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Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e210098, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387493


ABSTRACT Objective This research was conducted as a prospective, self-controlled, eight-week clinical trial to investigate the effect of kefir consumption on the lipid profile of individuals with normal and dyslipidemic properties. Methods Kefir microorganisms given to volunteer subjects were determined using classical microbial count methods and qReal-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. The study was carried out with 23 volunteer hospital health personnel between the ages of 20 and 55 who met the research criteria and did not have any health problems. The volunteers regularly consumed kefir on an empty stomach for four weeks. In the last stage, the eight-week study was completed by making blood and anthropometric measurements of the subjects, who continued to be studied without kefir consumption for four more weeks. Results Considering the changes in the serum lipid profiles of 13 individuals with dyslipidemic symptoms during the 4-week period they consumed kefir, Total Cholesterol values decreased by 9.15% compared to initial values, LDL-Cholesterol values decreased by 10.64%, HDL-Cholesterol values decreased by 6.9%, and triglyceride values decreased by 2.46%. The changes in the serum lipid profiles of 13 individuals with dyslipidemic findings at the end of an eight-week study were a 5.71% decrease in total cholesterol values (p<0.018) considered statistically significant, as well as a 5.31% decrease in LDL-Cholesterol values (p<0.021); the HDL-Cholesterol results were found to be significant with an 8.58% decrease in the values (p<0.035) and insignificant with a 17.21% increase in the triglyceride values (p<0.926). We concluded that regular kefir consumption was effective in both women and men in lowering total cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol from blood lipid profiles, especially in individuals with dyslipidemic symptoms, while this effect was not observed in normal individuals. Conclusion Kefir can positively affect the total cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol blood parameters of dyslipidemic individuals with high serum lipid values.

RESUMO Objetivo Esta pesquisa foi conduzida como um ensaio clínico prospectivo e autocontrolado de oito semanas para investigar o efeito do consumo de kefir no perfil lipídico de indivíduos com propriedades normais e dislipidêmicas. Métodos Microrganismos kefir dados a voluntários foram determinados usando métodos clássicos de contagem microbiana e de reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real. O estudo foi conduzido em 23 profissionais de saúde de hospitais voluntários, com idades entre 20 e 55 anos, que atendiam aos critérios da pesquisa e não apresentavam problemas de saúde. Os voluntários consumiram kefir com o estômago vazio regularmente durante quatro semanas. No último estágio, o estudo de oito semanas foi concluído com medidas de sangue e antropométricas dos indivíduos, que continuaram a ser avaliados sem consumo de kefir por mais quatro semanas. Resultados Considerando as mudanças nos perfis lipídicos séricos de 13 indivíduos com sintomas dislipidêmicos durante o período de quatro semanas em que consumiram kefir, os valores de colesterol total diminuíram em 9,15% em comparação com os valores iniciais; os valores de LDL-Colesterol diminuíram em 10,64%, os valores de HDL-Colesterol diminuíram em 6,9% e os valores de triglicerídeos diminuíram em 2,46%. Ao final de um estudo de oito semanas, o resultado foi considerado estatisticamente significativo, com queda de 5,71% nos valores de colesterol total (p<0,018); de 5,31% nos valores de Colesterol-LDL (p<0,021) e de 8,58% nos valores de HDL-Colesterol (p <0,035), e insignificantes com aumento de 17,21% nos valores de triglicerídeos (p<0,926). Como resultado do estudo, concluiu-se que o consumo regular de kefir foi eficaz em mulheres e homens na redução do colesterol total e do LDL-Colesterol dos perfis de lipídios no sangue, especialmente em indivíduos com sintomas dislipidêmicos, enquanto esse efeito não foi observado em indivíduos normais. Conclusão O kefir pode afetar positivamente os parâmetros sanguíneos do colesterol total e do LDL-Colesterol de indivíduos dislipidêmicos com altos valores de lipídios séricos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Dyslipidemias/blood , Kefir/microbiology , Triglycerides/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
Actual. osteol ; 15(3): 205-213, Sept-Dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104336


