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1.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e188652, fev. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363174

ABSTRACT

Sedative and antinociceptive effects of two anesthetic protocols in black-tufted marmosets were compared in this study. Twenty-six marmosets underwent chemical immobilization for physical examination, blood sampling, tattooing, and microchipping. Animals were randomly treated with S-(+)-ketamine (10 mg/kg) and midazolam (1 mg/kg) (KM) or fentanyl (12.5 µg/kg) and droperidol (625 µg/kg) (FD) given by intramuscular injection. Heart and respiratory rates were recorded. Sedation, antinociception, muscle relaxation, posture, auditory, and visual responses were evaluated using a scoring system. Sedation in KM was achieved faster (p < 0.001) and lasted for a shorter period of time (p = 0.0009). KM was similar to FD in its cardiorespiratory effects, auditory and visual responses. Both protocols promoted adequate sedation to allow manipulation. Animals in KM assumed lateral recumbency while animals in FD maintained a quadrupedal posture during evaluation. FD produced less intense sedation and muscle relaxation but a higher degree of antinociception compared to KM and is suitable for procedures that require analgesia in black-tufted marmosets.(AU)


O presente estudo comparou os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios, sedativos e antinociceptivos de dois protocolos anestésicos em saguis-de-tufo-preto (Callithrix penicillata). Vinte e seis saguis foram submetidos à contenção química para exame físico, coleta de sangue, tatuagem de identificação e microchip. Os animais foram tratados aleatoriamente com a associação de S-(+)-cetamina (10 mg/kg) e midazolam (1 mg/kg) (KM) ou fentanil (12,5 µg/kg) e droperidol (625 µg/kg) (FD), administrados por injeção intramuscular. Foram avaliadas frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória, sedação, antinocicepção, relaxamento muscular, postura e resposta ao estímulo auditivo e visual. A sedação em KM foi alcançada mais rapidamente (p <0,001) e teve um tempo hábil mais curto (p = 0,0009). KM foi semelhante a FD nos efeitos cardiorrespiratórios, respostas auditivas e visuais. Os dois protocolos promoveram sedação adequada para manipulação. Os animais do grupo KM permaneceram em decúbito lateral durante a avaliação, enquanto os animais em FD mantiveram postura quadrupedal. FD resultou em sedação e relaxamento muscular de menor intensidade, porém com maior escore de antinocicepção em comparação com KM, sendo adequada para procedimentos que requerem analgesia em saguis-de-tufo-preto.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Callithrix , Fentanyl , Droperidol/administration & dosage , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Anesthetics/administration & dosage , Injections, Intramuscular
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 62-72, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153037

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se com este estudo comparar a associação de detomidina e cetamina ou dextrocetamina, por via intravenosa contínua, em oito cadelas submetidas a dois protocolos: GCD - indução anestésica com 5mg/kg e infusão intravenosa contínua de 20mg/kg/h de cetamina; e GDD - indução com 3,5mg/kg e infusão de 14mg/kg/h de dextrocetamina. Associou-se detomidina, 30µg/kg/h, em ambos os grupos. Registraram-se frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão arterial (PA), frequência respiratória (f), temperatura (TC), miorrelaxamento, analgesia, hemogasometria e eletrocardiograma, antes e 15 minutos após a MPA (Mbasal e Mmpa); após o início da infusão (Mic); a cada 10 minutos até 90 minutos (M10, M20, M30, M40, M50, M60, M70, M80 e M90); e 30 minutos após o fim da infusão (M120). Foi observada bradicardia em Mmpa no GCD e de Mmpa a M10 no GDD. Ocorreu hipotensão em Mmpa e hipertensão a partir de Mic. A f diminuiu de M10 a M30. Foram observados: onda T de alta amplitude, bloqueios atrioventriculares e parada sinusal. Ocorreu acidose respiratória. O período de recuperação foi de 219,6±72,3 minutos no GCD e de 234,1±96,8 minutos no GDD. A cetamina e a dextrocetamina, associadas à detomidina por infusão contínua, causam efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e anestésicos similares.(AU)


The combination of detomidine and ketamine or dextrocetamine for continuous intravenous infusion was compared in eight female dogs submitted to two protocols: GCD - 5mg/kg of anesthetic induction and continuous intravenous infusion of ketamine 20mg/kg/h; and GDD - induction with 3.5mg/kg and infusion of 14mg/kg/h of dextrocetamine. Detomidine, 30µg/kg/h was associated in both groups. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), temperature (CT), myorelaxation, analgesia, blood gas analysis and electrocardiogram were recorded before and 15 minutes after MPA (Mbasal and Mmpa); after the start of infusion (Mic); every 10 minutes to 90 minutes (M10, M20, M30, M40, M50, M60, M70, M80 and M90); and 30 minutes after the end of infusion (M120). Bradycardia was observed in Mmpa in GCD and from Mmpa to M10 in GDD. There was hypotension in Mmpa and hypertension from Mic. The RR decreased from M10 to M30. High amplitude T wave, atrioventricular blocks and sinus arrest were observed. Respiratory acidosis occurred. The recovery period was 219.6±72.3 minutes in GCD and 234.1±96.8 minutes in GDD. Ketamine and S+ ketamine associated with detomidine for continuous infusion cause cardiorespiratory and similar anesthetic effects.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , N-Methylaspartate/agonists , Adrenergic alpha-Agonists/analysis , Anesthetics, Combined/analysis , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Acidosis, Respiratory/veterinary , Respiratory Rate , Heart Rate , Anesthesia, Intravenous/veterinary
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10107, 2021. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142578

ABSTRACT

Ketamine (KET) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist with rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects, but how the drug shows its sustained effects is still a matter of controversy. The objectives were to evaluate the mechanisms for KET rapid (30 min) and long-lasting (15 and 30 days after) antidepressant effects in mice. A single dose of KET (2, 5, or 10 mg/kg, po) was administered to male Swiss mice and the forced swim test (FST) was performed 30 min, 15, or 30 days later. Imipramine (IMI, 30 mg/kg, ip), a tricyclic antidepressant drug, was used as reference. The mice were euthanized, separated into two time-point groups (D1, first day after KET injection; D30, 30 days later), and brain sections were processed for glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), histone deacetylase (HDAC), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical assays. KET (5 and 10 mg/kg) presented rapid and long-lasting antidepressant-like effects. As expected, the immunoreactivities for brain GSK-3 and HDAC decreased compared to control groups in all areas (striatum, DG, CA1, CA3, and mainly pre-frontal cortex, PFC) after KET injection. Increases in BDNF immunostaining were demonstrated in the PFC, DG, CA1, and CA3 areas at D1 and D30 time-points. GFAP immunoreactivity was also increased in the PFC and striatum at both time-points. In conclusion, KET changed brain BDNF and GFAP expressions 30 days after a single administration. Although neuroplasticity could be involved in the observed effects of KET, more studies are needed to explain the mechanisms for the drug's sustained antidepressant-like effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Ketamine/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Astrocytes , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Disease Models, Animal , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Histone Deacetylases
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(11): e11503, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285661

