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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 149-160, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104061

ABSTRACT

Clinopodium mexicanum (Benth.) Govaerts (Lamiaceae) is a native plant of Mexico. This plant is used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of cultural specific syndromes such as "susto", "nervios" or "espanto", conditions related to anxiety and depression. In addition, it has a high biocultural value for its medicinal and culinary use and for its exchange value in various indigenous areas of México. This review aims to compile updated information about the ethnobotanical, phytochemistry and commercialization aspects of Clinopodium mexicanum, and it focuses on the potential use of this species as a raw material in the phytopharmaceutical industry for the treatment of anxiety and pain. Moreover, it would be a viable productive alternative for many rural communities, which could not only produce the raw material but who could also add value to the sale of the plant.


Clinopodium mexicanum (Benth.) Govaerts, es una planta nativa de México. Es usada en la medicina tradicional mexicana para tratar síndromes de filiación cultural como "susto", "nervios" o "espanto", los cuales están asociados a la ansiedad y depresión. Además, la planta presenta un alto valor biocultural por sus usos: medicinal, culinario y por el valor de cambio que tiene en áreas indígenas de México. La revisión presentada tiene como objetivo compilar información actualizada sobre aspectos etnobotánicos, fitoquímicos y comercialización de Clinopodium mexicanum. Igualmente señalar el potencial uso de esta especie como materia prima para la elaboración de productos para la ansiedad y el dolor por parte de la industria fitofarmacéutica. Además de ser una alternativa productiva para muchas comunidades rurales, las cuales pueden venderla como materia prima o como producto derivado.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Ethnobotany , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Commerce , Phytochemicals/analysis , Indigenous Peoples , Mexico
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 87-99, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983999

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to carry out an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by inhabitants of the Rodeadouro Island, Jatoba Island and Massangano Island, located in The Submedium São Francisco River Valley. Also phytochemicals and preliminary pharmacological tests were performed to species most cited by the community. Ethnobotanical data were collected through observation visits and semi-structured interviews with 12 key informants. We calculated the relative importance (RI), the percentage of agreement related to the main uses (cAMU) and use value (UV). The aerial parts of Rhaphiodon echinus (Ness & Mart.) Schauer were used to obtain the lyophilizate (LYO-Re), crude ethanol extract (CEE-Re) and their hexanic (HEX-Re), chloroform (CLO-Re) and ethyl acetate (EA-Re) fractions. The microdilution technique was used for determining Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for selected microorganisms. Already the spasmolytic effect was evaluated in isolated uterus fragments of Wistar rats, pre contracted with KCl 60 mM. We found 34 species cited, belonging to 22 families. The most plants were grown by locals. There were 51 different diseases, but the main indication was infectious and parasitic diseases. The species R. echinus was the most reported and it was indicated for urinary tract infection and dysmenorrhea. The screening revealed a higher prevalence of flavonoids, tannins, lignans and saponins in LYO-Re and AE-Re. Already terpene compounds were more present in HEX-Re and CLO-Re. The RE-Re fraction stood out with strong effect against E. coli and S. aureus while CEE-Re has moderate effect against gram-negative bacteria. The evaluation of the spasmolytic activity showed that LYO-Re, CEE-Re and HEX-Re fractions have similar activity, with partial effect and concentration-dependent response. This work brought about knowledge and use of medicinal plants by the riparian of the São Francisco River. It also revealed the importance of other methodologies for scientific evidence for the popular use of R. echinus.


