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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 103-112, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010655

ABSTRACT

Neuronomodulation refers to the modulation of neural conduction and synaptic transmission (i.e., the conduction process involved in synaptic transmission) of excitable neurons via changes in the membrane potential in response to chemical substances, from spillover neurotransmitters to paracrine or endocrine hormones circulating in the blood. Neuronomodulation can be direct or indirect, depending on the transduction pathways from the ligand binding site to the ion pore, either on the same molecule, i.e. the ion channel, or through an intermediate step on different molecules. The major players in direct neuronomodulation are ligand-gated or voltage-gated ion channels. The key process of direct neuronomodulation is the binding and chemoactivation of ligand-gated or voltage-gated ion channels, either orthosterically or allosterically, by various ligands. Indirect neuronomodulation involves metabotropic receptor-mediated slow potentials, where steroid hormones, cytokines, and chemokines can implement these actions. Elucidating neuronomodulation is of great significance for understanding the physiological mechanisms of brain function, and the occurrence and treatment of diseases.


Subject(s)
Ligands , Neurons/metabolism , Synaptic Transmission/physiology , Ion Channels/metabolism , Hormones/metabolism
2.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 177-193, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971543

ABSTRACT

Post-amputation pain causes great suffering to amputees, but still no effective drugs are available due to its elusive mechanisms. Our previous clinical studies found that surgical removal or radiofrequency treatment of the neuroma at the axotomized nerve stump effectively relieves the phantom pain afflicting patients after amputation. This indicated an essential role of the residual nerve stump in the formation of chronic post-amputation pain (CPAP). However, the molecular mechanism by which the residual nerve stump or neuroma is involved and regulates CPAP is still a mystery. In this study, we found that nociceptors expressed the mechanosensitive ion channel TMEM63A and macrophages infiltrated into the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons worked synergistically to promote CPAP. Histology and qRT-PCR showed that TMEM63A was mainly expressed in mechanical pain-producing non-peptidergic nociceptors in the DRG, and the expression of TMEM63A increased significantly both in the neuroma from amputated patients and the DRG in a mouse model of tibial nerve transfer (TNT). Behavioral tests showed that the mechanical, heat, and cold sensitivity were not affected in the Tmem63a-/- mice in the naïve state, suggesting the basal pain was not affected. In the inflammatory and post-amputation state, the mechanical allodynia but not the heat hyperalgesia or cold allodynia was significantly decreased in Tmem63a-/- mice. Further study showed that there was severe neuronal injury and macrophage infiltration in the DRG, tibial nerve, residual stump, and the neuroma-like structure of the TNT mouse model, Consistent with this, expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β all increased dramatically in the DRG. Interestingly, the deletion of Tmem63a significantly reduced the macrophage infiltration in the DRG but not in the tibial nerve stump. Furthermore, the ablation of macrophages significantly reduced both the expression of Tmem63a and the mechanical allodynia in the TNT mouse model, indicating an interaction between nociceptors and macrophages, and that these two factors gang up together to regulate the formation of CPAP. This provides a new insight into the mechanisms underlying CPAP and potential drug targets its treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Amputation, Surgical , Chronic Pain/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Ganglia, Spinal/pathology , Hyperalgesia/etiology , Ion Channels/metabolism , Macrophages , Neuroma/pathology
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4029-4045, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008009

ABSTRACT

Mechanosensitive channels (MSCs) are special membrane proteins that can convert mechanical stimulation into electrical or chemical signals. These channels have become potential targets for ultrasonic neuromodulation due to their properties. The good spatial resolution and focusing effect of ultrasound make it theoretically possible to achieve non-invasive whole-brain localization. Therefore, ultrasonic neuromodulation is a promising method for performing physical neuromodulation and treating neurological disorders. To date, only a few ion channels have been reported to be activated by ultrasound, while recent research has identified more channels with mechanosensitive properties. Moreover, the opening process and mechanism of MSCs under ultrasound excitation remain unknown. This review provides an overview on recent research advances and applications in MSCs, including large conductance mechanosensitive channels, transient receptor potential channels, degenerated protein/epithelial sodium channels, two-pore potassium channels, and piezo channels. These findings will facilitate future studies and applications of ultrasonic neuromodulation.


