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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 43: 16-22, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087512

ABSTRACT

Background: The intestinal bacterial community has an important role in maintaining human health. Dysbiosis is a key inducer of many chronic diseases including obesity and diabetes. Kunming mice are frequently used as a model of human disease and yet little is known about the bacterial microbiome resident to the gastrointestinal tract. Results: We undertook metagenomic sequencing of the luminal contents of the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum of Kunming mice. Firmicutes was the dominant bacterial phylum of each intestinal tract and Lactobacillus the dominant genus. However, the bacterial composition differed among the seven intestinal tracts of Kunming mice. Compared with the small intestine, the large intestine bacterial community of Kunming mice is more stable and diverse. Conclusions: To our knowledge, ours is the first study to systematically describe the gastrointestinal bacterial composition of Kunming mice. Our findings provide a better understanding of the bacterial composition of Kunming mice and serves as a foundation for the study of precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Polymerase Chain Reaction , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Firmicutes/isolation & purification , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 43: 23-31, Jan. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087514

ABSTRACT

Background: Hong Qu glutinous rice wine (HQGRW) is brewed under non-aseptic fermentation conditions, so it usually has a relatively high total acid content. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the bacterial communities and total acid during the fermentation of HQGRW and elucidate the correlation between total acid and bacterial communities. Results: The results showed that the period of rapid acid increase during fermentation occurred at the early stage of fermentation. There was a negative response between total acid increase and the rate of increase in alcohol during the early fermentation stage. Bacterial community analysis using high-throughput sequencing technology was found that the dominant bacterial communities changed during the traditional fermentation of HQGRW. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that there was a great difference between the bacterial communities of Hong Qu starter and those identified during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the key bacteria likely to be associated with total acid were identified by Spearman's correlation analysis. Lactobacillus, unclassified Lactobacillaceae, and Pediococcus were found, which can make significant contributions to the total acid development (| r| N 0.6 with FDR adjusted P b 0.05), establishing that these bacteria can associate closely with the total acid of rice wine. Conclusions: This was the first study to investigate the correlation between bacterial communities and total acid during the fermentation of HQGRW. These findings may be helpful in the development of a set of fermentation techniques for controlling total acid.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Wine/microbiology , Pediococcus/isolation & purification , Pediococcus/genetics , Pediococcus/metabolism , Time Factors , Acetobacter/isolation & purification , Acetobacter/genetics , Acetobacter/metabolism , Cluster Analysis , Sequence Analysis , Computational Biology , Principal Component Analysis , Fermentation , Microbiota , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/genetics , Lactobacillus/metabolism
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 647-657, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1011286

ABSTRACT

Minas artisanal cheese is made from endogenous starter cultures, including lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Some LAB may possess probiotic potential. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro probiotic properties of lactobacilli isolated from Minas artisanal cheeses produced in Minas Gerais. Ten samples of lactobacilli, formerly isolated from those cheeses, were submitted to the following assays: antimicrobial susceptibility, tolerance to artificial gastric juice and biliary salts, production of hydrogen peroxide and antagonism against pathogenic and non-pathogenic micro-organisms. Only L. plantarum (C0) was sensitive to all tested antimicrobials, while the other LAB samples were resistant to at least one drug. Six samples were tolerant to artificial gastric juice, and L. brevis (A6) even grew in that medium. Three samples were tolerant to biliary salts. Only L. brevis (E35) produced hydrogen peroxide. Difference (P< 0.05) was observed among the means of inhibition haloes of lactobacilli against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 and Lactobacillus plantarum C24 in spot-on-the-lawn assay. All samples of lactobacilli inhibited Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in co-culture antagonism test (P< 0.0001). Most lactobacilli samples showed in vitro probiotic potential. From the tested samples, L. brevis (A6) presented the best results considering all in vitro probiotic tests.(AU)


O queijo minas artesanal é produzido por culturas starters endógenas, incluindo bactérias ácido-láticas (BAL). Algumas BAL podem possuir potencial probiótico. Com isso, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades probióticas in vitro de lactobacilos isolados de queijo minas artesanal produzido no estado de Minas Gerais. Dez amostras de lactobacilos, previamente isoladas desses queijos, foram submetidas aos seguintes testes: susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos, tolerância ao suco gástrico artificial e aos sais biliares, produção de peróxido de hidrogênio e antagonismo contra micro-organismos patogênicos e não patogênicos. Apenas L. plantarum (C0) foi sensível a todos os antimicrobianos testados, enquanto as outras amostras de BAL foram resistentes a, pelo menos, uma droga testada. Seis amostras foram tolerantes ao suco gástrico artificial, e L. brevis (A6) apresentou crescimento nesse meio. Três amostras foram tolerantes aos sais biliares. Apenas L. brevis (E35) produziu peróxido de hidrogênio. Diferença (P<0,05) foi observada entre as médias dos halos de inibição de lactobacilos contra Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 e Lactobacillus plantarum C24 no teste do spot-on-the-lawn. Todas as amostras de lactobacilos inibiram Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 no teste de antagonismo em cocultura (P<0,0001). A maioria das amostras de lactobacilos apresentou potencial probiótico in vitro. Com base nas amostras testadas, L. brevis (A6) apresentou os melhores resultados, considerando-se todos os testes probióticos in vitro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Cheese/microbiology , Probiotics/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Antibiosis
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 823-831, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974299

