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Clinics ; 76: e2096, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153992


OBJECTIVES To determine the role of the RBP4/PiC/SIRT3 signaling pathway in the opening of the mitochondria permeability transition pore (mPTP) in offspring rats with hypothyroidism during pregnancy. METHODS Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were employed in this study. Pregnancy was deemed successful when a sperm was found in the uterus. After one week of pregnancy, offspring rats were divided into the following groups: overall hypothyroidism group (OH group), subclinical hypothyroidism group (SCH group), and normal control group (CON group). The establishment of the hypothyroidism model was confirmed when the serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were higher than normal value and TT4 level was within the normal range. The renal mitochondria of offspring rats were extracted on the 14th postnatal day (P14) and 35th postnatal day (P35). RESULTS At P14, no significant differences in the degree of mPTP opening and expression of phosphoric acid carrier vector (PiC) were detected between the rats in the OH group and the SCH group. However, the expression level of silent mating-type information regulation 3 homolog (SIRT3) was markedly reduced. Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) expression increased in the rats from the OH group, relative to that in those from the SCH group. At P35, the degree of mPTP opening and the expression levels of PiC and RBP4 in the OH group were higher than those in the SCH group. However, SIRT3 expression in the OH group was lower than that observed in the SCH group. CONCLUSION RBP4 plays an important role in early renal mitochondrial damage and renal impairment in rats suffering from hypothyroidism during pregnancy. The RBP4/PiC/SIRT3 pathway is thus involved in the opening of the renal mPTP in offspring rats with hyperthyroidism.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Pregnancy Complications , Hypothyroidism/complications , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Mitochondria , Permeability , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(8): e10660, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249330


It is known that the combined use of antibiotics, such as isoniazid and rifampicin, in the treatment of tuberculosis causes oxidative kidney damage. The aim of this study was to biochemically and histopathologically investigate the effect of lycopene on oxidative kidney damage due to the administration of isoniazid and rifampicin in albino Wistar male rats. Lycopene at a dose of 5 mg/kg was orally administered to lycopene+isoniazid+rifampicin (LIR) rats, and normal sunflower oil (0.5 mL) was orally administered to isoniazid+rifampicin (IR) and healthy control (HG) rats as vehicle by gavage. One hour after the administration of lycopene and vehicle, 50 mg/kg isoniazid and rifampicin were given orally to the LIR and IR groups. This procedure was performed once a day for 28 days. Rats were sacrificed by a high dose of anesthesia at the end of this period, and oxidant-antioxidant parameters were measured in the removed kidney tissues. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were measured in blood samples, and kidney tissues were also evaluated histopathologically. The combined administration of isoniazid and rifampicin changed the oxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of oxidants, and it increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, which are indicators of kidney function. Co-administration of isoniazid and rifampicin also caused oxidative kidney damage. Lycopene biochemically and histopathologically decreased oxidative kidney damage induced by isoniazid and rifampicin administration. These results suggested that lycopene may be beneficial in the treatment of nephrotoxicity due to isoniazid and rifampicin administration.

Animals , Male , Rats , Rifampin/toxicity , Isoniazid/toxicity , Carotenoids/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Lycopene/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 935-943, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878142


BACKGROUND@#Since 2019, a novel coronavirus named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has emerged worldwide. Apart from fever and respiratory complications, acute kidney injury has been observed in a few patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Furthermore, according to recent findings, the virus has been detected in urine. Angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) has been proposed to serve as the receptor for the entry of 2019-nCoV, which is the same as that for the severe acute respiratory syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the possible cause of kidney damage and the potential route of 2019-nCoV infection in the urinary system.@*METHODS@#We used both published kidney and bladder cell atlas data and new independent kidney single-cell RNA sequencing data generated in-house to evaluate ACE2 gene expression in all cell types in healthy kidneys and bladders. The Pearson correlation coefficients between ACE2 and all other genes were first generated. Then, genes with r values larger than 0.1 and P values smaller than 0.01 were deemed significant co-expression genes with ACE2.@*RESULTS@#Our results showed the enriched expression of ACE2 in all subtypes of proximal tubule (PT) cells of the kidney. ACE2 expression was found in 5.12%, 5.80%, and 14.38% of the proximal convoluted tubule cells, PT cells, and proximal straight tubule cells, respectively, in three published kidney cell atlas datasets. In addition, ACE2 expression was also confirmed in 12.05%, 6.80%, and 10.20% of cells of the proximal convoluted tubule, PT, and proximal straight tubule, respectively, in our own two healthy kidney samples. For the analysis of public data from three bladder samples, ACE2 expression was low but detectable in bladder epithelial cells. Only 0.25% and 1.28% of intermediate cells and umbrella cells, respectively, had ACE2 expression.@*CONCLUSION@#This study has provided bioinformatics evidence of the potential route of 2019-nCoV infection in the urinary system.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Gene Expression , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Urinary Bladder/metabolism
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(2): 157-161, abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125057


