravenous (i.v.) transfer of OVA-BMDCs was successfully established without anesthesia. This model more accurately reflects heterogeneous human asthma, exhibiting a robust Th2/Th17-skewed response and eosinophilic/neutrophilic infiltration with good reproducibility and low variation among individuals. This model will be useful for understanding the pathogenesis of asthma and would serve as an alternative tool for immunological studies on the function of DCs, T-cell responses and new drugs.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Anesthesia , Animals , Asthma , Cytokines , Dendritic Cells , Eosinophils , Goblet Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Interleukin-13 , Lung , Methods , Mice , Models, Animal , Neutrophils , Ovalbumin , Ovum , T-Lymphocytes
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785339

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Osteitis refers to the development of new bone formation and remodeling of bone in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients; it is typically associated with eosinophilia, nasal polyps (NPs), and recalcitrant CRS. However, the roles of ossification in CRS with or without NPs remain unclear due to the lack of appropriate animal models. Thus, it is necessary to have a suitable animal model for greater advances in the understanding of CRS pathogenesis.METHODS: BALB/c mice were administered ovalbumin (OVA) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). The numbers of osteoclasts and osteoblasts and bony changes were assessed. Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) scans were conducted to measure bone thickness. Immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteonectin, interleukin (IL)-13, and RUNX2 downstream gene expression. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed in mucosal tissues from control and CRS patients. The effect of resveratrol was evaluated in terms of osteogenesis in a murine eosinophilic CRS NP model.RESULTS: The histopathologic changes showed markedly thickened bones with significant increase in osteoblast numbers in OVA/SEB-treated mice compared to the phosphate-buffered saline-treated mice. The structural changes in bone on micro-CT were consistent with the histopathological features. The expression of RUNX2 and IL-13 was increased by the administration of OVA/SEB and showed a positive correlation. RUNX2 expression mainly co-localized with osteoblasts. Bioinformatic analysis using human CRS transcriptome revealed that IL-13-induced bony changes via RUNX2. Treatment with resveratrol, a candidate drug against osteitis, diminished the expression of IL-13 and RUNX2, and the number of osteoblasts in OVA/SEB-treated mice.CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we found the histopathological and radiographic evidence of osteogenesis using a previously established murine eosinophilic CRS NP model. This animal model could provide new insights into the pathophysiology of neo-osteogenesis and provide a basis for developing new therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Computational Biology , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit , Enterotoxins , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Interleukin-13 , Interleukins , Mice , Models, Animal , Mucous Membrane , Nasal Polyps , Nose , Osteitis , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis , Osteonectin , Ovalbumin , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sinusitis , Transcription Factors , Transcriptome
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of interleukin (IL) -13 combined with cold stimulation on synthesis and secretion of mucin (MUC) 5AC in human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE and explore the role of transient receptor potential 8 (TRPM8) and anti-apoptotic factor B-cell lymphoblast-2 (Bcl-2) in this process.@*METHODS@#16HBE cells were stimulated with 10 ng/mL IL-13, 1 mmol/L menthol, or both (1 mmol/L menthol was added after 6 days of IL-13 stimulation), and the changes in the expression of MUC5AC, intracellular Ca@*RESULTS@#The mRNA and protein expressions of MUC5AC increased significantly in 16HBE cells following stimulation with IL-13, menthol, and both (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Menthol combined with IL-13 produces a synergistic effect to promote the synthesis and secretion of MUC5AC in 16HBE cells possibly by activating TRPM8 receptor to upregulate the expression of Bcl-2.