The dental caries is a progressive destruction of the teeth tissue due to the disbalance in the normal molecule interactions between the enamel and the bio!lm, which alters the demineralization-remineralization process. Milk fermentation produces caseinphosphopeptides with proved remineralizing capacity of the enamel. The presence of these peptides in fermented milk with ke!r grains has been described. The purpose of this work was to evaluate in vitro the capacity of milk ke!r to prevent the demineralization of dental enamel. Bovine incisors (n=68, 17 per group) were treated for 72 h with different solutions: I: artificial saliva at pH 7.2 , II: demineralizing solution at pH 4.5, III: supernatant of kefir fermented milk at pH 4.5, IV: milk supernatant at pH 4.5. The effects of treatments were evaluated by the change in the weight of the specimens, calcium concentration in the solution and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the enamel. Kefir milk supernatant prevented the demineralization process, that was evidenced by a change in weight and calcium concentration that were not different from group I, although the pH was 4.5. In contrast, group IV showed a decrease in weight and an increase in calcium concentration, compared with group I (one way ANOVA, p<0.05). Images of SEM agree with the values of weight and calcium concentration. These results indicate that kefir milk supernatant has a protective effect on enamel demineralization in vitro. (AU)

La caries dental es una patología debido a un desequilibrio en las interacciones moleculares normales entre el esmalte y la biopelícula, que altera el proceso de desmineralización remineralización. La fermentación de la leche produce fosfopéptidos de caseína con probada capacidad remineralizante del esmalte, y se ha descripto la presencia de estos péptidos en la leche fermentada con granos de kéfir. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar in vitro la capacidad del kéfir de leche para prevenir la desmineralización del esmalte dental. Sesenta y ocho incisivos bovinos (17 por grupo) fueron tratados durante 72 h con diferentes soluciones: I: saliva artificial, pH 7.2, II: solución desmineralizante, pH 4.5, III: sobrenadante de leche fermentada con kefir, pH 4.5, IV: sobrenadante de leche, pH 4.5. El proceso de desmineralización se evaluó mediante el cambio en el peso de las muestras, la concentración de calcio en la solución y microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM) del esmalte. El sobrenadante de leche fermentada con kéfir impidió el proceso de desmineralización, que se evidenció por un cambio en el peso y la concentración de calcio que no discreparon del grupo I, a pesar de haber tenido un pH de 4.5. En contraste, el grupo IV mostró una disminución en el peso y un aumento en la concentración de calcio, en comparación con el grupo I (ANOVA a un criterio, p<0.05). Las imágenes SEM concuerdan con los cambios en el peso y la concentración de calcio en los grupos estudiados. Los datos obtenidos demuestran que el sobrenadante de la leche tratada con kéfir tiene un efecto protector sobre la desmineralización del esmalte in vitro, inducida por el pH ácido. (AU)

Animals , Cattle , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Kefir/microbiology , Saliva, Artificial/administration & dosage , Tooth Remineralization/methods , In Vitro Techniques , Cattle , Caseins/therapeutic use , Calcium/analysis , Tooth Demineralization/pathology , Tooth Demineralization/therapy , Biofilms , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Enamel/cytology , Dental Enamel/physiopathology , Milk/microbiology , Formaldehyde/administration & dosage
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(4): 174-176, jun 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1026796


One of the newest areas of using the potential of a microbial association of kefir grains is obtaining a biodegradable film. The research was aimed at creating a packaging material with new properties of suppressing the development of concomitant microflora in dried berries and fruits.

Biodegradation, Environmental , Survival Rate , Food Packaging/methods , Microbiota , Kefir/microbiology , Immobilization
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 68(4): 336-343, dic. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LIVECS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1015799


