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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0006, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360917

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar se há mudança refracional significativa após realização de capsulotomia posterior com laser Nd:YAG em olhos pseudofácicos. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo com análise de prontuários de pacientes atendidos em um hospital com diagnóstico de opacificação de cápsula posterior do cristalino tratada com capsulotomia posterior com laser Nd:YAG no período de outubro de 2019 a março de 2021. A comparação entre a refração antes e após o procedimento foi realizada calculando-se o equivalente esférico. Também foi avaliada a mudança da acuidade visual, aferida por LogMAR. Resultados: Foram analisados 90 prontuários, totalizando 140 olhos, de pacientes submetidos à capsulotomia posterior com laser Nd:YAG. O equivalente esférico médio pré-procedimento foi de -0,07±0,89D, mínimo de -3,0D e máximo de +2,5D, mediana (intervalo interquartil) de 0,0D (-0,50D a +0,375D). A média pós-procedimento foi de -0,18±0,86D, mínimo de -3,5D e máximo de +2,25D, mediana (intervalo interquartil) de -0,125D (-0,50D a 0,0D). com p<0,0082. Dos 140 olhos, 66 sofreram miopização e 37 hipermetropização. A média de alteração do equivalente esférico geral foi de -0,12±0,51D, mínimo de -2,50D e máximo de +1,25D, mediana (intervalo interquartil) de 0,0D (-0,375D a +0,125D). Ao se comparar a diferença entre o equivalente esférico antes e após o procedimento do grupo de olhos que sofreu miopização (n=66) ou hipermetropização (n=37), separadamente, ambos obtiveram p<0,0001. Ao se compararem todos os olhos que sofreram alguma alteração refracional (n=103), foi encontrado p=0,008. A acuidade visual média pré-procedimento foi de 0,23±0,32, mínimo de 0,0 e máximo de 2,3. Pós-procedimento, a média foi de 0,06±0,13, mínimo de -0,12 e máximo de 0,7, com p<0,0001. Conclusão: A capsulotomia posterior com laser Nd:YAG gerou melhora significativa da acuidade visual nos pacientes do estudo, porém também gerou alteração refracional significativa após o procedimento, tanto para miopização (a mais frequente), quanto para hipermetropização.


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify if there is a significant change on refraction after Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy in pseudophakic eyes. Methods: A retrospective study with analysis of medical records of patients treated at a hospital, with diagnosis of opacification of posterior lens capsule treated with Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy, from October 2019 to March 2021. The comparison of refraction before and after the procedure was performed by calculating the spherical equivalent. Changes in visual acuity (VA), measured by LogMAR, were also evaluated. Results: A total of 90 medical records (140 eyes) of patients submitted to Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy were analysed. The mean pre-procedure spherical equivalent was -0.07±0.89D, minimum of -3.0D and maximum of +2.5D, median (interquartile range) of 0.0D (-0.50D to +0.375D). The post-procedure mean was -0.18±0.86D, minimum of -3.5D and maximum of +2.25D, median (interquartile range) of -0.125D (-0.50D to 0.0D), with p <0.0082. Of the 140 eyes, 66 underwent myopia and 37 hyperopia, the mean change in the general spherical equivalent was -0.12±0.51D, minimum -2.50D and maximum +1.25D, median (interquartile range) of 0.0D (-0.375D to +0.125D). When comparing the difference between the spherical equivalent before and after the procedure of the group of eyes that underwent myopia (n=66) or hyperopia (n=37), separately, both obtained p<0.0001. When comparing all eyes that suffered any change on refraction (n=103), the p value was 0.008. The mean pre-procedure visual acuity was 0.23±0.32, minimum of 0.0 and maximum of 2.3. After the procedure, the mean was 0.06±0.13, minimum of -0.12 and maximum of 0.7, p<0.0001. Conclusion: Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy significantly improved visual acuity of patients in this study; however, it also led to a significant change on refraction after the procedure, both for myopization, which was more frequent, and for hyperopization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Refraction, Ocular , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Posterior Capsulotomy/adverse effects , Posterior Capsulotomy/methods , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Pseudophakia/surgery , Laser Therapy/methods , Capsule Opacification/surgery , Capsule Opacification/etiology
3.
Educ. med. super ; 35(2): e2205, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1286229

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La capsulotomía láser representa el único tratamiento efectivo para tratar la opacidad de cápsula posterior -causa más común de disminución de la visión después de una cirugía de catarata-. Este proceder es sencillo, pero no exento de complicaciones. Hasta ahora su aprendizaje se realiza directamente en los pacientes. El uso de simuladores permite el aprendizaje de la técnica sin dañar al paciente y sin la obligada presencia del profesor. Objetivo: Validar la confección de un modelo de ojo artificial como simulador para el entrenamiento de residentes de oftalmología en capsulotomía posterior con láser. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y prospectivo en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", realizado desde febrero hasta marzo de 2019. Se confeccionó un modelo que simula el ojo pseudofáquico con opacidad de cápsula posterior. Se eligieron ocho residentes de oftalmología de primer año que nunca habían realizado una capsulotomía láser. Todos observaron la ejecución de la capsulotomía en pacientes reales y en el modelo docente, mientras recibían la explicación de la técnica. Posteriormente, cada estudiante efectuó el proceder sobre el simulador en tres ocasiones, y se evaluó en cuanto al completamiento de la capsulotomía y los impactos al lente. Resultados: Se obtuvo un modelo de simulación para el entrenamiento de la capsulotomía posterior láser con el uso de materiales reusables. El promedio de disparos para completar el proceder fue superior al necesario en pacientes reales. No obstante, el número de disparos e impactos de láser en el lente intraocular se redujo con las sucesivas sesiones de entrenamiento. Conclusiones: El simulador confeccionado es económico y de fácil factura. Su uso resulta funcional para el entrenamiento sistemático de la capsulotomía posterior con Nd. YAG láser, sin riesgo de daño para el paciente. Contribuye a perfeccionar el enfoque y a minimizar los impactos en la lente intraocular, por lo que se muestra como un medio didáctico útil para la formación y evaluación de habilidades de los residentes de oftalmología(AU)