Subject(s)
Bronchi , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Humans , Interleukin-13 , Menthol/pharmacology , Mucin 5AC
6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(4): eRC4599, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012009

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Case report of a patient with severe atopic dermatitis who showed a good response to dupilumab. She had already used two immunosuppressive agents, cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil, for the treatment of atopic dermatitis with no proper control of the disease. She had also been taking all measures to control severe cases of the disease: bath and environmental controls, topical potent corticosteroids and emollients. She presented constant pruritus and skin lesions, frequent skin infections e poor quality of life. She also developed depression due to her disease. Recently, dupilumab, a new biological agent, was approved for the treatment of moderate/severe atopic dermatitis in many countries, including Brazil. Dupilumab is a monoclonal antibody with a common alpha chain of interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-13 receptors, two cytokines involved in the Th2 profile immune response that promote atopic inflammation. In a pioneer way in Brazil, the patient initiated the treatment with an attack dose of 600mg subcutaneous of dupilumab and 300mg subcutaneous every other week. Up to now, she has taken four applications, presenting a great improvement of the disease and her quality of life. There were no adverse effects, nor in the injection site nor of other kind. Patient and her family are very satisfied, and the medical team evaluates that the treatment is being well succeed. The case report described here subsidizes the use of dupilumab in the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis refractory to use of immunosuppressive agents.


RESUMO Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com dermatite atópica grave, que mostrou boa resposta ao dupilumabe. Ela já tinha usado dois agentes imunossupressores, a ciclosporina A e o micofenolato de mofetila, para o tratamento da dermatite atópica, sem obter o controle adequado da doença. Ela também vinha fazendo uso de todas as medidas de controle para casos graves da doença: cuidados com o banho, controle ambiental, corticosteroides potentes tópicos e emolientes. Apresentava prurido e lesões cutâneas constantes, infeções de pele frequentes e qualidade de vida ruim. Passou a apresentar depressão devido à sua doença. Recentemente, o dupilumabe, um agente biológico novo, foi aprovado para o tratamento de dermatite atópica moderada a severa em muitos países, incluindo o Brasil. Dupilumabe é um anticorpo monoclonal cujo alvo é a cadeia alfa comum aos receptores da interleucina (IL) 4 e IL-13, duas citocinas envolvidas no perfil de resposta imune Th2, que promove inflamação atópica. De modo pioneiro no Brasil, a paciente iniciou o tratamento, com dose de ataque de 600mg por via subcutânea de dupilumabe e 300mg também por via subcutânea a cada 2 semanas. Até o momento deste relato, ela realizou quatro aplicações, apresentando grande melhora da doença e da qualidade de vida. Não houve efeitos adversos, nem no local da injeção e nem de outro tipo. A paciente e sua família estão muito satisfeitas, e os médicos que a tratam avaliam que a terapia está sendo bem-sucedida. Este relato de caso subsidia o uso de dupilumabe no tratamento da dermatite atópica grave refratária ao uso de imunossupressores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Quality of Life , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Immunosuppression , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-13 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Injections, Subcutaneous
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761748