Un tercio de la población mundial tiene niveles anormalmente altos de presión arterial, hipertensión, responsable de casi el 50% de las muertes por accidente cerebrovascular y enfermedad coronaria. La sensibilidad a la sal es un factor de riesgo para la morbilidad y mortalidad cardiovascular y también para otras enfermedades. En estudios previos describimos un modelo de hipertensión sal sensible (HSS) en ratas Wistar ovariectomizadas (oVx) adultas. Las ratas oVx son normotensas con ingesta normal de sal (NS, 0.24% de NaCl), pero desarrollan un perfil de HSS con una ingesta elevada de sal (HS, 1% de NaCl). En los estudios en riñón encontramos que el circuito receptor D1 de dopamina, citocromo P450 4A y Na+, K+-ATPasa está alterado por la ausencia de hormonas ováricas, lo que se asocia a menor excreción de sodio e hipertensión arterial. La ingesta HS en ratas oVx también promueve cambios en la expresión de proteínas relacionadas con el transporte de sodio en células mononucleares de sangre periférica, principalmente linfocitos periféricos. Por lo tanto, el transporte de sodio se modifica en varios niveles de la fisiología normal. En estudios recientes observamos que el estradiol aumenta la proliferación y diferenciación de células epiteliales en cultivos de corteza renal humana. Sensibilidad a la sal, inmunidad adaptativa, presión arterial y proliferación de células epiteliales en riñón son fenómenos de gran importancia biológica regulados por estradiol.

Female sex hormones participate in the regulation of blood pressure and renal epithelial proliferation, effects not related to their reproductive function. About one-third of the world's population has abnormally high levels of blood pressure, hypertension, which is responsible for almost 50% of deaths from stroke and coronary heart disease. Salt sensitivity is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and other diseases as well. We reported a model of salt sensitive hypertension in adult ovariectomized (oVx) Wistar rats. oVx rats are normotensive under normal salt intake (NS, 0.24% NaCl), but upon a high salt intake (HS, 1% NaCl) oVx rats developed a blood pressure profile of salt-sensitive hypertension. Our studies on kidney molecules related to sodium balance found that the circuit dopamine D1-like receptor, cytochrome P450 4A and Na+, K+-ATPase is altered by the absence of ovary hormones which is accompanied by a reduced ability to excrete sodium. In oVx rats HS intake also promotes changes in the expression of proteins related to sodium transport in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mainly peripheral lymphocytes. Therefore, sodium transport is modified at several levels of normal physiology. Lately, we described that estradiol increases the rate of renal epithelial cell proliferation in primary cultures developed from human renal cortex. Thus, salt sensitivity, adaptive immunity, blood pressure and renal cell proliferation are complex biological responses regulated by female sex hormones.

Humans , Animals , Female , Rats , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Estradiol/metabolism , Hypertension/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Blood Pressure , Sodium Chloride/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Cell Proliferation , Hypertension/physiopathology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(supl.1): s17-s24, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057108


SUMMARY Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an important public health problem, with a significant impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and an important risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Various hypoglycemic therapies have proved to be beneficial to clinical outcomes, while others have failed to provide an improvement in cardiovascular and renal failure, only reducing blood glucose levels. Recently, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, represented by the empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and canagliflozin, have been showing satisfactory and strong results in several clinical trials, especially regarding the reduction of cardiovascular mortality, reduction of hospitalization due to heart failure, reduction of albuminuria, and long-term maintenance of the glomerular filtration rate. The benefit from SGLT2 inhibitors stems from its main mechanism of action, which occurs in the proximal tubule of the nephron, causing glycosuria, and a consequent increase in natriuresis. This leads to increased sodium intake by the juxtaglomerular apparatus, activating the tubule glomerular-feedback and, finally, reducing intraglomerular hypertension, a frequent physiopathological condition in kidney disease caused by diabetes. In addition, this class of medication presents an appropriate safety profile, and its most frequently reported complication is an increase in the incidence of genital infections. Thus, these hypoglycemic agents gained space in practical recommendations for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and should be part of the initial therapeutic approach to provide, in addition to glycemic control, cardiovascular outcomes, and the renoprotection in the long term.