Subject(s)
Ultrasonics , Ion Channels/metabolism
4.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 499-509, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009911

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To construct a prediction model for the prognosis of bladder cancer patients based on the expression of ion channel-related genes (ICRGs).@*METHODS@#ICRGs were obtained from the existing researches. The clinical information and the expression of ICRGs mRNA in breast cancer patients were obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas database. Cox regression analysis, minimum absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression analysis were used to screen breast cancer prognosis related genes, which were verified by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. The risk scoring equation for predicting the prognosis of patients with bladder cancer was constructed, and the patients were divided into high-risk group and low-risk group according to the median risk score. Immune cell infiltration was compared between the two groups. Kaplan-Meier survival curve and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to evaluate the accuracy and clinical application value of the risk scoring equation. The factors related to the prognosis of bladder cancer patients were analyzed by univariate and multivariate Cox regression, and a nomogram for predicting the prognosis of bladder cancer patients was constructed.@*RESULTS@#By comparing the expression levels of ICRGs in bladder cancer tissues and normal bladder tissues, 73 differentially expressed ICRGs were dentified, of which 11 were related to the prognosis of bladder cancer patients. Kaplan-Meier survival curve suggested that the risk score based on these 11 genes was negatively correlated with the prognosis of patients. The area under the ROC curve of the risk score for predicting the prognosis of patients at 1, 3 and 5 year was 0.634, 0.665 and 0.712, respectively. Stratified analysis showed that the ICRGs-based risk score performed well in predicting the prognosis of patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ bladder cancer (P<0.05), while it had a poor value in predicting the prognosis of patients with AJCC stage Ⅰ-Ⅱ (P>0.05). There were significant differences in the infiltration of plasma cells, activated natural killer cells, resting mast cells and M2 macrophages between the high-risk group and the low-risk group. Cox regression analysis showed that risk score, smoking, age and AJCC stage were independently associated with the prognosis of patients with bladder cancer (P<0.05). The nomogram constructed by combining risk score and clinical parameters has high accuracy in predicting the 1, 3 and 5 year overall survival rate of bladder cancer patients.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The study shows the potential value of ICRGs in the prognostic risk assessment of bladder cancer patients. The constructed prognostic nomogram based on ICRGs risk score has high accuracy in predicting the prognosis of bladder cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Prognosis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Urinary Bladder , Ion Channels , Breast Neoplasms
5.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1157-1172, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982467

ABSTRACT

Hv1 is the only voltage-gated proton-selective channel in mammalian cells. It contains a conserved voltage-sensor domain, shared by a large class of voltage-gated ion channels, but lacks a pore domain. Its primary role is to extrude protons from the cytoplasm upon pH reduction and membrane depolarization. The best-known function of Hv1 is the regulation of cytosolic pH and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent production of reactive oxygen species. Accumulating evidence indicates that Hv1 is expressed in nervous systems, in addition to immune cells and others. Here, we summarize the molecular properties, distribution, and physiological functions of Hv1 in the peripheral and central nervous systems. We describe the recently discovered functions of Hv1 in various neurological diseases, including brain or spinal cord injury, ischemic stroke, demyelinating diseases, and pain. We also summarize the current advances in the discovery and application of Hv1-targeted small molecules in neurological diseases. Finally, we discuss the current limitations of our understanding of Hv1 and suggest future research directions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Protons , Ion Channels/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , NADPH Oxidases , Mammals/metabolism
6.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 34(1): 39-48, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1524680

ABSTRACT

The intestine has a very important role in the homeostasis of the internal medium. Bile acids play a regulatory role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Among them, deoxycholic acid, when its luminal concentration increases due to bacterial overgrowth, modifies hydroelectrolytic transport, producing an increase in the volume of water and electrolytes in stools.