ABSTRACT

The mixture of ketamine and xylazine is widely used for the auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurement. Esketamine is twice as potent as ketamine. Our objective was to assess the influence of esketamine in mice undergoing cochlear function measurement including ABR and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurement. C57Bl/6J mice were treated with an equivalent dose of analgesia and received either a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 100 mg/kg ketamine and 25 mg/kg xylazine or 50 mg/kg esketamine and 25 mg/kg xylazine. Hearing thresholds, peak latencies of waves I and V, and DPOAE thresholds were recorded. Time to loss of righting and time to regain righting were also assessed. We found that hearing thresholds, the peak latencies of waves I and V, and DPOAE thresholds were similar between the two groups (all P>0.05). Time to regain righting was significantly shorter in the esketamine group (P<0.001) than in the ketamine group. We concluded that when using equivalent doses of analgesia, esketamine may be an ideal substitute for ketamine during cochlear function test.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Ketamine , Xylazine , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous
5.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 36(4): 37-51, dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1144751

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: la realización de procedimientos dolorosos es cada vez más frecuente en el área de urgencias pediátricas. El control del dolor, mitigar el temor y la ansiedad es una pieza clave en la atención del paciente pediátrico y una de las prioridades del médico emergencista. Objetivo: describir la experiencia en sedoanalgesia con ketamina y fentanilo como único fármaco o asociados a otros para procedimientos dolorosos en el Departamento de Emergencia Pediátrica (DEP) del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell (CHPR). Material y método: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. Período: enero de 2011 a julio de 2016. Población: todos los pacientes que recibieron sedoanalgesia con ketamina o fentanilo (solos o asociado a otros fármacos) para realización de procedimientos dolorosos en el DEP-CHPR. Base de datos: historias clínicas. Se midió la eficacia mediante el éxito del procedimiento y la seguridad por la presencia de efectos adversos vinculados a la misma. Resultados: n=352, menores de 15 años; 96 recibieron ketamina y 256 recibieron fentanilo. Media de edad: 7 años, sexo masculino: 245. Dosis media de ketamina 1 mg/kg. Dosis media de fentanilo 1 ɤ/kg. Principales indicaciones de sedoanalgesia: procedimientos ortopédicos (264), toracocentesis (62). Procedimiento con éxito: 352 pacientes. Monitorización cardiovascular y saturometría durante el procedimiento: 100%. Efectos adversos: seis (no requiriendo maniobras de soporte vital avanzado). Ningún paciente cambió su destino final. Conclusiones: la utilización de sedoanalgesia resultó eficaz y segura realizada por el pediatra emergencista capacitado en el manejo farmacológico y de soporte vital avanzado. La monitorización del procedimiento durante y luego de éste es necesaria para pesquisar y resolver precozmente las complicaciones.


Summary: Introduction: painful procedures are gradually increasing frequency in pediatrics emergency units. Controlling pain and mitigating fear and anxiety are of the essence when assisting pediatric patients and one of the priorities of emergency doctors. Objective: to describe using sedoanalgesia with ketamine and fentanyl as the only drug or associated with other drugs during painful procedures, at the Pediatrics Emergency Unit, of the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center. Method: descriptive, retrospective study from January 2011 to July 2016. Population: all patients who received sedoanalgesia with ketamine and fentanyl (as the only drug or associated with other drugs) during painful procedures at the Pediatrics Emergency Unit, of the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center. Database: medical records. Effectiveness was measured by success of the procedure and safety in terms of adverse effects in connection with it. Results: N=352 children younger than 15 years old. 96 received ketamine and 256 received fentanyl. Average age was 7 years old and 245 of them were boys. Average dose of ketamine was 1 mg/kg, average dose of fentanyl was 1 ɤ/kg. Main indications for sedoanalgesia included: orthopaedic procedures (264), thoracentesis (62). Procedures were successful in 352 patients. 100% of cases involved cardiovascular monitoring and blood oxygen saturation meter. Adverse effects: 6 (no advanced life support manoeuvres required). No patient changed final destination. Conclusions: the use of sedoanalgesia was effective and safe, when applied by emergengy pediatricians qualified in the handling of drugs and advanced life support. Monitoring during and after procedure is required to determine and solve complications at an early stage.


Resumo Introdução: a realização de procedimentos dolorosos é cada vez mais frequente na área de emergência pediátrica. Controlar a dor, mitigar o medo e a ansiedade é um elemento-chave no atendimento ao paciente pediátrico e uma das prioridades do médico de emergência. Objetivo: descrever a experiência em sedação e analgesia com ketamina e fentanil como fármaco único ou associado a outros para procedimentos dolorosos, no Serviço de Emergência Pediátrica (DEP) do Centro Hospitalar Pereira Rossell (CHPR) Material e métodos: estudo descritivo retrospectivo. Período: janeiro de 2011 a julho de 2016. População: todos os pacientes que receberam sedação e analgesia com ketamina ou fentanil (isoladamente ou em combinação com outras drogas) para realização de procedimentos dolorosos no DEP-CHPR. Banco de dados: prontuários médicos. A eficácia foi medida pelo sucesso do procedimento e a segurança pela presença de efeitos adversos associados. Resultados: n = 352 crianças menores de 15 anos. 96 receberam ketamina e 256 receberam fentanil. Idade média: 7 anos, sexo masculino: 245. Dose média de ketamina 1 mg / kg. Dose média de fentanil 1 ɤ/kg. Principais indicações para sedação e analgesia: procedimentos ortopédicos (264), toracocentese (62). Procedimento com sucesso: 352 pacientes. Monitorização cardiovascular e oximetria durante o procedimento: 100%. Efeitos adversos: 6 (não requer manobras de suporte avançado de vida). Nenhum paciente mudou seu destino final. Conclusões: o uso da sedação e analgesia foi eficaz e seguro realizado por pediatra de emergência capacitado em manejo farmacológico e suporte avançado de vida. O monitoramento do procedimento durante e após é necessário para investigar e resolver precocemente as complicações.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Child , Fentanyl/therapeutic use , Pain Management , Analgesia , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Emergency Service, Hospital
6.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 620-626, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155779

