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1.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 239-257, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929163

ABSTRACT

Studies on diabetes have long been hampered by a lack of authentic disease models that, ideally, should be unlimited and able to recapitulate the abnormalities involved in the development, structure, and function of human pancreatic islets under pathological conditions. Stem cell-based islet organoids faithfully recapitulate islet development in vitro and provide large amounts of three-dimensional functional islet biomimetic materials with a morphological structure and cellular composition similar to those of native islets. Thus, islet organoids hold great promise for modeling islet development and function, deciphering the mechanisms underlying the onset of diabetes, providing an in vitro human organ model for infection of viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, and contributing to drug screening and autologous islet transplantation. However, the currently established islet organoids are generally immature compared with native islets, and further efforts should be made to improve the heterogeneity and functionality of islet organoids, making it an authentic and informative disease model for diabetes. Here, we review the advances and challenges in the generation of islet organoids, focusing on human pluripotent stem cell-derived islet organoids, and the potential applications of islet organoids as disease models and regenerative therapies for diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Islets of Langerhans , Organoids , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928999

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Heparin is mainly used as an anticoagulant in clinic, and it also has a certain anti-inflammatory effect. At present, after portal vein islet transplantation in diabetic patients, heparin is mainly infused through the peripheral veins of the limbs to achieve the purpose of anticoagulation and protection of the graft, rather than through the portal vein. In this study, animal experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of heparin infusion via the portal vein and marginal ear vein on the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) after portal vein islet transplantation, which is the choice of anticoagulation methods for clinical islet transplantation to provide a basis for decision-making.@*METHODS@#A total of 50 neonatal pigs (Xeno-1 type, 3-5 days) were selected. Islets were isolated and purified from the pancreas of neonatal pigs. Ten non-diabetic Landrace pigs (1.5-2.0 months) served as recipients, and 12 000 IEQ/kg neonatal porcine islets were transplanted into the liver through the portal vein. All recipients received bolus injection of 50 U/kg of heparin 10 minutes before transplantation. After the bolus injection of heparin, the experimental group received heparin via the portal vein [10 U/(kg·h), 5 recipients], and the control group received heparin via the marginal ear vein [10 U/(kg·h), 5 recipients]. The superior vena cava blood was collected from the 2 groups pre-operation at 1, 3, 24 h post-operation of the transplantation. The portal vein blood was collected from the experimental group at 1 and 3 h after the transplantation as well. The levels of complement C3a, C5a, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), β-thromboglobulin (β-TG), and D-dimer as well as activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in superior vena cava blood from 1 and 3 h post-transplantation were detected in the 2 groups, and the levels of anti-Xa and anti-IIa in the portal vein and superior vena cava blood from 1 and 3 h post-transplantation in the experimental group were detected. Twenty four hours after the transplantation, the liver tissues in the 2 groups were collected for pathological examination to observe the inflammatory cell infiltration and peripheral thrombosis around the islets graft in liver.@*RESULTS@#Before transplantation, there was no statistically significant difference in C3a, C5a, TAT, β-TG, D-dimer levels and APTT between the 2 groups (all P>0.05). At 1 and 3 h after transplantation, the C3a, TAT, and D-dimer levels in the experimental group were significant decreased than those in the control groups (all P<0.05), and at 3 h after transplantation the C5a was significant decreased than that in the control group (P<0.05). At 1 and 3 h after transplantation, the anti-Xa and anti-IIa levels in the portal vein blood were significantly increased than those in the superior vena cava blood in the experimental group (all P<0.05). Pathological results showed the presence of islet cell clusters in the liver blood vessels. The thrombus formation and neutrophil infiltration around islet graft was not obvious in the experimental group, while massive thrombus formation and neutrophil infiltration in the control group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with marginal ear vein infusion of heparin, the direct infusion of heparin in the portal vein has a certain inhibitory effect on complement system, coagulation system activation and inflammatory cell infiltration in portal vein islet transplantation, which may attenuate the occurrence of IBMIR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Islets of Langerhans/pathology , Islets of Langerhans Transplantation/physiology , Portal Vein , Swine , Vena Cava, Superior
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927402