El intestino tiene un papel muy importante en la homeostasis del medio interno. Los ácidos biliares cumplen una función reguladora en la digestión y absorción de nutrientes. Entre ellos el ácido deoxicólico, cuando aumenta su concentración luminal por sobrecrecimiento bacteriano, modifica el transporte hidroelectrolítico produciendo aumento del volumen de agua y electrolitos en las deposiciones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Water-Electrolyte Balance , Deoxycholic Acid , Intestines , Sodium/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Homeostasis , Ion Channels
7.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 937-941, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921971

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis of three families with recurrence of non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) but negative result by copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq).@*METHODS@#Amniotic fluid sample and/or abortive tissues of the fetuses were collected and subjected to CNV-seq analysis. Peripheral blood samples of the parents were also taken for trio whole exome sequencing (trio WES).@*RESULTS@#Fetus 1 was found to harbor heterozygous c.976G>T(p.Glu326*) variant of the SOX18 gene in addition with compound heterozygous variants c.844C>T(p.Arg282Trp) and c.9472+1G>A of the RYR1 gene. The three variants were all inherited from its parents and have been associated with the etiology of NIHF. Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) standards and guidelines, the c.976G>T variant of SOX18 gene and c.9472+1G>A of RYR1 gene were predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+PM2+PP3+PP4, PVS1+PM2+PP3), and c.844C>T variant of RYR1 gene to be likely pathogenic (PM1+PM2+PP3). Fetus 2 was found to harbor compound heterozygous variants c.6682C>T(p.Gln2228*) and c.4373_4383del(p.Val1458Alafs*63) of the PIEZO1 gene. Both variants were also inherited from its parents and are associated with the etiology of NIHF. Based on ACMG standards and guidelines, both c.6682C>T and c.4373_4383del variants of PIEZO1 gene were predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+PM2+PP4, PVS1+PM2). Fetus 3 was found to harbor compound heterozygous variants of the TTN gene c.29860G>C(p.Asp9954His) and c.21107A>T(p.Asp7036Val), which were respectively inherited from its parents. Both variants have been strongly associated with the phenotype, though the connection between the etiology of NIHF and variants of the TTN gene remains elusive. Based on ACMG standards and guidelines, the c.29860G>C and c.21107A>T variants of TTN gene were predicted to be likely pathogenic (PM1+PM2+PP3).@*CONCLUSION@#Trio WES can improve the diagnosis rate of NIHF with a negative result by CNV-seq. Considering the urgency of prenatal diagnosis, CNV-seq and trio WES should be carried out at the same time for fetuses with NIHF.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , DNA Copy Number Variations , Genomics , Heterozygote , Hydrops Fetalis/genetics , Ion Channels , SOXF Transcription Factors , United States , Exome Sequencing
8.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20210026, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351023

ABSTRACT

Pain is a common symptom induced during envenomation by spiders and scorpions. Toxins isolated from their venom have become essential tools for studying the functioning and physiopathological role of ion channels, as they modulate their activity. In particular, toxins that induce pain relief effects can serve as a molecular basis for the development of future analgesics in humans. This review provides a summary of the different scorpion and spider toxins that directly interact with pain-related ion channels, with inhibitory or stimulatory effects. Some of these toxins were shown to affect pain modalities in different animal models providing information on the role played by these channels in the pain process. The close interaction of certain gating-modifier toxins with membrane phospholipids close to ion channels is examined along with molecular approaches to improve selectivity, affinity or bioavailability in vivo for therapeutic purposes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pain , Scorpions , Spider Venoms , Models, Animal , Ion Channels , Phospholipids , Analgesics
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 488-498, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827038

ABSTRACT

Primary cilium, widely distributed in mammalian central nervous system, is an important extracellular organelle of cells. The primary cilia contain a variety of ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors and different kinds of kinases, which indicates that primary cilia can detect extracellular signals and transduce them into cells to regulate various cellular and physiological processes. In humans, mutations of genes related to structure and function of primary cilia always cause various monogenetic diseases. Moreover, a series of neuropsychiatric diseases and neurodevelopmental dysplasia are caused by abnormal functions of G-protein coupled receptors, kinases and ion channels in primary cilia. This article reviews recent research progress on the role of primary cilia in related neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Central Nervous System , Cilia , Ion Channels , Nervous System Diseases , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
10.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 628-636, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878385