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives Day-case pediatric sedation is challenging. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative analgesic that does not induce respiratory depression. We compared dexmedetomidine to propofol when it was added to ketamine for sedation during pediatric endoscopy, regarding recovery time and hemodynamic changes. Methods We enrolled 120 patients (2−7 years in age) and randomly assigned them into two groups. Each patient received intravenous (IV) ketamine at a dose of 1 mg.kg-1 in addition to either propofol (1 mg.kg-1) or dexmedetomidine (0.5 µg.kg-1). The recovery time was compared. Hemodynamics, oxygen saturation, need for additional doses, postoperative complications and endoscopist satisfaction were monitored. Results There was no significant difference in hemodynamics between the groups. The Propofol-Ketamine (P-K) group showed significantly shorter recovery times than the Dexmedetomidine-Ketamine (D-K) group (21.25 and 29.75 minutes, respectively, p < 0.001). The P-K group showed more oxygen desaturation. Eleven and 6 patients experienced SpO2 < 92% in groups P-K and D-K, respectively. A significant difference was noted regarding the need for additional doses; 10% of patients in the D-K group needed one extra dose, and 5% needed two extra doses, compared to 25% and 20% in the P-K group, respectively (p = 0.001). The P-K group showed less post-procedure nausea and vomiting. No statistically significant difference between both groups regarding endoscopist satisfaction. Conclusions The P-K combination was associated with a shorter recovery time in pediatric upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, while the D-K combination showed less need for additional doses. Registration number Clinical trials.gov (NCT02863861).


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos A sedação ambulatorial pediátrica é um desafio. A dexmedetomidina é um analgésico sedativo que não induz à depressão respiratória. Comparamos a dexmedetomidina ao propofol quando associados à cetamina para sedação durante endoscopia pediátrica, quanto ao tempo de recuperação e às alterações hemodinâmicas. Métodos Foram recrutados 120 pacientes (2−7 anos de idade) que foram aleatoriamente alocados em dois grupos. Cada paciente recebeu cetamina IV na dose de 1 mg.kg‐1, além de propofol (1 mg.kg‐1) ou dexmedetomidina (0,5 µg.kg‐1). Comparamos o tempo de recuperação. A hemodinâmica, saturação de oxigênio, necessidade de doses adicionais, complicações pós‐operatórias e satisfação do endoscopista foram monitoradas. Resultados Não houve diferença significante entre os grupos no que diz respeito à hemodinâmica. O grupo Propofol‐Cetamina (P‐C) apresentou tempos de recuperação significantemente mais curtos do que o grupo Dexmedetomidina‐Cetamina (D‐C) (21,25 e 29,75 minutos respectivamente, p < 0,001). Observou‐se frequência maior de dessaturação de oxigênio no grupo P‐C. Onze e 6 pacientes apresentaram SpO2 < 92% nos grupos P‐C e D‐C, respectivamente. Uma diferença significante foi observada em relação à necessidade de doses adicionais; 10% dos pacientes no grupo D‐C precisaram de uma dose extra e 5% precisaram de duas doses extras, em comparação com 25% e 20% no grupo P‐C, respectivamente (p = 0,001). O grupo P‐C apresentou menos náuseas e vômitos após o procedimento. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos em relação à satisfação do endoscopista. Conclusões A combinação P‐C foi associada a tempo mais curto de recuperação na endoscopia digestiva alta pediátrica, enquanto a combinação D‐C mostrou menor necessidade de doses adicionais. Número de registro Clinical trials.gov (NCT02863861).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Propofol/administration & dosage , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Combined/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Oxygen/blood , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Heart Rate/drug effects , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Hypotension/chemically induced , Ketamine/administration & dosage
8.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 30(3): 192-202, Diciembre 30, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145692

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El dolor oncológico frecuentemente incapacita y desanima a los pacientes, adicionalmente produce frustración no solo al paciente sino también al equipo que realiza el cuidado. En un momento dado los opiodes ya no alivian el dolor y se requieren medidas coayuvantes para tener los mismos resultados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar la eficacia analgésica con morfina + ketamina en relación a morfina sola en pacientes oncológicos que no responden a opioides. Métodos: El presente estudio observacional retrospectivo, fue realizado en el Instituto Oncológico Nacional "Dr. Juan Tanca Marengo" SOLCA-Guayaquil, con datos de enero del 2014 a diciembre del 2015. Se incluyeron todos los registros clínicos de pacientes mayores a 17 años que ingresaron a sala de urgencias o en hospitalización en quienes se realizó un tratamiento paliativo del dolor de tipo oncológico, con una escala de Karnofsky ≥ 40. El grupo 1 (G1) se conformó con pacientes cuyo tratamiento fue en base solamente con morfina con una respuesta adecuada, el Grupo 2 (G2) fue constituido con pacientes en quienes se usó morfina + Ketamina debido a su falta de respuesta previa solamente al uso de morfina. Se midió la percepción del dolor en la escala visual analógica (EVA), dosis de morfina usada (número de dosis de rescate), dosis de Ketamina usada, efectos secundarios. La muestra fue no probabilística, tipo censo. Resultados: 81 pacientes ingresaron al estudio, 34/43mujeres (79%) en G1 y 24/38 (63%) en G2 P=0.113.58. En ambos grupos EVA al ingreso 7 a 10 (severo), después de la intervención terapéutica en G1 4 ± 1.25, en G2 3 ± 1.50 P=0.78. Dosis de Morfina en G1 10 ± 12.5 mg, en G2 20 ± 27.5 mg P= 0.406. Rescate analgésico en G1 29/43 (67%) en G2 19/38 (50%) OR 0.483 (IC95% 0.196-1.188) P=0.113. Efectos adversos no fueron diferentes en ambos grupos. Conclusión: La Ketamina usada como coadyuvante con morfina permite mantener el control el dolor en el grupo de pacientes que habitualmente no responden a Morfina con dolor oncológico, sin aumentar los efectos adversos. Palabras Claves: Ketamina, Anestesia, Morfina, Dolor en Cáncer, Neoplasias