Introduction: Laser capsulotomy is the only effective treatment for posterior capsule opacity, the commonest cause of decreased vision after cataract surgery. This procedure is simple, but not without complications. Until now, learning such procedure has been carried out directly on patients. Using simulators allows learning the technique without harming patients and without the professor's obligatory presence. Objective: To validate the creation of an artificial eye model to be used as a simulator for the training of Ophthalmology residents in posterior capsulotomy with laser. Methods: Observational, descriptive and prospective study carried out, from February to March 2019, at Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology. A model was made that simulates the pseudophakic eye with posterior capsule opacity. Eight first-year Ophthalmology residents who had never performed a laser capsulotomy were selected. All the participants observed the performance of capsulotomy in real patients, as well as in the teaching model, while receiving the explanation regarding the technique. Subsequently, each student performed the procedure with the simulator on three occasions, and received an evaluation based on the completion of the capsulotomy and the impacts to the lens. Results: A simulation model was obtained for training posterior laser capsulotomy with the use of reusable materials. The average number of shots to complete the procedure was higher than necessary in real patients. However, the number of shots and laser impacts on the intraocular lens decreased with successive training sessions. Conclusions: The simulator created is cheap and easy to make. Its use is functional for the systematic training of posterior capsulotomy with neodymium. Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) laser did not have any risks to the patient. It contributes to perfecting the focus and minimizing the impacts on the intraocular lens; therefore, it is shown as a useful didactic means for the training and evaluation of skills of Ophthalmology residents(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Laser Therapy/methods , Posterior Capsulotomy , Simulation Training/methods , Lenses, Intraocular/adverse effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
4.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(1): e1060, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289529

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir la discapacidad visual del diabético de 50 años y más de edad y la cobertura de la atención oftalmológica en Cuba durante el año 2016. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación epidemiológica, descriptiva y transversal que tomó la encuesta rápida de ceguera evitable realizada en Cuba en el año 2016, la cual incluyó la retinopatía diabética validada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Con los datos obtenidos en los cuestionarios se confeccionó una base de datos donde se tomaron todos los diabéticos conocidos o no con discapacidad visual. Resultados: La prevalencia de cualquier tipo de discapacidad visual en el diabético es de 25,4 por ciento (21,8-28,9). El riesgo de desarrollar discapacidad visual moderada, grave y ceguera es de 19,4 por ciento (16,5-22,3), 2,8 por ciento (1,0-4,6) y 3,2 por ciento (1,5-4,8) respectivamente. La catarata es la primera causa de discapacidad. El riesgo de discapacidad visual en el diabético es similar para uno y otro sexo y se incrementa con la edad. Las coberturas de tratamiento son bajas. Conclusiones: En Cuba, alrededor de un cuarto de los diabéticos tienen algún riesgo de discapacidad visual. El diabético tiene mayor riesgo de discapacidad visual moderada; sin embargo, el riesgo de discapacidad visual grave y de ceguera es el mismo para toda la población de 50 años y más de edad. La catarata y la retinopatía diabética son las causas más frecuentes de discapacidad visual en el diabético. Se evidencian dificultades con la atención oftalmológica, que incluye el examen y la cobertura de tratamiento de la catarata y del láser para la retinopatía diabética(AU)


Objective: Describe visual impairment among diabetics aged 50 years and over, and the coverage of ophthalmological care in Cuba in the year 2016. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted based on the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness survey developed in Cuba in the year 2016, which included diabetic retinopathy with validation by the World Health Organization. The data obtained from the questionnaires were transferred to a database of visually impaired known and unknown diabetics. Results: Prevalence of any sort of visual impairment among diabetics is 25.4 percent (21.8-28.9). Risk of developing moderate visual impairment, severe visual impairment or blindness is 19.4 percent (16.5-22.3), 2.8 percent (1.0-4.6) and 3.2 percent (1.5-4.8), respectively. Cataract is the leading cause of impairment. Risk of visual impairment among diabetics is similar in the two sexes and increases with age. Treatment coverage is low. Conclusions: In Cuba, about one fourth of the diabetics are at some risk of visual impairment. Diabetics are at a higher risk of moderate visual impairment. However, the risk of severe visual impairment and blindness is the same as for the population aged 50 years and over. Cataract and diabetic retinopathy are the most common causes of visual impairment among diabetics. Difficulties were found in ophthalmological care, including examination and treatment coverage for cataract and laser therapy for diabetic retinopathy(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cataract/epidemiology , Blindness/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Laser Therapy/methods , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(6): e0049, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351859

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To identify preoperative clinical characteristics of patients undergoing femtosecond laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty who failed to achieve optimal postoperative visual outcomes. Methods In this single-center, retrospective case series, patients who underwent femtosecond laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty between 2013 and 2018 were included if they required graft revision, subsequent corneal procedure, or additional postoperative visits for a femtosecond laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty-related issue. Visual outcomes assessed included best-corrected visual acuities and postoperative corneal astigmatism. Results Eight eyes of eight patients meeting the above criteria were included. Mean patient age was 64.5 years (range, 21 to 89 years). Mean included preoperative best-corrected visual acuities was one logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (range, 0.3 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution to counting fingers). Indications for femtosecond laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty included anterior stromal scarring due to viral keratitis (two cases), bacterial keratitis (one case), chronic epithelial defect (one case), Avellino dystrophy (one case), trauma (one case), and chronic endothelial failure (two cases). Six patients had history of prior intraocular surgeries including phacoemulsification (four cases), pars plana vitrectomy (one case), endothelial keratoplasty (two cases), and trabeculectomy (one case). Mean included best-corrected visual acuities at most recent follow-up was one logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (range zero logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution to hand movements) representing improvement or stability in six of eight patients. Visually significant corneal astigmatism was present in four of eight patients. Post-femtosecond laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty procedures included graft repositioning, arcuate keratotomy, phacoemulsification, and regraft. Conclusion While femtosecond laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty offers a less-invasive treatment option compared to penetrating keratoplasty, intraoperative and postoperative management can be complex. Femtosecond laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty in patients with history of prior endothelial keratoplasty or ongoing ocular comorbidities should be pursued with caution.