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Sour cassava starch (Polvilho azedo) is obtained from a spontaneous fermentation conducted by microorganisms from raw materials and fermentation tanks. This product is traditionally used in the baking industry for the manufacture of biscuits and Brazilian cheese breads. However, the end of fermentation is evaluated empirically, and the process occurs without standardization, which results in products of inconsistent quality. Predominant microbiota from a cassava flour manufacturer was isolated in order to select starter cultures for the production of sour cassava starch in a pilot-scale fermentation process. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were isolated, enumerated and grouped by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, and PCR fingerprinting, respectively. One isolate of each molecular profile was identified by sequencing of the rRNA gene. LAB were prevalent throughout the entire process. Lactobacillus brevis (21.5%), which produced the highest values of acidity, and Lactobacillus plantarum (13.9%) were among the most frequent species. Pichia scutulata (52.2%) was the prevalent yeast and showed amylolytic activity. The aforementioned species were tested as single and mixed starter cultures in a pilot-scale fermentation process for 28 days. L. plantarum exhibited better performance as a starter culture, which suggests its potential for the production of sour cassava starch.


Subject(s)
Starch/metabolism , Yeasts/metabolism , Manihot/chemistry , Lactobacillus/metabolism , Starch/chemistry , Yeasts/genetics , Brazil , Manihot/metabolism , Fermentation , Microbiota , Food Microbiology , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/genetics
5.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(3): 290-295, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951552

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the remaining microbial load after treatments based on complete and selective caries removal and sealing. Patients with active carious lesions in a permanent molar were randomly allocated into 2 groups: a test group (selective caries removal-SCR; n=18) and a control group (complete caries removal - CCR; n=18). Dentin samples were collected following the excavation and three months after sealing. Streptococcus species, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus species, and total viable microorganisms were cultured to count the viable cells and frequency of species isolation. CCR resulted in significant lower total viable microorganisms counts (p≤0.001), Streptococcus species (p≤0.001) and Lactobacillus species (p≤0.001) initially. However, after sealing, a decrease in total viable microorganisms, Streptococcus species, and Lactobacillus species in the SCR resulted in no difference between the groups after 3 months. In conclusion, selective caries removal is as effective as complete caries removal in reducing dentin bacterial load 3 months after sealing.


Resumo O objetivo deste ensaio clínico randomizado foi comparar os microrganismos remanescentes após tratamentos baseados em remoção total de tecido cariado e selamento e a remoção seletiva de tecido cariado e selamento. Pacientes com lesões de cárie ativas em molares permanentes foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo teste (remoção seletiva de tecido cariado-SCR; n=18), e grupo de controle (remoção total de tecido cariado-CCR; n=18). Amostras de dentina foram obtidas após a remoção da tecido cariado e após 3 meses de selamento das cavidades. Streptococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus spp. e microrganismos viáveis totais foram cultivados para contagem de células e frequência de isolamento de espécies. CCR resultou em menores contagens totais de microorganismos viáveis (p≤0,001), Streptococcus spp. (p≤0,001) e Lactobacillus spp. (p≤0,001) inicialmente. Entretanto, após o selamento, uma redução significativa nas contagens totais de microrganismos viáveis, Streptococcus spp. e Lactobacillus spp. resultou em nenhuma diferença entre os grupos após 3 meses. Conclui-se que a remoção seletiva de cárie é tão seletiva quanto a remoção completa de cárie na redução da infecção dentinária após três meses com selamento da lesão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pit and Fissure Sealants , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Dental Caries/therapy , Bacterial Load , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Molar/microbiology , Streptococcus/isolation & purification , Case-Control Studies , Double-Blind Method , Molar/diagnostic imaging
6.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170318, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893723