Introduction: Cancer pain frequently disables and discourages patients, additionally it produces frustration not only for the patient but also for the team that performs the care. At one point, opioids no longer relieve pain and co-adjuvant measures are required to achieve the same results. The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy with morphine + ketamine in relation to morphine alone in cancer patients who do not respond to opioids. Methods: The present retrospective observational study was carried out at the National Oncological Institute "Dr. Juan Tanca Marengo "SOLCA-Guayaquil, with data from January 2014 to December 2015. All clinical records of patients older than 17 years who were admitted to the emergency room or hospitalized who underwent palliative treatment of pain from Oncological type, with a Karnofsky scale ≥ 40. Group 1 (G1) was made up of patients whose treatment was based solely on morphine with an adequate response, Group 2 (G2) was made up of patients in whom morphine + was used Ketamine due to lack of response prior to morphine use only. The perception of pain was measured on the visual analog scale (VAS), dose of morphine used (number of rescue doses), dose of Ketamine used, side effects. The sample was non-probabilistic, census type. Results: 81 patients entered the study, 34/43 women (79%) in G1 and 24/38 (63%) in G2 P = 0.113.58. In both groups, VAS at admission 7 to 10 (severe), after the therapeutic intervention in G1 4 ± 1.25, in G2 3 ± 1.50 P = 0.78. Morphine dose in G1 10 ± 12.5 mg, in G2 20 ± 27.5 mg P = 0.406. Analgesic rescue in G1 29/43 (67%) in G2 19/38 (50%) OR 0.483 (95% CI 0.196-1.188) P = 0.113. Adverse effects were not different in both groups. Conclusion: Ketamine used as an adjuvant with morphine allows to maintain pain control in the group of patients who usually do not respond to morphine with cancer pain, without increasing adverse effects. Keywords: Ketamine, Anesthesia, Morphine, Cancer Pain, Neoplasms


Subject(s)
Humans , Anesthesia , Ketamine , Morphine , Cancer Pain , Neoplasms
9.
Dolor ; 30(72): 20-24, nov. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362442

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de dolor crónico postmastectomía es frecuente en pacientes sometidas a cirugía por cáncer de mamas, llegando a ser invalidante en casos severos. Existen distintos factores de riesgo para que éste se presente, siendo el dolor agudo postoperatorio el único en el cual podemos intervenir. La importancia de implementar estrategias de prevención en el periodo perioperatorio es fundamental. En la mantención de la anestesia general, la utilización de propofol se asocia con menor incidencia de dolor agudo postoperatorio. El uso de anestésicos locales, ya sea por vía tópica, subcutánea y sistémica, ha demostrado su beneficio para disminuir el dolor agudo. No obstante, solo el uso tópico y endovenoso ha sido útil para reducir el dolor hasta 3 meses postcirugía. Técnicas de analgesia regional, como el bloqueo PEC I y II, bloqueo paravertebral y bloqueo del erector de la espina han demostrado ser útiles para reducir el dolor agudo; pero solo el bloqueo paravertebral ha demostrado su utilidad en reducir el dolor hasta 1 año postcirugía. El uso de gabapentina, pregabalina y ketamina desde el periodo preoperatorio disminuyen la incidencia de dolor agudo postoperatorio. En tanto, la venlafaxina y dexmedetomidina demostraron su utilidad para reducir el dolor crónico.


Postmastectomy chronic pain syndrome is common in patients undergoing surgery for breast cancer, becoming invalidating in severe cases. There are different risk factors for this to occur, with acute post-operative pain being the only one in which we can intervene. The importance of implementing prevention strategies in the perioperative period is essential. In the maintenance of general anesthesia, the use of propofol is associated with a lower incidence of acute post-operative pain. The use of local anesthetics, whether topically, subcutaneously and systemically, has shown its benefit in reducing acute pain. However, only topical and endovenous use has been useful to reduce pain up to 3 months after surgery. Regional analgesia techniques, such as PEC I and II block, paravertebral block, and spinal erector block have been shown to reduce acute pain; but only the paravertebral block has shown its usefulness in reducing pain up to 1 year after surgery. The use of gabapentin, pregabalin and ketamine from the preoperative period reduce the incidence of acute postoperative pain. Meanwhile, venlafaxine and dexmedetomidine proved useful in reducing chronic pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Chronic Pain/prevention & control , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Mastectomy/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Propofol/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Chronic Pain/etiology , Pregabalin/therapeutic use , Gabapentin/therapeutic use , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Local
10.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 553-555, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143970

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hydatid cyst in the cervical region is an extremely rare condition that can create challenges for anesthesiologists. Timely recognition of difficult airway and preparing the management plan is crucial to avoid life-threatening complications such as hypoxic brain damage. We describe a case of difficult airway management in a patient with massive cervical hydatid cyst. We used a low-dose ketamine-propofol sedation and lidocaine spray for local oropharyngeal anesthesia. Muscular relaxants were not used, and spontaneous breathing was maintained during intubation. Recognition, assessment, and perioperative planning are essential for difficult airway management in patients with cervical hydatid cyst.


Resumo O cisto hidático na região cervical é uma condição extremamente rara que pode criar desafios para os anestesiologistas. O reconhecimento oportuno das vias aéreas difíceis e a preparação do plano de manejo são cruciais para evitar complicações com risco de vida, como danos cerebrais hipóxicos. Descrevemos um caso de difícil controle das vias aéreas em um paciente com cisto hidático cervical maciço. Utilizamos sedação com cetamina-propofol em baixa dose e spray de lidocaína para anestesia local orofaríngea. Relaxantes musculares não foram utilizados e a respiração espontânea foi mantida durante a intubação. O reconhecimento, a avaliação e o planejamento perioperatório são essenciais para o manejo difícil das vias aéreas em pacientes com cisto hidático cervical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Airway Obstruction/parasitology , Echinococcosis/complications , Cervical Cord/parasitology , Propofol/administration & dosage , Echinococcosis/surgery , Airway Management , Intubation, Intratracheal , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Local/adverse effects , Lidocaine/administration & dosage
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1666-1674, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131549