RESUMO Objetivo Identificar as características clínicas pré-operatórias de pacientes submetidos à ceratoplastia lamelar anterior assistida por laser de femtossegundo que não alcançaram resultados visuais pós-operatórios ideais. Métodos Nesta série de casos retrospectiva em um único centro, os pacientes submetidos à ceratoplastia lamelar anterior assistida por laser de femtossegundo entre 2013 e 2018 foram incluídos se precisassem de revisão do enxerto, procedimento corneano subsequente ou visitas pós-operatórias adicionais por uma intercorrência relacionada à ceratoplastia lamelar anterior assistida por laser de femtossegundo. Os resultados visuais avaliados incluíram melhor acuidade visual corrigida e astigmatismo pós-operatório da córnea. Resultados Oito olhos de oito pacientes que atenderam aos critérios descritos foram incluídos. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 64,5 anos (variação de 21 a 89). A melhor acuidade visual corrigida pré-operatória média foi de um logaritmo do mínimo ângulo de resolução (variação de 0,3 logaritmo do mínimo ângulo de resolução para contagem de dedos). As indicações para ceratoplastia lamelar anterior assistida por laser de femtossegundo incluíram cicatriz do estroma anterior devido à ceratite viral (dois casos), ceratite bacteriana (um caso), defeito epitelial crônico (um caso), distrofia de Avellino (um caso), trauma (um caso) e insuficiência endotelial crônica (dois casos). Seis pacientes tinham história de cirurgias intraoculares anteriores, incluindo facoemulsificação (quatro casos), vitrectomia via pars plana (um caso), ceratoplastia endotelial (dois casos) e trabeculectomia (um caso). O mínimo ângulo de resolução médio no acompanhamento mais recente foi de um logaritmo do mínimo ângulo de resolução (variação de zero logaritmo do mínimo ângulo de resolução para movimentos das mãos), representando melhora ou estabilidade em seis de oito pacientes. Astigmatismo corneano visualmente significativo estava presente em quatro de oito pacientes. Os procedimentos pós-ceratoplastia lamelar anterior assistida por laser de femtossegundo incluíram reposicionamento do enxerto, ceratotomia arqueada, facoemulsificação e enxerto. Conclusão Embora a ceratoplastia lamelar anterior assistida por laser de femtossegundo ofereça uma opção de tratamento menos invasiva em comparação com a ceratoplastia penetrante, o manejo intra e pós-operatório pode ser complexo. A ceratoplastia lamelar anterior assistida por laser de femtossegundo em pacientes com história de ceratoplastia endotelial anterior ou comorbidades oculares correntes deve ser avaliada com cautela.


Subject(s)
Humans , Corneal Transplantation/methods , Cornea/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Refraction, Ocular , Retrospective Studies , Keratoplasty, Penetrating , Treatment Outcome , Corneal Surgery, Laser/methods , Laser Therapy/methods , Keratitis , Lasers
7.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(2): e853, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139067

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la maculopatía diabética en adultos de 50 años y más en Cuba. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación epidemiológica, descriptiva transversal, que tomó la Encuesta Rápida de Ceguera Evitable realizada en Cuba en el año 2016, la cual incluyó la retinopatía diabética validada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados: La prevalencia de cualquier grado de maculopatía fue de 8,5 por ciento (6,1 a 10,8) y la maculopatía observable y remitible fue de 4,2 por ciento (2,2 a 6,0). El riesgo de desarrollar maculopatía resultó mayor en el sexo femenino, con el 9,3 por ciento (6,6-12,9), y en los diabéticos que tenían entre 60 y 69 años de edad, de 9,2 por ciento (5,7-14,0). Este riesgo se incrementaba si existía descontrol de la glicemia y si la enfermedad tenía 15 años y más de evolución. La asociación con la retinopatía observable fue de 2,5 por ciento. La discapacidad visual moderada por maculopatía fue de 1,4 % y la grave junto con la ceguera de 0,8 por ciento. La cobertura de tratamiento fue baja (28,6 por ciento por personas). Conclusiones: El diabético de 50 años y más en Cuba tiene baja prevalencia de maculopatía diabética, la cual se comporta de manera similar para la forma observable y para la remitible. La retinopatía no proliferativa moderada tiene mayor riesgo de afectación macular. La discapacidad visual por afectación macular en el diabético es baja, aunque la estrategia de atención oftalmológica en el diabético no alcanza los estándares necesarios de efectividad, relacionados con la cobertura del tratamiento con láser(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective: Determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of diabetic maculopathy in adults aged 50 years and over in Cuba. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted based on the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness survey developed in Cuba in the year 2016, which included diabetic retinopathy with validation by the World Health Organization. Results: Prevalence of any maculopathy grade was 8.5 percent (6.1 to 10.8), whereas observable, referable maculopathy was 4.2 percent (2.2 to 6.0). Risk for maculopathy was higher in the female sex with 9.3 percent (6.6-12.9) and among diabetics from the 60-69 years age group with 9.2 percent (5.7-14.0). Risk increased in uncontrolled glycemia and when the evolution of the disease was 15 years and over. Association with observable retinopathy was 2.5 percent. Moderate visual disability due to maculopathy was 1.4 percent, while severe disability and blindness were 0.8 percent. Treatment coverage was low (28.6 percent per persons). Conclusion: Prevalence of maculopathy is low among diabetics aged 50 years and over in Cuba, with similar behavior in the observable and the referable variants. Moderate non-proliferative retinopathy shows a higher risk for macular damage. Visual disability due to macular damage is low among diabetics, though the ophthalmological care strategy for diabetics does not achieve the required effectiveness standards in terms of laser therapy coverage(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Diabetic Retinopathy/therapy , Laser Therapy/methods , Macular Degeneration/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(1): 24-30, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090848

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The treatment of pilonidal sinus disease still remains challenging mainly because of multiple factors responsible for wound healing and its recurrence. With recent advances in surgical field, use of laser found to be an effective technique in the destruction of a pilonidal cyst. Laser Piolonidotomy is a new promising technique. Methodology An exploratory study was planned with the Aim, to evaluate a new technique for the excision of pilonidal sinus. Objectives were to investigate its effectiveness in terms of operation time, healing time, and the duration of hospitalization, resumption of normal activity the degree of postoperative complications and rate of recurrence and patient's satisfaction. All the patients with pilonidal sinus were categorized and laser pilonidotomy was planned for patients satisfying inclusion criteria. Data collected in pre-structured, pre-tested proforma and analyzed using SPSS. Results Mean duration of Procedure was 33 min (SD = 11), mean duration of Hospital Stay was 12 h (SD = 3), resumption of normal activity within 4 days (SD = 2), mean duration for Complete Wound Healing by secondary intention 6 Weeks (SD = 1.25). Among complications, infection reported in 1.08%. The difference between the mean pre and post-operative VAS score was statistically highly significant (p < 0.0001). Recurrence rate was 3.24%. Success rate was 96.75% and Overall patient's satisfaction was 97.84%. Conclusion Laser Pilonidotomy is effective in destruction of a pilonidal cyst with good success rate, fewer complications and with high patient's satisfaction.