ABSTRACT

Abstract Probiotics have provided benefits to general health, but they are still insufficient to dental health. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate milk supplemented with probiotic bacteria and standard milk, measured by levels of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus spp., in 3-4-year-old children after 9 months of intervention. Material and Methods: The study was a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. The sample was composed of 363 preschoolers attending five child development centers in Cali, Colombia. They were randomized to two groups: children in the intervention group drank 200 mL of milk with Lactobacillus rhamnosus 5x106 and Bifidobacteruim longum 3x106, and children in the control group drank 200 mL of standard milk. Interventions occurred on weekdays and information was gathered through scheduled clinical examination. The primary result was the number of colony forming units (CFU) of S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. in the saliva. Secondary results were dental caries, rated by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), dental plaque, pH, and salivary buffer capacity. Results: The proportion of S. mutans was lower in the intervention group compared with the control group after 9 months; however, the differences did not reach statistical significance (p=0.173); on the other hand, statistically significant differences between groups were found in the CFU/mL of Lactobacillus spp. (p=0.002). There was not statistically significant difference in the prevalence of dental caries for both groups (p=0.767). Differences between groups were found in the salivary buffering capacity (p=0.000); neither salivary pH nor dental plaque were significantly different. Conclusions: Regular consumption of milk containing probiotics bacteria reduced CFU/mL of Lactobacillus spp. and increased salivary buffering capacity at 9 months of consumption.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Milk/chemistry , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Colony Count, Microbial , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Milk/microbiology
7.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170500, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954513

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives Since most of the studies evaluates diabetics on multiple daily injections therapy and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion may help gain better metabolic control and prevent complications, the objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries, the unstimulated salivary flow rate and the total bacteria load, Streptococcus spp. levels and Lactobacillus spp. levels in saliva and supragingival dental biofilm of type 1 diabetics on insulin pump. Material and Methods Sixty patients with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump and 60 nondiabetic individuals were included. The dental caries evaluation was performed using ICDAS and the oral hygiene was assessed according to Greene and Vermillion Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. Unstimulated saliva and supragingival dental biofilm were collected. Total bacteria, Streptococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. was quantified by qPCR. Results Patients with type 1 diabetes had a higher prevalence of dental caries and filled and missing teeth when compared with the control group. These patients were associated with more risk factors for the development of dental caries, namely a lower unstimulated salivary flow rate and a higher bacterial load in saliva and dental biofilm. Conclusion Some risk factors related to dental caries were associated with type 1 diabetics. An early diagnosis combined with the evaluation of the risk profile of the diabetic patient is imperative, allowing the dental caries to be analyzed through a perspective of prevention and the patient to be integrated into an individualized oral health program.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Saliva/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Caries/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Oral Hygiene , Reference Values , Saliva/metabolism , Secretory Rate , Streptococcus/isolation & purification , Streptococcus/physiology , DNA, Bacterial , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Infusions, Subcutaneous , Bacterial Load , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/physiology , Middle Aged
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 715-723, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889177

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The ability to adsorb zearalenone by five strain of lactic acid bacteria was evaluated: four strains of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from pig rectal swabs and one commercial strain (Lactobacillus rhamnosus). Several factors affecting the adsorption capacity were evaluated in order to improve the adsorption of the mycotoxin by bacteria. The stability of the zearalenone-bacteria complex was analyzed. In every case, bacterial adsorption capacity was higher than 40.0%. The strain showing the highest adsorption (68.2%) was selected for the following steps of this research. The adsorption percentages obtained after processing 6.5 and 7.5 mL MRS broth were 57.40% + 3.53 and 64.46% + 0.76, respectively. The stability of zearalenone-bacteria complex was evaluated by successively rinsing. In the first rinsing step 42.26% + 0.414 was still bound. In the second rinsing step 25.12% + 0.664 was still bound, whereas 15.82% + 0.675 remained in the pellet after the third rinse. Results obtained demonstrated that Lactic Acid Bacteria has capacity to adsorb zearalenone. Finally adsorption was increased using a higher volume of initial broth. These results could be used to design a new lyophilized powder for detoxification, using lactic acid bacteria as potential zearalenone adsorbents.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lactobacillus/metabolism , Swine/microbiology , Zearalenone/metabolism , Adsorption , Lactobacillus/chemistry , Lactobacillus/genetics , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Rectum/microbiology , Zearalenone/chemistry
9.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 30: 83-87, nov. 2017. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021898