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as alterações cardiorrespiratórias causadas pela medetomidina associada à cetamina, e o tempo de recuperação após aplicação intramuscular de atipamezole ou ioimbina em Puma concolor. Para isso, foi realizada a aplicação de medetomidina (100µg/kg) associada à cetamina (5mg/kg) em 11 onças-pardas, sendo os parâmetros cardiorrespiratórios registrados a cada 15 minutos, durante 90 minutos de avaliação. Em seguida, a anestesia foi revertida com aplicação intramuscular de ioimbina (0,4mg/kg; n=5) ou atipamezole (0,25mg/kg; n=6), sendo analisado o tempo até a recuperação. Dos parâmetros cardiorrespiratórios avaliados, houve diferença apenas na frequência respiratória (entre os momentos 60 e 90 minutos), estando esta, todavia, dentro do intervalo de referência para a espécie. Além disso, verificou-se tempo para decúbito esternal significativamente menor nos animais do grupo atipamezole (18±7 minutos), quando comparado ao grupo ioimbina (36±17 minutos), entretanto o tempo de recuperação completa foi estatisticamente igual entre os dois reversores analisados. Assim, a associação anestésica promoveu anestesia eficiente, segura e de rápida indução em onças-pardas, permitindo a imobilização dos animais durante os 90 minutos de avaliação, sem a ocorrência de complicações. Ao se comparar a reversão anestésica com atipamezole e ioimbina, observou-se equivalência dos fármacos no tempo de recuperação completa dos animais.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiorespiratory changes caused by ketamine-associated medetomidine, and the recovery time after intramuscular application of atipamezole or yohimbine in Puma concolor. For this, the application of medetomidine (100µg/kg) associated with ketamine (5mg/kg) was performed in eleven brown ounces, and the cardiorespiratory parameters were recorded every 15 minutes during 90 minutes of evaluation. Afterwards, anesthesia was reversed with intramuscular application of yohimbine (0.4mg/kg; n=5) or atipamezole (0.25mg/kg; n=6), and time to recovery was analyzed. Of the cardiorespiratory parameters evaluated, there was a difference only in respiratory rate (between 60 and 90 minutes), however, within the reference range for the species. In addition, there was a significantly shorter time for sternal decubitus in the animals of the atipamezole group (18±7 minutes) when compared to the yohimbine group (36±17 minutes), however the complete recovery time was statistically equal between the two reversers analyzed. Thus, the anesthetic association promoted efficient, safe and fast induction anesthesia in puma, allowing the animals to be immobilized during the 90 minutes of evaluation without complications. Comparing anesthetic reversal with atipamezole and yohimbine, drug equivalence was observed in the complete recovery time of the animals.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Yohimbine/therapeutic use , Medetomidine/administration & dosage , Puma/physiology , Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists/therapeutic use , Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists/analysis , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Anesthesia Recovery Period
12.
Medisan ; 24(4)jul.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1125134

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El temblor es frecuente. Además de agravar el dolor, aumenta la demanda metabólica y el consumo de oxígeno; varios fármacos son utilizados para eliminarlo. Objetivo: Determinar la efectividad de la ketamina y el sulfato de magnesio en pacientes con temblor posanestesia subaracnoidea. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación cuasi-experimental de 394 pacientes, quienes se encontraban bajo anestesia espinal de forma electiva, atendidos en el Hospital General Docente Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba, desde septiembre de 2016 hasta igual periodo de 2018. Se dividieron en 2 grupos aleatorios con 197 integrantes cada uno: A (ketamina 0,4 mg/kg) y B (sulfato de magnesio 50 mg/kg), a los cuales se le suministraron los medicamentos una vez iniciado el temblor. Resultados: En ambos grupos predominaron los pacientes de 45-64 años de edad. Hubo homogeneidad entre hombres y mujeres, sin significación estadística (p= 0,5378). La mayoría de los afectados se encontraban en el grupo de riesgo anestésico II (88,1 %). En los 2 grupos primó del grado III del temblor antes de la terapia, solo 3,5 % del grupo B a los 30 minutos mantuvo igual condición. En los primeros 10 minutos de suministrar el sulfato de magnesio despareció el temblor en la mayoría de los pacientes (74,5 %). Dicho fármaco resultó efectivo en 83,8 % de los afectados y en aquellos que recibieron ketamina fue de 42,1 %, ambos sin efectos secundarios. Conclusiones: La incidencia del temblor fue alta. La ketamina y el sulfato de magnesio fueron efectivos al permitir la desaparición del temblor en un corto periodo de tiempo, pero el segundo fármaco superó al primero en magnitud considerable.


Introduction: The shaking is frequent. Besides increasing the pain, it increases the metabolic demand and the oxygen consumption; several drugs are used to eliminate it. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of ketamine and magnesium sulfate in patients with shaking after subarachnoid anesthesia. Methods: A quasi-experimental investigation of 394 patients who received spinal anesthesia in an elective way, assisted at Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Teaching General Hospital was carried out in Santiago de Cuba, from September, 2016 to the same period in 2018. They were divided in 2 random groups with 197 members each one: A (ketamine 0.4 mg/kg) and B (magnesium sulfate 50 mg/kg), to whom the medications were given once shaking began. Results: In both groups the 45-64 years patients prevailed. There was homogeneity between men and women, without statistical significance (p = 0.5378). Most of those affected were in the group of anesthetic risk II (88.1 %). In the 2 groups the degree III of shaking before therapy prevailed, just 3.5 % in group B maintained the same condition at 30 minutes. In the first 10 minutes of giving the magnesium sulfate shaking disappeared in most of the patients (74.5 %). This drug was effective in 83.8 % of those affected and in those that received ketamine it was of 42.1 %, both without side effects. Conclusions: The incidence of shaking was high. The ketamine and magnesium sulfate were effective when allowing the disappearance of shaking in a short period of time, but the second drug overcame the first one in a considerable magnitude.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia/adverse effects , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Tremor
13.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(4): 259-270, ago. 31, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179044

ABSTRACT

Objective: This review addresses a clinical research question related to lower third molar surgery (L3MS): does the combination of pre-emptive low-dose ketamine with local anesthesia (KLA) reduce postoperative complications compared with local anesthesia (LA) alone? Material and methods: A systematic literature search was performed to identify eligible articles by electronic searches of PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EBSCO Library, Web of Science and grey literature through June 2019 without data or language restrictions. We analyzed all randomized controlled clinical studies (RCTs) comparing use of KLA with use of LA in L3MS regarding pain, swelling, and trismus outcomes. The quality of evidence was rated according to Cochrane's tool for assessing risk of bias. Results: Five RCTs encompassing 230 extraction sites (KLA = 115, LA = 115) were included in this study. The standardized mean difference (SMD) with the 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to synthesize the results. The data show that there were significant differences between the two groups in post-operative pain (SMD -1.464, 95% CI -1.683 to -0.949, p= 0.001) and swelling (SMD -0.450, 95% CI -0.758 to -0.142, p= 0.004, all low quality evidence). However, there was no significant difference in the trismus (SMD -0.754, CI -1.487 to -0.022, p = 0.043, very low quality evidence). Conclusion: The combination of pre-emptive low-dose ketamine with LA significantly decreased pain and swelling within the first 24 hours after L3MS compared with the control group.