ABSTRACT

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are key players during an immune response at the mucosal surfaces, such as lung, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. Giardia lamblia is an extracellular protozoan pathogen that inhabits the human small intestine. In this study, ILCs prepared from the lamina propria of mouse small intestine were incubated with G. lamblia trophozoites. Transcriptional changes in G. lamblia-exposed ILCs resulted in identification of activation of several immune pathways. Secretion of interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17F, IL-1β, and interferon-γ was increased, whereas levels of IL-13, IL-5, and IL-22, was maintained or reduced upon exposure to G. lamblia. Goup 3 ILC (ILC3) was found to be dominant amongst the ILCs, and increased significantly upon co-cultivation with G. lamblia trophozoites. Oral inoculation of G. lamblia trophozoites into mice resulted in their presence in the small intestine, of which, the highest number of parasites was detected at the 5 days-post infection. Increased ILC3 was observed amongst the ILC population at the 5 days-post infection. These findings indicate that ILC3 from the lamina propria secretes IL-17 in response to G. lamblia, leading to the intestinal pathology observed in giardiasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gastrointestinal Tract , Giardia lamblia , Giardia , Giardiasis , Humans , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Intestine, Small , Lung , Lymphocytes , Mice , Mucous Membrane , Parasites , Pathology , Skin , Trophozoites
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The extract of Hizikia fusiformis is known to exhibit anticancer, antiatopic and antioxidant activities. We aimed to investigate the extract of H. fusiformis on allergic rhinitis inflammation in a mouse model. METHODS: The 4-week-old BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into four groups: group A, control group (n=9); group B, allergic rhinitis group (n=10); group C (n=10) received 300 mg/kg of H. fusiformis during nasal challenging period; group D (n=10) received 600 mg/kg of H. fusiformis during general sensitization period and 300 mg/kg of H. fusiformis during nasal challenging period. Allergic inflammation was made with ovalbumin (OVA) and alum then challenged intranasally with OVA. H. fusiformis was intraperitoneally administered 3 hours before the OVA administration. Allergic symptom score and the levels of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, OVA-specific IgE antibodies, levels of cytokines in the nasal mucosa and in spleen cell culture supernatant, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, and IL-10 were assessed. The percentage of regulatory T cell was analyzed by flow cytometry. Eosinophilic infiltration and goblet cell hyperplasia were also evaluated. RESULTS: H. fusiformis administered groups C and D showed significant inhibitory effects on nasal symptoms, IL-13 mRNA expression and eosinophil infiltration/goblet cell hyperplasia in the nasal tissue; OVA-specific IgE production in serum (P<0.05). In group D, H. fusiformis treatment downregulated IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokine expression in splenocyte culture as well as significantly decreased IgG2a, IgG1 levels in serum compared with group B (P<0.05). However, the expressions of IL-5, interferon-γ and forkhead box P3 mRNA did not change in groups C and D. CONCLUSION: H. fusiformis could induce antiallergic inflammation by suppressing the T-helper type 2 cytokine production (IL-13) locally and systemically, OVA-specific IgE formation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and eosinophilic infiltration in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Thus, H. fusiformis could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent in treating allergic rhinitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Cell Culture Techniques , Cytokines , Eosinophils , Flow Cytometry , Goblet Cells , Hyperplasia , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Mice , Nasal Mucosa , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Rhinitis, Allergic , RNA, Messenger , Spleen , Th2 Cells , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
9.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 538-544, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported that glucosamine (GlcN) showed therapeutic effects in allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis, and its mechanisms include the suppression of T helper type 2 immune responses and the nuclear factor-κB pathway. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of GlcN on atopic dermatitis (AD) in an animal model. METHODS: Twenty-five BALB/c mice were divided into five groups (groups A~E). Group A was the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated group without AD induction. Group B was the PBS control group with AD induction. Groups C to E were the AD induction groups, which were treated with three different doses of GlcN (10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg, respectively). Histopathological examination was performed after GlcN administration. Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and IL-17 cytokine levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using skin biopsy specimens. Serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentrations were measured before and after administration with GlcN or PBS. RESULTS: Clinical dermatitis scores decreased with increasing GlcN dose (p<0.001). Concentrations of tissue IL-13 and IL-17 decreased after GlcN administration (each group: p=0.002 and p<0.001, respectively), but the concentrations of tissue IL-4 did not show differences across groups. Serum IgE levels tended to be lower after GlcN administration (p=0.004). Histopathological scores were not significantly different among groups B~E (p=0.394). CONCLUSION: GlcN improved AD symptoms and decreased tissue IL-13, IL-17, and serum total IgE levels in an animal model.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , Animals , Anti-Allergic Agents , Asthma , Biopsy , Dermatitis , Dermatitis, Atopic , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Glucosamine , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukins , Mice , Models, Animal , Rhinitis , Skin , Therapeutic Uses
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762160