ABSTRACT

To explore the possible new mechanism of acupuncture in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) based on the islet inflammatory response. Islet macrophages, pancreatic adipose cells and islet β cells all participate in the pathogenesis of T2DM, and the three could form a network interaction. Acupuncture could regulate the functional phenotype of islet macrophages, improve the ectopic deposition of pancreatic adipose and repair the function of islet β cells, and play a unique advantage of overall regulation. It is suggested that acupuncture can be a potential treatment strategy for T2DM.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Insulin-Secreting Cells/pathology , Islets of Langerhans/pathology , Macrophages
4.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(2): e285, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347405

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El páncreas ectópico es la segunda anomalía congénita pancreática más frecuente después del páncreas divisum. Fue descrito por primera vez en 1729 por Schultz y se define como la presencia de tejido pancreático que carece de comunicación anatómica o vascular con el cuerpo principal del páncreas. La localización más frecuente es en el estómago (25 - 38 por ciento), seguido de duodeno, yeyuno e íleon. El 40 por ciento de los casos son sintomáticos y es más frecuente su presentación en varones en torno a la 5ª y 6ª década de la vida. Objetivo: Presentar un caso de páncreas ectópico diagnosticado a través de un estudio histológico tras realizada la cirugía. Presentación de caso: Presentamos el caso de una paciente compatible con hipoglucemia y cuyo estudio definitivo mostró la presencia de tejido pancreático ectópico en estómago, con resolución completa de los síntomas tras tratamiento quirúrgico. La anatomía patológica mostró una lesión nodular tumoral benigna (2,5 cm), constituida por tejido pancreático heterotópico, con presencia de páncreas exocrino con acinos. Páncreas endocrino con presencia de islotes de Langerhans y componente epitelial con ductos. Afectación desde la submucosa hasta la subserosa, con una pared muscular propia con hiperplasia muscular en relación a la heterotopía pancreática. La mucosa gástrica mostraba inflamación crónica leve con escasos folículos linfoides. Conclusiones: La presencia de páncreas ectópico es una entidad poco frecuente, pero a tener en cuenta en pacientes con clínica de hipoglucemia, una vez descartadas otras causas. No existe consenso con respecto a indicaciones en el manejo de lesiones pequeñas y asintomáticas, por lo que se recomienda individualizar cada caso teniendo en cuenta el tamaño, la localización y el tipo histológico(AU)


Introduction: Ectopic pancreas is the second most frequent congenital anomaly after pancreas divisum. It was described for the first time in 1729 by Schultz and it is defined as the presence of pancreatic tissue with no anatomical or vascular communication with the main body of pancreas. The most common location is in the stomach (25-38 percent), followed by the duodenum, jejunum and ileum ones. 40 percent of the cases are symptomatic and is more frequent their presentation in males in the fifth or sixth decade of life. Objective: To present a case of ectopic pancreas diagnosed through a histological study after surgery. Case presentation: Case of a patient with clinical features compatible with hypoglycemia that after being studied showed the presence of ectopic pancreatic tissue in the stomach, with a complete solution of the symptoms after surgical treatment. The pathological anatomy showed a benign tumor nodular lesion (2.5 cm), made up of heterotopic pancreatic tissue, with the presence of exocrine pancreas with acini. Endocrine pancreas with the presence of islets of Langerhans and epithelial component with ducts. Involvement from the submucosa to the subserosa, with a proper muscular wall with muscular hyperplasia in relation to pancreatic heterotopia. The gastric mucosa showed mild chronic inflammation with few lymphoid follicles. Conclusions: The presence of ectopic pancreas is a rare condition, but it should be taken into account in patients with clinical features of hypoglycemia once ruled out other causes. There is no consensus in regards to the indications for the management of small and asymptomatic lesions, so, it is recommended to individualize each case taking into account the size, location and histological type(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pancreas/abnormalities , Stomach/injuries , Islets of Langerhans/abnormalities , Hyperglycemia/etiology
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921873

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aimed to assess the protective value of adiponectin (APN) in pancreatic islet injury induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Methods Sixty rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (NC) group, CIH group, and CIH with APN supplement (CIH+APN) group. After 5 weeks of CIH exposure, we conducted oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and insulin released test (IRT), examined and compared the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, enzymes gene expression levels of


Subject(s)
Adiponectin/genetics , Animals , Hypoxia , Islets of Langerhans , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Rats , Rats, Wistar
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18782, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249151