Objetivo: Esta revisión aborda una pregunta de investigación clínica relacionada con la cirugía del tercer molar inferior (L3MS): ¿la combinación de ketamina preventiva en dosis bajas con anestesia local (KLA) reduce las complicaciones postoperatorias en comparación con la anestesia local (AL) sola? Material y Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica sistemática para identificar artículos elegibles mediante búsquedas electrónicas en PubMed, Registro Cochrane Central de Ensayos Controlados, Biblioteca EBSCO, Web of Science y literatura gris hasta junio de 2019 sin restricciones de datos ni de idioma. Se analizaron todos los estudios clínicos controlados aleatorios (ECA) que compararon el uso de KLA con el uso de LA en L3MS con respecto a los resultados de dolor, hinchazón y trismo. La calidad de la evidencia se clasificó de acuerdo con la herramienta Cochrane para evaluar el riesgo de sesgo. Resultados: Se incluyeron en este estudio cinco ECA que abarcan 230 sitios de extracción (KLA = 115, LA = 115). La diferencia de medias estandarizada (DME) con el intervalo de confianza (IC) del 95% se utilizó para sintetizar los resultados. Los datos muestran que hubo diferencias significativas entre los dos grupos en el dolor posoperatorio (DME -1,464; IC del 95%: -1,683 a -0,949; p= 0,001) e hinchazón (DME -0,450; IC del 95%: -0,758 a -0,142, p= 0,004, todas las pruebas de baja calidad). Sin embargo, no hubo diferencias significativas en el trismo (DME -0,754; IC: -1,487 a -0,022; p= 0,043, evidencia de muy baja calidad). Conclusión: La combinación de ketamina preventiva en dosis bajas con LA disminuyó significativamente el dolor y la hinchazón dentro de las primeras 24 horas después de la L3MS en comparación con el grupo de control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Local , Pain , Morbidity , Molar, Third/surgery
14.
Brasília; s.n; 29 jul. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1117728

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referentes ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 16 artigos e 3 protocolos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Midazolam/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Propofol/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Fentanyl/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Copper/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , Interferon alpha-2/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Ketamine/therapeutic use
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 836-842, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129487

ABSTRACT

Considerando a realidade conservacionista dos animais mantidos em cativeiro, em especial os pequenos felídeos silvestres, objetivou-se, com este estudo, descrever o método de coleta de sêmen por cateterismo uretral em Leopardus guttulus cativos, anestesiados com cetamina-dexmedetomidina. Inicialmente foram utilizados 13 animais para coleta de sêmen por cateterismo mediante o uso de diferentes doses de cetamina-dexmedetomidina. Após determinação da dose anestésica ideal para coleta de sêmen nessa espécie, cinco L. guttulus machos foram submetidos a coletas seriadas de sêmen pelo método do cateterismo. A dose ideal para coleta de sêmen foi de 0,008mg/kg de dexmedetomidina e 10mg/kg de cetamina. Os valores médios para volume e concentração foram de 35,9µL e 552,8x106sptz/mL. Com média de 71% de motilidade e 3,1 de vigor, 68% dos espermatozoides apresentaram vitalidade (integridade de membrana) e 77% integridade acrossomal. Sobre as patologias espermáticas, obteve-se uma média de 28% de espermatozoides com defeitos maiores, 6% com defeitos menores e 67% normais. As vantagens do método, como a facilidade e o baixo custo, fazem recomendar sua utilização em L. guttulus, pois foram apresentados bons resultados quanto à concentração espermática, à motilidade, ao vigor, à viabilidade espermática e à integridade acrossomal, sendo uma técnica promissora para utilização em felinos selvagens.(AU)


Considering the conservationist reality of animals kept in captivity, especially the small wild felids, this study aimed to describe the semen collection method using urethral catheterization in captive Leopardus guttulus, anesthetized with ketamine-dexmedetomidine. Initially, 13 animals were used for semen collection using catheterization with different ketamine-dexmedetomidine doses. After determination of the best anesthetic dose for semen collection in this species, five male L. guttulus were submitted to serial semen collections using the catheter method. The dose for semen collection was 0.008mg/kg dexmedetomidine and 10mg/kg ketamine. The mean values for volume and concentration were 35.9µL and 552.8x106sptz/mL, with a mean of 71% motility, 3.1 vigor, and 68% of spermatozoa presented vitality and 77% presented acrosomal integrity. Sperm pathologies obtained an average of 28% of spermatozoa with major defects, 6% of spermatozoa with minor defects and 67% of normal spermatozoa. The method advantages such as ease and low cost lead us to recommend the use in L. guttulus, since it presented good results regarding sperm concentration, motility, vigor, sperm viability and acrosomal integrity, being a promising technique for use in wild cats.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Semen , Urinary Catheterization/veterinary , Tissue and Organ Harvesting/methods , Tissue and Organ Harvesting/veterinary , Felidae , Dexmedetomidine , Ketamine , Animals, Wild
16.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(1): e525, ene.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093129

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer es la segunda causa de muerte en el mundo y en Cuba. Su estrategia de tratamiento implica fármacos oncoespecíficos y cirugía; y diariamente aumentan los pacientes intervenidos quirúrgicamente lo que conlleva a un periodo perioperatorio y la administración de múltiples medicamentos anestésicos. Objetivo: Describir los principales factores relacionados con la anestesia que, durante el perioperatorio, influyen en la recurrencia oncológica. Desarrollo: El estrés quirúrgico y la anestesia general, con la subsecuente respuesta neuroendocrina e inflamatoria, por sí mismos, limitan la respuesta inmune y alteran el balance entre el potencial metastásico del tumor y antimetastásico de las defensas, lo cual representa un mecanismo plausible en el incremento de las metástasis y recurrencia oncológica. Conclusiones: La proliferación del cáncer y recidiva tumoral en el contexto quirúrgico asociado a la anestesia, es un tema relativamente nuevo y por tanto es necesario realizar estudios con mayor alcance que validen este fenómeno. No obstante, el efecto inmunosupresor que produce el estrés perioperatorio, fármacos anestésicos como opioides y halogenados pueden ser la clave para explicar este fenómeno. La anestesia general endovenosa total libre de opioides y adecuada analgesia regional contribuyen a disminuir este efecto(AU)