Resumo Objetivou-se realizar um levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais utilizadas nas ilhas do Massangano, Jatobá II e Rodeadouro, localizadas entre Petrolina-PE e Juazeiro-BA, no submédio do rio São Francisco e posterior investigação fitoquímica e farmacológica da espécie mais citada, conforme a indicação da comunidade. Realizaram-se visitas de observação nas ilhas e os dados etnobotânicos foram coletados por entrevistas semiestruturadas com 12 informantes-chave. Calculou-se a Importância Relativa (IR), a Porcentagem Corrigida de Concordância quanto ao Uso Principal (CUPc) e o Valor de Uso (VU). Utilizaram-se as partes aéreas da espécie mais citada para obtenção do extrato etanólico bruto (EEB-Re), suas frações hexânica (HEX-Re), clorofórmica (CLO-Re) e acetato de etila (AE-Re); o produto liofilizado (LIO-Re) e o óleo essencial (OE-Re). A técnica de microdiluição foi usada para determinar a Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) para microorganismos selecionados. A atividade espasmolítica foi avaliada em fragmentos isolados de útero de ratas Wistar pré-contraídos com KCl 60 mM. Foram relatadas 34 espécies, contidas em 22 famílias diferentes. A maioria das plantas era cultivada pelos moradores. Registraram-se 51 enfermidades diferentes, mas a principal indicação foi doenças parasitárias e infecciosas. A espécie Rhaphiodon echinus (Ness & Mart.) Schauer foi a mais citada, com principal indicação para tratar infecção do trato urinário e dismenorreia. O screening fitoquímico revelou prevalência de flavonoides, taninos, lignanas e saponinas em LIO-Re e AE-Re e compostos terpênicos em HEX-Re e CLO-Re. Os testes antibacterianos mostraram que AE-Re é mais atuante contra E. coli e S. aureus do que para P. aeruginosa. O EEB-Re tem efeito parcial contra bactérias gram-negativas e OE-Re possui moderada resposta para todos microorganismos testados. LIO-Re, EEB-Re e HEX-Re possuem atividade espasmolítica dependente da concentração, sem diferença significativa e sem relaxamento total. Este trabalho trouxe conhecimento sobre o uso de plantas medicinais pelos ribeirinhos do rio São Francisco e revela a importância de estudos mais aprofundados para a comprovação científica do uso popular da R. echinus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Bacteria/drug effects , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Uterus/drug effects , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Rats, Wistar , Ethnobotany
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 291-296, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957425

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In the present study, we determined the chemical composition of Clinopodium macrostemum essential oil obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and its effect on the growth and development of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae. METHODS: The essential oil compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and bioassays were conducted to evaluate the influence on the developmental stages of early second instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus until the emergence of adults, using essential oil concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800mg/L. RESULTS: The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the leaf essential oil of C. macrostemum contained 32 compounds and the major chemical compounds identified were linalool (55.4%), nerol (6.4%), caryophyllene (6.25%), menthone (5.8%), geraniol acetate (4.1%), terpineol (3.7%), and pulegone (2.8%). The essential oil yield obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation was 0.8% at 20 min. The treatments showed lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) of 22.49 and 833.35mg/L, respectively, after the final measurement of the total number of dead larvae (second, third, and fourth instars), and LC50 and LC90 of 6.62 and 693.35mg/L, respectively, at the end of the experimental period. The essential oil inhibited the growth and development of the mosquito larvae by 32% (relative growth index = 0.68) at 50mg/L, and up to 47% (relative growth index = 0.53) at 800mg/L. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated the larvicidal effect of C. macrostemum essential oil on Cx. quinquefasciatus, which can be attributed to the oxygenate compounds obtained by the extraction method.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Culex/drug effects , Larva/drug effects , Biological Assay , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lamiaceae/classification , Culex/classification , Lethal Dose 50 , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Microwaves
4.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2825-2832, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886866

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Abnormal multiplication of oral bacteria causes dental caries and dental plaque. These diseases continue to be major public health concerns worldwide, mainly in developing countries. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Vitex agnus-castus leaves (VAC‒EO) collected in the North of Brazil against a representative panel of cariogenic bacteria were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of VAC-EO was evaluated in terms of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values by using the broth microdilution method in 96-well microplates. The chemical constituents of VAC-EO were identified by gas chromatography (GC‒FID) and gas chromatography‒mass spectrometry (GC‒MS). VAC‒EO displayed some activity against all the investigated oral pathogens; MIC values ranged from 15.6 to 200 μg/mL. VAC-EO had promising activity against Streptococcus mutans (MIC= 15.6 μg/mL), Lactobacillus casei (MIC= 15.6 μg/mL), and Streptococcus mitis (MIC= 31.2 μg/mL). The compounds 1,8-cineole (23.8%), (E)-β-farnesene (14.6%), (E)-caryophyllene (12.5%), sabinene (11.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (7.7%) were the major chemical constituents of VAC‒EO. VAC-EO displays antimicrobial activity against cariogenic bacteria. The efficacy of VAC-EO against S. mutans is noteworthy and should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Vitex/chemistry , Dental Caries/drug therapy , Lactobacillus casei/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Sesquiterpenes/classification , Streptococcus mutans , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification
5.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1369-1379, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886755