ABSTRACT

Cnidoscolus chayamansa is a native plant of the Mayan region, which is also cultivated in other places like northern Mexico, Tunisia and India. Many properties are attributed to Mayan Chaya, such as aid in the control of glycemia in diabetics. Thus this study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects of chaya aqueous extracts in a model of streptozotisin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Chaya aqueous extracts were collected from plants cultivated in Quinta Roo (Mayan region) and Durango (northern Mexico), and in this study we compare their effect with metformin (as a control). Additionally, we compared the extracts mass profiles from both regions by high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem mass detector (HPLC-MS/MS QQQ). Finally, a study of the pancreatic tissue was carried out to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the Langerhans islets. Both extracts showed a good hypoglycemic effect after two weeks of treatment, and the Langerhans islets showed a partial recovery due to the effect of the treatment. Although the plants were cultivated at a distance of 2,350 km and under different weather, the compounds found in both did not show significant differences.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Streptozocin/administration & dosage , Euphorbiaceae/classification , Diabetes Mellitus/chemically induced , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Plants , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Islets of Langerhans
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811136

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal imaging of murine pancreas is technically challenging due to the mechanical softness of the tissue influenced by peristalsis. Here, we report a novel pancreatic imaging window for long-term stabilized cellular-level observation of the islets in the pancreas in vivo. By spatially separating the pancreas from the bowel movement and physiologic respiration with a metal plate integrated in the imaging window, we successfully tracked the pancreatic islets up to three weeks and visualized the dumbbell-shape transformation from the single islet. This window can be a useful tool for long-term cellular-level visualization of the microstructure in the pancreas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Intravital Microscopy , Islets of Langerhans , Mice , Pancreas , Peristalsis , Respiration
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827415

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate whether necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) can protect islet cells from the damage induced by TNF-α.@*METHODS@#After isolation and purification, the neonatal porcine islet cell clusters (NICCs) were divided into 3 groups (islets 10 000 IEQ/group): a Nec-1 group (Nec-1+TNF-α was added to the culture medium), a TNF-α group (TNF-α was added to the culture medium), and a control group (pure medium). The number of cells was observed after 48 h of co-culture. The cell death was evaluated by AO/EB staining. Insulin secretion and DNA of islets were detected by chemiluminescence and nucleic acid quantitative analysis. RT-PCR assay was used to examine the mRNA expressions of insulin gene, glueogan gene and somatostatin gene. Flow cytometry analysis was used to detect the viability of B cells.@*RESULTS@#The number of islets in Nec-1 group, TNF-α group and the control group were (8 425±2 187), (4 325±778), and (7 122±1 558) IEQ, respectively. Compared to the other two groups, the number of dead cells in TNF-α group was greatly increased. The insulin/DNA values in the Nec-1 group, TNF-α group and blank control group were (13.21±3.15), (2.47±0.45), and (7.44±0.97) mIU/mg, respectively. Compared to the TNF-α group and the control group, the mRNA relative expression levels of insulin gene (6.73±1.07), glucagon gene (10.13±1.98), somatostatin gene (8.57±1.11) were significantly increased in the Nec-1 group (all <0.05), the rate of live cells (97.32±1.87)% and live B cells (90.86±3.68)% were increased significantly in the Nec-1 group (all <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#TNF-α can induce neonatal porcine islet cells damage, which is attenuated in the presence of Nec-1. Nec-1 can increase the content of endocrine cells in NICCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Imidazoles , Indoles , Insulin , Islets of Langerhans , Swine , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Genetics
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1331-1334, Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040133

ABSTRACT

Obesity and its comorbidities are becoming epidemic in the Western world. Beta cell mass estimation is an important indicator to track the progression of insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, particularly in experimental studies, where it can be performed with stereological tools in an unbiased way. In this work, we present a simple protocol that can contribute to doing the practice of estimating the mass of beta cells more frequent and reproducible. As with any quantitative study, the necessary precautions regarding sampling and randomness must be respected.


La obesidad y sus comorbilidades se están convirtiendo en una epidemia en el mundo occidental. La estimación de la masa de células beta es un indicador importante para rastrear la progresión de la resistencia a la insulina/diabetes tipo 2, particularmente en estudios experimentales, donde se puede realizar con herramientas estereológicas de manera imparcial. En este trabajo presentamos un protocolo simple que puede contribuir a que la práctica de estimar la masa de células beta sea más frecuente y reproducible. Como en cualquier estudio cuantitativo, deben respetarse las precauciones necesarias con respecto al muestreo y la aleatoriedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytological Techniques/methods , Islets of Langerhans/cytology , Insulin-Secreting Cells
10.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(3): 222-227, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011165