ABSTRACT

Background: ß-Glucosidase assay is performed with purified or semipurified enzymes extracted from cell lysis. However, in screening studies, to find bacteria with ß-glucosidase activity among many tested bacteria, a fast method without cell lysis is desirable. In that objective, we report an in vivo ß-glucosidase assay as a fast method to find a ß-glucosidase producer strain. Results: The method consists in growing the strains for testing in a medium supplemented with the artificial substrate p-nitrophenyl-ß-glucopyranoside (pNPG). The presence of ß-glucosidases converts the substrate to p-nitrophenol (pNP), a molecule that can be easily measured in the supernatant spectrophotometrically at 405 nm. The assay was evaluated using two Bifidobacterium strains: Bifidobacterium longum B7254 strain that lacks ß-glucosidase activity and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum B7003 strain that shows ß-glucosidase activity. The addition of sodium carbonate during pNP measurement increases the sensitivity of pNP detection and avoids the masking of absorbance by the culture medium. Furthermore, we show that pNP is a stable enzymatic product, not metabolized by bacteria, but with an inhibitory effect on cell growth. The ß-glucosidase activity was measured as units of enzyme per gram per minute per dry cell weight. This method also allowed the identification of Lactobacillus strains with higher ß-glucosidase activity among several lactobacillus species. Conclusion: This in vivo ß-glucosidase assay can be used as an enzymatic test on living cells without cell disruption. The method is simple, quantitative, and recommended, especially in studies screening for bacteria not only with ß-glucosidase activity but also with high ß-glucosidase activity.


Subject(s)
Bifidobacterium/isolation & purification , Bifidobacterium/enzymology , beta-Glucosidase/metabolism , Bifidobacterium/metabolism , Nitrophenylgalactosides , Enzyme Assays , Bifidobacterium longum/isolation & purification , Bifidobacterium longum/enzymology , Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum/isolation & purification , Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum/enzymology , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/enzymology , Lactobacillus/metabolism , Nitrophenols
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 592-601, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889150

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a kefir apple-based vinegar and evaluate this fermentation process using new methodology with Biospeckle Laser. Brazilian kefir grains were inoculated in apple must for vinegar production. In this study, the microbial community present in kefir, and correspondent vinegar, was investigated using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii were the microbial species identified. S. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and A. syzygii were found in smaller quantities at the beginning of the alcoholic fermentation, but were found throughout the alcoholic and acetic fermentation. Kefir grains were able to utilize apple must as substrate to produce ethanol, and acetic acid. Acetate, volatile alcohols and aldehydes in the vinegar-based kefir were also produced. The yield of acetic acid in the kefir vinegars was ∼79%. The acetic acid concentration was ∼41 g L-1, reaching the required standard for the Brazilian legislation accepts it as vinegar (4.0% acetic acid). Kefir vinegar showed good acceptance in the sensory analysis. The technology proposed here is novel by the application of immobilized-cell biomass (kefir grains) providing a mixed inocula and eliminating the use of centrifuge at the end of the fermentative process. This step will save energy demand and investment. This is the first study to produce apple vinegar using kefir grains.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcoholic Beverages/microbiology , Kefir/analysis , Malus/microbiology , Acetic Acid/analysis , Acetic Acid/metabolism , Acetobacter/isolation & purification , Acetobacter/metabolism , Biodiversity , Brazil , Ethanol/analysis , Ethanol/metabolism , Fermentation , Food Handling , Kefir/microbiology , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/metabolism , Malus/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolation & purification , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Taste
11.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(2): 241-248, mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839145

ABSTRACT

Abstract Early childhood caries (ECC) affects children all over the world and has high prevalence and severity in preschool children. Different social, biological and behavioral factors compose a network of causal factors for ECC. The aim was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic variables and caries at baseline, and the presence of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. microorganisms with the progression of caries lesions after two years of follow-up in a group of children. At baseline, 163 children (3-4 years old) living in the areas of 12 primary care services of the Hospital Group Conceição (GHC, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil) were evaluated. After two years, 119 children were re-evaluated. Clinical examinations were conducted by calibrated examiners using the ICDAS criteria. A sociodemographic questionnaire was applied to the children’s parents and saliva samples were collected from the children for microbiological analysis. Descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson regression analysis were performed in the statistical analysis. The factors associated with the caries progression were marital status of mothers (p=0.040), higher S. mutans counts (p=0.031) and the presence of cavitated lesions at baseline (p<0.001). The caries lesions progression in preschool children enrolled in primary health care was directly associated with marital status, presence of cavitated lesions at baseline and higher S. mutans counts at two-year follow-up.