Resumo Justificativa O tratamento da doença do seio pilonidal ainda permanece desafiador, principalmente devido a vários fatores responsáveis pela cicatrização das feridas e sua recorrência. Com os recentes avanços no campo cirúrgico, o uso do laser mostrou ser uma técnica eficaz na destruição de um cisto pilonidal. A piolonidotomia a laser é uma nova técnica promissora. Metodologia Foi planejado um estudo exploratório com o objetivo de avaliar uma nova técnica para a excisão de seio pilonidal. Os objetivos foram investigar sua eficácia quanto aos tempos de operação, de cicatrização, de internação e de retomada da atividade normal, além do grau de complicações pós-operatórias, a taxa de recorrência e o índice de satisfação do paciente. Todos os pacientes com seio pilonidal foram categorizados, e a pilonidotomia a laser foi planejada para os pacientes que satisfizessem os critérios de inclusão. Os dados foram coletados em forma pré-estruturada e pré-testada e analisados usando o SPSS. Resultados O tempo médio do procedimento foi de 33 min (DP = 11), o tempo médio da internação hospitalar foi de 12 horas (DP = 3), o tempo médio de retomada da atividade normal foi de 4 dias (DP = 2) e o tempo médio de cicatrização completa por intenção secundário foi de 6 semanas (DP = 1,25). Entre as complicações, infecção foi observada em 1,08%. A diferença entre as médias do escore EVA pré e pós-operatório foi estatisticamente significativa (p < 0,0001). A taxa de recorrência foi de 3,24%. A taxa de sucesso foi de 96,75% e o índice de satisfação geral do paciente foi de 97,84%. Conclusão A pilonidotomia a laser é eficaz na destruição de um cisto pilonidal com boa taxa de sucesso, menos complicações e com alta satisfação do paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Pilonidal Sinus/surgery , Laser Therapy/methods , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(1): 42-45, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092659

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To determine the impact of neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy on quality of life and visual acuity in adults. Methods: A prospective study that included patients over 65 years old with clinical indications for Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy. On the day of the procedure, corrected distance visual acuity tests, slit-lamp examination and posterior capsule opacification (PCO) photo documentation were performed, followed by application of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). The PCO rate was evaluated with Evaluation of Posterior Capsule opacification (EPCO 2000) software. Four weeks after the posterior capsulotomy, corrected distance visual acuity was measured, and the NEI-VFQ-25 was applied again. Complications were also reported. Results : Sixty eyes from 45 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 71.51 ± 6.38 years (65 to 93). Comparing the results before and after the Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy, there was a statistically significant improvement in quality of life according to the NEI-VFQ-25 (p<0.001) and in visual acuity (p=0.0). The mean score in NEI-VFQ-25 Questionnaire before capsulotomy was 62.07 ± 20.90 (16.81-95.90) and after was 83.95±19.49 (20.68 - 100.0). The mean CDVA before the procedure was 0.75 ± 0.35 LogMAR (0.1-1.3) and after was 0.21 ± 0.20 LogMAR (0.0-1.3). The mean PCO rate measured by the EPCO software was 0.688 ± 0.449. There was a positive correlation between the EPCO score and the total score of quality of life after Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy (r=0.845, p=0.00). Damage to intraocular lens was the only complication observed in six eyes (10%). Conclusion: Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy, in addition to improving visual acuity, is able to improve quality of life.


Resumo Objetivo: Determinar o impacto da capsulotomia posterior com laser de neodímio: YAG (Nd: YAG) na qualidade de vida e na acuidade visual em adultos. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo que incluiu pacientes acima de 65 anos com indicação clínica para capsulotomia com laser de Nd: YAG. No dia do procedimento, foram realizados testes de acuidade visual corrigida, exame com lâmpada de fenda e fotodocumentação da opacificação da cápsula posterior (OCP), seguido da aplicação do National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). A taxa de OCP foi avaliada utilizando o software de avaliação de opacificação de cápsula posterior (EPCO 2000). Quatro semanas após a capsulotomia posterior, a acuidade visual corrigida foi medida, e o NEI-VFQ-25 foi aplicado novamente. Complicações também foram relatadas. Resultados: Sessenta olhos de 45 pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. A idade média foi de 71,51±6,38 anos (65 to 93). Comparando os resultados antes e após a capsulotomia com laser Nd: YAG, houve melhora estatisticamente significante na qualidade de vida de acordo com o NEI-VFQ-25 (p <0,001) e na acuidade visual (p = 0,0). A média do escore total do questionário NEI-VFQ-25 pré capsulotomia foi de 62.07 ± 20.90 (16.81-95.90) e pós foi de 83.95 ±19.49 (20.68 - 100.0). A AVCC antes do procedimento foi 0.75 ± 0.35 LogMAR (0.1-1.3) e após foi 0.21 ± 0.20 LogMAR (0.0-1.3). A taxa média de OCP medida pelo software EPCO foi de 0,688 ± 0,449. Houve correlação positiva entre o escore EPCO e o escore total de qualidade de vida após a capsulotomia com laser de Nd: YAG (r = 0,845, p = 0,00). O dano à lente intraocular foi a única complicação observada em seis olhos (10%). Conclusão: A capsulotomia com laser Nd: YAG, além de melhorar a acuidade visual, é capaz de melhorar a qualidade de vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life , Capsule Opacification/surgery , Posterior Capsulotomy/psychology , Cataract Extraction , Visual Acuity , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Laser Therapy/methods , Lasers, Solid-State , Posterior Capsule of the Lens/surgery , Posterior Capsule of the Lens/pathology , Posterior Capsulotomy/methods , Lenses, Intraocular , Neodymium
10.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(4): 481-485, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056488