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/pharmacology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Kidney Diseases/prevention & control , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/etiology , Diabetic Nephropathies/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/therapeutic use , Canagliflozin/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Glucose/metabolism , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney Diseases/metabolism
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 481-491, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056601


Abstract Introduction: It is unclear whether residual renal function (RRF) in dialysis patients can attenuate the metabolic impact of the long 68-hour interdialytic interval, in which water, acid, and electrolyte accumulation occurs. Objective: to evaluate serum electrolyte levels, water balance, and acid-base status in dialytic patients with and without RRF over the long interdialytic interval (LII). Methodology: this was a single-center, cross-sectional, and analytical study that compared patients with and without RRF, defined by diuresis above 200 mL in 24 hours. Patients were weighed and serum samples were collected for biochemical and gasometric analysis at the beginning and at the end of the LII. Results: 27 and 24 patients with and without RRF were evaluated, respectively. Patients without RRF had a higher increase in serum potassium during the LII (2.67 x 1.14 mEq/L, p < 0.001), reaching higher values at the end of the study (6.8 x 5.72 mEq/L, p < 0.001) and lower pH value at the beginning of the interval (7.40 x 7.43, p = 0.018). More patients with serum bicarbonate < 18 mEq/L (50 x 14.8%, p = 0.007) and mixed acid-base disorder (57.7 x 29.2%, p = 0.042), as well as greater interdialytic weight gain (14.67 x 8.87 mL/kg/h, p < 0.001) and lower natremia (137 x 139 mEq/L, p = 0.02) at the end of the interval. Calcemia and phosphatemia were not different between the groups. Conclusion: Patients with RRF had better control of serum potassium, sodium, acid-base status, and volemia throughout the LII.

Resumo Introdução: Não se sabe ao certo se a função renal residual (FRR) de pacientes dialíticos pode atenuar o impacto metabólico do maior intervalo interdialítico (MII) de 68 horas, no qual ocorre acúmulo de volume, ácidos e eletrólitos. Objetivo: Avaliar os níveis séricos de eletrólitos, balanço hídrico e status ácido-básico de pacientes dialíticos com e sem FRR ao longo do MII. Metodologia: Tratou-se de estudo unicêntrico, transversal e analítico, que comparou pacientes com e sem FRR, definida como diurese acima de 200 mL em 24 horas. Para tal, os pacientes foram pesados e submetidos à coleta de amostras séricas para análise bioquímica e gasométrica no início e fim do MII. Resultados: Foram avaliados 27 e 24 pacientes com e sem FRR, respectivamente. Pacientes sem FRR apresentaram maior aumento de potássio sérico durante o MII (2,67 x 1,14 mEq/L, p < 0,001) atingindo valores mais elevados no fim (6,8 x 5,72 mEq/L, p < 0,001); menor valor de pH no início do intervalo (7,40 x 7,43, p = 0,018), maior proporção de pacientes com bicarbonato sérico < 18 mEq/L (50 x 14,8 %, p = 0,007) e distúrbio ácido-básico misto (70,8 x 42,3 %, p = 0,042), além de maior ganho de peso interdialítico (14,67 x 8,87 mL/kg/h, p < 0,001) e menor natremia (137 x 139 mEq/L, p = 0,02) no fim do intervalo. A calcemia e fosfatemia não foram diferentes entre os grupos. Conclusão: Pacientes com FRR apresentaram melhor controle dos níveis séricos de potássio, sódio, status ácido-básico e da volemia ao longo do MII.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Water-Electrolyte Balance/physiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency/blood , Kidney/physiopathology , Phosphates/blood , Potassium/blood , Sodium/blood , Acid-Base Imbalance/physiopathology , Bicarbonates/blood , Weight Gain , Calcium/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Renal Insufficiency/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency/urine , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/chemistry , Kidney Function Tests/methods
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 406-411, June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002235


AQP1 plays an essential role in maintaining body water balance. In the kidney, AQP1 is localized to the apical and basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the proximal tubule and descending thin limb of Ansa nephroni (Henle's loop) where it reabsorbs the vast majority of filtered water. The growing epidemic of obesity and metabolic diseases particularly obesity-related kidney disease is getting more and more attention in this century. However, a full understanding of mechanisms involved to the progressive renal disease is still unclear, in particular AQPs in the kidney of obesity. In this paper, we examined the localization of AQP1 in renal cortex and medulla of ND (normal diet) and HFD (high-fat diet) at rats. In the renal cortex and medulla, immunolight microscopy revealed weak expression of AQP1 in the apical and basolateral membrane of epithelial cells at the proximal straight/convoluted tubule of HFD compared with ND, respectively. The same result was confirmed in the thick descending limb and descending thin limb of Henle's loop. In the high-fat nutritional obesity of rats, decreased AQP1 levels may not directly cause serious obesity-related kidney disease, e.g. chronic kidney disease, even end-stage renal disease. But at least, AQPs (AQP1 in this study) was one of initially conditions to the incentive of obesity-related kidney disease.