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Natural steroids and triterpenes such as b-sitosterol, stigmasterol, lupeol, ursolic and betulinic acids were transformed into its hexanoic and oleic esters, to evaluate the influence of chemical modification towards the cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. The derivatives were evaluated against five tumor cell lines [OVCAR-8 (ovarian carcinoma); SF-295 (glioblastoma); HCT-116 (colon adenocarcinoma); HL-60 (leukemia); and PC-3 (prostate carcinoma)] and the results showed only betulinic acid hexyl ester exhibits cytotoxic potential activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Triterpenes/chemistry , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Lamiaceae/classification , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Cell Line, Tumor , Esters , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry , Fabaceae/classification , Antineoplastic Agents/isolation & purification , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(1): 176-184, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774516

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was developed to evaluate the effect of seasonality on the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) of Hesperozygis ringens (Benth.) Epling, a native species from the Brazilian Pampa. Leaves were collected from four specimens of a single population in each of the four seasons for a year and were extracted in triplicate by hydro-distillation for 2 hours. The yield of EO (% w/w) was calculated on fresh weight basis (FWB), and the 16 oil samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used as statistical tools to evaluate differences in chemical composition. The highest yields were obtained in autumn, spring and summer (2.32-4.38%), while the lowest yields were detected in winter, ranging from 1.15 to 1.91%. Oxygenated monoterpenoids were the predominant class of chemical constituents in the EO obtained in all seasons, showing the highest contents in autumn and summer, and pulegone was identified as a major compound, whose contents varied between 54.13 and 81.17%. The EO samples were divided into three chemical groups by HCA and PCA and were assigned to the same group, except for the three samples gathered in winter. The results showed a seasonal influence on the yield and chemical composition of the EO.


Resumo Este estudo foi desenvolvido a fim de avaliar o efeito da sazonalidade no rendimento e composição química do óleo essencial (OE) de Hesperozygis ringens (Benth.) Epling., uma espécie nativa do Pampa brasileiro. Folhas foram coletadas de quatro indivíduos de uma mesma população, em cada uma das quatro estações de um ano, e foram extraídas em triplicada por hidrodestilação durante 2 horas. O rendimento do OE (% m/m) foi calculado considerando a base fresca (BF) e as 16 amostras de óleo foram analisadas por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG-EM) e cromatografia gasosa com detector de ionização de chamas (CG-DIC). Análise Hierárquica de Cluster (AHC) e Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP) foram utilizadas como ferramentas estatísticas para avaliar as diferenças na composição química. Os maiores rendimentos foram obtidos no outono, primavera e verão (2,32-4,38%), enquanto que os menores foram detectados no inverno, variando de 1,15 até 1,91%. Os monoterpenoides oxigenados foram a classe predominante dos constituintes do OE obtido em todas as estações, apresentando os maiores teores no outono e no verão, e a pulegona foi identificada como o constituinte majoritário, cujos teores variaram entre 54,13 e 81,17%. As amostras de OE foram divididas em três grupos químicos por AHC e ACP e foram classificadas no mesmo grupo, com exceção de três amostras coletadas no inverno. Os resultados demonstraram influência sazonal no rendimento e na composição química dos OE.


Subject(s)
Lamiaceae/chemistry , Lamiaceae/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Cluster Analysis , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Principal Component Analysis , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Seasons
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(8): 1024-1034, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769826

ABSTRACT

The herbaceous shrub Tetradenia riparia has been traditionally used to treat inflammatory and infectious diseases. Recently, a study showed that T. riparia essential oil (TrEO) obtained in summer has antileishmanial effects, although these results could be influenced by seasonal variation. This study evaluated the activity of the TrEO obtained in different seasons against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, in vitro and in vivo. The compounds in the TrEO were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; terpenoids were present and oxygenated sesquiterpenes were the majority compounds (55.28%). The cytotoxicity and nitric oxide (NO) production were also tested after TrEO treatment. The TrEO from all seasons showed a 50% growth inhibitory concentration for promastigotes of about 15 ng/mL; at 30 ng/mL and 3 ng/mL, the TrEO reduced intracellular amastigote infection, independently of season. The TrEO from plants harvested in summer had the highest 50% cytotoxic concentration, 1,476 ng/mL for J774.A1 macrophages, and in spring (90.94 ng/mL) for murine macrophages. NO production did not change in samples of the TrEO from different seasons. The antileishmanial effect in vivo consisted of a reduction of the parasite load in the spleen. These results suggest that the TrEO has potential effects on L. (L.) amazonensis, consonant with its traditional use to treat parasitic diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Leishmania/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/isolation & purification , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Growth Inhibitors/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Leishmania/classification , Lymph Nodes/parasitology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects , Macrophages, Peritoneal/parasitology , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Parasite Load , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Seasons , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Spleen/parasitology , Time Factors
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 519-525, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749743