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The pigmented lesions of the oral cavity may be endogenous or exogenous. Endogenous lesions are benign and usually caused by melanin, and they are called gingival melanin pigmentations. Among the options for depigmenting these areas, laser therapy stands out for being a minimally invasive procedure. This study aims to report a clinical case of the gingival depigmentation technique using a high-power diode laser in the anterior maxillary region, for the ablation of the pigmented tissue to improve gingival aesthetics. The patient had an aesthetic complaint of the darkened aspect of the gingiva in the anterior maxillary and mandibular portions. After local anesthesia, we started depigmentation with high-power diode laser and performed ablation from the attached gingiva toward the free marginal gingiva. The patient returned after 30 and 180 days presenting healthy gingiva and absence of melanin repigmentation. Thus, we concluded that the diode laser was a good alternative for melanin depigmentation because it is a procedure with lower morbidity and satisfactory postoperative results.


RESUMEN: Las lesiones pigmentadas de la cavidad oral pueden ser endógenas o exógenas. Las endógenas son benignas y generalmente causadas por la melanina, denominándose pigmentaciones melánicas gingivales. Entre las opciones para la despigmentación de estas regiones, se destaca la laserterapia, por ser un procedimiento poco invasivo. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo relatar un caso clínico de la técnica de despigmentación gingival utilizando láser de diodo de alta intensidad en la región anterior de los maxilares para ablación del tejido pigmentado con la finalidad de mejorar la estética gingival. El paciente presentaba como queja estética el aspecto oscurecido de la encía en la región anterior de la maxila y de la mandíbula. Tras aplicar anestesia local, se inició la despigmentación con láser de diodo de alta intensidad, siendo que la ablación se realizó a partir de la encía insertada hacia la encía marginal libre. El paciente regresó tras 30 y 180 días, presentando encía saludable y con ausencia de repigmentación melánica. Así fue posible concluir que el láser de diodo mostró ser una buena alternativa para la despigmentación melánica, ya que se presentó como un procedimiento con menor morbidad y buen resultado postoperatorio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Laser Therapy/methods , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Gingival Diseases/surgery , Melanosis/surgery , Brazil , Cosmetic Techniques/instrumentation , Informed Consent
11.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 354-359, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040017

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Schwannomas are benign, solitary, encapsulated tumors that may originate at any site of the peripheral nervous system, with the exception of the olfactory and optic nerves. Schwannomas of the base of tongue are very rare, and only sporadic cases are documented. The tongue base represents a challenge for surgeons. Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser might provide an effective surgical option for such lesions because of the easy access to the lesion, the bloodless surgical field and optimum epithelization of wounds. Objective We present an unusual case of pedunculated schwannoma of the tongue base treated via transoral CO2-assisted excision. We also provide a review of the available literature, in English language, on humans. Data synthesis The authors searched the PubMed database and Google up to July 2018. The following search terms were applied: tongue and lingual, combined with schwannoma and neurilemmoma. Titles and abstracts were screened, and, then, only supraglottic (hypopharyngeal) tongue base masses were considered. Fourteen articles were included in this review, reporting 17 cases. The age of the patients ranged from 9 to 39 years, affecting predominantly females. Dysphagia and lump sensations were the most common presenting symptoms, and the mean follow-up period range was 1.5 to 60 months (mean = 13 months). There was no evidence of recurrence in any of the cases. Conclusion We could conclude that tongue base schwannomas are rare. Transoral complete excision of the tumor is the treatment of choice. CO2 laser surgery is a minimally invasive treatment option that has been performed in few reports with no recurrence and with favorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tongue Neoplasms/surgery , Carbon Dioxide/therapeutic use , Laser Therapy/methods , Neurilemmoma/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Diagnosis, Differential , Neurilemmoma/diagnosis , Neurilemmoma/pathology
12.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(2): 228-236, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001551

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Trans-oral laser microsurgery is an established technique for the treatment of early and moderately advanced laryngeal cancer. Objective: The authors intend to test the usefulness of narrow-band imaging in the intraoperative assessment of the larynx mucosa in terms of specifying surgical margins. Methods: Forty-four consecutive T1-T2 glottic cancers treated with trans-oral laser microsurgery Type I-VI cordectomy were presented. Suspected areas (90 samples/44 patients) were biopsied under the guidance of narrow-band imaging and white light and sent for frozen section. Results: Our study revealed that 75 of 90 (83.3%) white light and narrow-band imaging-guided samples were histopathologically positive: 30 (40%) were confirmed as carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma and 45 (60%) as moderate to severe dysplasia. In 6 patients mucosa was suspected only in narrow-band imaging, with no suspicion under white light. Thus, in these 6 patients 18/90 (20%) samples were taken. In 5/6 patients 16/18 (88.8%) samples were positive in frozen section: in 6/18 (33.3%) carcinoma (2 patients), 10/18 (66.6%) severe dysplasia was confirmed (3 patients). In 1 patient 2/18 (11.1%) samples were negative in frozen section. Presented analysis showed, that sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of white light was 79.5%, 20% and 71.1% respectively, while narrow-band imaging was 100%, 0.0% and 85.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The intraoperative use of narrow-band imaging proved to be valuable in the visualization of suspect areas of the mucosa. Narrow-band imaging confirms the suspicions undertaken in white light and importantly, it showed microlesions beyond the scope of white light.