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a common disorder of the airways characterized by airway inflammation and by decline in lung function and airway remodeling in a subset of asthmatics. Airway remodeling is characterized by structural changes which include airway smooth muscle hypertrophy/hyperplasia, subepithelial fibrosis due to thickening of the reticular basement membrane, mucus metaplasia of the epithelium, and angiogenesis. Epidemiologic studies suggest that both genetic and environmental factors may contribute to decline in lung function and airway remodeling in a subset of asthmatics. Environmental factors include respiratory viral infection-triggered asthma exacerbations, and tobacco smoke. There is also evidence that several asthma candidate genes may contribute to decline in lung function, including ADAM33, PLAUR, VEGF, IL13, CHI3L1, TSLP, GSDMB, TGFB1, POSTN, ESR1 and ARG2. In addition, mediators or cytokines, including cysteinyl leukotrienes, matrix metallopeptidase-9, interleukin-33 and eosinophil expression of transforming growth factor-β, may contribute to airway remodeling in asthma. Although increased airway smooth muscle is associated with reduced lung function (i.e. forced expiratory volume in 1 second) in asthma, there have been few long-term studies to determine how individual pathologic features of airway remodeling contribute to decline in lung function in asthma. Clinical studies with inhibitors of individual gene products, cytokines or mediators are needed in asthmatic patients to identify their individual role in decline in lung function and/or airway remodeling.


Subject(s)
Airway Remodeling , Asthma , Basement Membrane , Cytokines , Eosinophils , Epidemiologic Studies , Epithelium , Fibrosis , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-33 , Leukotrienes , Lung , Metaplasia , Mucus , Muscle, Smooth , Respiratory Function Tests , Smoke , Tobacco , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758930

ABSTRACT

The major immunogenic protein capsid (Cap) of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is critical to induce neutralizing antibodies and protective immune response against PCV2 infection. This study was conducted to investigate the immune response of recombinant adenovirus expressing PCV2b Cap and C-terminal domain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin (Cap-InvC) fusion protein in pigs. The recombinant adenovirus rAd-Cap-InvC, rAd-Cap and rAd were generated and used to immunize pigs. The phosphate-buffered saline was used as negative control. The specific antibodies levels in rAd-Cap-InvC and ZJ/C-strain vaccine groups were higher than that of rAd-Cap group (p < 0.05), and the neutralization antibody titer in rAd-Cap-InvC group was significantly higher than those of other groups during 21–42 days post-immunization (DPI). Moreover, lymphocyte proliferative level, interferon-γ and interleukin-13 levels in rAd-Cap-InvC group were increased compared to rAd-Cap group (p < 0.05). After virulent challenge, viruses were not detected from the blood samples in rAd-Cap-InvC and ZJ/C-strain vaccine groups after 49 DPI. And the respiratory symptom, rectal temperature, lung lesion and lymph node lesion were minimal and similar in the ZJ/C-strain and rAd-Cap-InVC groups. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that rAd-Cap-InvC was more efficiently to stimulate the production of antibody and protect pigs from PCV2 infection. We inferred that InvC is a good candidate gene for further development and application of PCV2 genetic engineering vaccine.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Adenovirus Vaccines , Antibodies , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Capsid , Capsid Proteins , Circovirus , Genetic Engineering , Immunization , Interleukin-13 , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Lymphocytes , Swine , Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 607-614, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the inflammatory process has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorder, an important issue emerging is to assess the test-retest reliability of cytokine measurement in healthy individuals and patients with schizophrenia. The objective of the present study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of bead-based multiplex immunoassay technology (BMIT) for cytokine measurement by using a Bland-Altman plot (BAP). METHODS: Twenty healthy individuals and twenty patients with schizophrenia were enrolled, and a 17-plex cytokine assay was used to measure inflammatory biomarkers at baseline and two weeks later. The test-retest reliability was examined by BAP, 95% limits of agreement (LOA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and coefficient of repeatability (CoR). RESULTS: In the healthy controls, only interleukin (IL)-2, IL-13, IL-10, IL-17, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β showed excellent ICC. The BAP with 95% LOA determined that 13 cytokines showed acceptable 95% LOA for a 2-week test-retest reliability, and only IL-1β, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α had significant test-retest bias. The CoR of cytokines varied significantly, ranging from 1.72 to 218.1. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia showed significantly higher levels of IL-5, IL-13, and TNF-α and significantly lower levels of IL-4, IL-12, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Of these six cytokines, IL-12 and TNF-α were considered suboptimal reliability. CONCLUSION: The findings from ICC and CoR implied that the test-retest reliability of BMIT for cytokine measurement were suboptimal. However, the BAP with 95% LOA confirmed that BMIT can reliably distinguish schizophrenia from healthy individuals in cytokine measurement, while significant within-subject variation and between-group overlapping were evident in cytokine expression.