Resumo A cárie precoce na infância (CPI) acomete crianças em todo o mundo e apresenta alta prevalência e severidade em pré-escolares. Diferentes fatores sociais, biológicos e comportamentais constituem uma rede de fatores causais da CPI. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a associação entre as variáveis socioeconômicas e presença de cárie na linha de base e a presença de Streptococcus mutans e Lactobacillus spp. com a progressão de lesões de cárie após dois anos de acompanhamento em um grupo de crianças. Na avaliação inicial, foram avaliadas 163 crianças (3-4 anos de idade) pertencentes a 12 unidades básicas de saúde do Grupo Hospitalar Conceição (GHC, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil). Após dois anos, foram reavaliadas 119 crianças. Os exames clínicos foram realizados por examinadores calibrados usando os critérios ICDAS. Um questionário sociodemográfico foi aplicado aos pais das crianças e amostras de saliva foram coletadas de crianças para análise microbiológica. Foram realizadas estatísticas descritivas e regressão multivariada de Poisson na análise estatística. Os fatores associados com a progressão de cárie foram o estado marital das mães (p=0,040) e a presença de lesões cavitadas no início do estudo e uma maior contagem de S. mutans (p=0,031) após dois anos de acompanhamento. A progressão de cárie em pré-escolares pertencentes às unidades de atenção primária em saúde foi diretamente associada com o estado marital das mães, presença de lesões cavitadas na linha de base e maior contagem de S. mutans após dois anos de acompanhamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Dental Caries/microbiology , Brazil , Dental Caries/pathology , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Longitudinal Studies , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification
12.
Clinics ; 72(3): 154-160, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840058

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Changes in the neonatal gut environment allow for the colonization of the mucin layer and lumen by anaerobic bacteria. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Lactococcus colonization through the first year of life in a group of 12 Brazilian infants and to correlate these data with the levels of Escherichia coli. The presence of anaerobic members of the adult intestinal microbiota, including Eubacterium limosum and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, was also evaluated. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected during the first year of life, and 16S rRNA from anaerobic and facultative bacteria was detected by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Bifidobacterium was present at the highest levels at all of the studied time points, followed by E. coli and Lactobacillus. E. limosum was rarely detected, and F. prausnitzii was detected only in the samples from the latest time points. CONCLUSION: These results are consistent with reports throughout the world on the community structure of the intestinal microbiota in infants fed a milk diet. Our findings also provide evidence for the influence of the environment on intestinal colonization due to the high abundance of E. coli. The presence of important anaerobic genera was observed in Brazilian infants living at a low socioeconomic level, a result that has already been well established for infants living in developed countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Intestines/microbiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Bacteria, Anaerobic/genetics , Bifidobacterium/isolation & purification , Bifidobacterium/genetics , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial , Age Factors , Bacterial Load , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/genetics
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(7): 677-684, jul. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-766210

ABSTRACT

As células enterocromafins são um dos componentes da mucosa intestinal que liberam serotonina para o lúmen, promovendo atividades secretórias e crescimento celular de vários tecidos, incluindo vilosidades intestinais. O presente estudo avaliou as influências do 5-hidroxitriptofano (5HTP) e do m-hidroxibenzilhidrazine (NSD1015), associados a Lactobacillus spp., sobre o peso corporal e o desenvolvimento das vilosidades intestinais na porção proximal do duodeno de frangos de corte desafiados com Salmonella Enteritidis. Verificou-se também se a presença de Lactobacillus spp. e Salmonella Enteritidis influenciaram a imunomarcação de serotonina no duodeno e, para isso, o estudo foi dividido em dois experimentos, com e sem desafio por S. Enteritidis. No Experimento 1, em aves sem desafio, os pesos corporais não diferiram significantemente (p>0,05) e, no Experimento 2, aves com desafio, os tratamentos com o precursor isolado e associado a Lactobacillus spp. determinaram maior peso corporal das aves. Nos dois experimentos, as aves tratadas com 5HTP apresentaram aumento na densidade e altura das vilosidades no duodeno, sugerindo a atuação de 5HTP como um agente trófico. A administração de Lactobacillus spp. também determinou altura maior de vilosidades duodenais. Quanto a imunomarcação de serotonina, as aves tratadas com Lactobacillus spp. no Experimento 1 e as aves tratadas com Lactobacillus spp. e desafiadas com S. Enteritidis no Experimento 2, apresentaram valores superiores aos demais tratamentos, sugerindo que a presença destas bactérias promove maior liberação de serotonina para o duodeno, porém o mecanismo exato de como este processo ocorre necessita ser mais elucidado...