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is characterized by the progressive deterioration of pancreatic islet β-cell function over time and insulin resistance. Knowing more about the differences in pancreatic islet function in T2DM patients who have had diabetes for different lengths of time can help improve therapy for T2DM. Subjects and methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare islet β-cell function and insulin resistance in T2DM patients (n = 3,254) who had had diabetes for different lengths of time and those in normal controls (n = 794) using ANOVA and LSD analysis. Results We found that compared with that in normal controls, HOMA-β in T2DM patients with a history of diabetes of less than 1 year was lower (approximately 52% of that of normal controls, p = 0.003), while HOMA-IR in these patients was higher (approximately 50% of that of normal controls, p = 0.007). Compared with that in other diabetic patients, HOMA-β in patients with a history of diabetes of more than 30 years was the lowest. HOMA-IR in patients with a history of diabetes of between 20 and 30 years was lower than that in other diabetic patients (p < 0.05). Conclusions There were obvious decreases in HOMA-β and increases in HOMA-IR in T2DM patients with a history of diabetes of less than 1 year compared with those in normal controls. Therefore, early screening and intervention for T2DM might help improve islet function and delay the progression of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Insulin Resistance , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Homeostasis/physiology , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Glucose Tolerance Test , Models, Biological
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 76-81, 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990008

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Numerosas hipótesis se invocan para explicar el efecto beneficioso sobre el metabolismo glucídico tras la cirugía bariátrica. Algunos autores abogan por la secreción y liberación de distintas sustancias con funciones endocrinas (enterohormonas). Una de las sustancias más señaladas como efector, con efectos contrastados pero datos controvertidos, es el GLP-1. Nuestro estudio se realizó en ratas Wistar macho sanas, para evitar la ausencia de factores de confusión como son la DMT2 y la obesidad. Para conocer el mapa de adaptación a la secreción de GLP-1 tras la cirugía, se designaron 5 grupos: dos grupos control (de ayuno y de estrés quirúrgico); y tres grupos quirúrgicos (gastrectomía vertical, resección del 50 % del intestino medio y el Bypass gástrico con montaje en Y de Roux). Después de tres meses se estudiaron mediante técnicas inmunohistoquímicas el patrón de síntesis de GLP-1 en las distintas porciones del intestino delgado. También se estudió la expresión de los receptores de membrana en las células de los islotes pancreáticos. Se observó la existencia de un significativo aumento del número de células secretoras en íleon, duodeno y yeyuno en los grupos quirúrgicos de técnicas mixtas (RYGB) y malabsortivas (RI50). Igualmente se observó una elevación de los receptores pancreáticos en las mismas técnicas frente a los controles. Nuestros datos indican que la secreción intestinal de GLP-1 y su sensibilidad a nivel pancreáticas están aumentada, como efecto adaptativo a la agresión mecánica del tubo y a la alteración del flujo de nutrientes tras la cirugía.