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism of Piezo1 protein in mediating the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) via the Notch signaling pathway.@*METHODS@#In this study, young permanent teeth extracted from impacted teeth of 8-14-year-
old children from January 1, 2016 to January 1, 2018 in the Department of Orthodontic, Beijing Children's Hospital were selected as cell sources. hPDLSCs were extracted by enzymatic digestion. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of keratin and vimentin, and flow cytometry was used to identify the markers (CD146 and STRO-1) of hPDLSCs. The construction and screening of Piezo1 siRNA gene interference vector and Piezo1 gene overexpression plasmid were completed. Flexcell 4000T mechanical distraction stress instrument was used to construct hPDLSC cell model in vitro. According to the preliminary results, the experiment was divided into five groups: siRNA interference group, overexpression group, blank control group, stretch stress group, and negative control group. Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the expression of Piezo1, Notch1, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteocalcin (OCN), and bone sialoprotein (BSP). Western blot was used to detect the expression of ALP and Runx2. Fluo-3 AM probe was used to detect intracellular calcium content.@*RESULTS@#Vimentin staining of hPDLSCs was positive, and keratin staining was negative. Flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of STRO-1 and CD146, markers of hPDLSC. Empty viral vectors, siRNA-Piezo1 interference sequence, and Piezo1 overexpression vector sequence could be transfected into hPDLSC by lentivirus, and the transfection efficiency was high (approximately 90%). The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that there were significant differences in Piezo1 gene levels among the siRNA interference group, overexpression group, blank control group, stretch stress group, and negative control group (F=9.573, P<0.05). The level of Piezo1 in the overexpression group was significantly higher than that in the siRNA interference group (q=3.893, P<0.05). The level of Piezo1 in the stretch stress group was significantly higher than that in the blank control group (q=2.006, P<0.05). The expression of Notch1 and osteogenic genes ALP, Runx2, OCN, and BSP had the same trend. Western blot results showed that there were significant differences in the expression of ALP in the siRNA interference group, overexpression group, blank control group, stretch stress group, and negative control group (F=11.207, P<0.001). The expression level of ALP in the overexpression group was significantly higher than that in the siRNA interference group (q=2.991, P<0.05). The expression of ALP in the stretch stress group was significantly higher than that in the blank control group (q=3.007, P<0.05). The expression of Runx2 protein showed the same trend. The intracellular calcium fluorescence intensity of the overexpression group was significantly higher than that of the siRNA interference group, and the intracellular calcium fluorescence intensity of the stretch stress group was significantly higher than that of the siRNA interference group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Mechanical stretch stress can promote the expression of Piezo1 protein. Ca2+ is the second messenger, activates the Notch1 signaling pathway and the expression of ALP, Runx2, OCN, and BSP; and promotes the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSC. The siRNA-Piezo1 interfering plasmid can block this process. On the contrary, the overexpression plasmid of Piezo1 can promote the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Alkaline Phosphatase , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Ion Channels , Osteogenesis , Periodontal Ligament , Signal Transduction , Stem Cells
11.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 251-264, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) may be a valuable source for cardiovascular tissue engineering and cell therapy. The aim of this study is to verify angiotensin II and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) as potential cardiomyogenic differentiation inducers of AF-MSCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: AF-MSCs were obtained from amniocentesis samples from second-trimester pregnant women, isolated and characterized by the expression of cell surface markers (CD44, CD90, CD105 positive; CD34 negative) and pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, REX1). Cardiomyogenic differentiation was induced using different concentrations of angiotensin II and TGF-β1. Successful initiation of differentiation was confirmed by alterations in cell morphology, upregulation of cardiac genes-markers NKX2-5, TBX5, GATA4, MYH6, TNNT2, DES and main cardiac ion channels genes (sodium, calcium, potassium) as determined by RT-qPCR. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis revealed the increased expression of Connexin43, the main component of gap junctions, and Nkx2.5, the early cardiac transcription factor. Induced AF-MSCs switched their phenotype towards more energetic and started utilizing oxidative phosphorylation more than glycolysis for energy production as assessed using Agilent Seahorse XF analyzer. The immune analysis of chromatin-modifying enzymes DNMT1, HDAC1/2 and Polycomb repressive complex 1 and 2 (PRC1/2) proteins BMI1, EZH2 and SUZ12 as well as of modified histones H3 and H4 indicated global chromatin remodeling during the induced differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Angiotensin II and TGF-β1 are efficient cardiomyogenic inducers of human AF-MSCs; they initiate alterations at the gene and protein expression, metabolic and epigenetic levels in stem cells leading towards cardiomyocyte-like phenotype formation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Amniocentesis , Amniotic Fluid , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Blotting, Western , Calcium , Cell Differentiation , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Chromatin , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Connexin 43 , Epigenomics , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gap Junctions , Glycolysis , Histones , Ion Channels , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Muscle Cells , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Phenotype , Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 , Pregnant Women , Smegmamorpha , Stem Cells , Tissue Engineering , Transcription Factors , Up-Regulation
12.
International Journal of Oral Biology ; : 71-76, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764049

ABSTRACT

Dentin hypersensitivity is an abrupt intense pain caused by innocuous stimuli to exposed dentinal tubules. Mechanosensitive ion channels have been assessed in dental primary afferent neurons and odontoblasts to explain dentin hypersensitivity. Dentinal fluid dynamics evoked by various stimuli to exposed dentin cause mechanical stress to the structures underlying dentin. This review briefly discusses three hypotheses regarding dentin hypersensitivity and introduces recent findings on mechanosensitive ion channels expressed in the dental sensory system and discusses how the activation of these ion channels is involved in dentin hypersensitivity.


Subject(s)
Dental Physiological Phenomena , Dentin Sensitivity , Dentin , Dentinal Fluid , Hydrodynamics , Ion Channels , Mechanoreceptors , Neurons, Afferent , Odontoblasts , Stress, Mechanical
13.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 265-275, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763018

ABSTRACT

Technological advances of mankind, through the development of electrical and communication technologies, have resulted in the exposure to artificial electromagnetic fields (EMF). Technological growth is expected to continue; as such, the amount of EMF exposure will continue to increase steadily. In particular, the use-time of smart phones, that have become a necessity for modern people, is steadily increasing. Social concerns and interest in the impact on the cranial nervous system are increased when considering the area where the mobile phone is used. However, before discussing possible effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) on the human body, several factors must be investigated about the influence of EMFs at the level of research using in vitro or animal models. Scientific studies on the mechanism of biological effects are also required. It has been found that RF-EMF can induce changes in central nervous system nerve cells, including neuronal cell apoptosis, changes in the function of the nerve myelin and ion channels; furthermore, RF-EMF act as a stress source in living creatures. The possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure have not yet been proven, and there are insufficient data on biological hazards to provide a clear answer to possible health risks. Therefore, it is necessary to study the biological response to RF-EMF in consideration of the comprehensive exposure with regard to the use of various devices by individuals. In this review, we summarize the possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Brain , Cell Phone , Central Nervous System , Electromagnetic Fields , Human Body , In Vitro Techniques , Ion Channels , Magnets , Models, Animal , Myelin Sheath , Nervous System , Neurons , Smartphone
14.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 25-33, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775258

ABSTRACT

Ion channels mediate ion transport across membranes, and play vital roles in processes of matter exchange, energy transfer and signal transduction in living organisms. Recently, structural studies of ion channels have greatly advanced our understanding of their ion selectivity and gating mechanisms. Structural studies of voltage-gated potassium channels elucidate the structural basis for potassium selectivity and voltage-gating mechanism; structural studies of voltage-gated sodium channels reveal their slow and fast inactivation mechanisms; and structural studies of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels provide complex and diverse structures of TRP channels, and their ligand gating mechanisms. In the article we summarize recent progress on ion channel structural biology, and outlook the prospect of ion channel structural biology in the future.


Subject(s)
Ion Channel Gating , Physiology , Ion Channels , Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels , Chemistry , Metabolism
15.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 34-38, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775257

ABSTRACT

As a non-invasive approach, sonogenetics is applied to control neuronal activity. The mechanosensitive channel(MSC), which has low threshold of responding to ultrasound, may be the alternative solution. Sonogenetics is the technique that activates the MSC expressed in targeted neurons by low intensity ultrasound, thus achieve the neuromodulation. In this review, we introduce the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance, transient receptor potential, channels of the two-pore-domain potassium family, Piezo and the recent progress on their application in sonogenetics.


Subject(s)
Biomechanical Phenomena , Ion Channels , Metabolism , Neurons , Ultrasonic Waves
16.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 894-904, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781385

ABSTRACT

Ion channels are a widespread class of membrane proteins that help establish and control cell membrane potential by allowing the passive diffusion of inorganic ions with high specificity through cell membrane. They are widely distributed in various cells and tissues, and their normal structure and function are of fundamental importance for all living organisms. The rapid advances in molecular cloning, protein structure analysis, patch clamp recordings and other technologies have greatly promoted the research on the biophysical and molecular properties of ion channels, and made significant progress in the study of the relationship between ion channels and pathophysiology as well. The immune system is made up of immune cells and organs that work together to protect the body and respond to infection and disease. Remarkably, recent basic and clinical research has revealed that ion channels are frequently and abundantly expressed in immune cells and have crucial roles in immune cell development and immune response. This review summarized recent progress in the roles of ion channels in immune cells, including the expression and regulation of ion channels in immune cells, the effects of ion flux mediated by ion channels on lymphocyte development, and functional roles of ion channels in both innate and adaptive immune responses. We also discussed some unresolved and insufficiently addressed issues in the current research, so as to provide an informative reference for better understanding the functional roles of ion channels in the immune system and further elucidation of their function from a physiological and pathological point of view.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane , Immunity , Physiology , Ion Channels , Allergy and Immunology , Membrane Proteins , Research
17.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 529-537, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761810

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide and several molecular signatures have been developed to predict survival in lung cancer. Increasing evidence suggests that proliferation and migration to promote tumor growth are associated with dysregulated ion channel expression. In this study, by analyzing high-throughput gene expression data, we identify the differentially expressed K⁺ channel genes in lung cancer. In total, we prioritize ten dysregulated K⁺ channel genes (5 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated genes, which were designated as K-10) in lung tumor tissue compared with normal tissue. A risk scoring system combined with the K-10 signature accurately predicts clinical outcome in lung cancer, which is independent of standard clinical and pathological prognostic factors including patient age, lymph node involvement, tumor size, and tumor grade. We further indicate that the K-10 potentially predicts clinical outcome in breast and colon cancers. Molecular signature discovered through K⁺ gene expression profiling may serve as a novel biomarker to assess the risk in lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast , Colonic Neoplasms , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Profiling , Ion Channels , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Potassium Channels , Potassium
18.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 295-303, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761807

ABSTRACT

A heart simulator, UT-Heart, is a finite element model of the human heart that can reproduce all the fundamental activities of the working heart, including propagation of excitation, contraction, and relaxation and generation of blood pressure and blood flow, based on the molecular aspects of the cardiac electrophysiology and excitation-contraction coupling. In this paper, we present a brief review of the practical use of UT-Heart. As an example, we focus on its application for predicting the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and evaluating the proarrhythmic risk of drugs. Patient-specific, multiscale heart simulation successfully predicted the response to CRT by reproducing the complex pathophysiology of the heart. A proarrhythmic risk assessment system combining in vitro channel assays and in silico simulation of cardiac electrophysiology using UT-Heart successfully predicted druginduced arrhythmogenic risk. The assessment system was found to be reliable and efficient. We also developed a comprehensive hazard map on the various combinations of ion channel inhibitors. This in silico electrocardiogram database (now freely available at http://ut-heart.com/) can facilitate proarrhythmic risk assessment without the need to perform computationally expensive heart simulation. Based on these results, we conclude that the heart simulator, UT-Heart, could be a useful tool in clinical medicine and drug discovery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Pressure , Cardiac Electrophysiology , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy , Cardiotoxicity , Clinical Medicine , Computer Simulation , Drug Discovery , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Electrocardiography , Heart , In Vitro Techniques , Ion Channels , Models, Cardiovascular , Relaxation , Risk Assessment
19.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 393-402, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761797

ABSTRACT

Aurora kinases inhibitors, including ZM447439 (ZM), which suppress cell division, have attracted a great deal of attention as potential novel anti-cancer drugs. Several recent studies have confirmed the anti-cancer effects of ZM in various cancer cell lines. However, there have been no studies regarding the cardiac safety of this agent. We performed several cytotoxicity, invasion and migration assays to examine the anti-cancer effects of ZM. To evaluate the potential effects of ZM on cardiac repolarisation, whole-cell patch-clamp experiments were performed with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) and cells with heterogeneous cardiac ion channel expression. We also conducted a contractility assay with rat ventricular myocytes to determine the effects of ZM on myocardial contraction and/or relaxation. In tests to determine in vitro efficacy, ZM inhibited the proliferation of A549, H1299 (lung cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer) and HepG2 (hepatoma) cell lines with IC₅₀ in the submicromolar range, and attenuated the invasive and metastatic capacity of A549 cells. In cardiac toxicity testing, ZM did not significantly affect I(Na), I(Ks) or I(K1), but decreased I(hERG) in a dose-dependent manner (IC₅₀: 6.53 µM). In action potential (AP) assay using hiPSC-CMs, ZM did not induce any changes in AP parameters up to 3 µM, but it at 10 µM induced prolongation of AP duration. In summary, ZM showed potent broad-spectrum anti-tumor activity, but relatively low levels of cardiac side effects compared to the effective doses to tumor. Therefore, ZM has a potential to be a candidate as an anti-cancer with low cardiac toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Action Potentials , Antineoplastic Agents , Aurora Kinases , Cardiotoxicity , Cell Division , Cell Line , In Vitro Techniques , Ion Channels , Muscle Cells , Myocardial Contraction , Myocytes, Cardiac , Phosphotransferases , Relaxation
20.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 191-201, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761784

ABSTRACT

The transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 5 channel, known as a nonselective cation channel, has a crucial role in calcium influx. TRPC5 has been reported to be activated by muscarinic receptor activation and extracellular pH change and inhibited by the protein kinase C pathway. Recent studies have also suggested that TRPC5 is extracellularly activated by englerin A (EA), but the mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify the EA-interaction sites in TRPC5 and thereby clarify the mechanism of TRPC5 activation. TRPC5 channels are over-expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. TRPC5 mutants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. The whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record TRPC5 currents. Western analysis was also performed to observe the expression of TRPC5 mutants. To identify the EA-interaction site in TRPC5, we first generated pore mutants. When screening the mutants with EA, we observed the EA-induced current increases of TRPC5 abolished in K554N, H594N, and E598Q mutants. The current increases of other mutants were reduced in different levels. We also examined the functional intactness of the mutants that had no effect by EA with TRPC5 agonists, such as carbachol or GTPγS. Our results suggest that the three residues, Lys-554, His-594, and Glu-598, in TRPC5 might be responsible for direct interaction with EA, inducing the channel activation. We also suggest that although other pore residues are not critical, they could partly contribute to the EA-induced channel activation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calcium , Carbachol , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ion Channels , Kidney , Mass Screening , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Mutant Proteins , Protein Kinase C , Receptors, Muscarinic
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