The aim of this study was to determine the optimal temperature ranges of milk fermentation by the microbial association Tibetan Kefir Grains and to set changes during the storage of the fermented milk product. The optimum technological parameters of milk fermentation by Tibetan Kefir Grains compliance are set. Compliance of these parameters ensures the desired metabolic processes and obtaining a dairy product with good organoleptic properties: fermentation temperature is 28±1 °Ð¡ for 24 hours, acidity of the product is from 80 to 120 % lactic acid, the amount of lactic acid bacteria ­ (2.9±0.22) × 108 CFU/cm3, fungi ­ (3.7±0.27) × 104 CFU/cm3. It was found that during the storage of the fermented milk drink produced on the leaven Tibetan Kefir Grains at the temperature of 4 ± 1 °Ð¡ for 10 days titratable acidity of the product increased by 1.2 times to 108.4 ± 8.3 °Ð¢, the population of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus fermentum and some other) and yeast (Saccharomyces spp and some other) remained at the initial level. This indicates that the finished fermented milk product can be stored without losing functional probiotic properties for at least 10 days and meets the requirements of the standard (ISO 4471). At the same time, at a temperature of +8 ± 1°Ð¡ the expiration date of the fermented milk drink is decreases to 7 days(AU)

El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los rangos de tempera- tura óptimos de la fermentación de la leche mediante la asociación microbiana de granos de Kéfir Tibetanos y estudiar los cambios durante el almacenamiento del producto lácteo fermentado. Se es- tablecieron los parámetros tecnológicos óptimos de fermentación de la leche utilizando los granos de Kéfir Tibetano. El cumplimien- to de estos parámetros garantiza los procesos metabólicos desea- dos y la obtención de un producto lácteo con buenas propiedades organolépticas: la temperatura de fermentación es de 28 ± 1° С durante 24 horas, la acidez del producto es de 80 a 120% de ácido láctico, la cantidad de bacterias del ácido láctico - (2.9 ± 0.22) × 108 UFC /cm3, hongos - (3.7 ± 0.27) × 104 UFC /cm3. Se encontró que durante el almacenamiento de la bebida láctea fermentada pro- ducida con los granos de Kéfir Tibetanos de levadura a una tempe- ratura de 4 ± 1° С durante 10 días, la acidez titulable del producto aumentó 1.2 veces a 108.4 ± 8.3 ° Т, la población de las bacterias del ácido láctico (Lactobacillus fermentum y algunas otras) y la levadura (Saccharomyces spp y otras) se mantuvieron en el nivel inicial. Esto indica que el producto lácteo fermentado terminado se puede almacenar sin perder propiedades probióticas funcionales durante al menos 10 días y cumple con los requisitos de la norma ISO 4417. Al mismo tiempo, a una temperatura de + 8 ± 1 ° С, la fecha de vencimiento de la bebida de leche fermentada se reduce a 7 días(AU)

Cultured Milk Products/analysis , Fermentation , Kefir/microbiology , Milk/chemistry , Diet, Food, and Nutrition
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 21(4): 141-142, out-dez. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-986989


Pode-se definir kefir como sendo um complexo produto lácteo fermentado produzido por fermentação do leite por bactérias ácido láticas e leveduras contidos dentro de um complexo de exopolissacarídeo e proteínas denominado de grão de kefir. Embora não seja tão popular mundialmente como outros produtos lácteos fermentados ele tem apresentado nos últimos anos um aumento de consumo devido, principalmente, ao seu conteúdo de bactérias probióticas e seus benefícios à saúde. O objetivo desse trabalho foi apresentar as principais características e propriedades do kefir e os benefícios de seu consumo. A composição de microrganismos nos grãos de kefir é muito variável e complexa, uma vez que depende da sua origem, condições de crescimento e manutenção, mas sabe-se que há a predominância de bactérias ácido-láticas, acéticas, leveduras e fungos. O principal polissacarídeo encontrado nos grãos de kefir é o kefirano, um heteropolissacarídeo composto por iguais proporções de glicose e galactose e que possui propriedades antitumorais, antifúngicas, antibacteriana, anti-inflamatória e antioxidante. Devido a essas características, muitos produtos estão sendo desenvolvidos empregando kefir como cultura lática, como queijos, labneh, bebidas à base de extrato de soja e chás fermentados. O uso do kefir como um alimento funcional está aumentando dia a dia em todo o mundo e, assim tendo um maior interesse da comunidade científica por se tratar de um alimento funcional de baixo custo, mas também com várias aplicações na indústria de alimentos sendo desenvolvidas.(AU)

