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1.
Rev. ADM ; 80(4): 214-219, jul.-ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526847

ABSTRACT

La microbiota oral está conformada por diversas especies bacterianas que en condiciones normales desempeñan una función protectora del huésped; sin embargo, cuando existe un desequilibrio en el ecosistema, estos microorganismos son capaces de producir diversas manifestaciones como lo es el caso de la caries dental, enfermedad infecciosa producida principalmente por Streptococcus mutans, patógeno capaz de desmineralizar los tejidos duros del diente mediante la fermentación de hidratos de carbono obtenidos de la dieta. Se ha identificado en la pared celular de este microorganismo ocho serotipos que intervienen en la adhesión, agregación y coagregación bacteriana. En los seres humanos S. mutans presenta los serotipos c, e y f, siendo el serotipo c el más prevalente a nivel mundial, el cual se conoce que está asociado a pacientes sanos, a diferencia del e y f que son capaces de invadir las células endoteliales de las arterias coronarias. No obstante, en los últimos años se ha logrado identificar el serotipo k que de igual manera presenta alta capacidad de invadir el endotelio humano, actuando en la patogénesis de las enfermedades cardiovasculares. El objetivo de la presente revisión bibliográfica es lograr cuantificar los serotipos prevalentes de S. mutans en América Latina (AU)


The oral microbiota is made up of various bacterial species that under normal conditions perform a protective function of the host, however, when there is an imbalance in the ecosystem, these microorganisms are capable of producing various manifestations such as caries, an infectious disease. produced mainly by Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen capable of demineralizing the hard tissues of the tooth through the fermentation of carbohydrates obtained from the diet. Eight serotypes involved in bacterial adhesion, aggregation and coaggregation have been identified in the cell wall of this microorganism. In humans, S. mutans presents serotypes c, e, and f, serotype c being the most prevalent worldwide, which is known to be associated with healthy patients, unlike e and f, which are capable of invading the endothelial cells of the coronary arteries. However, in recent years it has been possible to identify serotype k, which also has a high capacity to invade the human endothelium, acting in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this literature review is to quantify the prevalent serotypes of S. mutans in Latin America (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptococcus mutans , Dental Caries/microbiology , Serogroup , Bacterial Adhesion , Latin America/epidemiology
3.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 47: e34, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424274

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives. To characterize the distribution profile of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus infections in Latin America and the Caribbean and to identify possible factors associated with the risk of dissemination and severity of these arboviruses. Methods. The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO platform. Searches were carried out in the following databases: Virtual Health Library, MEDLINE/PubMed, and Embase. The search terms were: Zika virus, Zika virus infection, dengue, dengue virus, chikungunya virus, chikungunya fever, epidemiology, observational study, Latin America, and Caribbean region. Studies that addressed the distribution of these arboviruses and the risk factors associated with dengue, Zika virus disease, and chikungunya, published between January 2000 and August 2020 in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, were included. Results. Of 95 studies included, 70 identified risk factors, clinical manifestations, and outcomes for arbovirus infections and 25 described complications and/or deaths. The highest frequency of confirmed cases was for dengue. Brazil reported most cases of the three arboviruses in the period analyzed. Environmental and socioeconomic factors facilitated the proliferation and adaptation of vectors, and host-related factors were reported to aggravate dengue. Most deaths were due to chikungunya, Zika virus disease caused most neurological alterations, and dengue resulted in greater morbidity leading to more frequent hospitalization. Conclusions. The review provides a broad view of the three arboviruses and the intrinsic aspects of infections, and highlights the factors that influence the spread of these viruses in the populations studied.


RESUMEN Objetivos. Caracterizar el perfil de distribución de infecciones por dengue, chikungunya y el virus de Zika en América Latina y el Caribe, y determinar posibles factores relacionados con el riesgo de propagación y gravedad de estas arbovirosis. Métodos. Se registró el protocolo de esta revisión en la plataforma PROSPERO. Se realizaron búsquedas en las siguientes bases de datos: Virtual Health Library, MEDLINE/PubMed y Embase. Los términos de búsqueda fueron: "zika virus" [virus del Zika], "zika virus infection" [infección por el virus del Zika], "dengue", "dengue virus" [virus del dengue], "chikungunya virus" [virus del chikunguña], "chikungunya fever" [fiebre de chikunguña], "epidemiology" [epidemiología], "observational study" [estudio observacional], "Latin America" [América Latina] y "Caribbean región" [Caribe]. Se incluyeron estudios que abordaban la distribución de estas arbovirosis y los factores de riesgo asociados con el dengue, la enfermedad por el virus del Zika y el chikunguña, publicados entre enero del 2000 y agosto del 2020 en español, inglés y portugués. Resultados. De los 95 estudios incluidos, 70 establecieron factores de riesgo, manifestaciones clínicas y resultados de las infecciones por arbovirus y 25 describieron complicaciones o muertes. La mayor frecuencia de casos confirmados fue del dengue. Brasil notificó la mayoría de los casos de infección por los tres arbovirus en el período analizado. Los factores ambientales y socioeconómicos facilitaron la proliferación y adaptación de los vectores, y se notificó que los factores relacionados con el huésped agravaban el dengue. El chikunguña causó la mayor parte de las muertes, la enfermedad por el virus del Zika causó la mayor parte de las alteraciones neurológicas y el dengue fue responsable de una mayor morbilidad, lo que llevó a una hospitalización más frecuente. Conclusiones. Esta revisión ofrece un panorama de las tres arbovirosis y de los aspectos intrínsecos de las infecciones, y pone de relieve los factores que influyen en la propagación de estos virus en las poblaciones estudiadas.