SUMMARY: Numerous hypotheses are invoked to explain the beneficial effect on glucose metabolism after bariatric surgery. Some authors advocate for the secretion and release of various substances with endocrine functions (enterohormones). One of the substances most marked as effector, with contrasting effects but controversial data, is Glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP-1. Our study was performed in healthy male Wistar rats, to avoid the absence of confounding factors such as DMT2 and obesity. In order to know the map of adaptation to GLP-1 secretion after surgery, five groups were designated: Two control groups (fasting and surgical stress); and three surgical groups (vertical sleeve gastrectomy, 50 % midgut resection and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass). After three months, the GLP-1 synthesis pattern was studied by immunohistochemical techniques in the different portions of the small digestive tract. The expression of membrane receptors in pancreatic islet cells was also studied. There was a significant increase in the number of secretory cells in ileum, duodenum and jejunum in mixed surgical (RYGB) and malabsorptive (RI50) groups. An elevation of pancreatic receptors was also observed in the same techniques against controls. Our data indicated that intestinal secretion of GLP1 and its sensitivity to the pancreatic level were increased, both to an adaptive effect to the mechanical aggression of the digestive tube and to the alteration of nutrient flow after surgery.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/metabolism , Bariatric Surgery , Pancreas/metabolism , Islets of Langerhans , Rats, Wistar , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Intestine, Small/metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a very serious health problem, usually caused by a trauma and accompanied by elevated levels of inflammation indicators. Stem cell-based therapy is promising some valuable strategies for its functional recovery. Nestin-positive progenitor and/or stem cells (SC) isolated from pancreatic islets (PI) show mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics. For this reason, we aimed to analyze the effects of rat pancreatic islet derived stem cell (rPI-SC) delivery on functional recovery, as well as the levels of inflammation factors following SCI. METHODS: rPI-SCs were isolated, cultured and their MSC characteristics were determined through flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis. The experimental rat population was divided into three groups : 1) laminectomy & trauma, 2) laminectomy & trauma & phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and 3) laminectomy+trauma+SCs. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) labelled rPI-SCs were transplanted into the injured rat spinal cord. Their motilities were evaluated with Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) Score. After 4-weeks, spinal cord sections were analyzed for GFP labeled SCs and stained for vimentin, S100β, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 2’,3’-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proinflammatory (interleukin [IL]-6, transforming growth factor [TGF]-β, macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-2, myeloperoxidase [MPO]) and anti-inflammatory (IL-1 receptor antagonis) factors. RESULTS: rPI-SCs were revealed to display MSC characteristics and express neural and glial cell markers including BDNF, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), fibronectin, microtubule associated protein-2a,b (MAP2a,b), β3-tubulin and nestin as well as antiinflammatory prostaglandin E2 receptor, EP3. The BBB scores showed significant motor recovery in group 3. GFP-labelled cells were localized on the injury site. In addition, decreased proinflammatory factor levels and increased intensity of anti-inflammatory factors were determined. CONCLUSION: Transplantation of PI-SCs might be an effective strategy to improve functional recovery following spinal cord trauma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Dinoprostone , Fibronectins , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Inflammation , Islets of Langerhans , Laminectomy , Macrophages , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Microtubules , Nestin , Neuroglia , Peroxidase , Rats , Regeneration , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells , Transforming Growth Factors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vimentin , Wounds and Injuries
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is a major enzyme responsible for the formation of methylarginine in mammalian cells. Recent studies have revealed that PRMT1 plays important roles in the development of various tissues. However, its role in pancreas development has not yet been elucidated. METHODS: Pancreatic progenitor cell-specific Prmt1 knock-out (Prmt1 PKO) mice were generated and characterized for their metabolic and histological phenotypes and their levels of Neurog3 gene expression and neurogenin 3 (NGN3) protein expression. Protein degradation assays were performed in mPAC cells. RESULTS: Prmt1 PKO mice showed growth retardation and a severely diabetic phenotype. The pancreatic size and β-cell mass were significantly reduced in Prmt1 PKO mice. Proliferation of progenitor cells during the secondary transition was decreased and endocrine cell differentiation was impaired. These defects in pancreas development could be attributed to the sustained expression of NGN3 in progenitor cells. Protein degradation assays in mPAC cells revealed that PRMT1 was required for the rapid degradation of NGN3. CONCLUSION: PRMT1 critically contributes to pancreas development by destabilizing the NGN3 protein.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus , Endocrine Cells , Gene Expression , Islets of Langerhans , Mice , Pancreas , Phenotype , Protein Stability , Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases , Proteolysis , Stem Cells
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742151

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are rare neoplasms arising from the pancreatic islet of Langerhans and can be functioning or non-functioning based on the clinical symptoms caused by hormonal secretions. PNETs are the second most common tumor of the pancreas and represent 1–2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. The incidence of pNETs appears to be rising and the prognosis seems to be improving, likely due to the improved treatment options. Recent updates of the World Health Organization classification and grading separate pNETs into 2 broad categories according to the histopathologic criteria, including the Ki-67 proliferative index and mitotic counts: well-differentiated NET and poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). The classification also incorporates a new subcategory of well-differentiated high-grade NEC (grade 3) to the well-differentiated NET category. This new classification algorithm aims to improve the prediction of the clinical outcomes and survival and help clinicians select better therapeutic strategies for patient care and management. The treatment of advanced or metastatic pNETs may include surgical resection, liver-directed therapies, and/or systemic treatments. In unresectable patients, the goals of these therapies are to palliate the tumor-related symptoms and prolong the lifespan. Systemic therapy consists of the following broad modalities: somatostatin analogues, molecular targeted therapy, systemic chemotherapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. In conclusion, pNETs are diagnosed increasingly throughout the world, usually with metastatic disease and requiring systemic therapy. Each patient should be evaluated thoroughly and discussed individually by a multidisciplinary and dedicated NET-expert team, which might consider all treatment options, including ongoing clinical trials before selecting the appropriate treatment sequence.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Classification , Drug Therapy , Humans , Incidence , Islets of Langerhans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreas , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Patient Care , Prognosis , Receptors, Peptide , Somatostatin , World Health Organization
15.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 183-190, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762214