Enterochromaffin cells are components of the intestinal mucosa to release serotonin lumen, promoting cell growth and secretory activity of various tissues, including intestinal villi. This study evaluated the influence of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP) and m-hidroxibenzilhidrazine (NSD1015) associated with Lactobacillus spp. on body weight and development of intestinal villi in the proximal duodenum of broilers challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis. It was found that the presence of Lactobacillus spp. and Salmonella Enteritidis influenced immunostaining of serotonin in the duodenum. The study was divided into two experiments with and without challenge by S. Enteritidis. In Experiment 1, birds without challenge, body weights did not differ significantly (p>0.05), and in Experiment 2, the treatments with precursor and precursor associated with Lactobacillus spp. determined higher body weight of the birds. In both experiments the birds treated with 5HTP showed increased density and villus height in the duodenum, suggesting the presence of 5HTP as a trophic agent. The use of Lactobacillus spp. also determined greater duodenal villus height. The immunostaining of serotonin, birds treated with Lactobacillus spp. in Experiment 1, and the birds treated with Lactobacillus spp. and challenged with S. Enteritidis in Eperiment 2 showed higher values, suggesting that the presence of these bacteria promotes greater release of serotonin into the duodenum. The exact mechanism of how this process occurs needs to be further elucidated...


Subject(s)
Animals , /therapeutic use , Galliformes/microbiology , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/analysis , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors , Serotonin , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Salmonella enteritidis/isolation & purification
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 1023-1030, July-Sept. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727034

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of Transgalactosylated oligosaccharides-mupirocin lithium salt (TOS-MUP) and MRS-clindamycin-ciprofloxacin (MRS-CC) agars, along with several other culture media, for selectively enumerating bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species commonly used to make fermented milks. Pure culture suspensions of a total of 13 dairy bacteria strains, belonging to eight species and five genera, were tested for growth capability under various incubation conditions. TOS-MUP agar was successfully used for the selective enumeration of both Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and B. breve M-16 V. MRS-CC agar showed relatively good selectivity for Lactobacillus acidophilus, however, it also promoted the growth of Lb. casei strains. For this reason, MRS-CC agar can only be used as a selective medium for the enumeration of Lb. acidophilus if Lb. casei is not present in a product at levels similar to or exceeding those of Lb. acidophilus. Unlike bifidobacteria and coccus-shaped LAB, all the lactobacilli strains involved in this work were found to grow well in MRS pH 5.4 agar incubated under anaerobiosis at 37 °C for 72 h. Therefore, this method proved to be particularly suitable for the selective enumeration of Lactobacillus spp.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Load/methods , Bifidobacterium/isolation & purification , Culture Media/chemistry , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Selection, Genetic , Temperature , Time Factors
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 1065-1073, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727039

ABSTRACT

In the aviculture industry, the use of Lactobacillus spp. as a probiotic has been shown to be frequent and satisfactory, both in improving bird production indexes and in protecting intestine against colonization by pathogenic bacteria. Adhesion is an important characteristic in selecting Lactobacillus probiotic strains since it impedes its immediate elimination to enable its beneficial action in the host. This study aimed to isolate, identify and characterize the in vitro and in vivo adhesion of Lactobacillus strains isolated from birds. The Lactobacillus spp. was identified by PCR and sequencing and the strains and its adhesion evaluated in vitro via BMM cell matrix and in vivo by inoculation in one-day-old birds. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum were collected one, four, 12 and 24 h after inoculation. The findings demonstrate greater adhesion of strains in the cecum and an important correlation between in vitro and in vivo results. It was concluded that BMM utilization represents an important technique for triage of Lactobacillus for subsequent in vivo evaluation, which was shown to be efficient in identifying bacterial adhesion to the enteric tract.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Adhesion , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/physiology , Poultry/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology , Lactobacillus/classification , Lactobacillus/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163094

ABSTRACT

Aims: This study was focused on using Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from fresh vegetables which has been molecularly identified for in vitro control of some tomato pathogens. Study Design: The inhibitory potentials of supernatant obtained from previously characterized LAB isolates or vegetable origin were investigated against some tomato phytopathogens using agar-well method with the view to develop biological agents for some tomato disease causing organisms. Place and Duration of Study: Biotechnology Centre of Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria, between January 2011 and February 2012. Methodology: The antimicrobial activities of LAB against some tomato phytopathogenic bacteria which include (Xanthomonas campestries, Erwinia caratovora, and Pseudomonas syringae) were obtained by using the agar well diffusion method. Results: The result indicates that cell free culture of LAB from fresh vegetables origin (Weissella paramesenteroides, Lactobacillus pentosus, Weissella cibaria, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella kimchi and Lactobacillus plantarum) can inhibits these bacteria by creating clear zones of inhibition around the wells containing cell free supernatants of the above mentioned strains of lactic acid bacteria. Pediococcus pentosaceus showed the highest zone of inhibition against Xanthomonas campestries at 15 mm radius, Weissella kimchi was the least effective against Pseudomonas syringae at 3.67 mm and Erwinia caratovora at 3.50 mm radius. Conclusion: Tomato disease causing organisms can be most likely biologically controlled by using extracts from LAB. This finding will reduce the potential hazard from the use of chemical herbicides on plant.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/physiology , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/metabolism , Lactobacillus/physiology , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiology , Pest Control, Biological , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Vegetables/microbiology
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 22(1): 38-43, Jan-Feb/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699919