RESUMO Objetivos. Descrever a distribuição das arboviroses causadas pelo vírus da dengue, zika e chikungunya na América Latina e no Caribe e identificar possíveis fatores associados ao potencial de disseminação e à gravidade dessas infecções. Métodos. O protocolo desta revisão sistemática foi registado na plataforma PROSPERO. Foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, MEDLINE/PubMed e Embase. Os termos de busca foram: vírus zika, infecção pelo vírus zika, dengue, vírus da dengue, vírus chikungunya, febre chikungunya, epidemiologia, estudo observacional, América Latina e região do Caribe. Foram selecionados estudos publicados em inglês, português e espanhol, entre janeiro de 2000 e agosto de 2020, que tratavam da distribuição desses arbovírus e de fatores de risco associados à dengue, à infecção pelo vírus zika e à febre chikungunya. Resultados. Dos 95 estudos selecionados, 70 descreveram fatores de risco, manifestações clínicas e desfechos das arboviroses e 25 destacaram as complicações e/ou mortes. Houve uma maior taxa de casos confirmados de dengue. O Brasil foi o país onde se registrou a maioria dos casos dessas três arboviroses no período analisado. Fatores ambientais e socioeconômicos facilitaram a proliferação e a adaptação dos vetores dos arbovírus e fatores próprios do hospedeiro são determinantes na gravidade da dengue. As mortes ocorreram principalmente nos casos de febre chikungunya, as manifestações neurológicas foram mais comuns na infecção pelo vírus zika e a dengue resultou em maior morbidade e internação hospitalar. Conclusões. Esta revisão sistemática oferece um panorama destas três arboviroses e de suas peculiaridades destacando os fatores que influenciam a disseminação destes arbovírus nas populações estudadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dengue/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Incidence , Risk Factors , Latin America/epidemiology
4.
BMC pregnancy childbirth ; 23(1): 605, 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, BNUY, MMyP, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1518570

ABSTRACT

Background: Latin America has the highest Cesarean Section Rates (CSR) in the world. Robson's Ten Group Classification System (RTGCS) was developed to enable understanding the CSR in different groups of women, classified according to obstetric characteristics into one of ten groups. The size of each CS group may provide helpful data on quality of care in a determined region or setting. Data can potentially be used to compare the impact of conditions such as maternal morbidity on CSR. The objective of this study is to understand the impact of Severe Maternal Morbidity (SMM) on CSR in ten different groups of RTGCS. Methods: Secondary analysis of childbirth information from 2018 to 2021, including 8 health facilities from 5 Latin American and Caribbean countries (Bolivia, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic), using a surveillance database (SIP-Perinatal Information System, in Spanish) implemented in different settings across Latin America. Women were classified into one of RTGCS. The frequency of each group and its respective CSR were described. Furthermore, the sample was divided into two groups, according to maternal outcomes: women without SMM and those who experienced SMM, considering Potentially Life-threatening Conditions, Maternal Near Miss and Maternal Death as the continuum of morbidity. Results: Available data were obtained from 92,688 deliveries using the Robson Classification. Overall CSR was around 38%. Group 5 was responsible for almost one-third of cesarean sections. SMM occurred in 6.7% of cases. Among these cases, the overall CSR was almost 70% in this group. Group 10 had a major role (preterm deliveries). Group 5 (previous Cesarean section) had a very high CSR within the group, regardless of the occurrence of maternal morbidity (over 80%). Conclusion: Cesarean section rate was higher in women experiencing SMM than in those without SMM in Latin America. SMM was associated with higher Cesarean section rates, especially in groups 1 and 3. Nevertheless, group 5 was the major contributor to the overall CSR. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Cesarean Section , Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate , Parturition , Latin America/epidemiology
6.
Washington; PAHO; Mar. 23, 2022. 13 p. tab.
Non-conventional in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1438230

ABSTRACT

As part of a regional effort promoted by WHO and financed by the Solidarity Fund, PAHO carried out a series of mapping actions in the region to identify civil society actors and systematize their repertoires of action within the framework of the response to COVID-19, and the countries' recovery process. It is considered essential to have information and evidence to position and strengthen Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) as relevant actors in the construction of health and the advancement of health equity, and as part of integrated responses to emergencies, more specifically in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this report is to show the main findings related to the CSO's characteristics and their repertories of action in a pandemic context, including all interviewed organizations across Latin America and the Caribbean which means a further step compared to previous reports.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Demography , Social Participation , Healthcare Financing , Civil Society , COVID-19/epidemiology , Gender Equity , Latin America/epidemiology
7.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 41(1): 35-42, 07/03/2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362074