Introduction: Cancer is the second cause of death worldwide and in Cuba. Its treatment strategy involves oncospecific drugs and surgery. Every day, the number of patients who undergo surgery increases, which leads to a perioperative period and the administration of multiple anesthetic medications. Objective: To describe the main factors related to anesthesia and that, during the perioperative period, influence oncological recurrence. Development: Surgical stress and general anesthesia, with the subsequent neuroendocrine and inflammatory response, by themselves, limit the immune response and alter the balance between the metastatic potential of the tumor and the antimetastatic defense, which represents a plausible mechanism for increased metastasis and oncological relapse. Conclusions: The proliferation of cancer and tumor relapse in the surgical context associated with anesthesia is a relatively new issue and it is therefore necessary to carry out studies with greater scope that validate this phenomenon. However, the immunosuppressive effect produced by perioperative stress, as well as anesthetic drugs such as opioids and halogenated drugs, can be the key to explaining this phenomenon. Total intravenous opioid-free general anesthesia and adequate regional analgesia contribute to diminish this effect(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Recurrence , Perioperative Period/methods , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Anesthesia, General/methods , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/prevention & control
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 161-168, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088917

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos analgésicos transoperatórios da infusão contínua de morfina e cetamina, associada ou não à lidocaína, em gatas submetidas à OSH eletiva. Foram utilizadas 16 fêmeas adultas, hígidas, pré-medicadas com acepromazina (0,1mg/kg) e morfina (0,5mg/kg), ambas pela via intramuscular, induzidas com cetamina (1mg/kg) e propofol (4mg/kg), pela via intravenosa, e mantidas sob anestesia geral inalatória com isoflurano a 1,4 V%. Os animais foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo morfina, lidocaína e cetamina (MLK, n=8), que recebeu bolus de lidocaína (1mg/kg), pela via IV, seguido de infusão de morfina, lidocaína e cetamina (0,26mg/kg/h, 3mg/kg/h e 0,6mg/kg/h, respectivamente); e grupo morfina e cetamina (MK, n=8), que recebeu bolus de solução salina, seguido de infusão de morfina e cetamina, nas mesmas doses do MLK. Os momentos avaliados foram: M0, basal, cinco minutos após a indução; M1, imediatamente após a aplicação do bolus de lidocaína ou solução salina; M2, M3, M4 e M5, a cada cinco minutos, até completar 20 minutos do início da infusão; M6, após a incisão da musculatura; M7, após pinçamento do primeiro pedículo ovariano; M8, após pinçamento do segundo pedículo ovariano; M9, após pinçamento da cérvix; M10, após sutura da musculatura; M11, ao final da cirurgia; e M12, M13 e M14, intervalos de cinco minutos, até completar uma hora de infusão. A FP no M0 foi maior no MLK quando comparado ao MK. Em ambos os grupos, a PAS foi maior no M7 e no M8 em relação ao M0, porém no MK, além da PAS, a FP foi maior do M7 ao M13, assim como a f. Os animais do MK necessitaram de um número maior de resgates transoperatorios, total de 23, do que o MLK, total de sete. Conclui-se que a adição de lidocaína incrementou a analgesia oferecida, reduzindo o número de resgates analgésicos transoperatórios, a dose total de fentanil, bem como a probabilidade de os animais necessitarem dese tipo de resgate.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the trans-operative analgesics, continuous infusion of morphine and ketamine, with or without lidocaine in cats undergoing elective OSH. Sixteen adult cats were used, otherwise healthy, pre-medicated with acepromazine (0.1mg/kg) and morphine (0.5mg/kg), both intramuscularly, induced with ketamine (1mg/kg) and propofol (4mg/kg), intravenous, maintained under general inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane 1.4 V%. The animals were randomly allocated into two groups: morphine, lidocaine and ketamine (MLK, n= 8), which received intravenous bolus of lidocaine (1mg/kg) followed by infusion of morphine, lidocaine and ketamine (0.26mg / kg/h, 3mg / kg/h and 0.6mg / kg/h, respectively); Morphine and ketamine (MK, n= 8), who received bolus of saline followed by infusion of morphine and ketamine at the same doses of MLK. The evaluated moments were: M0, basal, 5 minutes after induction; M1 immediately after the application of lidocaine bolus injection or saline; M2, M3, M4 and M5, every 5 minutes to complete 20 minutes after the start of infusion; M6, after the incision of the musculature; M7, after clamping of the first ovarian pedicle; M8, after clamping of the second ovarian pedicle; M9, after clamping of the cervix; M10, after suturing of the musculature; M11, at the end of surgery; And M12, M13 and M14, 5 minute intervals until completing one hour of infusion. The time to extubating and full recovery of animals, and the need for rescue analgesic fentanyl intraoperatively were also evaluated. HR in M0 was higher in MLK when compared to MK. In both groups the SBP was higher in M7 and M8 compared to M0, but the MK, addition of SAP, HR was greater M7 to M13, as well as f. MK animals required a greater number of trans-operative rescues than the MLK. It was concluded that the addition of lidocaine to the protocol using morphine and ketamine increased its analgesia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cats , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Morphine/administration & dosage , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Anesthetics, Combined , Salpingectomy/veterinary , Hysterectomy/veterinary
18.
s.l; RedARETS; [2020].
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1095160