Las acuoporinas tipo 1 (AQP1) constituyen una parte esencial en el mantenimiento del equilibrio del agua en el cuerpo. En el riñón, la AQP1 se localiza en la membrana apical y basolateral de las células epiteliales, en el túbulo proximal y en el segmento descendente del Ansa nephroni o asa nefrónica (asa de Henle), donde reabsorbe la gran mayoría de agua filtrada. La creciente epidemia de obesidad y enfermedades metabólicas en el siglo actual, hacen que la enfermedad renal relacionada con la obesidad esté recibiendo cada vez más atención. Sin embargo, aún no existe un conocimiento definitivo de los mecanismos implicados en la enfermedad renal progresiva, en particular los relacionados a las acuoporinas renales en la obesidad. En este trabajo, examinamos la localización de AQP1 en la corteza y la médula renales de la dieta normal (DN) y dieta alta en grasa (DAG) en ratas. En la corteza y médula renales, la microscopía de luz reveló una expresión débil de AQP1 en la membrana apical y basolateral de las células epiteliales en el túbulo contorneado proximal del grupo DAG en comparación con el grupo DN, respectivamente. El mismo resultado se confirmó en la porción descendente gruesa y en la porción descendente delgada del asa nefrónica. En ratas del grupo DAG, la disminución de los niveles de AQP1 pudo no ser la causa directa de una enfermedad renal grave relacionada con obesidad, como por ejemplo, enfermedad renal crónica, o una enfermedad renal terminal. No obstante, en este estudio, la expresión renal de AQP1 constituyó una de las condiciones iniciales para inducir la enfermedad renal relacionada con obesidad.

Animals , Rats , Aquaporin 1/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Kidney/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney Medulla/pathology
Clinics ; 74: e787, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011911


OBJECTIVES: Intestinal obstruction has a high mortality rate when therapeutic treatment is delayed. Resuscitation in intestinal obstruction requires a large volume of fluid, and fluid combinations have been studied. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of hypertonic saline solution (HS) with pentoxifylline (PTX) on apoptosis, oxidative stress and survival rate. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to intestinal obstruction and ischemia through a closed loop ligation of the terminal ileum and its vessels. After 24 hours, the necrotic bowel segment was resected, and the animals were randomized into four groups according to the following resuscitation strategies: Ringer's lactate solution (RL) (RL-32 ml/kg); RL+PTX (25 mg/kg); HS+PTX (HS, 7.5%, 4 ml/kg), and no resuscitation (IO-intestinal obstruction and ischemia). Euthanasia was performed 3 hours after resuscitation to obtain kidney and intestine samples. A malondialdehyde (MDA) assay was performed to evaluate oxidative stress, and histochemical analyses (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL], Bcl-2 and Bax) were conducted to evaluate kidney apoptosis. Survival was analyzed with another series of animals that were observed for 15 days. RESULTS: PTX in combination with RL or HS reduced the MDA levels (nmol/mg of protein), as follows: kidney IO=0.42; RL=0.49; RL+PTX=0.31; HS+PTX=0.34 (p<0.05); intestine: IO=0.42; RL=0.48; RL+PTX=0.29; HS+PTX=0.26 (p<0.05). The number of labeled cells for TUNEL and Bax was lower in the HS+PTX group than in the other groups (p<0.05). The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was lower in the HS+PTX group than in the other groups (p<0.05). The survival rate on the 15th day was higher in the HS+PTX group (77%) than in the RL+PTX group (11%). CONCLUSION: PTX in combination with HS enhanced survival and attenuated oxidative stress and apoptosis. However, when combined with RL, PTX did not reduce apoptosis or mortality.