ABSTRACT

Introduction Fluorescence guidance with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a safe and reliable tool in total gross resection of intracranial tumors, especially malignant gliomas and cases of metastasis. In the present retrospective study, we have analyzed 5-ALA-induced fluorescence findings in different central nervous system (CNS) lesions to expand the indications of its use in differential diagnoses. Objectives To describe the indications and results of 5-ALA fluorescence in a series of 255 cases. Methods In 255 consecutive cases, we recorded age, gender, intraoperative 5-ALA fluorescence tumor response, and 5-ALA postresection status, as well the complications related to the method. Postresection was classified as '5-ALA free' or '5-ALA residual'. The diagnosis of histopathological tumor was established according to the current classification of the World Health Organization (WHO). Results There were 195 (76.4%) 5-ALA positive cases, 124 (63.5%) of whom underwent the '5-ALA free' resection. The findings in the positive cases were: 135 gliomas of all grades; 19 meningiomas; 4 hemangioblastomas; 1 solitary fibrous tumor; 27 metastases; 2 diffuse large B cell lymphomas; 2 cases of radionecrosis; 1 inflammatory disease; 2 cases of gliosis; 1 cysticercosis; and 1 immunoglobulin G4-related disease.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Surgery, Computer-Assisted/methods , Aminolevulinic Acid , Microscopy, Fluorescence/methods , Postoperative Care , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Preoperative Care , Retrospective Studies , Neuronavigation/methods , Cerebrum/surgery , Cerebrum/pathology , Intraoperative Care , Latin America/epidemiology
8.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 22(1): 95-104, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376205

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to assess the prevalence of rapid weight gain (RWG) in children born with normal weight and its association with overweight (OW) in four Latin America countries. Methods: cross-sectional study in children aged 0 to 5 from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher in Brazil and the Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru,using a birth weight ≥2,500g. The outcome variable was OW, the exposure was RWG and breastfeeding (BF) was the adjustment variable. Prevalence, odds ratio and 95% confidence intervalwere estimated using multivariate logistic regression model. Results: there was a greater prevalence of RWG and BF at less than 6 months in Brazil, and a greater prevalence of OW in Brazil and Bolivia. The chances of OW when RWG was present and adjusted for BF were 6.1 times (CI95% = 3.8-9.7) in Brazil, 4.4 times (CI95% = 3.6-5.3) in Bolivia, 6.7 times (CI95% = 5.5-8.2) in Colombia, and 12.2 times in Peru (CI95% = 9.4-15.7) with a p < 0.001 for all countries. Conclusions: RWG in children with normal birth weight was associated with a greater chance of being OW in the four observed Latin America countries.


Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a prevalência do ganho rápido de peso (GRP) em crianças nascidas com peso normal e sua associação com o excesso de peso (EP) em quatro países da América Latina. Métodos: estudo transversal de inquéritos populacionais com crianças de 0 a 5 anos da Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher no Brasil e da Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud da Bolívia, Colômbia e Peru, selecionadas pelo peso ao nascer ≥2.500 gramas. A variável desfecho foi o EP; de exposição o GRP; e de ajuste a amamentação. Foram estimadas as prevalências, odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95% por regressão logística multivariada. Resultados: observou-se maior prevalência de GRP e tempo de amamentação menor do que 6 meses no Brasil e maior prevalência de EP no Brasil e Bolívia. As chances de EP quando GRP presente e ajustado por amamentação foram de 6,1 vezes (IC95% = 3,8-9,7) no Brasil; 4,4 vezes (IC95% = 3,6-5,3) na Bolívia; 6,7 vezes (IC95% = 5,5-8,2) na Colômbia; 12,2 vezes no Peru (IC95% = 9,4-15,7) e p<0,001 nos quatro países. Conclusões: o GRP em crianças nascidas com peso normal foi associado a maior chance de EP infantil nos quatro países da América Latina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Weight Gain , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Latin America/epidemiology
9.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 33: e1865, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408116

ABSTRACT

La infodemiología e infovigilancia son métodos informáticos para el análisis y seguimiento de los datos de Internet, y permiten tomar conciencia de las situaciones y crear políticas sanitarias. Este estudio se propuso analizar las tendencias de búsqueda de dióxido de cloro y términos equivalentes en Internet (chlorine dioxide solution, CDS; miracle mineral solution, MMS), en relación con la morbilidad y mortalidad por COVID-19 en ocho países de Latinoamérica. Para ello se utilizó Google Trends; el período examinado fue del 1ro de marzo al 25 de noviembre de 2020. Se calculó la media móvil por 7 días para el volumen relativo de búsqueda (VRB), la tasa de morbilidad y mortalidad. Para la asociación de las variables cuantitativas, se utilizó el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman con un nivel de significancia p < 0,05. El país con mayor interés de búsqueda fue Bolivia; el de menor interés, Brasil. El análisis del VRB con la tasa de morbilidad y mortalidad fue diferente entre países. Los picos máximos de VRB de Colombia y Chile, en abril, y de México, Ecuador y Bolivia, en julio, coincidieron con la emisión de alertas sanitarias sobre dióxido de cloro. La mayoría mostró una correlación significativa moderada y baja entre el VRB y el número de casos confirmados y muertes diarias por COVID-19. El comportamiento de las búsquedas, diferenciado entre países, podría indicar mayor interés por el tema dióxido de cloro en pandemia; lo cual se explicaría por la difusión de alertas sanitarias de organismos de salud internacionales, regionales y locales(AU)