ABSTRACT

In Brazilian folk medicine, Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd. (Lamiaceae) is used to treat toothaches and dental abscesses and diseases induced by worms, bacteria, or fungi. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition and the antibacterial effects of the essential oil obtained from Tetradenia riparia leaves (TR-EO) grown in Southeastern Brazil against a representative panel of oral pathogens. We evaluated the antibacterial activity of TR-EO in terms of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). We identified aromadendrene oxide (14.0%), (E,E)-farnesol (13.6%), dronabinol (12.5%), and fenchone (6.2%) as the major constituents of TR-EO. TR-EO displayed MIC values between 31.2 and 500 μg/mL, with the lowest MIC value being obtained against Streptococcus mitis (31.2 μg/mL), S. mutans (62.5 μg/mL), S. sobrinus (31.2 μg/mL), and Lactobacillus casei (62.5 μg/mL). In time-kill experiments, TR-EO demonstrated bactericidal activity against S. mutans within the first 12 h, resulting in a curve profile similar to that of chlorhexidine. These results revealed that the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia displays promising activity against most of the selected cariogenic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Lactobacillus casei/drug effects , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Streptococcus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1341-1347, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741285

ABSTRACT

Bacterial infections cause thousands of deaths in the world every year. In most cases, infections are more serious because the patient is already weakened, and often, the bacteria are already resistant to the antibiotics used. Counterparting this negative scenario, the interest in medicinal plants as an alternative to the synthetic antimicrobial drugs is blossoming worldwide. In the present work, we identified the volatile compounds of ethanol extracts of Melissa officinalis, Mentha sp., Ocimum basilicum, Plectranthus barbatus, and Rosmarinus officinalis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Also was evaluated antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts against 6 bacteria of clinical interest, and was tested the interaction of these extracts with a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. Phytol was a compound identified in all extracts by GC/MS, being majoritary component in Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ethanol extracts, and Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis were the most active extracts. Ethanol extracts exhibited a synergetic effect with streptomycin. These results encourage additional studies, in order to evaluate the possibilities of using ethanol extracts of Lamiaceae family as natural source for antibacterial activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Drug Synergism , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Streptomycin/pharmacology , Volatile Organic Compounds/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Volatile Organic Compounds/isolation & purification
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(3): 254-269, mayo 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-768854

ABSTRACT

This work presents the analysis by GC-MS of volatile metabolites of six Lamiaceae from Arauca (Colombia). In stems and leaves of Eriope crassipes were determined as the most abundants: citronellic acid (53,8 percent and 66,2 percent), and methyl citronellate (15,7 percent and 14,5 percent). In the inflorescences of Hyptis conferta were identified: t-cadinol (49,4 percent), and caryophyllene oxide (13,0 percent). From leaves and flowers of Hyptis dilatata were found: delta-3-carene (11,0 percent and 0,5 por ciento), camphor (43,8 percent and 12,2 percent), bornyl acetate (3,2 percent and 25,5 percent), E-caryophyllene (12,8 percent and 22,3 percent), and palustrol (6,0 percent and 10,3 percent). In the leaves of Hyptis brachiata were recognized: E-caryophyllene (8,3 percent), alpha-humulene (19,8 percent), and germacrene D (13,0 percent). The principal compounds in leaves and flowers of Hyptis suaveolens were: alpha-phellandrene (9,4 percent and 0,4 percent), limonene (10,5 percent and 2,5 percent), 1,8-cineole (1,3 percent and 15,2 por ciento), fenchone (10,8 por ciento and tr), E-caryophyllene (26,3 por ciento and 8,0 por ciento), and germacrene D (6,7 por ciento and 14,0 por ciento). In the leaves of Hyptis mutabilis were determined: sabinene (6,6 percent) beta-elemene (6,8 percent), germacrene D (14,9 percent), beta-selinene (8,8 percent), alpha-selinene (9,1 percent), and bicyclogermacrene (6,1 percent), as the most abundants.