Resumo Introdução: A microcirurgia transoral a laser é uma técnica bem estabelecida para o tratamento de câncer de laringe inicial e moderadamente avançado. Objetivo: Verificar a utilidade da imagem de banda estreita na avaliação intraoperatória da mucosa laríngea na especificação das margens cirúrgicas. Método: Foram avaliados 44 cânceres glóticos T1-T2 consecutivos, tratados com cordectomia Tipo I-VI, por microcirurgia transoral a laser. As áreas suspeitas (90 amostras/44 pacientes) foram submetidas a biopsia e avaliadas através de imagens de banda estreita e luz branca e enviadas para cortes por congelação. Resultados: Nosso estudo revelou que 75 (83,3%) das 90 amostras apresentaram histopatologia positiva na análise com luz branca e imagens de banda estreita: 30 (40%) foram confirmadas como carcinoma in situ ou carcinoma invasivo e 45 (60%) como displasia moderada a grave. Em seis pacientes, a mucosa apresentou-se suspeita apenas na imagem de banda estreita, sem suspeita sob luz branca. Assim, nesses seis pacientes 18/90 (20%) amostras foram colhidas. Em 5/6 pacientes, 16/18 (88,8%) amostras mostraram resultado positivo na análise de congelação: em 6/18 (33,3%) amostras foi confirmado carcinoma (dois pacientes) e em 10/18 (66,6%) foi confirmada displasia grave (três pacientes). Em um paciente, 2/18 (11,1%) as amostras mostraram resultado negativo na congelação. A análise apresentada mostrou que a sensibilidade, a especificidade e a acurácia da luz branca foram de 79,5%, 20% e 71,1%, respectivamente, enquanto a imagem de banda estreita apresentou como resultados 100%, 0,0% e 85,7%, respectivamente. Conclusão: O uso intraoperatório de imagem de banda estreita provou ser valioso na identificação de áreas suspeitas da mucosa, confirmou as suspeitas verificadas na análise com luz branca e, o que é mais importante, identificou microlesões além do alcance da luz branca.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma/surgery , Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Laryngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Laryngeal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Laser Therapy/methods , Narrow Band Imaging/methods , Microsurgery/methods , Vocal Cords/surgery , Vocal Cords/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma/pathology , Laryngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Disease-Free Survival , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Margins of Excision , Intraoperative Period
13.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(2): 111-118, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989391

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the efficacy of using a nonste­roidal anti-inflammatory drug preoperatively and of applying the re-dilation technique when necessary to minimize pupil size variation when comparing the degree of mydriasis before femtosecond laser pretreatment with that at the beginning of phacoemulsification. Methods: This retrospective study included patients who underwent cataract surgery using the LenSx (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX). Our routine dilating regimen with flurbiprofen, tropicamide, and phenylephrine was used. The re-dilation technique was applied on eyes that manifested with a pupillary diameter that was smaller than the programmed capsulotomy diameter after laser pretreatment. The technique consists of overcoming pupillary contraction by instilling tropicamide and phenylephrine before phacoemulsification. Pupil size was assessed before femtosecond laser application and at the beginning of phacoemulsification. Results: Seventy-five eyes (70 patients) were included. Nine (12%) eyes underwent the re-dilation technique. There was no significant difference in mean pupillary diameter and mean pupillary area between the two studied surgical time points (p=0.412 and 0.437, respectively). The overall pupillary area constriction was 2.4 mm2. Immediately before opening the wounds for phacoemulsification, none of the eyes presented with a pupillary diameter <5 mm, and 61 (85.3%) eyes had a pupillary diameter >6 mm. Conclusion: Preoperative administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and the re-dilation technique resulted in no significant pupil size variation in eyes that were pretreated with the femtosecond laser, when comparing the measurements made before the laser application and at the beginning of phacoemulsification. This approach can avoid the need to proceed with cataract extraction with a constricted pupil.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia do uso de anti-inflamatório não-esteróide no pré-operatório e aplicação da técnica de re-dilatação quando necessária para minimizar a variação do tamanho pupilar ao comparar o grau de midríase antes do tra­tamento com laser de femtosegundo no início da facoemulsificação. Métodos: Esse estudo retrospectivo incluiu pacientes que foram submetidos à cirurgia de catarata usando o LenSx (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX). Nosso regime de di­latação de rotina com flurbiprofeno, tropicamida e fenilefrina foi usado. A técnica de re-dilatação doi aplicada em olhos que se manifestaram com um diâmetro pupilar menor do que o diâmetro da capsulotomia programado após o pré-tratamento a laser. A técnica consiste em superar a contração pupilar pela instilação de tropicamida e fenilefrina antes da facoemulsificação. O tamanho pupilar foi avaliado antes da aplicação do laser de femtosegundo e no inicio da facoemulsificação. Resultados: Setenta e cinco olhos (70 pacientes) foram incluídos. Nove (12%) olhos foram submetidos à técnica de re-dilatação. Não houve diferença significativa no diâmetro pupilar médio e na área pupilar média entre os dois tempos cirúrgicos estudados (p=0,412 e 0,437, respectivamente). A constrição global da área pupilar foi de 2,4 mm2. Imediatamente antes de abrir as incisões para a facoemulsificação, nenhum dos olhos apresentava diâmetro pupilar <5 mm e 61 (85,3%) olhos apresentavam um diâmetro pupilar >6 mm. Conclusões: O administração pré-operatória de anti-inflamatório não-esteróide e da técnica de re-dilatação resultaram em uma variação significativa do tamanho pupilar em olhos que foram pré-tratados com laser de femtosegundo, comparando as medidas realizadas antes da aplicação do laser e no inicio da facoemulsificação. Essa abordagem pode evitar a necessidade de prosseguir com a extração da catarata com uma pupila contraída.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Miosis/prevention & control , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Flurbiprofen/therapeutic use , Phacoemulsification/methods , Lasers , Mydriatics/therapeutic use , Phenylephrine/therapeutic use , Tropicamide/therapeutic use , Miosis/etiology , Miosis/pathology , Pupil/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Laser Therapy/methods , Intraocular Pressure , Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(4): e8330, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001513

ABSTRACT

We sought to assess clinical characteristics and pattern of collateral network involvement associated with development of truncal (systematized) versus diffuse/non-truncal (non-systematized) varicose veins (VVs) in patients undergoing endovascular laser photothermolysis for chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Secondly, we aimed to assess whether the type of VVs influenced the procedural complications of endovascular laser therapy. A total of 508 patients with hydrostatic VVs of the lower limbs who underwent endovenous laser treatment were included, out of which 84.1% (n=427) had truncal VVs (group 1) and 15.9% (n=81) had diffuse (non-systematized) VVs (group 2). Patients with truncal varices were significantly older (47.50±12.80 vs 43.15±11.75 years, P=0.004) and those with associated connective tissue disorders were more prone to present diffuse VVs (P=0.004). Patients in group 1 presented a significantly higher number of Cockett 1 (P=0.0017), Cockett 2 (P=0.0137), Sherman (P<0.0001), and Hunter (P=0.0011) perforator veins compared to group 2, who presented a higher incidence of Kosinski perforators (P<0.0001). There were no significant differences regarding postoperative complications: thrombophlebitis (P=0.773), local inflammation (P=0.471), pain (P=0.243), paresthesia (P=1.000), or burning sensation (P=0.632). Patients with more advanced CEAP (clinical, etiologic, anatomic, pathophysiologic) classes were older (P<0.0001), more were males (39.05 vs 27.77%, P=0.0084), more were prone to present ulcers (P<0.0001) and local hyperthermia (P=0.019), and presented for endovenous phlebectomy after a longer time from symptom onset. In patients with CVI, systematized VVs were associated with a more severe clinical status and a distinct anatomical pattern of perforators network compared to non-systematized VVs, which is more common in advanced stages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Venous Insufficiency/surgery , Laser Therapy/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Photolysis , Time Factors , Venous Insufficiency/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Chronic Disease , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Laser Therapy/adverse effects , Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(12): e8474, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055470

ABSTRACT

The management of nonspecific lumbar pain (NSLP) using laser irradiation remains controversial. A systematic review of recently published studies indicates that the effects of laser therapy are commonly assessed using only imperfect methods in terms of measurement error. The main objective of this study was to assess static postural stability using an objective tool in patients with chronic NSLP after laser irradiation at different doses and wavelengths. In total, 68 patients were included in the laser sessions and were randomly assigned into four groups: high-intensity laser therapy at 1064 nm and 60 J/cm2 for 10 min (HILT), sham (HILT placebo), low-level laser therapy at 785 nm and 8 J/cm2 for 8 min (LLLT), and sham (LLLT placebo). In addition, all patients were supplemented with physical exercises (standard stabilization training). To assess postural stability, a double-plate stabilometric platform was used. All measurements were performed pre- and post-laser sessions (three weeks) and at follow-up time points (one and three months). Laser procedures led to more balanced posture stability in patients, although these positive changes were significant mainly for short-term observation (after 4-week therapy). In the follow-up analysis, the parameters were gradually impaired. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) for independent variables did not show any difference between the studied groups. Low- and high-intensity laser therapy does not lead to a significant improvement in postural sway in patients with NSLP compared with standard stabilization training based on short- and long-term observations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Low Back Pain/radiotherapy , Postural Balance/radiation effects , Laser Therapy/methods , Pain Measurement , Chronic Disease , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome
16.
J. vasc. bras ; 18: e20190009, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020020

ABSTRACT

Mostra-se relevante a elucidação da influência da densidade de energia endovenosa linear (linear endovenous energy density, LEED) média no sucesso do tratamento da insuficiência venosa crônica por termoablação endovenosa a laser visando diminuir a morbidade desse método. Objetivos Avaliar a influência da LEED média na prevalência de fechamento das safenas após 30 dias do procedimento. Métodos Foram analisados 153 membros inferiores de 118 pacientes de um hospital referência, submetidos a termoablação com laser endovenoso 1470 nm sob anestesia local para o tratamento de insuficiência venosa crônica. Foi calculada a LEED média dos pacientes tratados para determinar se foi necessária uma energia maior que a média para o sucesso do tratamento. Resultados Dos 153 membros inferiores submetidos ao tratamento, houve diferença significativa (p = 0,021) no fechamento da junção safeno-femoral relacionada à LEED média utilizada acima do joelho. Por outro lado, no segmento de coxa não houve diferença significativa. Conclusões A LEED acima da média de 70,57 J/cm apresentou um índice maior de fechamento na junção safeno-femoral. Porém, no segmento de coxa, a densidade não influenciou o resultado, demonstrando que uma energia mais alta do que 70,57 J/cm tende a não ser necessária para o tratamento desse segmento


It is relevant to elucidate the influence that mean linear endovenous energy density (LEED) has on the success of endovenous laser ablation treatment for chronic venous insufficiency, in order to reduce the method's adverse effects. Objectives To evaluate the influence of mean LEED on the prevalence of saphenous closure 30 days after the laser ablation procedure. Methods 153 lower limbs from 118 patients seen at a tertiary hospital and treated for chronic venous insufficiency with endovenous 1470 nm laser ablation under local anesthesia were evaluated. The mean LEED used to treat patients was calculated to determine whether greater than average LEED was required for treatment success. Results A significant difference (p = 0.021) in saphenofemoral junction closure was associated with mean LEED used above the knee. Conversely, there was no significant difference in the thigh segment. Conclusions Linear intravenous energy density greater than the mean of 70.57 J/cm was associated with a higher rate of closure at the saphenofemoral junction. However, density did not have an influence on the result for the thigh segment, showing that an energy density exceeding 70.57 J/cm tends not to be required for treatment of this segment


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Saphenous Vein , Vascular Surgical Procedures/methods , Venous Insufficiency/therapy , Laser Therapy/methods , Varicose Veins , Body Mass Index , Chronic Disease , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Lower Extremity
17.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 55(4): 1-10, oct.-dic. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-991081