ABSTRACT

Nicotine is the most toxic factor of tobacco. Genistein is a phytoestrogen and antioxidant that has numerous health benefits. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of genistein against toxic properties of nicotine to the pancreas of mice. For this purpose, 48 male mice were randomly assigned into six groups (n=8): normal control, nicotine control (2.5 mg/kg), genistein (25 and 50 mg/kg), and nicotine+genistein (25 and 50 mg/kg) treated groups. Various doses of genistein and genistein+nicotine were administered intraperitoneally to animals for 4 weeks. The weight of pancreas, total antioxidant capacity and nitrite oxide of serum, insulin levels, and the number and diameter of islets of Langerhans were investigated. Nicotine administration reduced significantly total antioxidant capacity, insulin, pancreas weight, and the number and diameter of islets of Langerhans and increased nitrite oxide in serum compared to the control normal group (P<0.05). Conversely, genistein and genistein+nicotine increased significantly insulin, total antioxidant capacity, and the number and diameter islets of Langerhans and decreased serum nitrite oxide compared to the nicotine control group. It seems that the genistein can improve pancreas damage following the nicotine administration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genistein , Humans , Insulin , Insurance Benefits , Islets of Langerhans , Male , Mice , Nicotine , Pancreas , Phytoestrogens , Tobacco
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738991

ABSTRACT

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disorder caused by germline mutation of the MEN1 gene. It is characterized by tumors of the anterior pituitary gland, parathyroid glands, and endocrine pancreas. Thymic carcinoid tumor is uncommon and associated with a high mortality, but its natural history has not been investigated yet. We report a case of asymptomatic MEN 1 with a thymic carcinoid tumor. A 37-year-old man underwent a routine medical checkup and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a duodenal neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Further studies showed the coexistence of pancreatic tumor, parathyroid hyperplasia, pituitary adenoma, and thymoma. The patient underwent duodenal endoscopic mucosal resection, distal pancreatectomy, subtotal parathyroidectomy, and thymectomy. The pathological test revealed a duodenal NET, pancreatic NET, parathyroid hyperplasia, and thymic carcinoid tumor. He was treated for MEN 1. We report this asymptomatic case of MEN 1 with a literature review.


Subject(s)
Adult , Carcinoid Tumor , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism , Hyperplasia , Islets of Langerhans , Mortality , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia , Natural History , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreatectomy , Parathyroid Glands , Parathyroidectomy , Pituitary Gland, Anterior , Pituitary Neoplasms , Thymectomy , Thymoma
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788767

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a very serious health problem, usually caused by a trauma and accompanied by elevated levels of inflammation indicators. Stem cell-based therapy is promising some valuable strategies for its functional recovery. Nestin-positive progenitor and/or stem cells (SC) isolated from pancreatic islets (PI) show mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics. For this reason, we aimed to analyze the effects of rat pancreatic islet derived stem cell (rPI-SC) delivery on functional recovery, as well as the levels of inflammation factors following SCI.METHODS: rPI-SCs were isolated, cultured and their MSC characteristics were determined through flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis. The experimental rat population was divided into three groups : 1) laminectomy & trauma, 2) laminectomy & trauma & phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and 3) laminectomy+trauma+SCs. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) labelled rPI-SCs were transplanted into the injured rat spinal cord. Their motilities were evaluated with Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) Score. After 4-weeks, spinal cord sections were analyzed for GFP labeled SCs and stained for vimentin, S100β, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 2’,3’-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proinflammatory (interleukin [IL]-6, transforming growth factor [TGF]-β, macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-2, myeloperoxidase [MPO]) and anti-inflammatory (IL-1 receptor antagonis) factors.RESULTS: rPI-SCs were revealed to display MSC characteristics and express neural and glial cell markers including BDNF, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), fibronectin, microtubule associated protein-2a,b (MAP2a,b), β3-tubulin and nestin as well as antiinflammatory prostaglandin E2 receptor, EP3. The BBB scores showed significant motor recovery in group 3. GFP-labelled cells were localized on the injury site. In addition, decreased proinflammatory factor levels and increased intensity of anti-inflammatory factors were determined.CONCLUSION: Transplantation of PI-SCs might be an effective strategy to improve functional recovery following spinal cord trauma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Dinoprostone , Fibronectins , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Inflammation , Islets of Langerhans , Laminectomy , Macrophages , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Microtubules , Nestin , Neuroglia , Peroxidase , Rats , Regeneration , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells , Transforming Growth Factors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vimentin , Wounds and Injuries
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715809