Este trabajo presenta el análisis por GC-MS de los metabolitos volátiles de seis Lamiaceae recolectadas en Arauca (Colombia). En tallos y hojas de Eriope crassipes se determinaron como mayoritarios: ácido citronélico (53,8 por ciento y 66,2 por ciento), y citronelato de metilo (15,7 por ciento y 14,5 por ciento). En las inflorescencias de Hyptis conferta se identificaron: t-cadinol (49,4 por ciento), y óxido de cariofileno (13,0 por ciento). En hojas y flores de Hyptis dilatata se encontraron: delta-3-careno (11,0 por ciento y 0,5 por ciento), alcanfor (43,8 por ciento y 12,2 por ciento), acetato de bornilo (3,2 por ciento y 25,5 por ciento), E-cariofileno (12,8 por ciento y 22,3 por ciento), y palustrol (6,0 por ciento y 10,3 por ciento). En las hojas de Hyptis brachiata se reconocieron: E-cariofileno (8,3 por ciento), alfa-humuleno (19,8 por ciento), y germacreno D (13,0 por ciento). Los compuestos principales en hojas y flores de Hyptis suaveolens fueron: alfa-felandreno (9,4 por ciento y 0,4 por ciento), limoneno (10,5 por ciento y 2,5 por ciento), 1,8-cineol (1,3 por ciento y 15,2 por ciento), fenchona (10,8 por ciento y tr), E-cariofileno (26,3 por ciento y 8,0 por ciento), y germacreno D (6,7 por ciento y 14,0 por ciento). En las hojas de Hyptis mutabilis se determinaron: sabineno (6,6 por ciento), beta-elemeno (6,8 por ciento), germacreno D (14,9 por ciento), beta-selineno (8,8 por ciento), alfa-selineno (9,1 por ciento), y biciclogermacreno (6,1 por ciento), como los más abundantes.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Camphor/analysis , Camphanes/analysis , Caprylates/analysis , Distillation , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(3): 285-296, mayo 2014. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768855

ABSTRACT

In the present work an analytical methodology to micro scale based on the use of the HS-SPME/GC-MS to determine volatile compounds present in Clinopodium odorum (Griseb.) Harley (Lamiaceae)was optimized and settled differences and similarities with itsessential oil. A systematic description of the volatile components of flowers, stems, leaves and combined aerial parts (whole plant) was constructed via GC-MS analyses of HS-SPME adsorbed compounds and of essential oils obtained through hydrodistillation of the same tissues. Pulegone was the main component of both the HS-SPME analysis and essential oil analysis. In addition, piperitenone oxide andpiperitone oxide were the other main components in the essential oil whereas in the HS-SPME analysis cis-isopulegone and menthone prevailed. The HS-SPME method can achieve comparable results to those obtained by essential oil analysis, by using very fewer samples, ashorter extraction time and a much simpler procedure.


En el presente trabajo se ha optimizado una metodología analítica a micro-escala basada en HS-SPME/GC-MS para determinar los compuestos volátiles presentes en Clinopodium odorum (Griseb.) Harley (Lamiaceae), y se establecieron diferencias y similitudes con su aceite esencial. Se realizó una descripción sistemática de los componentes volátiles de flores, tallos, hojas y partes aéreas combinadas(planta entera) a partir de los análisis por GC-MS a través del sistema HS-SPME y de los aceites esenciales. Pulegona fue el componenteprincipal tanto del análisis por HS-SPME, como del aceite esencial. Además, el óxido de piperitenona y el óxido de piperitona eran los otroscomponentes principales en el aceite esencial mientras que en el análisis por HS-SPME, prevalecieron cis-isopulegona y mentona. El método de HS-SPME puede lograr resultados comparables a los obtenidos por el análisis de aceite esencial, mediante el uso de muestras de menor tamaño, un tiempo de extracción más corto y un procedimiento más simple.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Distillation , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Menthol/analysis , Monoterpenes/analysis
12.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-9, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current study has been designed to evaluate the chemical composition of essential and fixed oils from stem and leaves of Perovskia abrotanoides and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of these oils. RESULTS: GC-MS analysis of essential oil identified 19 compounds with (E)-9-dodecenal being the major component in stem and hexadecanoic acid in leaves. In contrast, GC-MS analysis of fixed oil showed 40 constituents with α-amyrin the major component in stem and α-copaene in leaves. The antioxidant activity showed the highest value of 76.7% in essential oil from leaves in comparison with fixed oil from stem (45.9%) through inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The antimicrobial assay tested on different microorganisms (e.g. E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, Nitrospira, S. epidermis, A. niger, A. flavus and C. albicans) showed the higher inhibition zone at essential oil from leaves (15.2 mm on B. cereus) as compared to fixed oil from stem (8.34 mm onS. aureus) and leaves (11.2 mm on S. aureus). CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed the fact that essential oil analyzed from Perovskia abrotanoides stem and leaves could be a promising source of natural products with potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, as compared to fixed oil.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Stems/chemistry , Alkanes/analysis , Alkanes/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Aspergillus/drug effects , Bacillus cereus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methyl Ethers/analysis , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oleanolic Acid/analysis , Oleanolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology , Palmitic Acid/analysis , Palmitic Acid/pharmacology , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/analysis , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology , Plant Oils/chemistry , Reducing Agents/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Stearic Acids/analysis , Stearic Acids/pharmacology
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Sept; 51(9): 715-720
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149375