Subject(s)
Bias , Biomarkers , Cytokines , Humans , Immunoassay , Inflammation , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Loa , Macrophages , Reproducibility of Results , Schizophrenia , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739395

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vitamin D is a potent immunomodulator. However, its role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis is unclear. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiallergic effect of intranasally applied vitamin D in an allergic rhinitis mouse model. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and alum before they were intranasally challenged with OVA. Then, they were intranasally administered 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (0.02 μg) or solvent. Allergic symptom scores, eosinophil infiltration, cytokine mRNA levels (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and interferon-γ) in the nasal tissue, and serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a were analyzed and compared with negative and positive control groups. Cervical lymph nodes (LNs) were harvested for flow cytometry analysis and cell proliferation assay. RESULTS: In the treatment group, allergic symptom scores, eosinophil infiltration, and mRNA levels of IL-4 and IL-13 were significantly lower in the nasal tissue than in the positive control group. The IL-5 mRNA level, serum total IgE, and OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels decreased in the treatment group; however, the difference was not significant. In the cervical LNs, CD86 expression had been down-regulated in CD11c+major histocompatibility complex II-high (MHCIIhigh) in the treatment group. Additionally, IL-4 secretion in the lymphocyte culture from cervical LNs significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the antiallergic effect of intranasal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. It decreases CD 86 expression among CD11c+MHCIIhigh cells and T-helper type 2-mediated inflammation in the cervical LNs. Therefore, topically applied 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 can be a future therapeutic agent for allergic rhinitis.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Anti-Allergic Agents , Calcitriol , Cell Proliferation , Dendritic Cells , Eosinophils , Flow Cytometry , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Lymph Nodes , Lymphocytes , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Mice , Models, Animal , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Rhinitis, Allergic , RNA, Messenger , Vitamin D
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efficacy and safety of tiotropium bromide, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, in treatment of asthma have been reported. However, its effect on airway remodeling in chronic asthma of the elderly has not been clearly verified. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of tiotropium and expression of muscarinic receptors as its related mechanism in an aged mouse model of chronic asthma with airway remodeling. METHODS: BALB/c female mice age 6 weeks, 9 and 15 months were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) for three months. Tiotropium bromide was administered during the challenge period. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and pulmonary inflammation were measured. Parameters of airway remodeling, and expression levels of M2 and M3 receptors were examined. RESULTS: Total cell with eosinophils, increased in the OVA groups by age, was decreased significantly after treatment with tiotropium bromide, particularly in the age group of 15 months. AHR and levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were decreased, after tiotropium administration. In old aged group of 9- and 15-months-treated groups, hydroxyproline contents and levels of α-smooth muscle actin were attenuated. Tiotropium enhanced the expression of M2 but decreased expression of M3 in all aged groups of OVA. CONCLUSION: Tiotropium bromide had anti-inflammatory and anti-remodeling effects in an aged mouse model of chronic asthma. Its effects seemed to be partly mediated by modulating expression M3 and M2 muscarinic receptors. Tiotropium may be a beneficial treatment option for the elderly with airway remodeling of chronic asthma.


Subject(s)
Actins , Aged , Airway Remodeling , Animals , Asthma , Eosinophils , Female , Humans , Hydroxyproline , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Mice , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Pneumonia , Receptors, Muscarinic , Tiotropium Bromide
15.
Immune Network ; : 42-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785819