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O fibroma de células gigantes é uma neoplasia fibrosa benigna, considerada rara, com fatores etiológicos incertos e características clinico-patológicas peculiares. Objetivo: Descrever a exérese do fibroma de células gigantes, em mucosa jugal direita, utilizando laser cirúrgico. Relato de caso: Paciente do sexo feminino, 33 anos, parda, atendida na clínica de Estomatologia da Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, motivada por uma lesão neoplásica, de crescimento lento em região de mucosa jugal direita. Clinicamente, observou-se massa tumoral única, assintomática, com aproximadamente dois centímetros, de base séssil, normocorada, de consistência firme e superfície lisa. Após exame clínico, foi realizada uma biópsia excisional com fins diagnósticos, utilizando o laser cirúrgico. O diagnóstico, após o resultado do exame histopatológico, revelou um fibroma de células gigantes. A abordagem da biópsia excisional, além de ter fins de diagnóstico bucal, foi responsável pelo tratamento da lesão, visto que proporcionou a remoção completa da patologia. Optou-se por cicatrização por segunda intenção, e para acelerar esse processo, foi realizada aplicação local com laser de baixa potência de espectro de luz vermelha. No acompanhamento de sete dias, observou-se cicatrização adequada, com mínima alteração tecidual. Após oito meses, notou-se regeneração tecidual adequada sem recidiva da lesão. Conclusão: A remoção de um fibroma de células gigantes, utilizando laser de diodo de alta potência, se mostrou como uma abordagem terapêutica viável para o tratamento dessa patologia(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Giant Cells/pathology , Diagnosis, Oral/methods , Fibroma/diagnostic imaging , Laser Therapy/methods
18.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 33(4): 580-585, out.-dez. 2018.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-980166

ABSTRACT

Estrias de distensão são cicatrizes na derme que constrangem os pacientes e oferecem desafios ao tratamento clínico. Resultam do rápido estiramento da pele, frequentemente presente em adolescentes, gestantes, obesos e indivíduos com rápida mudança de peso. Apresentam-se inicialmente como placas eritematosas e edemaciadas (estrias rubras) e, conforme amadurecem, tornam-se esbranquiçadas e atróficas (estrias albas), devido à degradação e reorganização de fibras de elastina e de colágeno. Atualmente, lasers representam modalidade terapêutica não invasiva emergente, que já demonstrou sucesso na redução da vascularização excessiva das estrias rubras, e no estímulo à produção de colágeno e elastina nas albas. Foi realizada revisão da literatura no PubMed referente ao tratamento de estrias atróficas com laser de janeiro de 2000 até dezembro de 2016. Os autores encontraram 28 artigos que se enquadraram nos critérios de inclusão. Existem poucos estudos clínicos randomizados avaliando a eficácia ao longo prazo e a segurança de aparelhos à base de energia. Baseado em casos clínicos e revisões sistemáticas, ambos os lasers - ablativo e não ablativo - fracionados demonstraram melhora modesta do aspecto das estrias distensas. Há tendência a sugestão do laser não ablativo fracionado de 1.540 nanômetro como sendo opção de primeira escolha para tratamento das estrias distensas. Porém, estudos futuros devem focar em desenhos de pesquisa com duração mais longa, medidas objetivas e padronizadas da avaliação dos resultados como biópsias e estudos moleculares, que demonstrem aumento nas fibras elásticas e fibras de colágeno, que correlacionem com a melhora do aspecto clínico das estrias após aplicação de lasers com parâmetros sistematizados.


Stretch marks are scars on the dermis that cause patients to be self-conscious and that pose challenges in clinical treatment. They result from rapid stretching of the skin and often observed in adolescents, pregnant women, obese individuals, and people experiencing rapid change in weight. They initially appear as erythematous and edematous plaques (red striae), and as they mature, they become whitish and atrophic (striae alba) due to the degradation and reorganization of elastin and collagen fibers. Currently, laser treatment is an emerging noninvasive therapeutic modality that is successful in reducing the excessive vascularization of red striae and in stimulating the production of collagen and elastin in the alba. In the present literature review, PubMed was searched for articles on the treatment of atrophic striations with laser that were published from January 2000 to December 2016. The authors have found 28 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Only few randomized clinical trials have evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of energybased treatments. Based on clinical cases and systematic reviews, both ablative and non-ablative fractional lasers caused moderate improvement in the appearance of distending striae. The 1540-nm non-ablative fractional laser is more likely to be considered the first-line treatment for stretch marks. However, future studies should focus on research with longer duration, studies with objective and standardized measures for the evaluation of results, such as biopsy results, and molecular studies showing an increase in elastic and collagen fibers that correlate to the improvement in the clinical appearance of the striae after using lasers with systematized parameters.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Therapeutics/methods , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Dermatology/methods , Laser Therapy/methods , Striae Distensae/surgery , Striae Distensae/prevention & control , Striae Distensae/therapy
19.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(5): 433-436, Sept.-Oct. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950486

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A patient with bilateral aniridia and progressive congenital cataract was treated at the age of 7 years through phacoaspiration with femtosecond laser capsulotomy, in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation, and pars plana vitrectomy (combined with posterior capsulotomy). The diameter of the planned anterior capsulotomy was 4.7 mm; however, due to elevated tension in the young capsular bag, the capsulotomy diameter increased (to around 6 mm) shortly after release of the tension by the laser. In addition, the patient had a very flat and small cornea, causing the formation of air bubbles in the curved laser interface. This was addressed by filling the gap by using a viscoelastic. A very similar situation was observed in both eyes. Use of the femtosecond laser facilitated a successful outcome in a complex congenital cataract case with a safe capsulotomy that ensured in-the-bag intraocular lens placement.


RESUMO Paciente com aniridia bilateral e catarata congê­nita progressiva foi tratado com a idade de 7 anos através de facoemulsificação com capsulotomia anterior por laser de femtosegundo, implante de lente intra-ocular e vitrectomia via pars plana (combinada com capsulotomia posterior). O diâmetro da capsulotomia anterior prevista foi de 4,7mm, porém, devido à elevada tensão do saco capsular jovem, o diâmetro da capsulotomia aumentou (para cerca de 6mm) logo após a liberação da tensão pelo laser. Além disso, o paciente tinha uma córnea muito plana e pequena, causando a formação de bolhas de ar na interface do laser. Isso foi resolvido preenchendo a lacuna usando um viscoelástico. Uma situação muito semelhante foi observada em ambos os olhos. O uso do laser de femtosegundo facilitou um resultado bem-sucedido em um caso complexo de catarata congênita com uma capsulotomia anterior segura que garantiu a colocação da lente intra-ocular dentro do saco capsular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Cataract/congenital , Aniridia/complications , Capsulorhexis/methods , Cataract/complications , Visual Acuity , Aniridia/surgery , Laser Therapy/methods
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