ABSTRACT

DESCRIPCIÓN DE LA TECNOLOGÍA Y TECNOLOGÍAS ALTERNATIVAS: La ketamina se ha utilizado durante más de 50 años para la inducción y el mantenimiento de la anestesia. Tiene propiedades únicas, incluida la capacidad de producir analgesia profunda y amnesia mientras se mantienen reflejos de las vías respiratorias, respiración espontánea y cardiopulmonar estabilidad. Además, produce un estado cataléptico en el que los pacientes pueden tener sus ojos abiertos pero no responde a los comandos. Como tal, la ketamina se ha denominado " anestésico disociativo ". Además de su uso para anestesia, la ketamina se ha utilizado para una gran variedad de indicaciones como el manejo dolor la depresión, tendencias suicidas y más recientemente como agente alternativo para el tratamiento de agitación o delirio. La ketamina ejerce sus acciones a través de interacciones con una variedad de receptores, que incluyen bloqueo de receptores de N-metil-D-aspartato, inhibición de óxido nítrico sintasa e interacciones con múltiples receptores opioides, entre otros. La ketamina se absorbe rápidamente después de administración intramuscular (IM), intravenosa (IV) o intraósea (IO) y es altamente lipofílico, cruzando fácilmente la barrera hematoencefálica. MÉTODOS: Se seleccionó una revisión sistemática (Linder y col 2017) y se evaluó a través de la herramienta AMSTAR 2 con baja confianza. Posteriormente se realizó una búsqueda desde los años 2017 a 2019 que cumpliera con los criterios de búsqueda. Fue incluido en ensayo clínico de tipo "open label" realizado por Cole y col 2016. El mismo fue evaluado a través de la herramienta Rob-2 para valorar el riesgo de sesgo. RECOMENDACIONES Y JUICIOS: Hemos encontrado sólo un ensayo clínico de tipo "open label" que evaluó el uso de Ketamina asociado o no con benzodiacepinas frente a Haloperidol para el tratamiento del delirio o agitación en el contexto de la atención de emergencia en el ámbito pre-hospitalario. El resto de los estúdios son de tipo observacional y son heterogéneos en cuanto a pacientes, intervenciones y desenlaces. Es probable que la Ketamina sea más efectiva frente a Haloperidol para la resolución de la excitación psicomotriz o delirio en la emergencia, así como el tiempo de resolución del delirio se reduce aproximadamente a la mitad. Asimismo, la Ketamina podría no asociarse con mayor mortalidad frente a Haloperidol, hallazgo sustentado en una baja certeza por imprecisión dado el escaso número de eventos. Sin embargo, la Ketamina probablemente se asocie con mayor depresión respiratoria y necesidad de intubación frente al Haloperidol. Por otra parte, el costo directo por paciente asociado del uso de ketamina es 20 veces superior al del Haloperidol, sin tener en cuenta la mayor probabilidad de intubación orotraqueal derivada de la depresión respiratoria asociada con el uso de ketamina así como tampoco la mayor efectividad, que podría reducir el uso de otros fármacos de rescate. No existen meta-análisis en red que evalúen este uso frente al Haloperidol, así como tampoco estudios económicos que valoren el impacto en la costo-efectividad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Emergence Delirium/drug therapy , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Cost Efficiency Analysis , Ketamine/therapeutic use
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786179

ABSTRACT

Currently, sedation anesthesia is increasingly used in many medical fields, from gastroscopy to medical imaging. The demand for sedation anesthesia is expected to increase gradually with increasing number of day surgeries and increased expectations from medical services. The demand for sedation anesthesia is considerably higher than the available pool of anesthesiologists; therefore, in a significant number of cases, sedation anesthesia is induced by non-anesthesiologists. However, there is no systematic provision of education or expertise for non-anesthesiologists in delivering sedation anesthesia. In cases of non-anesthesiologists inducing anesthesia, social controversy is often caused by medical accidents and substance abuse. In this review, I have briefly summarized what non-anesthesiologists should know about sedation anesthesia and have presented guidelines simplifying sedation anesthesia for non-anesthesia medical personnel.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Surgical Procedures , Anesthesia , Dexmedetomidine , Diagnostic Imaging , Education , Etomidate , Gastroscopy , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Ketamine , Propofol , Substance-Related Disorders
20.
Rev. cientif. cienc. med ; 23(1): 38-43, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126277

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCION: en el postoperatorio de anestesia obstétrica, los temblores representan el 54%. Por lo cual, se pretende evitarlo en la sala de recuperación, usando medicamentos que regulen los temblores como ketamina y meperidina. OBJETIVOS: determinar la eficacia de la ketamina y meperidina para prevención de temblores en pacientes sometidas a cesárea bajo anestesia regional. METODOS: se realizó un ensayo clínico, simple ciego, aleatorizado y controlado. En el Hospital Obrero N° 2, Ingresaron en el estudio 40 pacientes cumpliendo criterios de inclusión, 20 pacientes por grupo. Las dosis usadas en el grupo Ketamina de 0.25 mg/kg y grupo meperidina de 0.1 mg/Kg. Se usó la escala de Crossley para determinar temblores, medición de temperatura periférica y efectos secundarios maternos y fetales. Para análisis estadístico se usó Chi x2 de Pearson. RESULTADOS: la edad media del estudio es 29,77±3,35 años; Tiempo quirúrgico media de 50 ± 8,8 minutos;Temperatura en quirófano más frecuente se encontraba entre 22° a 23° C; La temperatura periférica se encontró entre 36.6°C a 37.5 °C; en el grupo de meperidina se presentó más nauseas. No existen efectos secundarios en neonatos. CONCLUSIONES: Los temblores redujeron en los pacientes que recibieron ketamina mientras que en los que recibieron meperidina presentaron más nauseas como efecto secundario.


INTRODUCTION: The presence of shiviring in obstetric anesthesia in the postoperative period is up to 54%. Therefore, it is intended to avoid in the recovery room, using medications that regulate shiviring such as ketamine and meperidine. OBJECTIVES: to determine the efficacy of ketamine and meperidine for the prevention of shivering in patients undergoing cesarean section under regional anesthesia. METHODS: a single-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted. In Hospital Obrero N ° 2, 40 patients enrolled in the study meeting inclusion criteria, 20 patients per group.The doses used in the Ketamine group of 0.25 mg / kg and meperidine group of 0.1 mg / Kg. The Crossley scale was used to determine shivering, peripheral temperature measurement and maternal and fetal side effects. For statistical analysis, Chi x2 from Pearson was used. RESULTS: the average age of the study is 29.77 ± 3.35 years; Average surgical time of 50 ± 8.8 minutes;Temperature in the most frequent operating room was between 22 ° to 23 ° C;The peripheral temperature was between 36.6 ºC to 37.5 ºC; in the meperidine group there was more nausea; No neonatal side effects. CONCLUSIONS: patients who received ketamine is better at preventing tremors while patients who received meperidine had more nausea as a side effect.


Subject(s)
Ketamine , Cesarean Section , Anesthesia, Local , Obstetrics
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