Infodemiology and infovigilance are computer methods for the analysis and monitoring of Internet data, and allow awareness of situations and creation of health policies. This study aimed to analyze the search trends for chlorine dioxide and equivalent terms on the Internet (chlorine dioxide solution, CDS; miracle mineral solution, MMS), in relation to COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in eight Latin American countries. Google Trends was used for this purpose; the period reviewed was from March 1st to November 25th 2020. The 7-day moving average for relative search volume (VRB), morbidity and mortality rate were calculated. For the association of quantitative variables, the Spearman correlation coefficient was used with a significance level p < 0.05. The country with the highest search interest was Bolivia; the one with the least interest, Brazil. The analysis of the VRB with the morbidity and mortality rate was different between countries. The maximum VRB peaks of Colombia and Chile, in April, and of Mexico, Ecuador and Bolivia, in July, coincided with the issuance of health alerts on chlorine dioxide. Most showed a moderate and low significant correlation between VRB and the number of confirmed cases and daily deaths from COVID-19. The behavior of the searches, differentiated between countries, could indicate greater interest in the topic of chlorine dioxide during the pandemic; this would be explained by the dissemination of health alerts from international, regional and local health agencies(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Chlorine Dioxide , Information Seeking Behavior , Internet Access , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Infodemiology , Latin America/epidemiology , Peru
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(2): 619-630, Fev. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356063

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o papel das desigualdades sociais nos padrões de alimentação complementar nos países da América Latina e do Caribe. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico que utilizou dados agregados de inquéritos de base populacional. A unidade de análise da pesquisa foram 16 países da América Latina e do Caribe com informações disponíveis. Foram selecionados como desfechos a prevalência dos seguintes indicadores de alimentação complementar: introdução alimentar de alimentos sólidos, semissólidos e pastosos" (IASSP), "diversidade alimentar mínima" (DAM), "frequência alimentar mínima" (FAM) e "alimentação mínima aceitável" (AMA). As diferenças da prevalência dos indicadores entre os quintis de riqueza mais ricos e mais pobres foram calculadas de forma absoluta e relativa. Comparando os quatro indicadores de alimentação complementar, o IASSP teve o melhor desempenho, com 10 países, entre os 11 avaliados, apresentando prevalência acima de 80%. O indicador com pior desempenho foi o AMA, com apenas um país, entre os oito avaliados, com prevalências acima de 60%. Na quase totalidade dos países, a população mais pobre possuía prevalências de indicadores de alimentação complementar menores que os mais ricos.


Abstract This study evaluated the role of social inequalities in complementary feeding patterns between and within countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. This ecological study employed aggregate data from population-based surveys. The units of analysis were all 16 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean for which information was available in the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) databases. The outcomes selected were the prevalences indicated by the "introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods" (ISSSF), "minimum dietary diversity" (MDD), "minimum meal frequency" (MMF) and "minimum acceptable diet" (MAD) standardised complementary feeding indicators recommended by the WHO and available in UNICEF databases. The differences in prevalences between the wealthiest and poorest income quintiles were calculated in absolute and relative terms. Comparing the four indicators of complementary feeding, the ISSSF showed best performance, returning prevalence above 80% in 10 of the 11 countries evaluated. The indicator showing worst performance was the MAD, with prevalence above 60% in only one of the eight countries evaluated. In almost all countries, by all indicators, prevalences of complementary feeding were lower in the poorest population groups than in the wealthiest.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Diet , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Socioeconomic Factors , Breast Feeding , Caribbean Region , Feeding Behavior , Latin America/epidemiology
11.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(1): eabc285, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372177

ABSTRACT

A doença de Chagas representa um importante problema de saúde pública, sobretudo nos países endêmicos da América Latina. Dentre suas apresentações clínicas, a cardiomiopatia crônica é a mais frequente. De patogênese multifatorial, o acometimento miocárdico pode levar à insuficiência cardíaca, a eventos tromboembólicos, a arritmias e à morte súbita. Nesse contexto, a ressonância magnética cardiovascular é um excelente método não invasivo para a investigação do dano miocárdico e a compreensão dos mecanismos e consequências relacionados às essas lesões. Com elevada resolução espacial e capacidade de caracterização tecidual, a ressonância magnética cardiovascular proporciona análise morfofuncional altamente confiável e possibilita a identificação de marcadores de risco de eventos adversos em pacientes com doença de Chagas, sendo de grande utilidade para o diagnóstico e o acompanhamento desses indivíduos na rotina clínica. (AU)