ABSTRACT

The chloroform (4.20% w/w), ethyl acetate (4.23% w/w) and aqueous decoction (12.11% w/w) extracts of the aerial parts of A. indica were screened for the antiepileptic activity against maximal electroshock (MES) model and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) models at  doses of 200, 400 mg/kg, po once. Phenytoin and diazepam (25 and 2 mg/kg, ip) were used as standard drugs in MES and PTZ model, respectively. Further, ethyl acetate extract (active extract) was fractionated into flavonoid and tannin fraction, which were subsequently evaluated for the antiepileptic potential against both MES and PTZ models at a dose of 50 mg/kg, po. Pretreatment with ethyl acetate extract 200, 400 mg/kg, po, for 1 week showed significant antiepileptic activity against PTZ induced convulsions only. Isolated flavonoid fraction showed more potent antiepileptic activity as compared to ethyl acetate extract, without any neurotoxic effect. However, tannin fraction did not produce antiepileptic activity against PTZ induced convulsions. It may be concluded that the flavonoids fraction of ethyl acetate extract of aerial parts of A. indica, but not the aqueous decoction has antiepileptic potential, without producing neurotoxic effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Convulsants/toxicity , Female , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Male , Pentylenetetrazole/toxicity , Plant Components, Aerial/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Seizures/chemically induced , Seizures/drug therapy
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(6): 407-411, June 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675573

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate if the methanolic extract of the Otostegia persica can accelerating healing process of burn wound because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. METHODS:Forty eight male Wistar rats were randomized into three study groups of 16 rats each. Burn wounds were created on dorsal part of shaved rats using a metal rod. In group I the burn wound was left without any treatment. Group was treated with topical silver sulfadiazine pomade. In group III, ointment containing the OP extract was administered. Skin biopsies were harvested from burn area on the 3rd, 5th, 14th and 21st days after burn and examined histologically. RESULTS: Re-epithelialization in the control group and in group II was lower than in group III. Re-epithelialization in groups II and III was significantly different from that in the control group. On the 5th day of the experiment, we assessed lower inflammation in the burn area compared to control group. This means that the inflammation was suppressed by methanolic extract of OP. From day 5 to 14; the fibroblast proliferation peaked and was associated with increased collagen accumulation. It was obvious that angiogenesis improved more in the groups II and III, which facilitated re-epithelialisation. CONCLUSION:Methanolic extract of Otostegia persica exhibited significant healing activity when topically applied on rats. OP is an effective treatment for saving the burn site.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Burns/drug therapy , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Wound Healing/drug effects , Biopsy , Burns/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Skin/drug effects , Skin/pathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 649-655, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688596

ABSTRACT

This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) essential oil (EO) on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus) ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial dry weight of samples were measured and all the media were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1), aflatoxinB2 (AFB2), aflatoxinG1 (AFG1), aflatoxinG2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin total (AFTotal) production. The results showed that mycelial dry weight and aflatoxin production reduce in the presence of Z. multiflora EO (100 ppm) on day 5 of growth. It was found that the expression of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes was correlated with the ability of fungus to produce aflatoxins on day 5 in YES medium. RT-PCR showed that in the presence of Z.multiflora EO (100 ppm) nor-1, ver-1 and omtA genes expression was reduced. It seems that toxin production inhibitory effects of Z. multiflora EO on day 5 may be at the transcription level and this herb may cause reduction in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes activity.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins/biosynthesis , Antifungal Agents/metabolism , Aspergillus/drug effects , Biosynthetic Pathways/drug effects , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Aspergillus/genetics , Aspergillus/growth & development , Aspergillus/metabolism , Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Gene Expression Profiling , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 72(4): 787-793, Nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660372