Kefir can be defined as a complex fermented dairy product produced by fermentation of milk by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts contained within a exopolysaccharide and protein complex known as kefir grain. Although it is not as popular worldwide as other fermented dairy products, its consumption has increased in recent years, mainly due to its probiotic bacteria and the health benefits it provides. This work aims at describing the main characteristics and properties of kefir as well as the benefits of its consumption. The microorganism composition in kefir grains is very variable and complex, since it depends on their origin, growth and maintenance conditions, but it is known to present predominantly lactic and acetic acid, as well as yeast and fungal bacteria. The main polysaccharide found in kefir grains is known as kefiran, a heteropolysaccharide comprised of equal proportions of glucose and galactose. It presents antitumor, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Due to these characteristics, many products are being developed using kefir as lactic acid culture, such as cheeses, labneh, soy-based drinks and fermented teas. The use of kefir as functional food is increasing worldwide, and therefore, there is a great interest of the scientific community due to it not only being a functional, low-cost food, but also due to several applications in the food industry being developed with it.(AU)

Se puede definir kéfir como un complejo producto lácteo fermentado producido por fermentación de la leche por bacterias ácidos lácticos y levaduras contenidas dentro de un complejo de exopolisacárido y proteínas denominado de grano de kéfir. Aunque no es tan popular mundialmente como otros productos lácteos fermentados, ha presentado en los últimos años un aumento de consumo debido principalmente a su contenido de bacterias probióticas y sus beneficios a la salud que proviene. El objetivo de este estudio fue presentar las principales características y propiedades del kéfir y los beneficios de su consumo. La composición de microorganismos en los granos de kéfir es muy variable y compleja, ya que depende de su origen, condiciones de crecimiento y mantenimiento, pero se sabe que hay predominio de bacterias ácidos lácticos, acéticos, levaduras y hongos. El principal polisacárido encontrado en los granos de kéfir es el kefirano, un heteropolisacárido compuesto por iguales proporciones de glucosa y galactosa y que tiene propiedades antitumorales, anti fúngicas, antibacterianas, antiinflamatorias y antioxidantes. Debido a esas características, muchos productos están siendo desarrollados empleando kéfir como cultura láctica, como quesos, labneh, bebidas a base de extracto de soja y tés fermentados. El uso del kéfir como alimento funcional está aumentando día a día en todo el mundo y así teniendo un mayor interés de la comunidad científica por tratarse de un alimento funcional de bajo costo, así como varias aplicaciones en la industria de alimentos están siendo desarrolladas.(AU)

Kefir/analysis , Kefir/classification , Kefir/microbiology , Functional Food/analysis
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 592-601, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889150


Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a kefir apple-based vinegar and evaluate this fermentation process using new methodology with Biospeckle Laser. Brazilian kefir grains were inoculated in apple must for vinegar production. In this study, the microbial community present in kefir, and correspondent vinegar, was investigated using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii were the microbial species identified. S. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and A. syzygii were found in smaller quantities at the beginning of the alcoholic fermentation, but were found throughout the alcoholic and acetic fermentation. Kefir grains were able to utilize apple must as substrate to produce ethanol, and acetic acid. Acetate, volatile alcohols and aldehydes in the vinegar-based kefir were also produced. The yield of acetic acid in the kefir vinegars was ∼79%. The acetic acid concentration was ∼41 g L-1, reaching the required standard for the Brazilian legislation accepts it as vinegar (4.0% acetic acid). Kefir vinegar showed good acceptance in the sensory analysis. The technology proposed here is novel by the application of immobilized-cell biomass (kefir grains) providing a mixed inocula and eliminating the use of centrifuge at the end of the fermentative process. This step will save energy demand and investment. This is the first study to produce apple vinegar using kefir grains.

Humans , Alcoholic Beverages/microbiology , Kefir/analysis , Malus/microbiology , Acetic Acid/analysis , Acetic Acid/metabolism , Acetobacter/isolation & purification , Acetobacter/metabolism , Biodiversity , Brazil , Ethanol/analysis , Ethanol/metabolism , Fermentation , Food Handling , Kefir/microbiology , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/metabolism , Malus/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolation & purification , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Taste