Chagas disease represents an important public health problem, especially in endemic countries in Latin America. Chronic cardiomyopathy is its most frequent clinical presentation. Myocardial involvement has a multifactorial pathogenesis and can lead to heart failure, thromboembolic events, arrhythmias, and sudden death. In this context, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is an excellent noninvasive method for investigating myocardial damage and understanding the mechanisms and consequences of these injuries. CMR has high spatial resolution and tissue characterization capacity, enabling a highly reliable morphofunctional analysis and the identification of risk markers for adverse events in patients with Chagas disease. This exam is very useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients in the routine clinical setting. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction/pathology , Heart Ventricles/abnormalities , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Thromboembolism/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Death, Sudden , Heart Failure/complications , Latin America/epidemiology
12.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 29(3): 133-146, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374206

ABSTRACT

Resumen El 11 de marzo de 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud, declaró la pandemia a nivel mundial por la COVID-19. Ante este escenario, los centros de información y asesoramiento toxicológico (CIAT) de América Latina comenzaron a recibir consultas por exposición/intoxicación a dióxido de cloro/clorito de sodio y sus compuestos relacionados, por desvío de uso, destinado a la prevención y/o tratamiento de la COVID-19 sin aval científico alguno ni contar con registro sanitario para ese fin. A través de la Red de Toxicología de América Latina y el Caribe (RETOXLAC), se comprobó que no eran hechos aislados, sino que se estaba produ ciendo el mismo fenómeno en toda la región y que existían antecedentes de intoxicaciones con dichos productos y alertas desde hace más de una década, con indicaciones no aprobadas, para el tratamiento de distintas patologías como SIDA, cáncer, esclerosis lateral amiotrófica ELA, malaria, autismo, entre otras, sin evidencia. Ante esta realidad, los CIAT presentan una revisión de los signos y síntomas observados según la vía de ingreso, basados en la comunicación de riesgo en salud; proponiéndose pruebas de apoyo al diagnóstico, algoritmo de tratamiento para las intoxicaciones y modelo de ficha clínica para la vigilancia epidemiológica de los casos atendidos. Recomendamos a las autoridades y organismos responsables, reforzar las acciones tendientes a la vigilancia, control y prevención de este tipo de intoxicaciones, producto del mal uso de un desinfectante no autorizado para fines terapéuticos/médicos.


Abstract On March 11th, 2020, the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic due to COVID-19. Faced with this sce- nario, the Poison Control Centers (CIATs for its initials in spanish) in Latin America began to receive consultations for exposure/poi- soning to chlorine dioxide/sodium chlorite and its related compounds for their use aimed to prevent or treat COVID-19 without any scientific endorsement or having a sanitary registry for that purpose. It was found through the Toxicology Network of Latin America and the Caribbean (RETOXLAC) that they were not isolated events but rather that the same phenomenon was occurring throughout the region and that there has been a history of poisoning and alerts with these products for more than a decade with unapproved indications for the treatment of different pathologies such as AIDS, cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), malaria, autism, among others, without evidence. In the light of this situation, the CIATs present a review of the signs and symptoms observed ac- cording to the route of exposure based on health risk communication; proposing tests to support the diagnosis, an algorithm for poisoning treatment, and a model of a clinical record for the epidemiological surveillance of the assisted cases. We recommend to the authorities and responsible organisms reinforce the actions aimed at surveillance, control, and prevention of this type of poisoning due to the misuse of an unauthorized disinfectant for therapeutic or medical purposes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Poisoning/complications , Poisoning/epidemiology , Chlorine Dioxide , Poison Control Centers/statistics & numerical data , Poisoning/prevention & control , Latin America/epidemiology
13.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 41(3): 144-149, jul.-sep. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1412862

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de intestino irritable es una enfermedad funcional intestinal frecuente a nivel mundial, pero con pocos estudios de prevalencia. Su diagnóstico es clínico y se basa en criterios acordados internacionalmente que han cambiado con el tiempo, actualmente regidos por el Consenso de Roma IV. Objetivo: Recabar y actualizar datos disponibles de prevalencia de América Latina para entender mejor el comportamiento regional de SII. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de trabajos originales, autodefinidos de prevalencia, en las bases de datos Pubmed y Lilacs así como presentaciones en congresos de trabajos originales. Resultados: Se encontraron 27 estudios según los criterios de búsqueda establecidos. De ellos, 16 eran en población general. Dos trabajos incluyeron el estudio de prevalencia de más de una población constituyendo finalmente 22 referencias desarrolladas en 9 países. La prevalencia promedio total para América Latina fue 15,4%. La prevalencia promedio encontrada por criterios de Roma II fue 23,5%; por Roma III 11,8% y por Roma IV 6,98%. Conclusión: Esta es la primera revisión en reunir datos de prevalencia de síndrome de intestino irritable en población general de nueve países de América Latina. La prevalenci d fue amplia y los criterios diagnósticos utilizados hicieron la mayor diferencia.