ABSTRACT

Poejo is an aromatic and medicinal plant native to highland areas of south Brazil, in acid soils with high Al3+ concentration. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of liming on the extraction yield of essential oil of three chemotypes of poejo (Cunila galioides Benth). For this purpose, the experiments were performed in a greenhouse, using 8-litre pots. The treatments were four dosages of limestone (0, 3.15, 12.5, and 25 g.L-1) and a completely random experimental design was used, with four replications and three chemotypes, set up in a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. The parameters evaluated were dry weight of aerial parts, essential oil content and chemical composition of essential oil. Results showed that liming affects the biomass production, essential oil yield and chemical composition, with cross interaction verified between chemotype and limestone dosage. For the higher dosage lower biomass production, lower yield of essential oil as well as the lowest content of citral (citral chemotype) and limonene (menthene chemotype) was observed. In the ocimene chemotype, no liming influence was observed on the essential oil yield and on the content of major compounds. The dosage of 3.15 g.L-1 can be considered the best limestone dosage for the production of poejo for the experimental conditions evaluated.


O poejo é uma espécie aromática e medicinal, autóctone do sul do Brasil, encontrada em regiões de campos nativos de altitude, onde os solos se caracterizam por apresentar elevada acidez e altas concentrações de Al3+. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da calagem na produção de biomassa e de óleo essencial de três quimiotipos (QT) de poejo (Cunila galioides Benth.). O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação utilizando-se recipientes com capacidade de oito litros. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro dosagens de calcário dolomítico (0; 3,15; 12,5; 25 g.L-1 de substrato) e o delineamento experimental foi completamente casualisado, utilizando-se três quimiotipos de poejo (citral, menteno e ocimeno), quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 × 4. Foram avaliados o peso de matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas, o teor de óleo essencial e a composição química dos componentes majoritários presentes no óleo. Os resultados mostraram efeito da calagem na produção de biomassa, no teor e na composição química do óleo, ocorrendo efeito de interação entre quimiotipo e dosagem de calcário. Na maior dosagem, observou-se a menor produção de biomassa média, o teor de óleo essencial foi significativamente menor, assim como os componentes citral (QT-citral) e limoneno (QT-menteno). Para o quimiotipo ocimeno, as dosagens de calcário não influenciaram o teor e os componentes majoritários do óleo essencial, mas prejudicaram a produção de biomassa em doses elevadas. A calagem com 3,15 g.L-1 de substrato, elevando o pH para 5,0, pode ser considerada a melhor dosagem de calcário e a mais adequada faixa de pH para a produção de poejo, nas condições experimentais avaliadas.


Subject(s)
Lamiaceae/chemistry , Plant Oils/isolation & purification , Biomass , Calcium Carbonate/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/growth & development , Lamiaceae/metabolism , Plant Oils/chemistry , Random Allocation
17.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(2): 165-169, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-596390

ABSTRACT

Nesse trabalho foi investigado a composição química de óleos essenciais de duas plantas medicinais cultivadas em Ilhéus, Brasil, Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (hortelã-grosso) e Mentha pulegium L. (poejo). Os óleos essenciais foram extraídos das folhas frescas por hidrodestilação e foram analisados por CG/FID e CG-EM, na primavera e no inverno. P. amboinicus forneceu, tanto na primavera como no inverno, 0,10 por cento de óleo sendo timol o componente majoritário. M. pulegium forneceu na primavera 0,20 por cento de óleo e no inverno 0,09 por cento. Os componentes majoritários dos óleos foram pulegona e trans-cariofileno; borneol, mentol e piperitona foram identificados em menores quantidades. No inverno foram observados maiores quantidades de mentol e isomentol. Acetatos de neoisomentila, de mentila e de isometila foram observados somente no inverno. Esse trabalho contribui para o conhecimento das espécies vegetais cultivadas na região do sul da Bahia.


This work investigated the chemical composition of the essential oils of two medicinal plants grown in Ilhéus Municipality, Bahia State, Brazil: Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng (Mexican mint) and Mentha pulegium L. (pennyroyal). The essential oils were extracted from fresh leaves by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS, in the spring and in the winter. In both seasons, P. amboinicus yielded 0.10 percent oil and had thymol as major component. M. pulegium yielded 0.20 percent and 0.09 percent oil in the spring and winter, respectively. The major components were pulegone and trans-caryophyllene, whereas borneol, menthol and piperitone were identified at small quantities. Higher menthol and isomenthol levels were detected in the winter. In addition, neoisomenthyl, menthyl and isomenthyl acetates were only observed in the winter. This work contributes to the knowledge of plant species grown in southern Bahia.