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic and immune-mediated disease, which is characterized by the progressive destruction of pancreatic beta cells. T1DM precipitates in genetically susceptible individuals through environmental factors. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of autoimmunity and intestinal colonization of Candida albicans on the development of T1DM. METHODS: Forty-two patients newly diagnosed with T1DM and 42 healthy subjects were included in this monocentric study. The basic and clinical characteristics of the patients were recorded. T1DM-, thyroid-, and celiac-associated antibodies were evaluated. Stool cultures for C. albicans were performed to assess whether or not gut integrity was impaired in patients with T1DM. RESULTS: The evaluation of T1DM- and thyroid-associated antibodies showed that the prevalences of islet cell antibodies and antithyroperoxidase positivity were higher in the study patients than in the patients in the control group. Furthermore, the direct examination and culture of fresh stool samples revealed that 50% of the patients with T1DM and 23.8% of the control subjects had fungi (C. albicans). CONCLUSION: Through this study, we suggest that the presence of intestinal C. albicans colonization at the time of the diagnosis of T1DM may indicate impairment of normal intestinal microbiota. We also suggest that there may be a tendency of T1DM in patients with a high prevalence of intestinal C. albicans.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Autoimmunity , Candida albicans , Candida , Colon , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diagnosis , Fungi , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Islets of Langerhans , Prevalence
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715524

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune diabetes is a heterogeneous disease which can arise at any age. Subjects with adult-onset autoimmune diabetes who do not necessitate insulin-therapy for at least 6 months after diagnosis are demarcated as having latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). This condition is more heterogeneous than young-onset autoimmune diabetes and shares clinical and metabolic characteristics with both type 2 and type 1 diabetes. Patients with LADA are considered by having highly variable β-cell destruction, different degrees of insulin resistance and heterogeneous titre and pattern of islet autoantibody, suggesting different pathophysiological pathways partially explaining the heterogeneous phenotypes of LADA. To date the heterogeneity of LADA does not allow to establish a priori treatment algorithm and no specific guidelines for LADA therapy are available. These subjects are mostly treated as affected by type 2 diabetes, a factor that might lead to the progression to insulin-dependency quickly. A personalised medicine approach is necessary to attain optimal metabolic control and preserve β-cell function to decrease the risk of long-term diabetes complications. Recent data concerning the use of oral antidiabetic agents as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists indicate up-and-coming results in term of protect C-peptide levels and improving glycaemic control. This review summarises current knowledge on LADA, emphasising controversies regarding its pathophysiology and clinical features. Moreover, we discuss data available about novel therapeutic approaches that can be considered for prevention of β-cell loss in LADA.


Subject(s)
Adult , Autoantibodies , C-Peptide , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Islets of Langerhans , Phenotype , Population Characteristics
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714101

ABSTRACT

Over the past three decades, human pancreatic islet isolation and transplantation techniques have developed as a routine clinical procedure for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, due to the donor shortage and required chronic systemic immunosuppression, the widespread application of islet transplantation is limited. To overcome these limitations, providing a physical barrier to transplanted islet cells with encapsulating biomaterial has emerged as a promising approach to enhance engraftment and promote islet survival post-transplantation. Alginate has been considered to be a reliable biomaterial, as it enhances islet survival and does not hamper hormone secretion. Alginate-catechol (Al-CA) hydrogel was reported to provide high mechanical strength and chemical stability without deformation over a wide range of pH values. In this study, we, demonstrated, for the first time in the literature, that encapsulation of murine pancreatic islet cells with Al-CA hydrogel does not induce cytotoxicity ex vivo for an extended period; however, it does markedly abate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Catechol should not be considered as a constituent for alginate gelation for encapsulating islet cells in the application of islet transplantation.


Subject(s)
Architectural Accessibility , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Humans , Hydrogels , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Immunosuppression Therapy , Insulin , Islets of Langerhans Transplantation , Islets of Langerhans , Temefos , Tissue Donors
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