Although irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional bowel disease worldwide, few prevalence studies have been published. Diagnosis is clinical and based on internationally agreed criteria that have changed over time. Currently the Rome IV Consensus is used as the international reference. Objective: collect and update available prevalence data from Latin America to better understand the regional behavior of irritable bowel syndrome. Materials and methods: a search was carried out for original works, self-defined on prevalence, in the Pubmed and Lilacs databases. Presentations or posters at congresses of original works were also considered. Results: according to the established search criteria, 27 studies were found. Of these, 16 were in the general population. Two studies included the study of the prevalence of more than one population, for which reason 22 prevalence data were obtained from 9 countries. The total average prevalence for Latin America was 15.4%. The average prevalence found by the Rome II criteria was 23.5%; by Rome III 11.8% and by Rome IV 6.98%. Conclusion: this is the first review to collect data on the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in the general population from nine Latin American countries. The average prevalence found was 15%. The variability was wide and the diagnostic criteria used made the biggest difference.


Subject(s)
Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diagnosis , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/epidemiology , Serial Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Latin America/epidemiology
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(7): 2575-2586, jul. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278763

ABSTRACT

Resumo A Promoção em Saúde (PS) apresenta um fortalecimento recente dentro das políticas públicas e quando se trata da infância e adolescência na América Latina (AL) observa-se ainda forte consonância com as determinações internacionais. Considerando o aumento de prevalência de sofrimento psíquico nesta faixa etária e a construção histórica política dos países latino-americanos abordar a PS se torna mais urgente. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar e analisar, por meio de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, produções acadêmicas que tratam de estratégias de PS mental de adolescentes na AL e, assim, visibilizar as ações e provocar reflexões dialogadas com as críticas Sulistas, representadas pela declaração de Bogotá. Após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram selecionados 6 estudos. Identificou-se que o principal espaço onde as ações são desenvolvidas é a escola. Além disso, como medidas potenciais foram identificadas a capacitação dos profissionais, a ação grupal e o fortalecimento da atenção primária e territorial. Discute-se que a realidade socioeconômica estruturada historicamente da AL reflete uma organização própria das ações em PS. Com isso, a visibilização das estratégias que potencializam a baixo custo uma melhora na saúde mental de adolescentes pode contribuir com a reflexão atual.


Abstract Health Promotion (HP) has recently been strengthened within public policies and still shows strong consonance with international determinations regarding childhood and adolescence in Latin America (LA). Debating HP becomes all the more urgent considering the increasing prevalence of psychological distress in this age group and the historical political construction of Latin American countries. This research aimed to identify and analyze, through an integrative review of the literature, the academic productions on strategies for mental HP of adolescents in LA and, thus, to visualize the actions and arouse reflections dialoguing with the Southern critics, represented by the Bogotá declaration. Six studies were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. We identified that the main space where actions are developed is the school. The potential measures identified were professional training, group action, and strengthening primary and territorial care. We discussed that the historically structured socioeconomic reality of LA reflects an organization of HP actions. Furthermore, the visualization of strategies that enhance at low cost the improved mental health of adolescents can contribute to the current reflection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Mental Health , Health Promotion , Latin America/epidemiology
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(2): 232-242, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388222

ABSTRACT

Resumen A pesar de que la tosferina (coqueluche) es una enfermedad prevenible por vacunas (EPV), la epidemiología latinoamericana muestra que hay persistencia de brotes en la región. Esta persistencia se debe, al menos en parte, a factores tales como la cobertura vacunal, la presencia de movimientos anti vacunas, la diversidad de los sistemas locales de vigilancia y la falta de una definición de caso unificada para la región. Dada la importancia de la tosferina en Latinoamérica y los cambios ocurridos en las recomendaciones para la vacunación, este manuscrito tiene como objetivo revisar los datos epidemiológicos y los cambios recientes en los calendarios de vacunación y su impacto sobre la enfermedad pediátrica por Bordetella pertussis en Latinoamérica. Los datos epidemiológicos más recientes muestran que entre regiones, países, y segmentos dentro de cada país hay heterogeneidad en la cobertura vacunal, con distintos rebrotes. Esfuerzos en la región han tratado de mejorar esta situación al introducir vacunas acelulares (aP), menos reactogénicas que las vacunas de células enteras (wP) en los calendarios vacunales. Además, algunos países han mejorado la definición de caso confirmado, al introducir la reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC) como criterio diagnóstico. En respuesta a las heterogeneidades de cada país y a la epidemiología actual de la región, un Comité de Expertos de la Sociedad Latinoamericana de Infectología Pediátrica (SLIPE) y la Asociación Latinoamericana de Pediatría (ALAPE) propone una definición unificada de caso y recomendaciones para mejorar la cobertura vacunal y reducir los brotes de tosferina en Latinoamérica.


Abstract Although whooping cough is a vaccine-preventable disease (VPD), its epidemiologic characteristics in Latin America shows persistence of outbreaks in the region. This persistence is due, at least in part, to the presence of antivaccine movements, the diversity of the surveillance systems, and the lack of a uniform case definition for the region. Given the importance of whooping cough in Latin America and the changes in vaccine recommendations, this manuscript aims to review epidemiologic data and recent changes in the vaccination calendars and their impact on the pediatric disease by Bordetella pertussis in Latin America. Recent epidemiological data reveal that between regions, countries, and administrative units within each country there is a marked heterogeneity of vaccine coverage, with different outbreak patterns. Efforts in the region have tried to improve this situation by introducing acellular pertussis vaccines (aP) in the vaccine calendars, which are less reactogenic than whole-cell pertussis vaccines (wP). Moreover, some countries have improved the case definition. Some countries have implemented a confirmed case definition by introducing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic criterion. As a response to the heterogeneities observed within and between countries and the regional epidemiologic profiles, a Steering Committee from the Latin American Society for Pediatric Infectiology (SLIPE) and the Latin American Association of Pediatrics (ALAPE) propose a unified case definition and recommendations to improve vaccine coverage and reduce the outbreaks of whooping cough in Latin America.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Bordetella pertussis , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Pertussis Vaccine , Vaccination , Latin America/epidemiology
16.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(2): 231-242, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280169

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Relatar a prevalência e os desfechos da sepse em crianças admitidas em hospitais públicos e privados na América Latina. Métodos: Análise post-hoc dos dados do Latin American Pediatric Sepsis Study (LAPSES), um estudo de coorte que avaliou a prevalência e os desfechos da sepse em crianças admitidas em 21 unidades de terapia intensiva pediátricas de cinco países latino-americanos. Resultados: Dentre os 464 pacientes com sepse, 369 (79,5%) foram admitidos em hospitais públicos e 95 (20,5%) em privados. Em comparação com os admitidos em hospitais privados, os pacientes com sepse admitidos em hospitais públicos não diferiram em termos de idade, sexo, condição de imunização, tempo de permanência no hospital ou tipo de admissão, porém tiveram incidência mais alta de choque séptico, escores Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM), Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 (PIM 2) e Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) mais altos e taxas mais elevadas de doenças de base e analfabetismo materno. A proporção entre pacientes admitidos a partir de enfermarias pediátricas e mortalidade relacionada à sepse foi mais alta nos hospitais públicos. A análise multivariada não mostrou qualquer correlação entre mortalidade e tipo de hospital, porém, nos hospitais públicos, a mortalidade se associou com níveis mais altos de gravidade no momento da admissão à unidade de terapia intensiva. Conclusão: Nesta amostra de crianças admitidas em condições críticas em cinco países latino-americanos, a prevalência de choque séptico nas primeiras 24 horas da admissão e a mortalidade relacionada à sepse foram mais elevadas em hospitais públicos do que nos privados. A mortalidade relacionada à sepse mais elevada em crianças admitidas em unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica de hospitais públicos se associou com maior gravidade por ocasião da admissão à unidade de terapia intensiva, porém não com o tipo de hospital. São necessários novos estudos para elucidar as causas da maior prevalência e mortalidade de sepse pediátrica em hospitais públicos.


ABSTRACT Objective: To report the prevalence and outcomes of sepsis in children admitted to public and private hospitals. Methods: Post hoc analysis of the Latin American Pediatric Sepsis Study (LAPSES) data, a cohort study that analyzed the prevalence and outcomes of sepsis in critically ill children with sepsis on admission at 21 pediatric intensive care units in five Latin American countries. Results: Of the 464 sepsis patients, 369 (79.5%) were admitted to public hospitals and 95 (20.5%) to private hospitals. Compared to those admitted to private hospitals, sepsis patients admitted to public hospitals did not differ in age, sex, immunization status, hospital length of stay or type of admission but had higher rates of septic shock, higher Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM), Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 (PIM 2), and Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) scores, and higher rates of underlying diseases and maternal illiteracy. The proportion of patients admitted from pediatric wards and sepsis-related mortality were higher in public hospitals. Multivariate analysis did not show any correlation between mortality and the type of hospital, but mortality was associated with greater severity on pediatric intensive care unit admission in patients from public hospitals. Conclusion: In this sample of critically ill children from five countries in Latin America, the prevalence of septic shock within the first 24 hours at admission and sepsis-related mortality were higher in public hospitals than in private hospitals. Higher sepsis-related mortality in children admitted to public pediatric intensive care units was associated with greater severity on pediatric intensive care unit admission but not with the type of hospital. New studies will be necessary to elucidate the causes of the higher prevalence and mortality of pediatric sepsis in public hospitals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Sepsis/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Prevalence , Cohort Studies , Hospitals, Private , Hospital Mortality , Latin America/epidemiology
17.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mar. 18, 2021. 291 p. ilus..
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151053

ABSTRACT

Por ende, la comunidad de enfermeras que conforma la Red de Salud del Adulto Mayor (REDESAM ­ Brasil), en alianza con las 12 Redes de América Latina, propusieron la elaboración de este E-book, titulado "El Cuidado del Adulto Mayor en la Atención Primaria en Salud en Tiempos de COVID-19". Teniendo como objetivo contemplar a las enfermeras de América Latina y Portugal junto a sus propuestas de intervención en enfermería para la Atención Primaria en salud del adulto mayor durante el período pandémico y post-pandémico de COVID-19; Es evidente que el futuro de la Enfermería Gerontológica ha llegado, incluso de cara a la adversidad de la sociedad. En el actual contexto, sociodemográfico, pandémico y de evolución tecnológica, se ha destacado a un grupo de población con mayor riesgo de vulnerabilidad (física, social y emocional) en las diversas dimensiones humanas: "El Adulto Mayor". La esperanza de vida y el número de personas adulto mayor ha aumentado exponencialmente a un ritmo que exige y urge un movimiento de la sociedad en busca de estrategias que conduzcan a nuevas y mejores formas de vida. Ante esta perspectiva, la Red de Salud del Adulto Mayor (REDESAM ­ Brasil), en conjunto con algunos profesionales de esta en América Latina se han comprometido a incrementar y avanzar en el desarrollo de la investigación y la difusión de nuevas estrategias asistenciales para el control de la pandemia COVID-19. Recientemente, la pandemia de COVID-19 impuso una carga de trabajo adicional a los profesionales de la salud, especialmente a los enfermeros. Cada día, han demostrado su fuerza de trabajo en la asistencia y en el descubrimiento de nuevas formas de enseñar e investigar temas sobre el Adulto Mayor, dándole una gran visibilidad social a dicha profesión.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Geriatric Nursing/organization & administration , Aged, 80 and over , Health of the Elderly , Latin America/epidemiology
18.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(1): 101040, jan., 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249289

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of healthcare-associated infections in Western countries. Risk factors, mortality, and healthcare utilization for CDI in Latin America are poorly understood. This study assessed risk factors and burden associated with nosocomial CDI in four Latin American countries. Methods: This retrospective, case-control study used databases and medical records from 8 hospitals in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify nosocomial CDI cases from 2014 − 2017. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with diarrhea and a positive CDI test ≥72 h after hospital admission. Two controls (without diarrhea; length of hospital stay [LOS] ≥3 days; admitted ±14 days from case patient; shared same ward) were matched to each case. CDI-associated risk factors were assessed by univariate and multivariable analyses. CDI burden (LOS, in-hospital mortality) was compared between cases and controls. Results: The study included 481 cases and 962 controls. Mean age and sex were similar between cases and controls, but mean Charlson comorbidity index (4.3 vs 3.6; p< 0.001) and recent hospital admission (35.3% vs 18.8%; p< 0.001) were higher among cases. By multivariable analyses, CDI risk was associated with prior hospital admission within 3 months (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% CI: 1.45, 2.97), recent antibiotic use (ie, carbapenem; OR, 2.85; 95% CI: 1.75, 4.64), acid suppressive therapy use (OR, 1.71; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.58), and medical conditions (ie, renal disease; OR, 1.48; 95% CI: 1.19, 1.85). In-hospital mortality rate (18.7% vs 6.9%; p< 0.001) and mean overall LOS (33.5 vs 18.8 days; p< 0.001) were higher and longer, respectively, in cases versus controls. Conclusion: Antibiotic exposure, preexisting medical conditions, and recent hospital admission were major risk factors for CDI in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. CDI was associated with increased in-hospital risk of death and longer LOS. These findings are consistent with published literature in Western countries.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/epidemiology , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Argentina , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Clostridioides , Latin America/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(1): 101539, jan., 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249301

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Community-genotype methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CG-MRSA) emerged in the 1990s as a global community pathogen primarily involved in skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and pneumonia. To date, the CG-MRSA SSTI burden in Latin America (LA) has not been assessed. Objective: The main objective of this study was to report the rate and genotypes of community-genotype methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CG-MRSA) causing community-onset skin and soft tissue infections (CO-SSTIs) in LA over the last two decades. In addition, this research determined relevant data related to SSTIs due to CG-MRSA, including risk factors, other invasive diseases, and mortality. Data sources: Relevant literature was searched and extracted from five major databases: Embase, PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, and Web of Science. Methods: A systematic review was performed, and a narrative review was constructed. Results: An analysis of 11 studies identified epidemiological data across LA, with Argentina presenting the highest percentage of SSTIs caused by CG-MRSA (88%). Other countries had rates of CG-MRSA infection ranging from 0 to 51%. Brazil had one of the lowest rates of CG-MRSA SSTI (4.5-25%). In Argentina, being younger than 50 years of age and having purulent lesions were predictive factors for CG-MRSA CO-SSTIs. In addition, the predominant genetic lineages in LA belonged to sequence types 8, 30, and 5 (ST8, ST30, and ST5). Conclusion: There are significant regional differences in the rates of CG-MRSA causing CO-SSTIs. It is not possible to conclude whether or not CG-MRSA CO-SSTIs resulted in more severe SSTI presentations or in a higher mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Soft Tissue Infections/drug therapy , Soft Tissue Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Argentina , Brazil , Genotype , Latin America/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
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