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study. Forty-eight subjects were fitted with fixed orthodontic appliances and forty-seven were free of any such appliances. The follow-up was 6 months for all children. The association between orthodontic appliances and high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp was assessed with logistic regression models, taking age, sex, pH and buffer capacity into account. Results: Differences at baseline between the two groups were not statistically significant. We found that wearing a fixed orthodontic appliance was associated with high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp (adjusted OR: 6.65, 95% CI [1.98-22.37]; 9.49, 95% CI [2.57-35.07], respectively), independently of other variables. Conclusion: The originality of the present epidemiological study was to evaluate the evolution of salivary microbial parameters in a population of children with fixed orthodontic appliances. Our results show an increase of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp values during the follow-up. The whole dental workforce should be aware that preventive measures are of paramount importance during orthodontic treatment. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Orthodontic Appliances/microbiology , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification , Age Factors , Case-Control Studies , Colony Count, Microbial , Confidence Intervals , Follow-Up Studies , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Saliva/chemistry
19.
Clinics ; 69(5): 319-322, 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709616

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to analyze the efficacy of Papacarie¯ gel compared with the traditional method (low-speed bur) in reducing the counts of total bacteria, Lactobacillus, total Streptococcus and Streptococcus mutans group. METHODS: A randomized, controlled clinical trial with a split-mouth design was performed. The sample comprised 40 deciduous teeth in 20 children (10 males and 10 females) aged four to seven years. The teeth were randomly allocated to two groups: G1, or chemomechanical caries removal with Papacarie Duo¯, and G2, or the removal of carious dentin tissue with a low-speed bur. Infected dentin was collected prior to the procedure, and the remaining dentin was collected immediately following the removal of the carious tissue. Initial and final counts of bacterial colonies were performed to determine whether there was a reduction in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) of each microorganism studied. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01811420. RESULTS: Reductions were found in the numbers of total bacteria, total Streptococcus and Streptococcus mutans group following either of the caries removal methods (p<0.05). A reduction was also noted in the number of Lactobacillus CFUs; however, this difference did not achieve statistical significance (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Papacarie¯ is an excellent option for the minimally invasive removal of carious tissue, achieving significant reductions in total bacteria, total Streptococcus and S. mutans with the same effectiveness as the traditional caries removal method. .


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Dental Caries/drug therapy , Papain/therapeutic use , Tooth, Deciduous/microbiology , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dentin/microbiology , Lactobacillus/drug effects , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification , Streptococcus/drug effects , Streptococcus/isolation & purification
20.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; dez. 2013. 138 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-836962

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da adição de inulina (I) e a substituição parcial da gordura do leite (G) pelo concentrado de proteína de soro de leite (WPC) sobre a sobrevivência dos probióticos Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM e Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 em sorvete de graviola com teor reduzido de gordura, ao longo do período de armazenamento e frente às condições encontradas no trato gastrointestinal (TGI) simuladas in vitro. Adicionalmente, avaliou-se a influência desses ingredientes (6% I; 1,5% WPC; 3% e 1,5% G) sobre as características tecnológicas e a aceitabilidade do sorvete funcional. Empregou-se um planejamento fatorial 22, para 4 formulações produzidas, em triplicata, totalizando 12 ensaios: F1- controle (- I, - WPC); F2 (+ I, - WPC); F3 (- I, + WPC) e F4 (+ I, + WPC). Todas as formulações foram armazenadas a -18±3ºC e avaliadas após 2, 28, 56, 84 e 112 dias de armazenamento. A determinação das características tecnológicas foi realizada com as análises de dureza instrumental (em analisador de textura TA-XT2), fração de derretimento, overrun (durante a elaboração do produto) e perfil lipídico. Para o teste de aceitabilidade do produto, utilizou-se uma escala hedônica estruturada de 9 pontos. Elevada viabilidade probiótica foi observada para todas as formulações, com médias de populações acima de 8,0 log UFC/g, não diferindo significativamente durante o armazenamento de 112 dias (p>0,05). B. animalis subsp. lactis HN019 apresentou uma maior resistência em relação a L. acidophilus NCFM quando submetido aos sucos gastrointestinais artificiais, uma vez que a população de NCFM e de HN019 diminuíram, respectivamente, cerca de 5,2 log UFC/g e de 1,2 log UFC/g, durante o armazenamento. O efeito protetor do WPC e/ou I sobre a resistência de L. acidophilus aos sucos gastrointestinais artificiais foi observada no 56º dia e, para B. animalis subsp. lactis no 2º dia de armazenamento (p<0,05). Os sorvetes com WPC apresentaram menores valores de dureza, aos 7º e 112º dias de estocagem (p<0,05). A adição de inulina influenciou no aumento da dureza para F2 após 56 dias e para F4 durante todo período de armazenamento (p<0,05). Os resultados mostraram, também, que a presença do WPC e/ou inulina reduziu a velocidade de derretimento dos sorvetes durante todo o armazenamento (p<0,05). Elevados escores médios (entre 6,8 e 8,0) foram obtidos no teste de aceitabilidade sensorial dos sorvetes probióticos, indicando excelente aceitação pelos consumidores e não diferiram significativamente durante o armazenamento de até 84 dias. Já para F4, a adição do WPC + I aumentou a aceitação do produto após 56 dias (p<0,05). Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a utilização do WPC como substituto parcial da gordura láctea separadamente ou combinada com a inulina pode ser vantajosa no desenvolvimento de sorvete probiótico com baixo teor de gordura, uma vez que a presença desses ingredientes desempenhou um papel importante na proteção dos probióticos contra o efeito dos fluidos gastrointestinais nos testes in vitro. Além deste efeito protetor, a utilização da inulina e WPC também melhorou as características tecnológicas e sensoriais do sorvete funcional reduzido de gordura


This study aimed to assess the effect of the addition of inulin (I) and the partial substitution of the milk fat (MF) by whey protein concentrate (WPC) on Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 viability incorporated in low fat graviola (Annona muricata L.) ice-cream and on probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions throughout 112 days of storage. Moreover, the influence of these ingredients (6% I; 1,5% WPC; 3% and 1,5% MF) on the functional ice-cream technological and sensorial features was also evaluated. Employing a 22 factorial design, four formulations were produced, in triplicates: F1- control (- I, - WPC); F2 (+ I, - WPC); F3 (- I, + WPC) and F4 (+ I, + WPC). The product were stored at -18±3ºC and analyzed after 2, 28, 56, 84, and 112 days of storage. Ice-creams from each trial were used for determination of L. acidophilus and B. animalis subsp. lactis viability in the products and survival in ice-creams submitted to gastrointestinal simulated conditions during storage at -18±3ºC for up to 112 days. For the determination of technological features, instrumental hardness (in TA-XT2 Texture Analyser), melting rate, overrun (during production), and lipid profile were determined. For sensory acceptability evaluation, a 9 point hedonic scale was used. High probiotic viability was observed for all formulations, with mean populations above 8.0 cfu/g and which did not differ significantly throughout 112 days of storage (p>0.05). B. animalis subsp. lactis HN019 resistance to the artificial gastrointestinal juices was higher than for L. acidophilus NCFM, since the NCFM and the HN019 populations decreased approximately 5.2 log cfu/g and 1.2 log cfu/g, respectively, throughout storage. The protective effect of WPC and/or WPC + I on the L. acidophilus resistance to artificial gastrointestinal juices was observed on the 56th day and for B. animalis subsp. lactis on the 2nd day of storage (p<0.05). The ice-creams with WPC presented lower hardness in the 7th and 112nd days of frozen storage (p<0.05). The addition of inulin led to an incresed hardnes for F2 after 56 days and for F4 during the whole storage (p<0.05). The results also showed that the presence of the WPC and/or inulin reduced the ice-creams melting rates during the whole storage (p<0.05). The high mean scores obtained (between 6.8 and 8.0) in the acceptability test indicated that the functional ice-creams evaluated were very well accepted, and did not differ significantly throughout storage of up to 84 days. Except for F4, the addition of the WPC + I improved the acceptability after 56th days of frozen storage (p<0.05). The results suggest that the use of WPC for the partial substitution of the milk fat separately or combined with inulin may be advantageous in the development of low-fat synbiotic ice-cream, since the presence of these ingredients played an important role in the probiotic protection against gastrointestinal juices in the in vitro simulated assays. Besides these protective effects, inulin and WPC also improved the technological and sensory features of the low-fat functional ice-cream


Subject(s)
Annona/adverse effects , Ice Cream/analysis , Probiotics/pharmacology , Synbiotics/statistics & numerical data , Bifidobacterium/isolation & purification , Food Technology/methods , Functional Food , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Inulin/administration & dosage , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification
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