ABSTRACT

There have been few studies investigating the association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and prenatal exposure to heavy metals. We aimed to evaluate whether prenatal exposure to heavy metals is associated with the development or severity of AD in a birth cohort study. A total of 331 subjects were followed from birth for a median duration of 60.0 months. The presence and severity of AD were evaluated at ages 6 and 12 months, and regularly once a year thereafter. The concentrations of lead, mercury, chromium, and cadmium in umbilical cord blood were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) were isolated and stimulated for analysis of cytokine production using ELISA. Heavy metal levels in cord blood were not associated with the development of AD until 24 months of age. However, a positive correlation was observed between the duration of AD and lead levels in cord blood (p=0.002). AD severity was also positively associated with chromium concentrations in cord blood (p=0.037), while cord blood levels of lead, mercury, and cadmium were not significantly associated with AD severity (p=0.562, p=0.054, and p=0.055, respectively). Interleukin-13 production in CBMCs was positively related with lead and chromium levels in cord blood (p=0.021 and p=0.015, respectively). Prenatal exposure to lead and chromium is associated with the persistence and severity of AD, and the immune reaction toward a Th2 polarization.


Subject(s)
Cacao , Cadmium , Chromium , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fetal Blood , Interleukin-13 , Mass Spectrometry , Metals, Heavy , Parturition , Plasma , Umbilical Cord
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775092

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To examine the levels of airway inflammatory mediators in peripheral blood in infants and young children with wheezing and to study the possible pathogenesis of wheezing from the aspects of T helper cell 1 (Th1)/T helper cell 2 (Th2) imbalance and airway inflammation.@*METHODS@#A total of 50 children aged 1 month to 3 years with an acute wheezing episode were enrolled as the wheezing group, and 25 age-matched healthy infants were enrolled as the healthy control group. According to the number of wheezing episodes, the wheezing group was divided into a first-episode group (n=25) and a recurrent wheezing (number of episodes ≥2) group (n=25). According to the presence or absence of high-risk factors for asthma, the wheezing group was divided into a high-risk factor group (n=22) and a non-high-risk factor group (n=28). According to the results of pathogen detection, the wheezing group was divided into a positive pathogen group (n=23) and a negative pathogen group (n=27). Levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-13 (IL-13), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and total IgE (TIgE) in peripheral blood were measured for each group. For children with wheezing, eosinophil (EOS) count in peripheral blood was measured, and related samples were collected for respiratory pathogen detection.@*RESULTS@#The wheezing group had significantly higher levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, TGF-β1, and TIgE in peripheral blood than the healthy control group (P0.05). The correlation analysis showed that in children with wheezing, EOS count was positively correlated with IL-4 level (P<0.01), IL-4 level was positively correlated with IL-5 and IL-13 levels (P<0.01), IL-5 level was positively correlated with IL-13 level (P<0.01), and IL-2 level was positively correlated with TGF-β1 level (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Th1/Th2 imbalance with a predominance of Th2 is observed in infants and young children with wheezing. IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, TGF-β1, and IgE are involved in the pathogenesis of wheezing in these children. Airway inflammation is also observed in these children with wheezing, but it is not associated with the number of wheezing episodes, presence or absence of high-risk factors for asthma, or results of pathogen detection.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Inflammation Mediators , Interleukin-13 , Respiratory Sounds , Th1 Cells
17.
Medicina (Bogotá) ; 40(1(120)): 128-129, Ene-Mar, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-910126

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Resiliencia es la habilidad de responder de manera positiva a eventos adversos. Ésta puede ser influenciada por factores como el estrés crónico, la actividad física y afeccio-nes autoinmunes y/o inflamatorias como la esclerosis sistémica (ES) (1). Objetivo: Evaluar un panel de citoquinas y su asociación con resiliencia, severidad de los síntomas y actividad física en pacientes con ES. Métodos: Este fue un estudio exploratorio que incluyó 35 mujeres con ES. Las características clínicas, incluidas la severidad de los síntomas, la actividad física, la resiliencia así como un panel de 15 citoquinas fueron evaluados simultáneamente.


Subject(s)
Scleroderma, Systemic , Cytokines , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-5
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739186

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Podocytes are important architectures that maintain the crucial roles of glomerular filtration barrier functions. Despite this structural importance, however, the mechanisms of the changes in podocytes that can be an important pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) are not clear yet. The aim of this study was to investigate whether apoptosis is induced by interleukin (IL)-13 in cultured human podocytes. METHODS: Human podocytes were treated with different IL-13 doses and apoptotic cells were analyzed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). RESULTS: The IL-13 increased the number of TUNEL-positive cells in a dose-dependent manner at 6 and 18 hours (P<0.05 and P<0.05, respectively). The apoptosis rate was appeared to be increased slightly in the IL-13-stimulated podocytes (8.63%, 13.02%, and 14.46%; 3, 10 and 30 ng/mL, respectively) than in the control cells (7.66%) at 12 hours by FACS assay. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that IL-13 expression may increase podocyte apoptosis. Blocking the IL-13 signal pathway can potentially play an important role in regulating the apoptosis of podocytes.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , Flow Cytometry , Glomerular Filtration Barrier , Humans , Interleukin-13 , Interleukins , Nephrosis, Lipoid , Podocytes , Signal Transduction
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714720

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Molecular mechanisms leading to asthma is still ill-defined. Though the function of microRNAs (miRNAs) in asthma was previously reported, the involvement of miR-155 in important features of this disease remains unknown. The present study was designed to uncover the probable involvement of miR-155-5p in the proliferation and migration of IL-13-induced human bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) and the intrinsic regulatory mechanism. METHODS: The effects of different concentrations of IL-13 on the proliferation and migration of BSMCs as well as the expression of miR-155-5p and its predicted target transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-activated kinase 1/MAP3K7-binding protein 2 (TAB2) were investigated. The effects of miR-155-5p on the proliferation and migration of interleukin (IL)-13-induced BSMCs was determined in vitro using BSMCs transfected with miR-155 mimic/inhibitor and induced by a high concentration of IL-13. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRTPCR) was employed for determining the expression of miR-155-5p and TAB2. Western blotting was applied to analyze the expression of TAB2 at the protein level. Cell proliferation and migration were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Transwell assays, respectively. RESULTS: The proliferation and migration of BSMCs were dose-dependently increased with IL-13 treatment. Contrariwise, IL-13 dose-dependently inhibited the expression of miR-155-5p in BSMCs. Mechanistic studies showed that inhibition of miR-155-5p further promoted the stimulatory effects of IL-13, whereas overexpression of miR-155 significantly inhibited these effects. In silico studies and luciferase reporter assays indicated that TAB2 was a negatively regulated miR-155-5p target. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that miR-155-5p-inhibit the IL-13-induced proliferation and migration of BSMCs by targeting TAB2 and that the IL-13/miR-155/TAB2 pathway could serve as a therapeutic target for pulmonary diseases, especially asthma.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Blotting, Western , Cell Proliferation , Computer Simulation , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-13 , Interleukins , Luciferases , Lung Diseases , MicroRNAs , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Phosphotransferases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transforming Growth Factors
20.
Immune Network ; : e9-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714171

ABSTRACT

Although atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by cytokine production predominantly mediated by T helper (Th) 2 cells, AD pathogenesis also involves innate immune and Th1 cells. To optimize the cytokine milieu required for accurate reproduction of AD-related gene expression profile in vitro, we evaluated the expression pattern of CCL22, CCL17, IL5, IL13, IL33, IL25, TSLP, FLG, and LOR in human lesional AD skin and cytokine-stimulated HaCaT cells. An increase in Th2 mediators (IL5, IL13, CCL22, CCL17, IL25, IL33, and TSLP) and a decrease in genes related to cornified cell envelope (filaggrin and loricrin) were observed in human AD lesions. Innate (tumor necrosis factor-α) and/or Th1/Th2 adaptive cytokines (interferon-γ/IL-4) were required for inducing these inflammatory changes in HaCaT cells, implying that a complex network of innate, Th1, and Th2 cytokines drives AD-like changes. Therefore, stimulation with various combinations of cytokines, beyond Th2 polarization, is necessary when HaCaT cell line is used to study genetic changes implicated in AD pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Cytokines , Dermatitis, Atopic , Gene Expression , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-33 , Interleukin-5 , Keratinocytes , Necrosis , Reproduction , Skin , Th1 Cells , Transcriptome
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