Subject(s)
Mentha pulegium , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plectranthus , Brazil , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Seasons
18.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 46(3): 525-529, July-Sept. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-564919

ABSTRACT

The whole plant of the methanolic extract from Leucas cephalotes was screened for invitro antioxidant (using the DPPH method), invivo analgesic (using hot plate test in mice) and anti-inflammatory (using rat paw edema test) activities. The methanolic extract of Leucas cephalotes (MELC) scavenged the DPPH radicals in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 value to scavenge DPPH radicals was found to be 421.3µg/ml. A significant (p<0.0005) analgesic activity was observed at 60 min with 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg exhibited maximum activity. The maximum anti-inflammatory response was produced at 3 hr and 2 hr with doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. These results suggest that the methanolic extract from Leucas cephalotes exerts significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, which were comparable with standard drugs.


O extrato metanólico total de Leucas cephalotes foi submetido à triagem para as atividades antioxidante in vitro (utilizando o método DPPH), analgésica (utilizando teste da placa quente, em camundongos) e antiinflamatória (utilizando teste de edema da pata de rato), nas doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg. O extrato metanólico de Leucas cephalotes (MELC) inativou radicais difenil picril hidrazila (DPPH) de forma dose-dependente. O IC50 para essa atividade foi de 421,3 µg/mL. Observou-se atividade analgésica significativa (p<0,0005) a 60 minutos, com 200 mg/kg, e, com 400 mg/kg, observou-se atividade máxima. A resposta antiinflamatória máxima foi produzida, respectivamente, em 3 h e 2 h, com doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg. Estes resultados sugerem que o extrato metanólico de Leucas cephalotes apresenta efeitos analgésico e antiinflamatório significativos, comparáveis aos fármacos padrão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Analgesics/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Statistical Analysis
19.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2010; 9 (33): 108-115
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-105318

ABSTRACT

Stachys acerosa Boiss [Lamiaecae] is an endemic plant of Iran. Because there is no report about this plant and according to medicinal uses of another species of Stachys, in this investigation, chemical composition and antimicrobial acivity of essential oils of flowering and non flowering tops of S. acerosa were studied and the component with antimicrobial activity was identified. Flowering and non flowering tops of the plant were collected from Lalehzar [Kerman provience] and after drying their essential oils were obtained by Clevenger apparatus. The oils were analyzed by GC-MS apparatus and retention indices. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Eshrichia coli, Bacillus subtillis, Kelebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were investigated by bioautography method on silica gel GF[254] TLC plates developed in toluene: ethyl acetate [93:7]. Flowering and non flowering plants yielded 0.09% and 0.11% [v/w] of clear yellowish essential oil and chrysanthenyl acetate and linalool as were major constituents respectively. Most anitimicrobial activities, detected by TLC, showed in R[f]=0.5-0.6 in essential oil of non flowering tops and after extraction of this fraction from preparative TLC and GC-MS analysis, it showed that Carvacrol was the major compound. There are reports about antimicrobial activities of other Stachys species, and chrysanthenyl acetate and linalool as major constituents of essential oils in other species of Stachyes


Subject(s)
Lamiaceae/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Structures/chemistry , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Aromatherapy , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
20.
Biol. Res ; 42(2): 153-162, 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-524885

ABSTRACT

Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley is a native tree of the Brazilian Savannah. The fish Oreochromis niloticus L. was used as an experimental model to determine the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract as well as ethyl acetate, hexanic and chloroform fractions obtained from its leaves. The plant ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that both the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from H. canum induced vasoactive activity, causing vasodilation and vascular congestion, and the hexanic fraction also caused an apparent proliferation of capillaries. Hepatopancreas toxicity was evident through inflammatory processes. Pancreatic (chloroform fraction) and hepatic alterations, hemorrhagic spots and necroses were observed in fish treated with-ethanol extract and fractions. This study is the first description of the biologic action of the crude ethanol extract and the hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions in fish.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids , Hepatopancreas/drug effects , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Ethanol , Hepatopancreas/pathology , Solvents
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