Animals , Male , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Resuscitation/methods , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Intestinal Obstruction/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Disease Models, Animal , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Intestinal Obstruction/mortality , Intestinal Obstruction/prevention & control , Intestine, Small/drug effects , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/analysis
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180371, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990443


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The levels of the full-length form of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR), a component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), may be reduced in the membranes of kidneys in renal diseases. This study aimed to investigate the RAS components in the kidneys of mice submitted to a combination of a high-fat diet and Schistosoma mansoni infection. METHODS: Female BALB/c mice were maintained on a control or high-fat diet from 3 weeks of age. After 10 weeks on the designated diets, half the mice in each group were infected with S. mansoni cercariae. The blood and kidneys were harvested 8 weeks after infection. RESULTS: The high-fat diet increased the number of eggs in the feces and the number of adult worms in the mesenteric bed. Schistosoma mansoni infection reduced the plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol in the control and high-fat diet groups. In mice on the control diet, S. mansoni infection resulted in increased expression of IL-6 in the kidneys; however, in mice on the high-fat diet, the levels of IL-6 were reduced and those of superoxide anions were increased. The RAS components evaluated were ACE2, renin, PRR, AT1R, and AT2R, and the levels of PRR were found to be reduced in the kidneys of infected mice on the high-fat diet. CONCLUSIONS: The finding regarding PRR is not yet clear. However, combining a high-fat diet and S. mansoni infection resulted in increased oxidative stress in the kidney that can aggravate hypertension as well as its associated complications.

Animals , Female , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/complications , Schistosomiasis mansoni/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Kidney/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Time Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/physiology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Cholesterol/blood , Actins/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Kidney/physiopathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Obesity/physiopathology
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(4): 441-444, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891428


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the gene expression of beta-trace protein in urine of diabetic patients, with no reduction in glomerular filtration rate, which was defined as below 60mL/min/1.73m2. Methods: Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were recruited, and a group of non-diabetic individuals served as control. Beta-trace protein gene expression was analyzed by quantitative PCR. Blood samples were collected to establish glucose levels and baseline kidney function. Accuracy was analyzed using ROC curves. Results: Ninety type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 20 non-diabetic individuals were recruited. The area under the curve was 0.601, sensitivity of 20% and specificity of 89.47%. Among diabetic participants, 18% showed an expression above the cutoff point. Conclusion: These results of accuracy of beta-trace protein gene expression in urine of diabetic patients are promising, although they did not achieve a higher area under the curve level.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão do gene da proteína beta-traço na urina de pacientes diabéticos, sem redução na taxa de filtração glomerular, definida como abaixo de 60mL/min/1,73m2. Métodos: Foram recrutados pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2, e um grupo de indivíduos não diabéticos serviu como controle. A expressão do gene da proteína beta-traço foi analisada por PCR quantitativa. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para estabelecer níveis de glicemia e função renal inicial. A acurácia foi analisada utilizando curvas ROC. Resultados: Foram recrutados 90 pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e 20 não diabéticos. A área sob a curva foi de 0,601, com sensibilidade de 20% e especificidade de 89,47%. Entre os diabéticos, 18% apresentaram expressão acima do ponto de corte. Conclusão: Estes resultados de acurácia da expressão do gene da proteína beta-traço na urina de pacientes diabéticos são promissores, apesar de não terem atingido um nível alto na área sob a curva.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Intramolecular Oxidoreductases/genetics , Intramolecular Oxidoreductases/urine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/urine , Lipocalins/genetics , Lipocalins/urine , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Gene Expression , Cross-Sectional Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Area Under Curve , Intramolecular Oxidoreductases/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Lipocalins/blood , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney/metabolism , Middle Aged
Acta cir. bras ; 32(3): 229-235, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837690


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of tramadol hydrochloride associated to remote ischemic perconditioning on oxidative stress. Methods: Twenty five male rats (Wistar) underwent right nephrectomy and were distributed into five groups: Sham group (S); Ischemia/Reperfusion group (I/R) with 30 minutes of renal ischemia; Remote ischemic perconditioning group (Per) with three cycles of 10 minutes of I/R performed during kidney ischemia; Tramadol group (T) treated with tramadol hydrochloride (40mg/kg); remote ischemic perconditioning + Tramadol group (Per+T) with both treatments. Oxidative stress was assessed after 24 hours of reperfusion. Results: Statistical differences were observed in MDA levels between I/R group with all groups (p<0.01), in addition there was difference between Tramadol with Sham, Per and Per+T groups (p<0.05), both in plasma and renal tissue. Conclusion: Remote ischemic perconditioning was more effective reducing renal ischemia-reperfusion injury than administration of tramadol or association of both treatments.

Animals , Male , Tramadol/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Kidney/blood supply , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Ischemia/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/analysis
Biol. Res ; 50: 9, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838964


BACKGROUND: A number of dysregulated miRNAs have been identified and are proposed to have significant roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus or renal pathology. Alpinia oxyphylla has shown significant anti-inflammatory properties and play an anti-diabetes role. The objective of this study was to detect the alteration of miRNAs underlying the anti-diabetes effects of A. oxyphylla extract (AOE) in a type II diabetic animal model (C57BIKsj db-/db-). RESULTS: Treatment with AOE for 8 weeks led to lower concentrations of blood glucose, urine albumin, and urine creatinine. 17 and 13 miRNAs were statistically identified as differentially regulated in the DB/DB and db-/db- AOE mice, respectively, compared to the untreated db-/db- mice. Of these, 7 miRNAs were identified in both comparison groups, and these 7 miRNAs were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Functional bioinformatics showed that the putative target genes of 7 miRNAs were associated with several diabetes effects and signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These founding suggest that the potential of AOE as a medicinal anti-diabetes treatment through changes in the expressions of specific miRNAs. The results provide a useful resource for future investigation of the role of AOE-regulated miRNAs in diabetes mellitus.

Animals , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Kidney/drug effects , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/analysis , Gene Expression Regulation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Creatinine/blood , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Albuminuria , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Kidney/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(1): e5594, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839239


We aimed to study the renal injury and hypertension induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and the protective effects mediated by angiotensin 1-7 [Ang(1-7)]. We randomly assigned 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight 180-200 g) to normoxia control, CIH, Ang(1-7)-treated normoxia, and Ang(1-7)-treated CIH groups. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was monitored at the start and end of each week. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) was recorded. CTGF and TGF-β were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Tissue parameters of oxidative stress were also determined. In addition, renal levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, nitrotyrosine, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were determined by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and ELISA. TUNEL assay results and cleaved caspase 3 and 12 were also determined. Ang(1-7) induced a reduction in SBP together with a restoration of RSNA in the rat model of CIH. Ang(1-7) treatment also suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species, reduced renal tissue inflammation, ameliorated mesangial expansion, and decreased renal fibrosis. Thus, Ang(1-7) treatment exerted renoprotective effects on CIH-induced renal injury and was associated with a reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Ang(1-7) might therefore represent a promising therapy for obstructive sleep apnea-related hypertension and renal injury.

Animals , Male , Rats , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Angiotensin I/administration & dosage , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Peptide Fragments/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(6): 343-348, dic. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841607


Nephrolithiasis is one of the most frequent urologic diseases. The aim of this paper is to study the composition and frequency of 8854 patient kidney stones and in a subset of them their metabolic risk factors to be related to their type of calculi. Physicochemical and crystallographic methods were used to assess kidney stone composition. In a subset of 715 patients, we performed an ambulatory metabolic protocol with diagnostic purposes. From the total sample 79% of stones were made of calcium salts (oxalate and phosphate), followed by uric acid stones in 16.5%, calcium salts and uric acid in 2%, other salts in 1.9% and cystine in 0.6%. Male to female ratio was almost three times higher in calcium salts and other types of stones, reaching a marked male predominance in uric acid stones, M/F 18.8 /1.0. The major risk factors for calcium stones are idiopathic hypercalciuria, followed by unduly acidic urine pH and hyperuricosuria. In uric acid stones unduly acidic urine pH and less commonly hyperuricosuria are the most frequent biochemical diagnosis. Our results show that analysis of kidney stones composition and the corresponding metabolic diagnosis may provide a scientific basis for the best management and prevention of kidney stone formation, as well as it may help us to study the mechanisms of urine stone formation.

La litiasis renal es una de las enfermedades urológicas más frecuentes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la composición y frecuencia de 8854 cálculos renales y evaluar en un subgrupo de ellos la relación de los factores de riesgo metabólicos con el tipo de cálculo hallado. Se utilizaron métodos fisicoquímicos y cristalográficos para evaluar la composición de los cálculos renales. En un subgrupo de 715 pacientes, se pudo realizar un protocolo metabólico ambulatorio con fines diagnóstico. De la muestra total, 79.0% de los cálculos fueron de sales de calcio (oxalato y fosfato), seguido por cálculos de ácido úrico en 16.5%, sales de calcio y ácido úrico en 2.0%, otras sales en 1.9% y cistina en 0.6%. La relación hombre/mujer fue casi tres veces mayor en las sales de calcio y otros tipos de cálculos, alcanzando un marcado predominio en varones con cálculos de ácido úrico, M/F 18.8/1.0. Los principales factores de riesgo para los cálculos de calcio fueron la hipercalciuria idiopática, seguida del pH urinario excesivamente ácido y la hiperuricosuria. En los cálculos de ácido úrico el pH urinario excesivamente ácido y con menor frecuencia la hiperuricosuria fueron los diagnósticos más frecuentes. Nuestros resultados muestran que el análisis de la composición de los cálculos renales y el correspondiente diagnóstico metabólico pueden proporcionar una base científica para el mejor manejo y prevención en la formación de cálculos renales, así como que nos puede ayudar a estudiar los mecanismos de formación de los mismos.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Kidney Calculi/etiology , Kidney Calculi/metabolism , Kidney Calculi/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Reference Values , Uric Acid/metabolism , Kidney Calculi/chemistry , Sex Factors , Calcium/metabolism , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Crystallography, X-Ray/methods , Risk Assessment , Kidney/metabolism
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(5): 443-449, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-798174


ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in an experimental model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. Materials and methods Wistar, adult, male rats were used in the study. Animals were divided in the following groups: Citrate (control, citrate buffer 0.01M, pH 4.2 was administrated intravenously - i.v - in the caudal vein), Uninephrectomy+Citrate (left uninephrectomy-20 days before the study), DM (streptozotocin, 65 mg/kg, i.v, on the 20th day of the study), Uninephrectomy+DM. Physiological parameters (water and food intake, body weight, blood glucose, kidney weight, and relative kidney weight); renal function (creatinine clearance), urine albumin (immunodiffusion method); oxidative metabolites (urinary peroxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and thiols in renal tissue), and kidney histology were evaluated. Results Polyphagia, polydipsia, hyperglycemia, and reduced body weight were observed in diabetic rats. Renal function was reduced in diabetic groups (creatinine clearance, p < 0.05). Uninephrectomy potentiated urine albumin and increased kidney weight and relative kidney weight in diabetic animals (p < 0.05). Urinary peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were increased, and the reduction in thiol levels demonstrated endogenous substrate consumption in diabetic groups (p < 0.05). The histological analysis revealed moderate lesions of diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion This study confirms lipid peroxidation and intense consumption of the antioxidant defense system in diabetic rats. The association of hyperglycemia and uninephrectomy resulted in additional renal injury, demonstrating that the model is adequate for the study of diabetic nephropathy.

Animals , Male , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/metabolism , Peroxides/urine , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/physiology , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Creatinine/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Diabetic Nephropathies/physiopathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/chemically induced , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Albuminuria/urine , Disease Models, Animal , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(4): 355-366, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792944


ABSTRACT Objective In this study, the effects of a green banana pasta diet on the oxidative damage from type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) were investigated. Materials and methods Formulations containing 25 (F25), 50 (F50), and 75% (F75) of green banana pasta were prepared and included in a 12-week diet of Wistar rats with alloxan-induced type 1 DM. The effects of these formulations in preventing oxidative damage in kidneys and liver homogenates of rats were evaluated using the TBARS assay (lipid peroxidation in liver) and the DNPH assay (protein oxidation in liver and kidneys). Furthermore, the effects of the formulations on the fasting glycemia, fructosamine levels, renal function (creatinine), liver function (enzymes aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]), and lipid profile (total cholesterol and fractions) in the serum of rats were evaluated in addition to the evaluation of the centesimal composition and microbiological analysis of the produced green banana pasta. Results An F75 diet prevented hyperglycemia in diabetic rats (p < 0.05) compared to the diabetic rats fed a standard diet (commercial feed). Notably, the protein oxidation in both the liver and kidneys were prevented in diabetic rats on the F50 or F75 diets compared to the control group, whereas the lipid peroxidation was only prevented in the liver (p < 0.05). Moreover, all formulations prevented an increase in the amount of triglycerides in the serum of the rats. The F25 and F50 diet prevented the increase of cholesterol, and the F75-based diet of ALT and fructosamine (p < 0.05) supported the anti-hyperglycemic effects and the protection against oxidative damage. Conclusion The green banana pasta (F75) diet showed great potential for preventing complications associated with diabetes.

Animals , Male , Musa/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/prevention & control , Diet Therapy/methods , Kidney/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Reference Values , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cholesterol/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/prevention & control , Alanine Transaminase/blood
Acta cir. bras ; 31(7): 448-455, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787258


ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To determine whether Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is the potential targets of prevention or progression in the renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of STZ-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Thirty six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly arranged to the nondiabetic (ND) or diabetic group (DM), with each group further divided into sham (no I/R injury), I/R (ischemia-reperfusion) and CD (given by Chloroquine) group. Preoperatively, Chloroquine (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection.) was administrated 6 days for treatment group. I/R animals were subjected to 25 min of bilateral renal ischemia. Renal function, histology, apoptosis, cytokines, expression of TLR7, MyD88 and NF-κB were detected. RESULTS: The serum levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, IL-6 and TNF-α, apoptotic tubular epithelial cells, expression of TLR7, MyD88 and NF-κB were significantly increased in DM+I/R group, compared with ND+I/R group (p<0.05). All these changes were further improved by TLR7 inhibition Chloroquine except Paller scores (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Toll-like receptor 7 inhibition attenuates the acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury of STZ-induced diabetic in SD rats.

Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Random Allocation , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis , In Situ Nick-End Labeling/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Disease Models, Animal , Toll-Like Receptor 7/blood , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/pathology
Acta cir. bras ; 31(7): 434-441, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787265


ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate changes in the serum concentration and renal expression of IL-1 and TNF-α cytokines in rats that received sevoflurane and glibenclamide prior to hemorrhage. METHODS: Two groups of sevoflurane-anesthetized Wistar rats (n=10): G1 (control) and G2 (glibenclamide, 1 µg/g i.v.); hemorrhage of 30% blood volume (10% every 10 min), with replacement using Ringer solution, 5 ml/kg/h. Serum concentrations of IL-1 and TNF-α were studied in the first hemorrhage (T1) and 50 min later (T2), renal expression, at T2. RESULTS: In serum, G1 TNF-α (pg/mL) was T1=178.6±33.5, T2=509.2±118.8 (p<0.05); IL-1 (pg/mL) was T1=148.8±31.3, T2=322.6±115.4 (p<0.05); in G2, TNF-α was T1=486.2±83.6, T2=261.8±79.5 (p<0.05); IL-1 was T1=347.0±72.0, T2= 327.3±90.9 (p>0.05). The expression of TNF-α and IL-1 in the glomerular and tubular cells was significantly higher in the G2 group. CONCLUSIONS: Hemorrhage and glibenclamide elevated TNF-α and IL-1 concentrations in serum and kidneys. High levels of TNF-α already present before the hemorrhage in the glibenclamide group may have attenuated the damages found in the kidneys after the ischemia event.

Animals , Shock, Hemorrhagic/metabolism , Interleukin-1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Glyburide/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Kidney/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage , Models, Animal , KATP Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , Kidney/blood supply , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney Tubules/drug effects , Kidney Tubules/metabolism , Methyl Ethers/administration & dosage
J. bras. nefrol ; 38(1): 9-14, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-777495


Resumo Introdução: A obesidade é uma doença em que a inflamação está inteiramente envolvida e pode causar insuficiência renal. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência da exposição a curto prazo de uma dieta de cafeteria sobre a inflamação no tecido renal e a formação de produtos de glicação avançada (AGEs) no plasma de rato. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos (10 semanas de idade, pesando 350 g) foram designados para receber dieta de ração comercial (C; n = 8 animais/grupo, 5% de energia a partir de gordura) ou dieta de cafeteria (CAF-D, n = 8 animais/grupo: 29% de energia de gordura) e de sacarose em água (300 g/L) de beber durante 6 semanas. Resultados: Índice de adiposidade em seis semanas foi maior no grupo CAF-D em comparação com C. O mesmo comportamento foi observado para os níveis plasmáticos de glicose, triglicerídeos, leptina, insulina e AGEs. A expressão do gene de IL-6 e TNF-α em tecido renal foi maior no grupo D-CAF e nenhuma diferença significativa no tecido adiposo. Não houve aumento destas citocinas no plasma ou rim. Houve uma diminuição significativa de adiponectina no grupo CAF-D. Conclusão: A exposição a curto prazo da CAF-D reflete alterações no metabolismo, aumento dos níveis plasmáticos de AGEs, o que pode refletir o aumento expressão de citocinas inflamatórias no rim.

Abstract Introduction: Obesity is a disease in which inflammation is directly involved and can lead to impaired renal function. Objective: To evaluate the influence of short term exposure to cafeteria diet on kidney tissue inflammation and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the rat plasma. Methods: Male Wistar rats (10 weeks of age, weighing 350 g) were assigned to receive commercial chow diet (C; n = 8 animals/group, 5% of energy from fat) or cafeteria diet (CAF-D, n = 8 animals/group: 29% energy fat) and sucrose in drinking water (300 g/L) for 6 weeks. Results: adiposity index at six weeks was higher in CAF-D group compared to C. The same behavior was observed for plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, leptin, insulin and AGEs. The gene expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in renal tissue was higher in CAF-D group and no significant difference in adipose tissue. There was no increase of these cytokines in plasma and kidney or histologically. There was a significant decrease of adiponectin in the CAF-D group. Conclusion: The short exposure CAF-D reflects changes in metabolism, increased plasma levels of AGEs, which may reflect the increased expression of inflammatory cytokines in the kidney.

Animals , Male , Rats , Glycation End Products, Advanced/blood , Diet/adverse effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Adiposity , Inflammation/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism